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CHAPTER 1

CURRENT ISSUES AND CHALLENGES OF EDUCATION


INTRODUCTION
Education is a key pillar for economic growth and development of a country. This goal can be realized if
the country has a skilled, knowledgeable and competence community or role model. Only people who are
knowledgeable are able to face the challenges of the present global economy. In addition, for the country
that has the diversity of races, cultures and beliefs, education is the guarantee for the construction of
nation, race and racial unity.
Thus, in the construction of the Malaysian Education Development Plan (MECC ) ( 2013-2025 ), the
component of understanding the performance and the current challenges in the Malaysian education
system is part of the three main components that serve as a guide or reference . This component
emphasizes access to education , increased standard ( quality ) , close the achievement gap ( equity ) ,
strengthening solidarity among students as well as optimizing the efficiency of the system ( Ministry of
Education (MOE ) , 2011) . The question is whether the educators society is able to face the current
challenges of the education system or to realize the shift eleven Education Development Plan (2013-2025)
, without neglecting the elements FPN ( FPK ) and Philosophy of Teacher Education ( FPG ) ?
What are the Challenges Faced by the Educator Society Presently?
Among these challenges are:
Integration of national
The democratization of education
UNESCO education Milestones
Globalization in education
Family support
Cultural Diversity
Influence
the
development
of
Technology (ICT)
Social issues
Report and analysis related to educational attainment:
In the country
International

Information

and

Communication

National Integration
National integration is defined by the National Integration Committee (June 1991) as a dynamic process
for bringing people among the states together in Malaysia especially among the states in the peninsula
and Sabah and Sarawak , aiming to create a nation that has its own identity that is based on the Federal
Constitution and Pillars. Where as unity is the situation when the people of various ethnic groups,
religions and regions live in peace as one with a full commitment to a national identity based on the
Federal Constitution and National Principles ( National Unity Advisory Panel Meeting , February 1992
).Therefore, national integration and unity is the voice of the continuation of peace and prosperity. Tun
Dr. Mahathir Mohamad (2003) has emphasized this importance:

Satu bangsa yang bersatu padu, mempunyai satu masa depan yang sama dan
diperkongsikan. Sejahtera dan bersatu padu di antara wilayah atau kumpulan etnik. Hidup
dalam keadaan harmoni dan berkongsi dengan cara yang sebenar dan adil. Satu bangsa
Malaysia yang kesetiaannya, politik dan kebaktiannya tertumpu kepada bangsa
tersebut...
However, to realize the goal of national integration is a challenge faced by the country. These issues have
been outlined by Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad (1991) as the major challenges in 2020 :
Mewujudkan bangsa Malaysia yang bersatu padu yang mempunyai matlamat yang serupa
dan boleh dikongsi bersama, berintegrasi di peringkat Wilayah dan antara kaum,
berasaskan persamaan hak dan keadilan
In reality, the prevention of the strengthening of national integration has existed since the British colonial
era. The British administration policy
Divide and Rule' has created a huge gap between the races in the economic, educational, political and
social sectors. This gap has led to the outbreak of racial tensions events on May 13 1969 that have
paralyzed the economy and disrupted the harmony and prosperity of the country. Following the incident,
various initiatives were taken by the government to create national integration. Among them, the
National Operations Council (NOC) was established in 1969 to find the cause and solution to the tragedy
so that it does not happen again. Next, the action taken is to establish a National Principles to enhance
the peoples understanding about the country's constitution. In addition, the New Economic Policy (NEP)
was also launched to eliminate a certain introduction of a race according to the economic activity, to
eradicate extreme poverty and formed Barisan Nasional, which acted as a unity government (The Tragedy
A Report May 13, 1969).
Although Malaysia is independent for over 57 years, the government had to contend with a host of
sensitive issues either in the form of racial, religious or political. In relation to that, in the management of
social cohesion people of various ethnicity, religion and culture becomes more complex and complicated.
Demands of the people against the government are getting higher and higher and more challenging
because some are influenced by what is happening abroad like the matter of human rights, freedom of
religion and extremism activities especially the influence brought by new media. Thus the role of the
Department of National Unity and Integration is also going to be more challenging and requires
mechanisms, ways of acting that uses a new approach to the needs, and aspirations of the people
present (Director General of the Department of National Unity and Integration, 2014).
The first challenge facing is the reduction of diversity and mixing between ethnic groups across all types
of schools. According to the Preliminary Report - Executive Summary, MECC (2013-2025) (MOE, 2012),
variety of schooling options will create a homogeneous ethnic environment. This phenomenon will
concern the lack of opportunity to interact and gain exposure early on cultural diversity in the community
among students. This situation will cause difficulties for teachers to build respect for diversity and reduce
the ability of the school to foster unity effectively through interaction between ethnicity.
For example, the data obtained showed that more Chinese and Indian students are enrolled in schools
(SJK) in 2011, compared to ten years ago. The number of Chinese students who register with the Chinese
National Type Schools (SJKC) has increased 92 % in 2000 to 96 % in 2011. The increase for Indian students
residing in Tamil schools (SMK) is more significant at the 47 % to 56 %. The same situation exists to Sekolah
Kebangsaan (SK), enrolment shows that 90 % are indigenous (MECC, 2013-2025). Although the route is

only one secondary school National Secondary School (SMK), but separate and homogeneous conditions
still exist. Observations show that there is still limited to the diversity of students, such as students are
more likely to go to SJKCs Chinese Independent Secondary Schools (SMPC), while SK students were more
likely to continue their studies to SMK Agama (SMKA).
The next challenge is the variety of teachers from different ethnic groups is very important in a school so
that it will become an example to the students. This situation can really reflect the diversity of the
population and to bridge the gap between ethnic groups. However, the diversity of the population of
teachers in the National School is dwindling. This phenomenon did not really represent the national
population. In 2001, 78 % of teachers in all national schools are Bumiputera, and it increased to 81 % in 2011.
Although the population of Indian teachers remained at 5 %, the number of Chinese teachers in national
schools declined from 17 % to 14 %. Number of teachers in the category of "other remained almost at zero
percent (MECC, 2013-2125).

Malaysia, as a country with a pluralistic society, the existence of different schools in accordance with the
Razak Report 1956 goal of creating a national education system that is compatible with the aspiration to
unite people of different races, make the Malay language as the national language, taking care of the
development of language and culture of other races (KPM, 2014).
However, the government through the Department of National Unity platform and Integration (JPPIN)
and the Ministry of Education has undertaken various efforts to foster national integration and unity. Are
you aware of the steps that have been taken by JPPIN? Among the steps taken by JPPIN:
Cross-Cultural Integration
Cross-cultural integration aims to establish the National Cultural Policy (1971) that can be accepted by all
races in Malaysia. The purpose of this policy can be seen in Figure 1.1.

FIGURE 1.1 The National Cultural Policy

Source: Department of Information,( 2012)

Integration of Science
Integration of science is to integrate the activities of students in institutions of higher learning
throughout the country. Through this program of cultural exchange, knowledge and cooperation can be
built between university students in the states of the peninsula and Sabah and Sarawak university
students. Among the programs that have been planned are:
Integration of Science Students IPT in Sabah
Integration of Science Students IPT in Sarawak
Integration IPT Science Student at Peninsula State

Regional integration
As a federal country containing fourteen states, the socio-economic development of every country is not
balanced. Hence, there exist the term developed states and less developed states. Regional integration is
expected to reduce the disparities between the economy and structure among the provinces in the
country. This structure is implemented based on each region or country, especially the less developed
states have the ability to move the development of the agricultural and industrial enterprises childhood.
Regional integration is also important in dissipating hatred, jealousy and create feelings of affection,
respect each other.
d. Program 1 Malaysia
The government's intention to build the Nation State is in line with the concept of One Malaysia ; People
First and Performance Now ( YAB Dato ' Sri Mohd Najib bin Tun Abdul Razak , 2012 ) . 1 Malaysia concept
aims to strengthen relations and cooperation between the various races in the country as the main
weapon to deal with various threats and challenges, which aims to undermine their well-being. Eight
points were adopted in the 1 Malaysia concept of a culture of excellence, humility, acceptance, loyalty,
meritocracy, education and integrity. These ideas should be fully internalized by all parties, then it is able
to make Malaysia a more secure and advanced in all areas and be respected by the whole world
(Department of Information, 2012).

