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Exercise 7

MORPHOLOGY OF THE LEAF


Dagondon, Vanessa Olga
Jomocan, Christine Anne
Lozanes, Ruther Mae

Date Performed: March 23, 2015


Date Submitted: March 26, 2015

Exercise 7.1 Gross Morphology of the Leaf


A DICOTYLEDONOUS LEAF
Examine a leaf of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (gumamela), one of the most commonly
cultivated shrubs in the tropics.
Of what parts does it consist?
Record the descriptive terms that apply to it with regard to:
1 the presence or absence of petiole - present
2 the presence or absence of stipule present
3 form - simple
4 venation - netted
5 leaf arrangement alternate
B MONOCOTYLEDONOUS LEAF
Examine and draw a leaf of a monocot leaf (Rhoeo discolor). Label the drawing.
See figure 2.
C EXTERNAL FEATURES OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF LEAVES
1 Gather some leaves of 5 different plants, paying particular attention to the data called
for in the following table.
Table 1
Plant
1
2
3
4
5

Petiole

Stipules

Form

Venation

Present
Absent
Present
Present
Absent

Absent
Absent
Present
Present
Absent

Compound
Simple
Simple
Simple
Compound

Netted
Parallel
Netted
Netted
Parallel

Plant

1
2
3

Shape of
Apex
Acuminat
e <45
Narrowly
acute <45
Apiculate

Miscellaneous Characteristics
Leaf
Margins Attachmen
Shape
t
Lanceolat
Entire
Petiolate
e
Sessile
Lanceolat
Entire
Decurrent
e
Atenuate
Ovate
Serrate
Petiolate
Leaf
Base
Atenuate

Leaf
Arrangement
Alternate
Equitant
Alternate
Alternate
Opposite

Leaf
Surface
Spiculate
Glandular
Resinous

4
5

Acuminat
e round
Rounded

Cordate
Oblique

Widely
ovate
Narrowly
oblong

Entire

Petiolate

Crenulate

Sessile

Pulverulen
t
Spiculate

Leaf arrangement phyllotaxy. Classify the available specimens as to the arrangement


of leaves on the bodies.
Type of Arrangement
Specimen
1 Alternate
Plant 1, 2, and 4
2 Opposite
Plant 5

Exercise 7.2 Microscopic Structures of the Dermal Tissues of the Leaf


1

Study fresh amounts of the epidermis of Rhoeo spathacea (Schwartz) (R.discolor).


(a.) What are the differences between the guard cells and the other epidermal cells?
Guard cells are kidney-shaped cells that are filled with chloroplasts. They
always occur in pairs and form a small pore between them. The pair of guard
cells and their pore is called a stomata and functions in gas exchange. The
opening and closing of stomata control leaf gas exchange and water transpiration
as well as allow plants to quickly respond and adjust to new environmental
conditions. The green chloroplasts of the guard cells function to provide the
energy that fuels the opening and closing process. The guard cells differ from
normal epidermal cells in that they have chloroplasts and the cell walls are
thickening unevenly; the outer wall is thin and the inner wall (nearest the
opening) is thick. The thin-walled epidermal cells of roots give rise to root hairs.
Hair- like outgrowths may also be found in the epidermis of leaves and stem.
{http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2667361/}
(b.) Which wall of the guard cell is thicker?
The outer wall of guard cells facing the stomata is thicker than the inner wall.
(c.) What are the functions of the epidermis?
The epidermal cells protect the underlying cells. The waxy cuticle prevents the
loss of moisture from the leaves and stems. The transparent epidermal cells allow
sunlight (for photosynthesis) to pass through to the chloroplasts in the mesophyll
tissue. The stomata of leaves and stems allow gaseous exchange to take place
which is necessary for photosynthesis and respiration. The water vapour may be
given off through the stomata during transpiration and the root-hairs absorb water
and dissolved ions from the soil.
(d.) What is the average number (average at least 3 trials) of stomata in field under
the low power objective on the lower epidermis?
We werent able to locate any stomata in the sample slide.
(e.) See figure 3.

2.

Mount a small piece of upper epidermis of the same leaf of Rhoeo.

