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INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS – CVG 2116

FLUID STATICS – Part 1 (HYDROSTATICS)

Taught by: Mahmoud AL-RIFFAI Notes by: Ioan NISTOR

3.1 Definition of Pressure CVG 2116

3.1 Pressure (cont.)  Note: As the element shrinks to an infinitesimal point x0, y0, z0 and l0, which leads to P n = P z from ΣF z =0 CVG 2116

Pressure transmission Example: The hydraulic lift

F=100 N; F 2 =?

The force exerted on the small piston (A 1 ):(AC)F - (BC)F 1 = 0 Blaise Pascal

1623-1662 A

p 1 =p 2

F 1 =1100 N

p 1 =F 1 /A 1 =6.22 10 6 N/m 2

F 2 =p 1 A 2 F 2 =12.22 kN

CVG 2116

Absolute Pressure, Gage Pressure and Vacuum

The pressure in the extraterrestrial space is ZERO-, absolute zero All measured pressures are reported to this pressureabsolutes pressures, P A Example: the atmospheric pressure p atm =101 kPa = p a In the engineering practice many instruments which measure the pressure are doing so with respect to the atmospheric pressure gage pressure, p g P g > 0
& P A > P a
P g < 0
& P A < P a

P A > 101.325kPa

P A = P a = atmospheric pressure = 101.325kPa

P A = 0kPa = absolute zero CVG 2116

Absolute Pressure, Gage Pressure and Vacuum (example) CVG 2116

3.2 Pressure variation with elevation  ΣFl=0; pΔA - (p+ Δp)ΔA – ΔAΔl sinα = 0,
Δp/Δl = - γsinά  dp/dl = - γ dz/dl   CVG 2116

3.2 Pressure variation with elevation - Example

Example: Compare the rate of change of pressure for air and for fresh water at sea level (p=101.3kPa, T=15.5 o C) with respect to a 4-m decrease in elevation. (the specific weights are assumed constant). SOLUTION Specific weights of water and air (from the ideal gas law!)

ρ air =p/(RT) = 101.3 10 3 (N/m 2 )/[287(J/kgK) (15.5+273)(K)] ρ air =1.22kg/m 3 γ air =gρ air = 11.97 N/m 3 γ water = 9799 N/m 3

Therefore, (dp/dz) air = - 11.97 N/m 3 , (dp/dz) water = - 9799 N/m 3

The total change in pressure for air Δp air = - 11.97 N/m 3 x (-4m)=47.9Pa The total change in pressure for water Δp water = - 9799 N/m 3 x (-4m)=39.2kPa

CVG 2116 Pressure variation for a uniform density fluid
CVG 2116
CVG 2116

Pressure variation with elevation for different density fluids – Example

In an open tank, oil with a specific gravity of 0.80 forms a layer 0.9 m deep above a total depth of 3.0 m of water. What is the pressure measured at the bottom of the tank?

Fluid properties: S oil = 0.8, water = 9810 N/m 3 Pressure at the bottom of the oil layer:  7.06kPa

27.7kPa

where z 1 =3m, z 2 =2.10m p 2 = 7.06kPa,

Pressure at the bottom of the tank where z 3 = 0m p 3 = 27.7kPa CVG 2116

Pressure variation with the altitude

Fluids with non-uniform density (compressible):

The equation of state:

p = RT ou = p /RT (=pg/RT)

 p – the absolute pressure [Pa] T – the absolute temperature [K] R – the universal gas constant [J/kgK] in the troposphere: T = T o -(z-z o )

dp/dz = - pg/RT

p = p o [ T / T o ] g/R

In the stratosphere: T = const.

p = p o e -(z -z o )g/RT U.S.National Weather Service: 45 o N latitude in July

CVG 2116

3.3 Pressure measurement Pressure transducer
CVG 2111

3.3 Pressure measurement (Manometry)
p v ~0 pressure of Hg vapors
at normal temperature

CVG 2116  Piezometer  Example: suppose h=60cm, l=180cm Calculate the pressure in the pipe center! p 1 =0 (open atmosphere), therefore p 2 =0-m h p 2 =79.8kPa ( mercury m =133kN/m 3 )

p 2 =p 3 (same elevation), therefore p 4 =p 3 +p 34 ; p 34 =-l p 34 =-17.66kPa p 4 =62.1kPa General equation of the manometer: p 2 =p 1 +Σ down  i h i -Σ up  i h i

CVG 2116

3.3 Pressure measurement – Example to be solved in class

Differential manometer Example: Find the piezometric pressure variation and the piezometric head between the two points if the deflection of mercury in the manometer is 2.54cm.(T water =10 o C) The equation of the manometer: p 2 = p 1 + w (y+h) – m h - w (y+z 2 -z 1 )

p 2 + w z 2 - (p 1 + w z 1 ) = h(w - m ) or p z 2 -p z 1 = h(w - m ); p z 2 -p z 1 = ?

and h 2 -h 1 =(p z 2 -p z 1 )/w =h(1- m /w ); h 2 -h 1 =? CVG 2116