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QUIZ 2

Question1
Somevolcanicislandsaretriangular.Whatisthoughttobetheexplanationforthesetriangularshapes?
YourAnswer
Score
Explanation
Volcanoesarenormallybuilttriangular.
Thisisduetospecificmaterialcontraction.
Allanswersareright.
Correct

Thisisduetosectorcollapses.
Total

3.00
3.00/3.00

Question2
Whatismagma?Whicharetheessentialcomponentsofmagmas?
YourAnswer
Score
vesiclephase

Correct

1.20

phenocrysts

Correct

1.20

silicatemelt/liquid

Correct

1.20

ash

Correct

1.20

Correct

1.20

inclusions
Total

Explanation

6.00/6.00

Question3
Trytoorderthedifferenteruptionsaftertheircorrespondentmagnitude,fromthelargesttothesmallest
volumeoferuptedmaterial(inordertoanswerthisquestionyoushouldcomplementinformationforthe
correspondentvolumesoferuptedmaterials(asdiscussedduringthelectures)withthatfromasearchinthe
web)1)MountSaintHelens(1980);2)SiberianBasalts(age:250+/1millionsyearsbeforepresent);3)
MountPinatubo(1991);4)Krakatao(1883):5)PhlegreanFields(CampiFlegrei)inNaples,Italy(age:
39,000yearsago);
YourAnswer
Score
Explanation
1);3);2);5);4);
2);5);3);4);1);

Correct

5.00

5);2);1);3);4);
5);4);2);3);1);
Total
QuestionExplanation

5.00/5.00

Inordertoanswerthisquestionyoushouldcomplementinformationforthecorrespondentvolumesof
eruptedmaterials(asdiscussedduringthelectures)withthatfromasearchintheweb.

Question4
Thecrystallinestructureofamineralphaseinthemagmadetermines...
YourAnswer

Score

whichchemicalelementswillbebuiltintothemineralphase.

Correct 0.80

themineralogicalclassificationofvolcanicproducts

Correct 0.80

anychangesinthechemistryofthesilicatemeltorinterstitial
liquid.

Correct 0.80

whichelementswillbeleftinthesilicatemelt/liquidphase.

Correct 0.80

Explanation

Correct 0.80

thatacrystalalwaysrecordsequilibrium.
Total
QuestionExplanation

4.00/4.00

Pleasechecktherightanswers.

Question5
Howcanweclassifyvolcanicproductsaccordingtothefragmentsize?
YourAnswer
Score
tephra,largerthan65mm

Inorrect

0.00

lapilli,from2upto64mm

Correct

2.00

cinder,smallerthan0.2mm

Inorrect

0.00

ash,smallerthan2mm

Correct

2.00

bomb,largerthan64mm
Total

Correct

2.00

Explanation

6.00/6.00

Question6
Rightorwrong?Pleasechecktherightanswers!
YourAnswer

Score Explanation

Tephraisaviscouslava.

Correct 1.25

Pyroclasticflowsconsistofash,gasandrockfragments.

Correct 1.25

Acinderconeisatephradeposit.

Correct 1.25

Avolcanicproductconsistingof10%Quartz,40%Plagioclaseand
40%Alkalifeldsparisatrachyte.

Correct 1.25
5.00/
5.00

Total

Question7
Abasaltcontainsbetweenand.%ofSiO2andlessthen..%oftotalalkali(Na2O+K2O).
YourAnswer
Score
Explanation
65and75%SiO2andbelow11%totalalkali(Na2O+K2O)
40and55%SiO2andbelow2%totalalkali(Na2O+K2O)
45and52%SiO2andbelow5%totalalkali(Na2O+K2O)
Total

Correct 5.00
5.00/5.00

QUIZ 3

Question1
Whichisthemostessencialcomponentofvolcanicsystems?
YourAnswer

Score

Explanation

gascontent
bombsandrockfragments
crystals
liquidphase
Total
QuestionExplanation

Correct

1.00
1.00/1.00

Thephysicochemicalparametersofthiscomponentarethosethatwillcontrolvolcaniceruptions.

