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Salvatore Costanzo

EIN 3235 RH1


FEEDS
17 March 2015
ID 2362224

Assignment No.4
3)

A) The 16 outcomes of the sample space are:


S={TTTT,TTTF,TTFT,TFTT,FTTT,FFTT,TFFT,TTFF,FFFT,TFFF,FTFT,TFTF,FTT
F,FFTF,FTFF,FFFF}
B) Assuming the outcomes to be equally likely, the probability that all
the answers are the same reduce to the event {TTTT,FFFF} from the
sample space (S) listed above. This gives the probability of 2 events
occurring out of 16 possibilities.
P(all same answers)=2/16=1/8
C) Assuming the outcomes to be equally likely, the probability that
exactly one of the four answers is True reduce to the event
{FFFT,FFTF,FTFF,TFFF} from the sample space (S) listed above. This
gives the probability of 4 events occurring out of 16 possibilities.
P(only one true)=4/16=1/4

4)

D) Assuming the outcomes to be equally likely, the probability that at


most one of the four answers is true reduce to the event
{FFFT,FFTF,FTFF,TFFF,FFFF} From the sample space (S) listed above.
This event is very similar to the event in part C however, now includes
FFFF to accommodate the at most one true. This gives the
probability of 5 events occurring out of 16 possibilities.
P(at most one true)=5/16
A) The 27 outcomes in the sample space are:
(C=Conforming/D=Downgraded/S=Scrap)
S={CCC,DCC,SCC,CCD,DCD,SCD,CCS,DCS,SCS,CDC,DDC,SDC,CDD,DD
D,SDD,CDS,DDS, SDS,CSC,DSC,SSC,CSD,DSD,SSD,CSS,DSS,SSS}
B) Letting A be the event that all the parts fall into the same category
would then give events such that all parts tested fall into one category
for the time of day. A would then be A={CCC,DDD,SSS}
C) Letting B be the event that there is one part in each category would
then give events that the three parts are all classified as different. B
would then be
B={SCD,DCS,SDC,CDS,DSC,CSD}

D) Letting C be the event that at least two parts are conforming would
then give events that contain 2 or 3 conforming parts. C would then be
C={CDC,CSC,DCC,SCC,CCS,CCD,CCC}
E) Listing the outcomes in A C means the intersection of the two
events A and C such that the set of outcomes belong to both A and C.
The event A occurs when all parts fall into the same category and
event C occurs when at least two parts are conforming. This
immediately tells us that there is only one intersection between the
two events and that can be denoted by:
A C={(CCC)}
F) Listing the outcomes in A B means the union of the two events A
and B such that the set of outcomes belongs to A or B or both. The
event A occurs when all parts fall into the same category and event B
occurs when there is one part in each category. This is simple as
combing the two events and is denoted by:
A B={(CCC),(DDD),(SSS),(SCD),(DCS),(SDC),(CDS),(DSC),
(CSD)}
G) Listing the outcomes in A CC means intersection of the two events
A and C that belong to A but do not in C. The event A occurs when all
parts fall into the same category and event C occurs when at least two
parts are conforming. Comparing the events in A to CC leaves only two
remaining outcomes and can be denoted by:
A CC={(DDD),(SSS)}
H) Listing the outcomes in AC C means the intersection of the two
events A and C that do not belong in A but belong in C. The event A
occurs when all parts fall into the same category and event C occurs
when at least two parts are conforming. Comparing the events in AC to
events in C leaves six remaining outcomes and can be denoted by:
AC C={(SCC),(DCC),(CSC),(CDC),(CCS),(CCD)}
I) Two events are called mutually exclusive events when the events can
never occur together or never have outcomes in common. In this case,
events A and C are not mutually exclusive because that share the
outcome CCC in their respective event.
J) Comparing the events B and C, the outcomes of these events
satisfies the definition of being mutually exclusive events such that
they do not share a common outcome.
8)

A) Identifying the probability of choosing a customer is a good risk is


simple in this case as it is given already.
P(Good Risk)=0.7

B) Designating the event of a customer being a poor rise as A,


P(AC) = 1-P(A)
P(not a poor risk) = 1-P(poor risk)
P(not a poor risk) = 1-(0.1) = 0.9
P(not a poor risk) = 0.9

13)

A) In order to find the probability that a student has taken statistics,


chemistry, or both, we must find the union [P(S C)] between
statistics and chemistry. Following equation 2.5 given as
P(S) = 0.4
P(C) = 0.3
P(S C) =
P(S C) =
P(S C) =
P(S C) =

0.2
P(S) + P(C) - P(S C)
0.4 + 0.3 0.2
0.5

B) In order to find the probability that a student has taken neither


statistics nor chemistry, we must find intersection of each such that
P(SC CC). Part A gives us all cases in which a student has taken at
least statistics or chemistry. The calculation in this case is simple and
contains all events not in P(S C). This is now given by
P(SC CC) = 1 - P(S C)
P(SC CC) = 1 0.5
P(SC CC) = 0.5
C) In order to find the probability that a student has taken statistics but
not chemistry, we must find the intersection of each such that P(S
CC).
P(S) represents the probability of students who have taken a
statistics course
P(S C) represents the probability of students who have taken a
statistics and chemistry course
The value of P(S C) is included in P(S), however we must
subtract P(S C) from P(S) to find the probability of students
who have taken a statistics course but not a chemistry course.
Therefore:
P(S CC) = P(S) - P(S C)
P(S CC) = 0.4 0.2
P(S CC) = 0.2

14)

A) In order to find the probability that the stone is cracked (C),


discolored (D), or both, we must find the union between the two
events such that P(C D). In this case we are given
P(CC DC) = 562 stones
P(C) = 15 stones
P(D) = 27 stones
Following the formula P(A) = k/N in which k=outcomes and N= total
outcomes
P(C D) = 1 [P(CC DC)/N]
P(C D) = 1 (562/600)
P(C D) = 38/600 = 19/300
B) In order to find the probability that the stone is both cracked and
discolored we must find the intersection between the two events such
that P(C D). Following the formula 2.5:
P(C D) = P(C) + P(D) - P(C D)
P(C D) = (15/600) + (27/600) (38/600)
P(C D) = 4/600 = 1/150
C) In order to find the probability that the stone is cracked but not
discolored we must find the intersection between the two events such
that P(C DC).
P(C) represents the probability that a stone is cracked
P(C D) represents the probability that a stone is both cracked
and discolored
The value of P(C D) is included in P(C) and must be subtracted
in order to find P(C DC). Therefore:
P(C DC) = P(C) - P(C D)
P(C DC) = (15/600) (4/600)
P(C DC) = 11/600