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# KINEMATICS IN TWO DIMENSIONS

Chapter 3

KEY CONCEPTS
2D motion
Vector
Position
Displacement
Velocity
Acceleration
Free Fall
Projectile Motion

EQUATIONS
vx v0x axt

1
x v0x t a xt 2 x0
2
sin o / h, cos a / h, tan o / a

GRAPHS
Position (time)
Velocity (time)

slope = velocity
slope = acceleration

Practice
1.

An airplane is traveling at 200 m/s East approaching a county line that runs northsouth. Would a steady crosswind to the north affect the time it takes the plane to reach
the county line?

2.

At what angle would you launch a projectile to achieve the greatest horizontal
displacement?

3.

A projectile is launched at 15 degrees. The landing position is the same as the launch
position. At what other angle can the projectile be launch to achieve the same
horizontal displacement?

4.

A projectile is launched from the ground with a resultant velocity of v at an angle . Its
velocity at maximum height is
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

0
-9.8 m/s
-4.9 m/s
v
vcos
vsin

5.

Pirate monkeys on a boat are positioned at rest 100.0 m from the base of
a 40.0 m high cliff. A cannon sits on the cliff and fires horizontally at the boat.
a.

What must the horizontal velocity of the cannonball be to hit the boat?

b.

What is the velocity of the cannonball at the instant before it hits the boat?

c.

Consider the boat moving with a constant speed of 5.00 m/s toward the cliff.
At what velocity must the cannon be fired to hit the boat? (The cannon is fired
when the boat is at x=100.0 m.

6.

A ball is thrown 20.0 m/s at an angle of 40.0 degrees with the horizontal. Assume the
ball is thrown at ground level.
a.

b.

## At what height does the ball hit the wall?

c.

Calculate the velocity of the ball at this instant before it hits the wall.
Is it moving up or down at this point?

7.

During volcanic eruptions, chunks of solid rock can be blasted out of the volcano;
these projectiles are called volcanic bombs. The initial velocity of a volcanic bomb is
82.0 m/s at 35.0 degrees. Point A is 3300.0 m above point B.

a.

b.

c.

## Calculate the maximum height of the bomb above the ground.

SOLUTIONS
1.

An airplane is traveling at 200 m/s East approaching a county line that runs north-south.
Would a steady crosswind to the north affect the time it takes the plane to reach the county
line?
NO! A northward force would only change the y-component acceleration. If there is no
east-west force, its x-component motion is unaffected, so it should travel steadily
eastward. The plane will obviously be displaced northward due to the wind that is
blowing to the north, and will acquire a northward velocity. The resultant velocity
increases but its eastward velocity remains the same.

2.

At what angle would you launch a projectile to achieve the greatest horizontal displacement?
45 degrees
When the magnitude of the initial velocity components are the same the projectile will
travel the greatest horizontal distance. If the vertical initial velocity is bigger than the
horizontal (>45 degrees) the projectile will go high but not far. If the vertical initial
velocity is smaller than the horizontal (<45 degrees) the projectile will have a low path
and not stay in the air long and therefore will not go as far as the 45 degree launch.
Mathematical Proof

## no horizontal acceleration, v is the initial resultant

x (v cos )t
2
y (v sin )t 4.9t
if y=0 t v sin / 4.9
and x (v cos )(v sin ) / 4.9
This function is maximum when the angle is 45.

3.

A projectile is launched at 15 degrees. The landing position is the same as the launch position.
At what other angle can the projectile be launch to achieve the same horizontal displacement?
Since 45 degrees will achieve maximum horizontal displacement there is one angle less
than 45 and one greater than 45 that will reach the same spot. Their sum is 90!
Complementary angles.

4.

A projectile is launched from the ground with a resultant velocity of v at an angle . Its
velocity at maximum height is
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

0
-9.8 m/s
-4.9 m/s
vcos
vsin

d.

The horizontal velocity at the top is vcos (no horizontal acceleration, the
horizontal speed never changes). The vertical velocity at the top is zero since it is
turning around along the y-axis. The resultant is equal to the horizontal velocity
at the top.

5.

Pirate monkeys on a boat are positioned at rest 100.0 m from the base of 40.0 m high cliff. A
cannon sits on the cliff and fires horizontally at the boat.
a.

What must the horizontal velocity of the cannonball be to hit the ship?

0 0 4.9t 2 40
t 2.86s

vertical motion

horizontal motion

b.

100 vx 2.86s
vx 35.0m / s

What is the velocity of the cannonball at the instant before it hits the ship?

## horizontal speed is constant

35.0m/s
= 0-9.8(2.86)=-28.0 m/s (vertically falls from rest in free fall)

v
c.

## 352 282 44.8m / s

321

Consider the boat moving with a constant speed of 5.00 m/s toward the cliff. At what
velocity must the cannon be fired to hit the boat? (The cannon is fired when the boat is
at x=100.0 m.
The horizontal motion of the boat is xB 100 5t .
From part (a), the cannonball takes 2.86s to reach the ground when fired horizontally.
Therefore the boat will be hit at xB 100 5(2.86) 85.7m .
The cannonball must be fired at vx

85.7m
30.0m / s
2.86s

## *Remember that there is no horizontal acceleration.

6.

A ball is thrown 20.0 m/s at an angle of 40.0 degrees with the horizontal. Assume the
ball is thrown at ground level.

a.

20.0 m/s

12.9 m/s

400

15.3 m/s

x vxt
22.0 15.3t
t 1.44s

horizontal

b.

vertical

d.

## y 12.9(1.44) 4.9(1.44)2 0 8.42m

Calculate the velocity of the ball at this instant before it hits the wall.
Is it moving up or down at this point?

## horizontal velocity is constant 15.3 m/s

vertical at impact vy v y 0 a yt 12.9 9.8(1.44) 1.21m / s
15.3 m/s

1.21 m/s

## moving downward (vertical velocity is negative)

355

7.

During volcanic eruptions, chunks of solid rock can be blasted out of the volcano;
these projectiles are called volcanic bombs. The initial velocity of a volcanic bomb is
82.0 m/s at 35.0 degrees. Point A is 3300.0 m above B.

a.

## What is the horizontal distance traveled by the bomb?

total flight time
0 47.0t 4.9t 2 3300
t 31.2s
x 67.2(31.2) 2100m

b.

## Determine the velocity of the bomb before impact.

vx 67.2m / s
v y 47.0 9.8(31.2) 259m / s
v 268m / s 285

c.

v y v y 0 at
0 47.0 9.8t
t 4.80s

y 3.41x103 m