Question2
Naturalsilicatemeltsareformedbypartialmeltingofrocks.Whatarethemajoroxidecomponentsof
naturalsilicatemelts?Checktherightanswers.
YourAnswer
Score
Explanation
CaO;MgO;K2O;Na2O;P2O5;FeO

Correct

2.00

SiO2

Correct

2.00

CoO;NiO;FeO;TiO2;Fe2O3;H2O;CO2;

Correct

2.00

FeO;TiO2;Fe2O3;H2O;CO2;

Correct

2.00

Correct

2.00

Al2O3
Total

10.00/10.00

QuestionExplanation
Thesearethecommonestoxidesinthecompositionofnaturalmagmas,includingthecommonestvolatile
phases.

Question3
Whatisthecommonnaturaltemperaturerangeofsilicatemelts?
YourAnswer

Score

Explanation

600to5,000degreesCelsius
Correct

from1,000to2,000degreesCelsius
10,0001,000degreesCelsius
Total
QuestionExplanation

1.00

1.00/1.00

Herewemeanthecommontemperaturerangeforthemostvoluminousmagmas.

Question4
Whichphysicalpropertyisthedrivingforceforvolcaniceruptions?
YourAnswer
Score

Explanation

viscosity
density

Correct

5.00

temperaure
pressure
gravity
Total

5.00/5.00

Question5
Whyistherenormallyalackofphysicochemicalequilibriuminamagma?
YourAnswer
becausechemicalreactionsinsilicatemeltsareslowevenathigh
temperatures.
becausethekineticsofthecrystalsisrelativelyslow.

Score
Correct 1.00
Correct 1.00

becausethephysicochemicalpropertiesoftheliquidsimpedesome Correct 1.00


reactions.
3.00/
Total
3.00

Question6

Explanation

Rightorwrong.Checktherightstatements.
YourAnswer

Score

highviscositymeanstheneedofabigstresstobemoved

Correct 1.20

highviscositymeanstheneedofasmallstresstobemoved

Correct 1.20

viscosity=internalfriction

Correct 1.20

therangeofviscosityinsilicatemeltsrelativelysmall

Correct 1.20

Explanation

Correct 1.20

lowviscosity=lowstresstobemoved
Total

6.00/6.00

Question7
Thebasicbuildingblockofasilicatemeltsisa:
YourAnswer

Score

Explanation

SiO3tetrahedron
SiO2tetrahedron
SiO4tetrahedron
Total

Correct

2.00
2.00/2.00

Question8
Rightorwrong?
YourAnswer

Score Explanation

aQ1speciesisformedofasingleSiO4tetrahedron

Correct 1.00

asilicatemeltmayonlycontainasingleQspecies

Correct 1.00

theratiobetweennonbridgingoxygen(NBO)dividedbythe
tetrahedralcoordinatedoxygen(T)inarhyoliteislessthan0.2
NBO/Tforbasanitesarethehighestfromallnaturalmagmas
Total

Correct 1.00
Correct 1.00
4.00/
4.00

QUIZ 4

Question1
Theamountofenergynecessarytoraisethetemperatureofachemicalcompoundby1degreepermolis:

YourAnswer

Score

alwaysconstantforallcompounds

Correct

1.33

theheatcapacity

Correct

1.33

Correct

1.33

compositiondependent
Total

Explanation

4.00/4.00

Question2
Intheviscousbehavior,thestrainis:
YourAnswer

Score

Explanation

instantaneouselastic
delayedrecoverable
nonrecoverable
Total

Correct

2.00
2.00/2.00

Question3
Whathappenswiththeheatcapacitywhentheglasstransitioniscrossed?
YourAnswer
Score

Explanation

Itremainsconstant.
Itjumpstohighervalues.
Total

Correct

2.00
2.00/2.00

Question4
Whatisthefictivetemperature?
YourAnswer

Score Explanation

Itisgraphicallydefinedastheintersectionbetweentheliquidandthe Correct 0.50


glassycurvesofrefractiveindex;
Itisgraphicallydefinedastheintersectionbetweentheliquidandthe Correct 0.50
glassycurvesofdensity;
1.00/
Total
1.00