In line with the aspirations of OER to make the school as an organized socialization agent and focused on
forming admirable personality , high self tolerant and able to mingle with each other in a quality plural
society of locals , various programs have been designed (Director General of Education, 2011) . Here are
the programs that have been designed to be implemented:

e. Student Integration Plan for Unity (joint extra)


Joint extra program that was introduced in 1986 at the school seeks to produce role models among the
younger generation that seeks to cultivate unity and contribute to the development and prosperity of the
country (MOE, 2012). Now joint extra program was expanded throughout primary and secondary schools
so that every school can take part in at least two activities between schools every year. The school will be
divided into groups to allow interaction between different types of schools, government schools and
private schools. Now, the program includes a variety of activities undertaken, including an increase in
academic, sports and games, community service and extra-curricular activities. However, the MOE will
narrow the scope of activities under the joint extra to focus on activities such as sports, arts and
community service, which really proved effective in fostering friendship between groups of students and
strengthen ties with the community.
f. Components introduces Community Service in All Primary School Curriculum
MOE will introduce community service component in the curriculum of all primary school (Years 4 to 6)
and secondary in Wave 2 and volunteers (2013-2025). Completion of community service component will
be a prerequisite for graduation at the secondary level. An option being considered at this time is a
weekly activity for four months every year, which combines students from all ethnic groups.
Implementation of goal-oriented group activities and accompanied by students of various races will
further strengthen unity among students. Through community service, students can also strengthen ties
with the local community. Parents and the general public will be directly involved with homework
assignments, learning in the classroom and community service projects. Community involvement will
strengthen learning in the classroom.
g. Strengthening the Provision of Education
MOE will also improve student access to learning additional languages subject to availability of resources.
By 2020, an additional selection of the most popular languages such as Chinese, Tamil and Arabic will be
offered at more schools. Moreover, additional language teaching will be integrated within teaching at
primary and secondary school levels. Large-scale school will offer more additional language compared to
small-scale school. Small -scale school can also make use of technology to explore options for increasing
the number of additional languages offered.
h. Establishment Vision School
Vision School is a school that was introduced in 1986 and the concept of learning together in a same
region, regardless of race or religion (Department of Information, 2012). This concept involves two or
three different schools and administrative flow constructed in the same area and share basic amenities
such as playgrounds, halls, resource centre, computer room, and cafeteria and so on. Through the
partnership, areas and facilities will enable enterprises applying the values of a society and foster
understanding and tolerance among people, especially among school children from low level again.

i. National Education Policy


National education policy enshrined in the Education Act 1961 is an important instrument in the efforts to
unite people of all races in Malaysia. Through education, organized efforts can be carried out in order to
form citizens united, dynamic and progressive (MOE, 2012). Among the measures that have been
implemented to meet the goals of the National Education Policy in fostering unity and national
integration are:
Using Bahasa Melayu (Malaysia) as the language of instruction in schools and institutions of higher
learning.
Requiring the national language of instruction in educational institutions is the main medium is not the
national language.
Improving the effectiveness of teaching and learning of history through an approach that is more
capable of attracting students to understand the diversity of languages and history of the country.
Apply the elements of unity through learning of literature component (KOMSAS) in Bahasa Malay.
Apply the elements of patriotism through various educational programs.
j. Strengthening basic Sekolah Kebangsaan (SK)
Based Education Development Master Plan ( PIPP ) (2006-2010 ) , the focus will be given to strengthening
SK primary school because the school has an important role as a site to nurture and cultivate solidarity
between people of the early stages of schooling . SK empowerment policies in place to ensure that all
primary schools who speak Malay medium and secondary schools into the public school of choice. The
goal of this policy is to improve and strengthen solidarity among students of different races. Thus,
students can be trained to live and work together with patriotism and a high tolerance in line with
national aspirations.
k.
Civic Education
Implementing Civic Education (PS) as a subject across a range of subjects such as Islamic Education, Moral
Education, History and Local Studies. PS goal is to inject relevant knowledge, values that are commonly
used and are unique to the national identity of the people of Malaysia to the curriculum. This method is
expected to enhance student understanding and appreciation of the history of Malaysias population,
culture and noble values . In addition, students can also understand and appreciate the similarities and
differences that make Malaysia a unique country. Civic education can serve as an important platform for
promoting values and beliefs outlined in the National Principles , i.e. Belief in God , Loyalty to King and
Country , Upholding the Constitution , Rule of Law and Good Behaviour and Morality . However,
volunteers should implement the improvement of the education system so that students can interpret
this belief into action and apply it in everyday life.
In conclusion, the importance of school integration and national unity has been emphasized in Wave 2
and volunteers (2013-2025) are to improve interventions to foster unity. Therefore, the aim Wave 2 will be
achieved if all parties such as government agencies , non-governmental agencies , the private sector,
communities and parents alike come together to play a role in carrying out various activities or policies
that have been enacted by the government to strengthen the integration and unity .
1.1.2 Democratization of Education
According to the Institute for Democratic Education in America (IDEA, 2014), the democratization of
education is not the type of school or research -based practices. It is also not the kind of learning program
or philosophy. It actually is a framework that encompasses a method of gathering together to get strong
ideas about the philosophy of learning, research, models of schooling, teaching practices, policies, and
vision of society that allows a lesson delivered to the public. Education should be shared by all

communities and provide every human learning opportunities to participate fully in the process of
teaching and learning equally.
While Kamus Dewan (2011) also defines the democratization of education as an opportunity and rights
possessed by every individual in education and the facilities provided. Hence, the concept of
democratization of education will provide equal opportunities to each individual to choose the type of
school, regardless of economic status, social, privilege, gender, race, religion or background.
The importance of the democratization of education was stressed since the formation of the Razak
Report, (1956). This report proposes a national education system that guarantees a place in the school for
all children, regardless of ethnicity or socio-economic background, and provides a learning environment
that values unity in diversity. This interest has continued in PIPP (2006-2010) during the ninth Malaysia
Plan. During the period, PIPP approach is to ensure that people get educated a fair and equitable
regardless of the location of people , groups with disabilities , Aboriginal and other minority ethnic ( MOE
, 2005) .
Agenda democratization of education continue to be refined in the first shift and volunteers (2013-2025)
which sets out the child in Malaysia , irrespective of their economic status , ethnicity or background, has
the right to have equal access to quality education of international standard to enable them to achieve
their potential and based on the principle of " Education for All " . Universal enrolment set by the MOE is
from pre-school up to high school level (Level 5), either through the academic route or routes of technical
and vocational equivalent.
This commitment includes ensuring that all students have a place in school and children who do not
attend school now approached proactively , and to ensure that all students meet the minimum standard
acceptable , i.e. pass the core subjects of English , English, Mathematics , Science , History and Education
Islamic or Moral Education at the end of Form 5 (MECC , 2013-2025 ) .

1.1.2.1 What are the Gaps in Basic Education Democratization?


Gaps in democratization are shown in Figure 1.2.

