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INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS – CVG 2116

FLUID STATICS – Part 1 (HYDROSTATICS)

Taught by: Mahmoud AL-RIFFAI Notes by: Ioan NISTOR

3.1 Definition of Pressure

CVG 2116
CVG 2116

3.1 Pressure (cont.)

3.1 Pressure (cont.) Note: As the element shrinks to an infinitesimal point ∆ x → 0,
3.1 Pressure (cont.) Note: As the element shrinks to an infinitesimal point ∆ x → 0,

Note: As the element shrinks to an infinitesimal point x0, y0, z0 and l0, which leads to P n = P z from ΣF z =0

∆ x → 0, ∆ y → 0, ∆ z → 0 and ∆ l →

CVG 2116

Pressure transmission

Pressure transmission Example : The hydraulic lift F =100 N ; F 2 =? The force

Example: The hydraulic lift

F=100 N; F 2 =?

The force exerted on the small piston (A 1 ):(AC)F - (BC)F 1 = 0

the small piston (A 1 ):( AC ) F - ( BC ) F 1 =

Blaise Pascal

1623-1662

A
A

p 1 =p 2

F 1 =1100 N

p 1 =F 1 /A 1 =6.22 10 6 N/m 2

F 2 =p 1 A 2 F 2 =12.22 kN

CVG 2116

Absolute Pressure, Gage Pressure and Vacuum

The pressure in the extraterrestrial space is ZERO-, absolute zero All measured pressures are reported to this pressureabsolutes pressures, P A Example: the atmospheric pressure p atm =101 kPa = p a In the engineering practice many instruments which measure the pressure are doing so with respect to the atmospheric pressure gage pressure, p g

P g > 0 & P A > P a P g < 0 &
P g > 0
& P A > P a
P g < 0
& P A < P a

P A > 101.325kPa

P A = P a = atmospheric pressure = 101.325kPa

P A = 0kPa = absolute zero

P A > 101.325kPa P A = P a = atmospheric pressure = 101.325kPa P A

CVG 2116

Absolute Pressure, Gage Pressure and Vacuum (example)

Absolute Pressure, Gage Pressure and Vacuum (example) CVG 2116

CVG 2116

3.2 Pressure variation with elevation

3.2 Pressure variation with elevation ΣFl=0; pΔA - (p+ Δp)ΔA – ΔAΔl sinα = 0, Δp/Δl
ΣFl=0; pΔA - (p+ Δp)ΔA – ΔAΔl sinα = 0, Δp/Δl = - γsinά 
ΣFl=0; pΔA - (p+ Δp)ΔA – ΔAΔl sinα = 0,
Δp/Δl = - γsinά  dp/dl = - γ dz/dl 
elevation ΣFl=0; pΔA - (p+ Δp)ΔA – ΔAΔl sinα = 0, Δp/Δl = - γsinά 
elevation ΣFl=0; pΔA - (p+ Δp)ΔA – ΔAΔl sinα = 0, Δp/Δl = - γsinά 

CVG 2116

3.2 Pressure variation with elevation - Example

Example: Compare the rate of change of pressure for air and for fresh water at sea level (p=101.3kPa, T=15.5 o C) with respect to a 4-m decrease in elevation. (the specific weights are assumed constant). SOLUTION Specific weights of water and air (from the ideal gas law!)

ρ air =p/(RT) = 101.3 10 3 (N/m 2 )/[287(J/kgK) (15.5+273)(K)] ρ air =1.22kg/m 3 γ air =gρ air = 11.97 N/m 3 γ water = 9799 N/m 3

Therefore, (dp/dz) air = - 11.97 N/m 3 , (dp/dz) water = - 9799 N/m 3

The total change in pressure for air Δp air = - 11.97 N/m 3 x (-4m)=47.9Pa The total change in pressure for water Δp water = - 9799 N/m 3 x (-4m)=39.2kPa

CVG 2116

Pressure variation for a uniform density fluid CVG 2116 CVG 2116
Pressure variation for a uniform density fluid
CVG 2116
CVG 2116

Pressure variation with elevation for different density fluids – Example

In an open tank, oil with a specific gravity of 0.80 forms a layer 0.9 m deep above a total depth of 3.0 m of water. What is the pressure measured at the bottom of the tank?

Fluid properties: S oil = 0.8, water = 9810 N/m 3

S o i l = 0.8,  w a t e r = 9810 N/m 3

Pressure at the bottom of the oil layer:

r = 9810 N/m 3 Pressure at the bottom of the oil layer: 7.06kPa 27.7kPa where
7.06kPa
7.06kPa

27.7kPa

where z 1 =3m, z 2 =2.10m p 2 = 7.06kPa,

Pressure at the bottom of the tank where z 3 = 0m p 3 = 27.7kPa

z 2 =2.10m p 2 = 7.06kPa, Pressure at the bottom of the tank where z

CVG 2116

Pressure variation with the altitude

Fluids with non-uniform density (compressible):

The equation of state:

p = RT ou = p /RT (=pg/RT)

p

– the absolute pressure [Pa]

T

– the absolute temperature [K]

R

– the universal gas constant [J/kgK]

in

the troposphere: T = T o -(z-z o )

dp/dz = - pg/RT

p = p o [ T / T o ] g/R

In the stratosphere: T = const.

p = p o e -(z -z o )g/RT

U.S.National Weather Service: 45 o N latitude in July
U.S.National Weather Service: 45 o N latitude in July

CVG 2116

3.3 Pressure measurement

Pressure transducer CVG 2111
Pressure transducer
CVG 2111

3.3

Pressure measurement (Manometry) p v ~0 pressure of Hg vapors at normal temperature
Pressure measurement (Manometry)
p v ~0 pressure of Hg vapors
at normal temperature

CVG 2116

Piezometer Example : suppose ∆ h =60cm, l =180cm Calculate the pressure in the pipe
Piezometer
Piezometer
Piezometer Example : suppose ∆ h =60cm, l =180cm Calculate the pressure in the pipe center!
Piezometer Example : suppose ∆ h =60cm, l =180cm Calculate the pressure in the pipe center!

Example: suppose h=60cm, l=180cm Calculate the pressure in the pipe center! p 1 =0 (open atmosphere), therefore p 2 =0-m h p 2 =79.8kPa ( mercury m =133kN/m 3 )

p 2 =p 3 (same elevation), therefore p 4 =p 3 +p 34 ; p 34 =-l p 34 =-17.66kPa p 4 =62.1kPa

General equation of the manometer: p 2 =p 1 +Σ down  i h i
General equation of the manometer: p 2 =p 1 +Σ down  i h i -Σ up  i h i

CVG 2116

3.3 Pressure measurement – Example to be solved in class

Differential manometer Example: Find the piezometric pressure variation and the piezometric head between the two points if the deflection of mercury in the manometer is 2.54cm.(T water =10 o C) The equation of the manometer: p 2 = p 1 + w (y+h) – m h - w (y+z 2 -z 1 )

p 2 + w z 2 - (p 1 + w z 1 ) = h(w - m ) or p z 2 -p z 1 = h(w - m ); p z 2 -p z 1 = ?

and h 2 -h 1 =(p z 2 -p z 1 )/w =h(1- m /w ); h 2 -h 1 =?

- h 1 =( p z 2 - p z 1 )/  w = ∆

CVG 2116