Question5
Rightorwrong.Marktherightanswer:

YourAnswer

Score Explanation

Theglasstransitionmaybemeasuredifexperimentalconditionslie
belowtherelaxationtimevs.1/temperaturecurveforthegivensubstance

Correct 1.00

Theglasstransitionmaybemeasuredifexperimentalconditionslieon Correct 1.00


topoftherelaxationtimevs.1/temperaturecurveforthegivensubstance.
2.00/
Total
2.00

Question6
WhatistheviscouscomponentofaMaxwellbody?
AnswerforQuestion6
Youentered:

YourAnswer
glass
Total

Incorrect

Score
0.00
0.00/2.00

Explanation

Question7
Theratiooftheviscosity(eta)totheelasticmodulus(K)isthe:
AnswerforQuestion7
Youentered:

YourAnswer
1:2/3
Total

Score
Incorrect

Explanation

0.00
0.00/2.00

QUIZ 5

Question1
Whenwefocusonrelaxationofsilicatemelts,equivalencemeansthat:
YourAnswer
nomatterwhatpropertiesweuse,weobservethesamekinetics;
thekineticsarestronglypropertydependent;
thereisnocorrelationbetweendifferentexperiments;

Score
Correct 3.00

Explanation

Total
QuestionExplanation

3.00/3.00

Whatmaybeobservedwhendifferentpropertiesarecomparedtoeachother?

Question2
WhatdoesthenotationTg(K,logPas=12.38)mean?
YourAnswer

Score Explanation

aglasstransitionvalue,whichhasbeenmeasuredatashearviscosity
valueof12.38Pas;
aglasstransitionvalue,whichhasbeenmeasuredindegreesCelsiusat
ashearviscosityvalueof10tothe12.38Pas(inlogunits);
aglasstransitionvalue,whichhasbeenmeasuredindegreesKelvinat Correct 1.00
ashearviscosityvalueof10tothe12.38Pas(inlogunits);
3.00/
Total
1.00

Question3
Theequivalenceprincipleisvalidforfollowingrelationships:
YourAnswer

Score

shearvs.structuralrelaxationtime;

Correct

2.00

volumetricvs.shearrelaxationtime;

Correct

2.00

structuralvs.volumetricrelaxationtimes;

Correct

2.00

Correct

2.00

propertyvs.structuralrelaxationtime;
Total

Explanation

8.00/8.00

Question4
Watercontentinsilicatemeltsisoneofthemajorparameterscontrollingvolcaniceruptions.Howcanwe
studythisparameterexperimentally?
YourAnswer
Score
Explanation
throughtheinfluenceofwateronmeltstructure;
throughtheinfluenceofwateronmeltproperties;
Total

Correct

0.50

Correct

0.50

Question5
Inordertoconvertshearviscosityintorelaxationtime,weuse...
AnswerforQuestion5
Youentered:

1.00/1.00


YourAnswer
Incorrect
Total
QuestionExplanation

Score
0.00
0.00/3.00

Explanation

Please,useasingleanswer.Whatistherelationshiporequationtobeuse?

Question6
Throughexperimentaldataobtainedataparticulartemperatureandaparticulartime,andtheMaxwell
relation,wemaycompare:
YourAnswer
Score
Explanation
dynamicandstaticexperiments;

Correct

2.00

heating/coolingratesandrelaxationtimes;

Correct

2.00

Correct

2.00

viscosityandNBO/T;
Total
QuestionExplanation

6.00/6.00

Whichexperimentalresulstcanbecomparedtoeachother?

Question7
Inarelaxationmap,apointofinflectionfromanArrheniantoanonArrhenianbehavior(seeexampleof
Na2O.3SiO2)meansthatthestructureofthiscompoundisrelaxedand,therefore:
YourAnswer
Score
Explanation
crystallizes
melts
Correct

transformscontinuouslyfromaglasstoaliquid
Total

1.00
3.00/1.00

Question8
Thecharacteristichallmarkoftheglasstransitiontemperatureinbinarysystemsis:
YourAnswer
Score
Explanation
nonArrhenian
Arrhenian
Total

Correct

3.00

3.00/3.00