Figure 1.2: Education Gap


Source: PIPP (2006-2010), Initiating Reform, KPM 2010
MOE has planned and carried out several strategies to bridge the education gap and further strengthen
the democratization of education. These strategies involve school organization, especially for the
teachers to participate. Here is a strategy that has been designed:
a. Develop rural infrastructure and facilities
In line with the MOE in PIPP (2006-2010), narrowing the gap between the community and the various
infrastructure development projects have been implemented as follows:

Provide
as
electricity
schools and rural.

infrastructure
and

and
water,

basic
especially

amenities
in

such
rural

Improving schools and (SKM) with the expansion of the implementation of the Central School,
establishing new norms for teachers in SKM and study grants per capita.
Improving rural classrooms (adequate and quality).
Provide new school dormitory and improve existing dormitory.
Improving rural rehabilitation classes.
Improving schools in rural areas.
b. Increasing Participation Rates and Dropout Risk Reduction
Dropout problem among students is prevention of the achievement of the goal of
democratization of education. Dropout mean by not being able to continue their schooling

because of failure in examinations and dropout students in rural areas lagging far behind in
science subjects and facilities compared with pupils from schools celebrated in big cities (Tan Sri
Murad, 1988). According to the Ministry of Education (2011) from 2006 to 2010 10.83 percent
dropout of students in elementary and secondary school levels. High school dropouts recorded
the highest number of 9:42 per cent compared to the primary school around 1.41 per cent.
However, not all students are dropouts continue to follow the school system, but most of them
continue their education in private schools, religious schools, Independent Chinese Secondary
School, international schools and madrasah. While in June 2010, 140,000 pupils in primary and
secondary education in private schools, while there are approximately 36,000 students in
religious schools (Ministry of Education, 2011). Although the number of dropouts is a small but
permanent KPM take steps to overcome them. Among the measures that have been taken are:
Increase Mastery 3M ( reading, writing and arithmetic ) by extending KIA2M Program for Year 1 ,
improving the Special Rehabilitation Program Phase 1 , activates the Motion Program Gempur and
organizing special programs Aboriginal and ethnic minorities. 3M's control has been enhanced by
introducing the LINUS program. This program aims that all normal students the ability to master
basic literacy and numeracy skills after three years of education at the end of 2012.
Strengthening programs for students with disabilities by amending Regulations, 1997 to receive
Special Education students who have two defects. In addition, Inclusive Special Education program
has been consolidated as well as special classes for students with autism and ADHD, as well as
having two defects have been opened. Since childhood special education is not like a normal child,
the special assessment method that has been recognized formed. KPM also provide transportation
for special education students.
Providing education for students according to need is access to the democratization of education. In
accordance with the heterogeneity of intelligence possessed by the students then MOE has
established the School of Arts, pioneering special programs for gifted and talented students. Thus
providing educational facilities to the students who are now in Community Rehabilitation Centre.

Reduce the dropout rate by enforcing compulsory education policy. Compulsory education is nine
years from 6 years (years 1 through 6) to nine years (years 1 to tingkatan3) (School Management
Division Ministry of Education, 2013). KPM also expand Subjects Vocational (MPV) in secondary
schools and practicing consensus schools, families and communities and introducing appropriate
assessment and evaluation.
b Increasing Number of Teachers Trained
MOE will increase the number of trained teachers in accordance with the options in rural areas. The goal
of increasing the number of teachers will only be achieved by requiring new teachers to serve in rural
areas. As an incentive for teachers, MOE will enhance the incentives for teachers serving in rural areas,
providing insurance to teachers serving in rural areas and provide teachers and basic amenities.
c. Improving Distribution System Assistance to Needy Students, Special Needs and Minority Groups
Strengthening the system of aid distribution
Strengthening the Student Information System (SSM)
Establishing a Regional Education Action Council (MTPD)
Promote cooperation between schools, public and private sector (PIPP, 2006-2010)

d. Supplementary Feeding Programme (SFP) and the Poor Students Trust Fund (KWAPM)
The ministry has allocated hundreds of millions of dollars by having a special program to assist students in
low-income families. The program includes initiatives to provide nutritional needs of students as
Supplementary Feeding Programme (SFP), and reduce the financial burden incurred schooling parents,
such as the Poor Students Trust Fund (KWAPM). The Ministry also provides programs for students with
special needs and primary school for Orang Asli and Penan.
e. School in Hospital
The Deputy Prime Minister officially launched Establishment of School in Hospital (SDH) in Malaysia on
July 26, 2011. This program is a joint initiative of the Ministry of Education (MOE), the Ministry of Health
(MOH) and Yayasan Nurul Yaqeen (YNY). Establishment of SDH is consistent with the wishes championed
by UNESCO, namely ' Education for All ' and the democratization of education. SDH services accessible to
all children and young people of school age, regardless of circumstances and places, including students
who receive treatment in hospitals (Hospital Serdang, 2014). As if the challenges faced by the teacher to
ensure that teaching and learning takes place successfully? Appropriate learning approach used is quite
different from ordinary schools, SDH is oriented approach edutainment (learning fun) and flexible in a
conducive environment. This approach will help eliminate boredom when students need to get treatment
for a long time in hospital.
f. School in Jail
Schools in the prison known as Integrity School started operating since 2008 in collaboration with the
Ministry of Education and the Department of Prisons. To date there are 1,650 students ranging from
juvenile offenders who were attending lessons at six prisons , namely at Kajang Prison , Kluang Prison ,
Prison Marang , Sungai Petani Prison , Prison Kuching and Kota Kinabalu Prison . These educational
facilities in line with the policy of democratization of education, namely the right to an education open to
all children, including those sentenced by the courts. Despite being behind the iron curtain needs to
acquire, formal education among children cannot be ignored. This school is to not only provide basic
literacy and numeracy needs of the child but also provide their future needs.
These students are given the opportunity to follow the academic, co-curricular and vocational aims to
produce human capital in line with the National Education Philosophy. In the field of academic students
are given the opportunity to sit examinations Lower Secondary Assessment (PMR), Certificate of
Education (SPM) and the Malaysian Higher School Certificate (HSC). Children are also equipped with
motivation, capacity building and skills ' soft skills . However, duties in prison are very challenging tasks
for educators. Therefore, teachers should have the psychological skills and intelligent play the role of
facilitators who can handle pupils with challenging and honest.
In conclusion, according to the MOE Interim Strategic Plan (2011-2020), every student has the potential
to succeed . Measured from the ratio of successful students have the knowledge and skills, to practice
high moral values , creative and innovative, adopting united in society and a healthy lifestyle. This noble
goal will be achieved through the democratization of education policy and KPM has designed various
programs or activities to make it a reality. Thus teachers should strive to succeed agenda is to fulfil
children's rights.
1.1.3 The four pillars of education United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
(UNESCO)
Paris-based UNESCO is an agency of the United Nations (UN), which was established in 1945. At present,
its membership stood at 191 countries. The purposes of the UNESCO are:
Contributing regional peace and security

Maintaining the rule of law, regardless of race, sex, language or religion


Promoting regional cooperation through education, science and culture
Maintain rights
Maintain full freedom
1.1.3.1 What are the Four Pillars of Education?
UNESCO also set programs related to education, natural sciences, social and human sciences, culture,
communication and information. UNESCO has designated four pillars of education that needs to be
passed in the face of 21st century education. The milestone is shown in Figure 1.3: -

Figure 1.3: The Four Pillars of Education UNESCO


Source: UNESCO World Heritage Centre 1992-2014 United Nations
(1996) - http://whc.unesco.org/en/disclaimer
a. Learn to Master of Science
Learn to master the science is part of the lifelong learning element that has been emphasized in the
second thrust of the National Mission 9th Malaysia Plan is to improve the capacity for knowledge and
innovation and nurture ' first class mentality " . The success of our nation into a developed nation in its
own mold as envisaged in Vision 2020 depends on human capital has a first class mentality " ( Interim
Strategic Plan , KPM 2011-2020) . While the success of human capital development and student excel is
very dependent on competent and knowledgeable teachers in the teaching and learning process (PDP).
Therefore , teachers should always learn to master the science of developing the potential of individuals
in a holistic and produce a balanced in terms of physical , emotional, spiritual , intellectual and social (
Jeris ) as envisaged in the National Education Philosophy ( FPK ) . His knowledge among teachers can be
applied through research such as action research, professional discussions, readings periodically whether
from printed sources or internet resources and programs to improve professionalism. In addition,
methods of teaching and learning should lead to the acquisition of knowledge among students, such as
problem solving, project method and the expository method. This method will generate a feeling of
curiosity, creating a fun learning environment and helps students understand the world around them.
However, the challenges faced by teachers in applying learning to master the workload of teachers.
Gol0ngan teachers at present have been burdened by various composite tasks such as managing extracurricular activities, classroom, student affairs, administrative and clerical as well as some other additional
work that needs to be made according to current needs (Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin, 2010). Surplus this task
has affected their quality of time to plan lessons and the teacher is the main task. Typically, in designing
teaching and learning, teachers need to master the content prior to making a deep reading that learning
outcomes are achieved.