(a.) What is the average number of stomata (average of at least 3 trials) in a field
under the lower power objective?
We werent able to locate any stomata in the sample slide.
(b.) In which surface of the leaf do you find more of the stomata?
Most stomata are on the lower epidermis of the leaves on plants (bottom of the
leaf).
Exercise 7.3 Dicot Leaf Anatomy
1

Examine under the high power objective a prepared slide of a cross-section of a dicot
leaf.
(a.) Do epidermal cells contain chloroplasts?
No chloroplasts were seen in the upper epidermal cells. The lower epidermal
cells, however, have guard cells containing chloroplasts.
(b.)What is the position of the xylem in relation to the phloem in the vein?
The xylem cells are positioned towards the upper epidermis and below are the
phloem cells which are positioned towards the lower epidermis.
(c.) Why are the mesophyll cells often called chlorenchyma?
Since the mesophyll cells contain chloroplasts the tissue is also referred to as
chlorenchyma (University of Western Cape, 2000).
(d.) How does the cell shape of the palisade differ from the spongy parenchyma?
Palisade cells are tightly- packed cells and are cylindrical in shape while the
spongy parenchyma cells are round-shaped with a lot of intercellular membrane.
(e.) Where in the mesophyll do you find large air spaces between groups of cells?
Large air spaces between groups of cells are found in the spongy parenchyma.
(f.) What do you call the large parenchyma cells bordering xylem and phloem of the
veins?
Large parenchyma cells bordering xylem and phloem of the veins are called
bundle sheath.
(g.) See figure 4.

2. Examine a cross-section of the largest vein (midrib) of Ixora leaf both under and high
power objectives. In cross-section it is convex above and below. It is made up of 5
kinds of tissues.
(a.) The epidermis. How does the epidermis above and below the midrib differ from
that of the blade?
The upper epidermis is made up of a single layer of cells containing no
chloroplast. This layer is covered with a waxy, waterproof cuticle, which serves to

reduce water loss from the leaf. The lower epidermis, on the other hand, contains
the many stomata surrounded by the guard cells to regulate the exchange of gases
between the leaf and the surrounding atmosphere (Fred Landau, University of
Nevada, n.d.).
(b.)The collenchyma cells form 2 groups. The first group is located just beneath the
upper epidermis and the second group just above the lower epidermis. What are
the functions of the collenchyma cells?
The collenchyma serve as supporting and strengthening tissue and it is also
where Photosynthesis takes place (University of Western Cape, 2000).
(c.) The parenchyma cells occupy the region between 2 groups of collenchyma cells
in which the conducting tissue and sclerenchyma cells are embedded. They are
thin-walled cells with rounded or polygonal outline.
(d.) The conducting tissues are crescent or ring-shaped and are composed of the
xylem, which consists of thick-walled cells and phloem, which occurs outside the
xylem and is made up of small, thin-walled cells. What is the function of the
xylem? How about phloem?
Xylem conducts water and dissolved ions (minerals) to mesophyll tissue while
Phloem conducts organic food such as glucose from mesophyll to other parts of
the plant (Fred Landau, University of Nevada, n.d.).
Exercise 7.4 Anatomy of a Monocot Leaf
Examine a prepared slide of a cross-section of a monocot leaf of Zea Mays L.
(a.) Is the mesophyll differentiated into a distinct palisade layer and spongy layer?
No.
(b.) How can you determine which is the upper and which is lower epidermis?
The upper epidermis does not contain chloroplast and does not have a stomatal apparatus
like the lower epidermis.

(c.) What is the function of bulliform cells?


Bulliform cells function as storage of water and hygroscopic opening and closing
movements of mature leaves. These cells are also concerned in the rolling and
unrolling of the leaves and transpiration process. During the water stress condition in
leaf, it minimize the leaf inwards by curling.
(d.) How can you determine the top surface of the leaf by studying the veins alone?

The top surface of a leaf can be determined by examining the orientation of xylem and
phloem in the leaf vein: the xylem is normally located on the top side of a leaf and the
phloem on the bottom side.
(e.) Why monocot leaves resist drought better than the dicot leaves?
It is due to the presence of bulliform cells that are used for water storage. During drought,
many grass leaves close as the two sides of the blade fold up to each other. Once adequate
water is available, the leaves are less exposed to sunlight, so they are heated less. This
movement is due to water being absorbed or lost by bulliform cells. There only two sets
of bulliform cells that vary in each species of grass, allowing the leaf blade to curl or roll
up and to merely fold (Mauseth, Plant Anatomy pp. 194-195).
(f.) Are all the veins in corn abutted by sclerenchyma?
Yes. The only difference is in the quantity and size. The bigger veins have more and
larger sized sclerenchyma while the smaller ones have lesser and smaller sized
sclerenchyma cells.
(g.) See figure 5.
References
Differentiation in Plants. Retrieved on March 26, 2015 from
www.biologyreference.com

Leaf Structure. Retrieved on March 26, 2015 from


http://www.shmoop.com/plant-biology/leaf-structure.html

Epidermis. Retrieved on March 26, 2015 from


http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/sci_ed/grade10/plant_tissues/epidermis.htm
Leaf Stomata. Retrieved on March 26, 2015 from
http://www.biologyjunction.com/leaf_stomata_lab.htm
Bulliform cells. Retrieved on March 26, 2015 from www.sbs.utexas.edu
J. Kimball. Leaf Structure. Retrieved on March 26, 2015 from users.rcn.com