There are international studies that have been conducted show that teacher quality factors most
significant in determining the success of students. The quality system cannot exceed the quality of
teachers. Despite the excellent teachers in the education system in Malaysia, but the study in 2011 showed
that only 50% of instruction is delivered effectively. Findings indicate passive delivery of teaching is
student -centred and not fully. The subjects taught are not emphasize the high level thinking skills as
teaching more focused on understanding not deep (MECC , 2013-2025 ) . In this regard, several steps have
been taken by the MOE to ensure that the teacher can apply milestone learn to master:
Reduces the number of tests and Implementation Guidelines on School Equivalents. MOE decided that
starting this year (2012 ) , The KPM , the State Education Department and District Education Office only
allowed to coordinate and implement an equivalent examination alone whether the Trial Examination or
Final Examination . This is equivalent examination will be abolished with effect from 1 January 2013. The
school is also not allowed to conduct schedule (equivalent) for formative test so teachers can implement
formative tests according to the timetable of teaching and learning - RNase.
Meeting No. KPM professional. 7 / 2OO7 dated 21 November 2007 approved the implementation of the
concept of operation of In-Service Training (INSET) in School Based in schools under the MOE. LDP
must be implemented in a planned without compromising the effectiveness of the course, protect
students' learning time and reduce the frequency of teachers leave the classroom (Letter / Press Ministry
of Education the number 20 in 2012).
A proposal will be submitted to the Department of Public Service to expand Administrative Assistant
N17 staff placements in schools under the MOE to reduce the burden of clerical tasks teachers (Tan Sri
Muhyiddin Yassin, 2010).
Improving the operation of School Based Assessment (SBA) has also been implemented to produce a
more friendly assessment system that reduces the workload of teachers and clerical teachers.
(http://web.moe.gov.my/lp/files/pekeliling/2014/Pekeliling PBSBil1.2014.pdf)
Empowerment through continuous training of teachers is very important to produce skilled workers
and capture knowledge. This is achieved through the establishment of a passionate master plan
Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and the new database CPD detection to strengthen and
reinforce science teachers. CPD can also develop and strengthen the capacity and improve the quality of
their professional competence in the teaching profession and in line with national aspirations. Thus
increasing the capacity and competence of teachers can ensure the success of student achievement (Tan
Sri Muhyiddin Yassin, 2013).
Overall, the measures taken by the Ministry of Education seeks to increase the quality of teachers and
improve the welfare of teachers. Workload reduction will give full space to the teachers learn to acquire
knowledge and enhance innovation to increase student excellence.

b. Learning to Mastering Skills


By MECC (2013-2025), among the types of skills needed by students to compete globally is:
Type of skill
Thinking Skills
Various skills " hard and soft

Characteristics skills
in creative and critical thinking
higher order thinking
leadership skills , problem solving

skills"

skills

Normally, all of these skills can be generated at the school through either extracurricular activities or cocurricular activities. However , whether the teacher is able to realize them particularly thinking skills ,
because according to the needs assessment report by Kestrel Education Consultants ( UK ) and 21 Century
Schools ( USA ) on 2 November 2011 , found that higher-order thinking among students and teachers in
Malaysia are very low . While MOE has begun to introduce creative thinking skills and critical thinking skills
program in Creative and Critical (CCTS) in 1994 and has introduced a variety of media think. However, the
findings still show less skilled teachers in teaching higher-order thinking and learning. Teaching in the
classroom, many centred on the teacher and geared towards exam preparation. All of these findings have
prompted the drafting KPM income stabilization program producing role models that are creative and
innovative. (I - THINK Program Development Division of the curriculum, MOE, 2012). Among the
approaches that have been implemented are:
Introduce High- Level Thinking Skills Program (BAT) in 2013. The approach to teaching and learning that
can be used to generate bat elements among pupils is as figure 1.5.

Figure 1.5: Teaching Methods KBAT


Source: Ministry of Education, 2013
MOE also cooperates with Malaysia Innovation Agency (under the Prime Minister) in implementing the I
- THINK program in 2013. The program aims to enhance and develop thinking skills and enhance
innovativeness among students. Teachers and students will use thinking tools in teaching and learning in
addition to higher-order thinking skills activities.
The approach used to apply skills hard and soft skill is through co-curricular activities and sports.
Although co-curricular and sports program is required, but there are schools and students who do not
give priority and attention to the sports program. Furthermore, attitude of parents and society that
emphasizes academic achievement resulting in extra-curricular activities and sports in schools does not
run smoothly. The implication would cause a variety of expertise hard and soft skill " cannot be applied.
However, the MOE has taken some steps to address them through strengthening co-curricular programs
and sports programs. Cabinet Committee Report 1979 recommends interests curricular activities and
sports to all levels of schooling. Elementary students in 1 Sports 1, 1 and 1 Club Uniformed Bodies seeks to
develop students holistically and give them the opportunity to develop a range of skills. The ministry will

also study the possibility of requiring the involvement of this as a condition of graduation and scholarship
in higher education (MECC, 2013-2025).
In conclusion learn through skills are important components that should be included in the student and
the teacher in preparation for the challenges of the 21st century that require a person who is able to think
on a higher level and have a variety of skills .
c. Learning to Be Human Helpful
Learning to be a useful human displacement in line with 3 in MECC (2013-2025) which produce Malaysian
citizens who appreciate value. Passionate teachers is to develop student or human capital which has
superior appearance , such as trust , well mannered , diligent , disciplined , honest , prudent, noble ,
integrity , compassion , fairness and caring. However, the first challenge for teachers is to inculcate values
that will produce superior students character as a borderless world resulting in pupils exposed to a more
challenging environment. The second challenge is to ensure that the curriculum developed can build the
character of students in order to become a citizen of a disciplined, moral, adhering to values , patriotic
and responsible. The third challenge is to ensure that the courtesy and values cultivated at school level on
an ongoing basis so that students can appreciate and practice the values and culture in everyday life. This
responsibility should be carried out continuously with pengelembingan energy and commitment from all
parties. Among the measures that have been identified by KPM is:

Strengthening of Islamic Education and Moral Education


KPM nurturing moral values in students in across subjects and through specific subjects such as Islamic
Education and Moral Education. In 2005, the Islamic Studies reinforced through the introduction
of j - QAF program in stages in primary school. There are also enhanced curriculum of Islamic
education with a focus on understanding the core values and philosophy of Islam and other
religions in Malaysia. While the Moral Education for non-Muslim students focus on the
understanding of the core of all major religions in Malaysia. The Ministry will study the
possibility of Muslim and non- Muslim students to share certain class of Islamic Education and
Moral Education as universal values taught (MECC, 2013-2025).
Social and Reproductive Health Education (Sexuality)
Education is designed to enable students to acquire knowledge about the physical, emotional and
social development, foster positive attitudes and values towards the development of sexuality,
as well as build skills for maintaining personal relationships, family life and membership in the
society. KPM together with the Ministry of Women , Family and Community Development ( the
ministry ) agree not to make it a special subject , but will be studied through subjects such as
languages , Health Education , Science , Biology , Islamic Education and Moral Education ( PIPP ,
2006-2010) .
Encouragement Manners Courtesy
Various activities have been carried out by the MOE through PIPP (2006-2010) in applying the values
manners and courtesy among students. Among them are:

o Increase the activities of lectures, seminars, workshops and motivational nature of human development
o Increasing appreciation of spiritual activities
o Expanding activities Courtesy Campaign
o Increase awareness of the importance of the activities of the courtesy and manners such as film
screenings , and documentation as well as writing essays

o Make charitable work in the local community (such as old-age homes and orphanages)
o Increase the publishing material about courtesy and manners of society
In conclusion milestone learn to be useful is in line with human vision 2020 4th challenges of creating a
fully moral and ethical society, whose citizens are strong in religious values, and psychiatric and driven by
the highest ethical standards. According to the MECC (2013-2025) for each student who leaves school is
considered as a global citizen who has been nurtured with the universal core values and has a strong
national identity. Values that have been studied are expected to be practiced in everyday life. These
values are civic behaviour such as an increase in voluntary activities, individual acceptance of different
race, religion and ethnicity, trust and integration. In addition, any student who has completed his
schooling must have the ability to be a leader for themselves and their families or leaders of some larger
communities and countries.
d. Learning to Harmony and cooperation
Learning to harmony and cooperation is part of the five aspirations of students and the Malaysian
education system contained in the MECC (2013-2025). These aspirations are:

Sistem pendidikan yang menawarkan perkongsian pengalaman dan nilai kepada kanakkanak dengan menghargai kepelbagaian
The reality of the role of ' school is to strengthen unity among students as they spend more time in a
quarter of schools that began seven years to 17 years . Among the activities that they do in school is the
interaction among the various socio - economic , religious and ethnic groups , learn to understand , accept
and appreciate differences , sharing of experiences and aspirations can be formed ( MECC , 2013-2025 ) .
The challenge faced by teachers is how to create a strong cooperation during the process of teaching and
learning. According to UNESCO (1996) Plamen elements that need to be developed in students through
education are:
Fostering empathy in students to have a positive impact on social behaviour of their lifetime.
Establish understanding between each other.
Ability to resolve conflicts through dialogue and discussion.
Hate violence.
Co-operation and interdependence with each other.
The attitude of selfishness and can accept human diversity.
The elements of harmony and cooperation proposed by UNESCO are consistent with the management
objectives of the curriculum in primary schools and secondary schools, namely:
Strengthen communication and interaction among students in schools and among schools.
Build and enhance cooperation and contribution of bilateral relations between the school and the
community (Co-Curricular Activities Management Handbook Primary And Secondary Schools, 1998).
Therefore, students are required to participate in the co -curriculum and attendance of pupils in extracurricular activities must be recorded. Enforcement by the school for students' participation in the co curriculum is based on the Circular 2/1986 Professional, KP (BS) 8591 / Vol. 11 / (41)
1.1.4 Globalization in Education

According to Western scholars perspectives, globalization is a combination of free trade in goods and
services combined with free movement of capital (International Institute for Educational Planning, 1998).
Next Global Teacher Project (United Kingdom, 2014), defines globalization in education as not a single
subject, but one dimension across the curriculum, it is also a form of censorship / translation that gives
understanding to the children about the information and opinions that are global. It combines various
methodologies that involve active discussion and based on experience, the elements are concerned;
cooperation and open view on experience in the classroom, one of our core cultures find information
about all the countries in the world and other groups, about cause of poverty and inequality and the
environment. Globalization in education also is teaching delivery methods and how we teach. It also adds
power and encourages the exploration of all subjects from a global perspective. It contributes to the
overall curriculum and improves our understanding of the world. Global education stimulates curiosity;
motivate learning and contributing to higher levels.
While Kamus Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (2014 ) interpret globalization as a process that allows an
activity ( economic, cultural , educational , service ) deployed or expanded to an international level or to
the entire world , especially with the ease of communication systems and open policy.
In the global arena, Malaysia travel towards Vision 2020 is full of challenges and uncertain market.
Dimensions of the world economy have changed and Malaysia can no longer rely on low-cost structure to
remain competitive at the international level. Globalisation, liberalization and countries such as China ,
India , Brazil , Russia , the Middle East and neighbouring countries has created fierce competition to
efforts to attract more trade and investment opportunities . As skilled human capital of the 21st century is
the main stronghold in the face of global competition very rapidly. National interests have human capital
assets have been emphasized in the Fourth Strategic Thrust: the Malaysia Plan 10 (2010-2015):
Membangun dan mengekalkan modal insan bertaraf dunia
(Dato Sri Mohd. Najib Bin Tun Abdul Razak, 2010)
1.1.4.1 What are the characteristics of human capital of the 21st century?
Features human model -21 century by the local context is shown in Figure 1.6.

Figure

1.6:
Characteristics
Century
Source: Education Development Plan, 2013-2025

of

Human

Capital

21st

Human capital is a treasure that can be injected in value added, lest there be the intellectual and cultural
capital (Standard Guru Malaysia, 2010). Therefore, only qualified teachers who are able to produce human

capital of the 21st century. However, whether the teacher is able to cover this responsibility? There are
several challenges facing the education system in human capital, namely:
The survey of public opinion conducted by the Merdeka Centre in 2004 to 850 samples Malaysia ( aged
16 to 30 years ) found that the majority ( i.e. , 68 % India , 58 % Chinese , 50% Malay ) argues , education
received does not provide them with the knowledge or adequate skills to face the challenges in life and
work of contemporary society .
Technical education and vocational training in developed countries are among the main options for
students provide good career prospects. By contrast, in our country, it is the last option because the
perception is limited career prospects. At this time, there is a decline in the number of students enrolled
in vocational schools, from 62.200 persons in 2008 to 51,500 in 2011. However, the industry demand for
graduates of vocational students is high and rising. In 2008, the Ministry of Human Resources reported
that there was a shortage of skilled labour resources, i.e. more than 700,000 people in manufacturing,
agriculture and construction. Demand for skilled resources in the future will continue to increase by the
year 2020 , of the 3.3 million jobs created under the National Key Economic Area ( NKEA ) , at least 46 %
require vocational qualification certificate or diploma , compared to 22 % who require degree
qualifications undergraduate university .
In 2011, the Higher Education Leadership Academy (AKEPT), Ministry of Higher Education has conducted
qualitative research on teaching. Based on observations of 125 lessons in 41 schools throughout Malaysia,
found that only 12 % of the teaching is delivered to a high standard, namely to implement more
pedagogical best practices proposed in KSSR. 38% are at a satisfactory standard. Conversely, 50% of the
teaching is unsatisfactory. The teachings are not attracting students and teachers rely more on passive
lecture method in delivering content subjects. Teachers are keen to ensure that students understand the
basic content of subjects for summative assessment purposes of applying higher-order thinking skills. This
finding is also supported by the UNESCO report shows that most teachers are still not able to know and
understand the basic concepts of philosophy and objectives of the curriculum. By implication, there is no
practice of good teaching and learning in the classroom such as integrated learning, holistic education,
creative, and innovative.
(MECC, 2013-2025)
MOE has undertaken various efforts to address these challenges. Efforts have also been carried out to
produce quality teachers and ensure lasting quality teachers in the education system as well as the
duration of the service. Among the measures that have been undertaken:

a. Transformation of Education System


Transforming education aims to equip each student in our country with all the new skills they need to
seize the opportunities and address the challenges of the 21st century (YAB Tan Sri Dato ' Muhyiddin
Yassin, 2013). Transformations are divided to 3 waves. First Wave (2013-2015) will focus on short-term
initiatives to improve the written curriculum, curriculum taught and the curriculum to assessment. Second
and Third wave (2016-2025) relating to the introduction of the standard curriculum of the new middle
school , SSM and KSSR revised , standards-based assessment and the establishment of an alternative
model that allows students to learn according to their own abilities . Among the improvements in the first
wave are:
Purify and re-evaluate the curriculum content in line with international standards
KSSR and PMR will continue to be refined in line with the national curriculum emphasizes basic need to
incorporate best practices internationally and processed in a standard form that can be Malaysian citizens

who are able to compete in the global rankings. In the development stage, the MOE will continue to
outline the benchmark standard curriculum and learning content based on high-performance education
system. MOE will also engage international independent expert to verify the benchmark for subjects of
English, mathematics and science. These subjects will continue to be analyzed in detail to ensure that the
new curriculum standards consistent with high-performing education system and that the scope of the
syllabus content is not too heavy and can be implemented effectively ( PPM , 2013-2025 ) .
To strengthen the support system for teachers to improve the delivery of the curriculum
Role of School Improvement Specialist Coaches (SISC +) will be increased from part-time to fulltime. They will be placed at the District Education Office (DEO) and a liaison officer between the
Curriculum Development Division (CPC) and teachers. SISC + is responsible for the implementation of the
new curriculum and assessment, strengthening teacher training in pedagogical skills and monitor the
effectiveness of implementation. Teachers will focus more on teaching and learning activities because
they do not have to leave school to attend. Training will be tailored according to the needs of teachers as
SISC + will be given the opportunity to observe teachers in the classroom and provide immediate
feedback. The focus of this training session aims to form high level thinking skills, teaching students of
various abilities and make effective assessments. In addition, KPM also allocate additional teaching
resources to ensure that teachers can implement in the classroom KSSR. Such as teaching, such as video
library has a collection of examples of good teaching.
Improvements assessment framework for increasing the number of higher-order thinking skills
questions
Teachers and head teachers will receive training from SISC + how to set up and run a school-based
assessment, especially about scoring according to the reference standard. MOE will also increase the
number of questions systematically high level thinking skills in school-based assessment and public
examinations. These questions will be based on Bloom's Taxonomy and test the skills of application,
analysis, evaluation and generation. By the year 2016, questions testing skills are as much as 80 % of the
questions UPSR, 80 % of the questions Rating Form 3, and 75 % of the questions for SPM core subjects and
50 % of the questions elective subjects SPM (MECC, 2013-2025).
Leading the international Baccalaureate (IB) Middle Years Programme (MYP) as an alternative approach
to learning
Pedagogical approach emphasizes the use of project -based activities, questioning techniques to develop
the ability of students to higher-order thinking, and enable pupils to integrate knowledge from different
disciplines involved.
a. Vocational Transformation Plan
Transformation aims to add skilled human capital base by providing quality education to students who
have a tendency and ability and interest in the field of vocational education. Education is managed begins
at the lower secondary level , namely the Basic Vocational Education program ( PAV ) and strengthened
existing routes through the program at the secondary level Vocational College ( KV ) in the field of
vocational education.
(MECC, 2013-2025)
In conclusion, globalization in education requires quality education system as a foundation for human
capital creative, innovative and highly skilled and in line with the government to improve the country's
competitiveness through improved quality of human capital, which is born by the national education
system.
1.1.5 Cultural Diversity

According to Andrew E. Schwartz (2013), cultural diversity is a condition where there is a difference and
diversity. This diversity involves more human diversity such as the differences between races or cultures
within a group or organization. Dimensions of diversity involving race, ethnicity, gender, sexual
orientation, socio - economic status, age, physical, religious beliefs, political beliefs and ideology (Laura
Mcdonnal, 2010).
Malaysia is a unique country, because there is a diversity dimension. This uniqueness is caused by
colonization factors that have paved the inclusion of cultural diversity to our country. However, as
Malaysians, we should be proud of this because of the uniqueness of cultural diversity is part of the
heritage of Malaysia (Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin, 2012). The interests of all students must be educated
based on academic content standards that will enable them to become more proficient undeniable.
However, the reality of the diversity of the students has challenged the system to provide a program that
meets the needs of students where they are and accelerate their learning to close the achievement gap.
Teachers are not left to face the challenges in the education system. Among the first challenge is:

a. The performance gap between rural and urban schools


By UPSR, the gap between rural and urban students almost 4 % with advantages to urban schools. In the
SPM, the gap had increased to 8 % points.
b. The performance gap boys and girls
Female students remained ahead of boys. Significant differences in performance began in UPSR and
increased throughout the period students spend in school. Thus, boys are more at risk for dropping out.
This gender gap has increased for PMR and SPM during the last five years and if this phenomenon is left
unchecked could pose a risk of marginalization to the achievement of boys. However, in 2011 the
performance gap decreased from 11% to 10 % for the UPSR. Results from interviews with parents, teachers,
and principals / headmasters found that most boys prime difficult to master academic curriculum and is
likely to benefit from vocational training courses or job application form. However, the shortage of places
in vocational and technical schools prevent male students the opportunity to obtain skills. The situation
became more complicated when the boys from poor families are more at risk of dropping out of school
early because I had to work to support their families. Involvement boys decreasing in the education
system have caused concern to the MOE. Often marginalized youth are the source of social and political
instability. MOE should always seek alternatives to involve men in education to ensure that they become a
valuable source of human capital and not the source of problems for the country.
C. socioeconomic status
Socioeconomic differences are significant challenges in achieving equality in educational success. The
unbalanced caused by parental income students and school location. The factors associated with student
achievement. In response, the study showed that students from poor families have lower performance
compared to students from middle or high-income families. Schools with many students from low-income
families have more chances to be in Band 6 or 7 on a scale NKRA. Consequently, more than threequarters of all high-performing schools have fewer third of the students receive help.

d. High dropout problem among Aboriginal


Only 30% of Aboriginal students have completed secondary school, which is less than half the
national average of 72 %. Compared to the national average, at 87%, only 61% of the National School of
Natural students pass the core subjects in UPSR. Only 1 % of national schools in low -performing schools
band (Band 6 and 7) as compared to 35 % of the National School of Natural. Dropouts due to high poverty
rates and a tendency to live in rural areas caused many Aboriginal students do not receive preschool

education. This situation led to Aboriginal students started basic literacy and numeracy low during Year 1.
In addition, English is not the native language of many Aboriginal students.
(MECC, 2013-2025)
The next government is committed to reducing unbalanceness through various initiatives, including the
provision of financial assistance to needy students. Here are the steps taken to deal with:
Application of indigenous languages and other minority languages in the curriculum. KSSR measure,
introduced in 2011, the MOE has expanded its selection of elective courses such as Iban, Kadazan Dusun
and Semai language.
Pedagogy friendly culture needs to be applied in the teaching and learning process that teachers should
act as agents of socialization, teaching without distinction, without grouping students according to
certain races in one group only.
In conclusion, the progress of the country, people need to be developed in advance and it started with
the attitude of acceptance of racial diversity dimension that will lead to national unity. Thus, the school
institution is most suitable container to apply an attitude of acceptance because of racial diversity in
Malaysia. The importance of unity has been affirmed by Dato ' Sri Najib bin Tun Abdul Razak (2010) in the 1
Malaysia concept, namely:
1 Malaysia adalah satu
Gagasan bagi memupuk perpaduan dalam kalangan rakyat
Malaysia yang berbilang kaum, berteraskan beberapa nilai penting yang seharusnya menjadi
amalan
setiap
rakyat
Malaysia"
(Bahagian Perpaduan Masyarakat JPNIN,2010)
1.1.6 Influence of Information and Communication Technology Development
Information and Communication Technology ( Information and Communication Technology / ICT) or ICT is
defined as the use of computers , communication devices and software applications to process, store ,
retrieve , protect , and deliver information from any place at any time ( Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin ,
2010) . At present students need to be equipped with the digital era of the 21st century skills that
demands mastery of information skills , creative and innovative, and effective communication to address
21st-century life (Director General of Education, 2010) . Learning skills of the 21st century is defined as the
efficiency of using digital media is driven by new technologies in educational institutions so that the
process of teaching and learning more effective could be done . Dimensions skills involved are creativity ,
thinking skills , ability to make weighted and strong innovation using ICT as a driver. The importance of
ICT in education was emphasized in the 7th shift in the MECC ( 2013-2025 ) : Harnessing ICT for Improving
the Quality of Education in Malaysia .
The review found that UNESCO Malaysia is among the first countries in the world to have a strategic plan
for ICT education system . The study also found that there is a great variety of policies and plans that have
been developed since 1990, such as the Strategic Plan for Smart Schools and ICT in Education Policy 2010.
The aim is to exploit the potential of ICT in enhancing the high level thinking thoughts that are deep as
well as improving the overall quality of education . MOE also seeks to improve the efficiency of the
delivery of quality education by using ICT media to groups given less attention as rural schools and fewer
school pupils. Thus a total capital investment of RM 6 billion has been invested by the MOE for the
provision of ICT infrastructure in schools from 1999 to 2010. Although KPM capital investment involves a
large number , but there are some challenges in implementing ICT in education policies , including:

Review of the KPM in 2010 found that the use of ICT in schools is limited . Some 80 % of teachers use ICT
less than an hour a week and only one-third of the students expressed their teachers regularly use ICT .
The review found that although UNESCO ICT use in teaching , but in most cases, the user still has not
reached the use of Power Point presentation application as a teaching tool .
UNESCO study also found no evidence that ICT has been used to promote skills such as creativity ,
problem solving , critical thinking and communication among students . These factors caused the
limitations of the use of ICT tools available are not included with the training and support services to
schools , such as technicians to maintain the equipment . Even the provision of training and support is
often not sustainable and lasting . The implication is that teachers are willing to make the most use of
computers in their daily work .
The findings of an international study found that teachers and students would only use ICT equipment
when teachers and students have the skills to use technology and facilities in a meaningful way in the
learning process .
International studies also found a lack of long-term strategies to implement and maintain ICT
infrastructure and teacher competence . E.g., computer reforms warranty period is not specified explicitly
cause schools that receive equipment at approximately 2000 still using outdated computer equipment
and need to be renewed . In addition , the study also found that no ICT investments are associated with
the desired student outcomes .
(MECC , 2013-2025 )
In line with the MOE to ensure that students not only learn to use ICT but also can use it effectively to
improve their learning , some solutions have been designed , namely:
Provide students with the skills and knowledge to learn effectively and live productively in a global and
digital world .
Completion of all 10,000 schools nationwide with 4G Internet access and virtual learning platform (
virtual learning platform) that can be used by teachers to students and parents through 1BestariNet
program .
Provide training to all teachers to apply ICT in teaching and learning to support student learning .
Increase the ratio of ICT equipment compared to students to 10: 1 . This ratio may be further reduced
depending on an assessment of the impact and the ability of the fund .
Leading the way of delivering learning using ICT innovations such as distance learning and self- learning
content (self - paced ) before spreading throughout the country .
(MECC , 2013-2025 )
ICT in education policy aims to produce human capital capable , innovative and able to explore new areas
for wealth creation and national development can be achieved with the involvement and cooperation of a
group of experts , partnerships with public and private sector and community involvement ( Tan Sri
Muhyiddin Yassin 2010 ) .

1.1.7 Family support


Family support , especially parents ( IB ) excellence in the education of children cannot be overstated .
This interest has been shown by the findings of international studies PISA ( Programme for International
Student Assessment) 2009 showed that the main factors that lead to student achievement is how
parents spend time with their children at home (MECC , 2013-2025 ) . Reviews KPM (2011 ) similarly, on the
use of time students aged 7-16 years in 42 weeks in the school and the average 5.5 hours per day in school
( primary and secondary schools ) , 2 hours per week curricular activities and sleep 8 hours a day is shown
in figure 1.7 :

Figure 1.17 : Sample timetables disciple 2011


Source : School Management Division , Ministry of Education (2013 )
Based on the above , students have spent long periods of time ( 52 % ) at home than at school ( 15 % ) ,
thus IB should take this opportunity to guide their children . This interest is also enshrined in the 9th shift
in the MECC ( 2013-2025 ) , namely working with parents , the community and the private sector more
widely.
1.1.7.1 Why parents should be involved in the child's learning ?
Children Benefits:
Obtained test scores and better
grades .
Have the Self and higher
motivation .
Attendance to school more
rewarding .
The rate of school disciplinary
offenses decreased.
Dropout schooling inevitable

Parents Benefits:
Able to learn how to help
children with their homework
Parents can learn
procedures and methods to help
children in school
Can share parenting knowledge
with other PTA members .
Easier to provide a healthy
home environment .

Source : Recommendations Parents , School Management Division KPM , 2013

1.1.7.2 What is the role of Parents of pupils ?

Source : Recommendations Parents , School Management Division , MOE , 2013 ( school web page :
www.smks4bk.edu.my / E - mail : pibg@smks4bk.edu.my )
1.1.7.3 What are the challenges faced by teachers ?
Challenges faced by the teachers in getting support Parents is:
Involvement of the IB school program too low . Generally because IB is unable to spend time away from
work to attend workshops or meetings . Parents will only attend school if invited to attend special
occasions like Mother's Day , Father 's Day, sports and so on .
Language or cultural barriers that restrict communication between teacher and parents .
Parents only come to school if their child has discipline problems at school .
1.1.7.4 What is the approach taken by the MOE in overcoming the challenges ?
Raising awareness among parents and the public about their role in their children's education .
Awareness can be raised through the campaign. The campaign uses a variety of delivery channels at the
national, state , district and school and various forms of media (traditional , online and people) to ensure
that the information can be presented in a comprehensive and appropriate to the target group .
Provide guidance to schools to implement the process of engagement with parents and the
community. MOE has produced a handbook " Means Parents " in 2013 as a guide to the school how to
build close cooperation with the parents . This utility will also be a guide to every school in the school
prospectus and plans generate parental and community involvement . MOE will require that each school
produces its own prospectus detailing information related to aspiration , regulations and school activities
. This prospectus will be distributed to parents of pupils in Year 1 and Form 1 during the registration and
on-line version will be uploaded to the school website . While the objective of the plan of parental and
community involvement is as encourage the Parent Teacher Association ( PTA ) , and community expand
their focus from fundraising through to develop a learning program led by parents and the community.
MOE will provide an instrument to assess their current level of involvement in addition to the steps clearly
and determine priority areas for action to be taken .
Linking financial assistance to poor students, to increase parental involvement .

Promoting the PTA to play a greater role in supporting parent involvement . PTA 's role will be
expanded to provide a support network known as the Support Group Parent or Parents Support Group (
PSG ) . This group consists of parents who are keen to learn and share best practices in helping their
children in the learning process and enlargement .
PTA members can also help improve the effectiveness of activities and programs in schools in areas
such as governance , fundraising ( donations ) , labour and sharing of expertise. PTA will also be
authorized to provide input on aspects of school leadership makes the national curriculum relevant to the
local context as well as the quality of teaching and learning in schools.
( School Management Division , MOE , 2013)
1.1.8 Social Symptoms
According to the Dictionary of the Board (2010 ) , social phenomena are signs , addresses or indications
about everything related to society , respecting the public , community or matters related to friendship ,
socializing and leisure activities . While social is the word that refers to things that are related to society
and community . Globalization that swept the country also impacted on the social ills among students in
our country. Based on the figures in the table below shows students' involvement in social phenomena is
very worrying .

Gangsterisme Culture
STATE
NUMBER OF SCHOOLS
Selangor
77
Perak
60
Pulau Pinang
49
Wilayah
Persekutuan
Kuala 37
Lumpur, Kelantan & Sabah.
Pahang
35
Kedah
32
Negeri Sembilan
14
Melaka
10
Terengganu
8
Perlis & Sarawak
6
Jumlah
328
Source : Department of Planning and Research , Ministry of Education , 2005
Interests to curb social ills of human capital can develop the country has been pressed by Datuk Seri
Abdullah Ahmad Badawi (2005 ) :
" ... I want every Malaysian has the human capital of high personalities forge high
wisdom , educated , highly successful in whatever field of endeavour , and even became
a hit. This is because , the key to excellence is discipline and self-esteem certain
individuals. This will encourage individual excellence , family , community and country .. "
1.1.8.1 What types of social ills ?
Bil.

Types Of Social Phenomena

1
2
3

Smoking
Stealing
Housebreaking

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Robbery
Homosexual
Lesbian
Child Abandon
Drug-Taking
Running Away From Home
Free sex
Porn Movie
Peras ugat
hallucinogenic pills
Blackmail

1.1.8.2 What are the factors of the occurrence of social ills?


a. Know and Want Want feelings trying
Often adolescents aged below 18 years have high curiosity. Thus anything that happens around them will
invite curiosity among them to try it without thinking about the implications. This problem occurs because
they do not get guidance from parents, teachers, neighbours, friends and so on.
b. Influence Peers
Peer is a person close to the teens. A good friend can guide them to goodness instead if they mistakenly
select partners will lead to the spread of negative influences.
c. thirst for Fun
Based on the development of adolescents, ages 12 to 19 years is the brain that lead to the excitement is
growing rapidly. Thus, whatever leads to fun things will be done either as swayed by the attitude of a
friend or your own choice.
d. Media influence
The mass media are now also contributed to the symptoms of bad luck among teenagers.
Misrepresenting the mass media applied as follows programs or dramas featuring free interaction ,
entertaining will influence and encourage the youth to do the symptoms.
e. Family attitudes
Family attitudes that are too restrictive or too give freedom will have a negative impact on youth. For
example, a family that has enacted legislation or rules to be followed by each member of the family
without compromise will lead to teenage rebellious soul and lead to behavioural problems.

1.1.8.2 Methods to Solve Problem of Social Richa


a. Role of Parents
Parents must extend love, spend time, and provide religious education or civic education to children
adequately. Parents also need to spend time with the kids, watching the movements of children and
complement the basic needs of children.
b. Role of Teachers in Schools
Teachers should play the role of academic counsellors and become friends with teenagers. Teachers
need to have effective communication skills like can discuss and help solve problems of adolescents.
c. The role of the Authority

The authorities should play a role and enforce laws to ensure that the causes of social ills such activity
occurs entertainment venues, massage parlours and so on. Regular and consistent monitoring should be
conducted to ensure that no negative elements involving teens.
d. Role of Mass Media
Media also plays a role in controlling the broadcasting massively against any form of release that involves
youth moral decadence. Broadcasting involving teenagers who have succeeded have often highlighted in
the media as a motivation to emulate.
e. Community role
Society must play a role in helping solve the problem among teenagers. Mosques and surau need to plan
activities to address this social ill.
In conclusion, the IB played a key role in shaping the future of their children. IB tasked with responsibility
and compassion is a contributor to the production of human capital.
1.1.9 Reporting and Analysis related to educational attainment in
national and international
1.1.9.1 Educational attainment of internationally
Malaysia has demonstrated a proud achievement at international level that begins November until 2009
to July 2012. Among the achievements are:
Table 1.9 Educational Attainments in International
ACHIEVEMENTS
Malaysia, represented by three
schools, the overall high achievement
in South Korea - won second place
for two consecutive years.
68 pupils Malaysia gained 94 gold
medals and received praise at the
international level
A Malaysian student obtained the
gold medal and special award from
the European Physical Society.
Form 4 student achievements to get
the first gold medal Malaysia. 4 other
students obtain encouraging results
A group of 36 students earned
second place overall ; won 6 gold
medals , 2 silver and 3 bronze
A 17-year -old student was the winner
of the first best.

Malaysia team of 200 athletes won a


total of 100 medals ; finished third

TYPE
OF
ACHIEVEMENT
World
Robot
Olympiad ( WRO ) ,
South Korea

YEAR

International
Competitions
and
Assessments
for
Schools ( ICAS ) 1
42nd
International
Physics Olympiad ,
Thailand
52nd
International
Mathematical
Olympiad
,
Netherlands
ASEAN
Primary
School
Sports
Olympiad , Indonesia
Bahasa
Inggeris
Speaking
Union
International Public
Speaking Competition
, London
4th ASEAN School
Games , Indonesia

Dis
2010

Nov
2009

July
2011
July
2011

Oct
2011
Mei
2012

Jun
2012

overall
Malaysia team won the gold medal in
the category of design education

The Invention and


New
Product
Exposition ,
United States
5th Asian Schools
Badminton
Championship ,
Hong Kong

Jun
2012

Malaysia team won a total of 15 Gold 2nd International Folk


and Silver Diploma.
Song
and
Dance
Festival ,
Georgia

July
2012

Two students aged 14 managed to


get third place in the competition.

Genius Olympiad 2012


International
High
School
Fair
Project
on
Environment , New
York

July
2012

Malaysia team gold medal for their


invention.

8th
International
Exhibition for Young
Inventors ,
Thailand

July
2012

Team Malaysia about 16 players won


3 gold medals , 4 silver and 9 bronze

July
2012

Source: Education Development Plan, 2005


1.1.9.2 Educational attainment in the country
A total of 66 schools were awarded a High Performance School in Malaysia (SBT). The school was
awarded the achievement ringgi on recognition of excellence in academic and non-academic aspects.
High Performance Schools is an initiative under the National Key Result Areas (NKRA) which aims to
improve the performance of all schools in the system. School awarded HPS status given level of
autonomy and accountability of higher order to maintain and enhance performance. Among these
schools are:
SCHOOL
SK Ulu
Sarawak

SK Zainab (2),
Kelantan

SUCCESS
Lubai,
100 % pass rate in the UPSR since 2006
The first rural school in Malaysia achieved
the status of SBT
Consistently among the best schools in the
UPSR
Excellent performance in co-curricular

activities such as taekwondo and public


speaking
SJK(C) Foon Yew
(2), Johor

Consistently among the best schools in the


UPSR
Record outstanding achievements in
international academic competitions in
Mathematics and Chinese

SM Sultan Abdul
Hamid, Kedah

100 % pass rate in SPM


Excellent performance in co-curricular
activities such as orchestra and rugby

SMK Aminuddin
Baki,
WP
Kuala
Lumpur

100 % pass in SPM for five continuous


years
Records excelled in international sports
activities , especially swimming

Source : The Boarding School of Management and School of


Excellence , (MECC , 2013-2025 )

Exercises
1.

To
what
extent
curricular
integration among pupils in school?

activities

2.
The
problem
of
social
phenomena
educator, how you can play the curb social ills?

is

in

schools

hitting

where

3.

Teachers
are
informative
and
creative
education
of
the 21st
century.
As
novice teachers,
how you
pillars of education in equipping UNESCO as a knowledgeable teacher?

4.

Human
capital
is
an
planned
inputs
needed
generating human capital.

asset
to
the
by
teachers,

can

you

create

live.

requirement
can
apply

development
of
a
parents
and
the

national

As

an

demands
the
four

country.
Group
community
in