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Chapter 3: JOB ANALYSIS, JOB DESCRIPTION & COMPETENCIES

Personnel Psychology specialty area of I.O psychology that focuses on an organizations


human resources
Human Workers companys most valuable assets
Work - experienced as burden, drudgery, boring, laborious and tedious, alienating
Play - experienced as enjoyment, mastery, challenge, involvement, creating and flow
o The more integrated work is to an individuals life, the lesser the distinction becomes
between work and play (Erikson, 1986).
Meaning of Work, based on OUTCOMES:
1. Intrinsic - for its own sake
- range from feeling good about engaging ones abilities, creating something,
use of ones gifts, sense of self, helping others, service to a bigger cause
2. Extrinsic - as instrumental to the attainment of some other end
- range from the purely tangible (money and things) to the less tangible
(recognition, prestige, status, lifestyle comfort, friendships)
3. Alternative to doing nothing - outcome is to keep busy, or do something to fill time

Aligning Organization and Individual Goals:


ORGANIZATION
Profit
Training
Market leadership
STRATEGIC ALIGNMENT
Benefits
Productive Employees

INDIVIDUALS
Education and
Salary/
Work Life Balance

Job Analysis - the systematic study of the tasks, duties and responsibilities of a job, and the
qualities needed to perform it exactly what the job entails
- Must reflect what is actually performed
- Must be conducted in a periodic basis
- Involves the use of research methods, especially observation techniques
Products of Job Analysis:
Job Description - A detailed accounting of tasks, procedures and responsibilities
required of the worker
- Machines, tools and equipment used to perform the job
- The job output
Job Specification - Provides information about the human characteristics required to
perform a job
- Minimum requirements, vital info used in recruitment
Physical and personal characteristics
Work experience
Education
Job Evaluation an assessment of the relative value of a job to determine appropriate
compensation
o Compensable Factors the job elements that are used to determine appropriate
compensation for a job
o Comparable Worth the notion that jobs that require equivalent KSAOs should be
compensated equally

Exceptioning the practice of ignoring pay discrepancies between particular jobs


possessing equivalent duties and responsibilities
- Ex.: nurses and doctors
o Glass Ceiling limitations placed on women and minorities preventing them from
advancing into top-level positions in organizations
Performance Criteria
Uses of Job Analysis:
Job Design
Personnel Planning
Personnel Recruitment and Selection
Compensation
Employee T&D
Equal Employment Opportunity
Performance Appraisal
Methods:
1. Participation job analyst actually performs the job to get a firsthand understanding of
how it is performed
2. Observation trained job analysts gather information about a job through recording
and taking detailed notes on exact tasks and duties performed
3. Interview
4. Secondary data existing records from previous job analyses
5. Job Diary record of daily activities of workers
6. Survey administration of questionnaires
- Allows for large collection of information simultaneously
- Anonymous less distortion or withholding of information
Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) an individual who has detailed knowledge about a particular
job
Techniques:
1. Job Element Method - analyzing jobs in terms of KSAOs (knowledge, skills, abilities, and
other characteristics
- Largely rely on SMEs and is therefore very limited in its scope
- Person-oriented focuses on the characteristics of the individual who
is performing the job
2. Functional Job Analysis - examines the series of tasks, and the process by which they
are completed
- focus is on employees typical interaction with: (4-6)
o Data information, knowledge, and conceptions
o People amount of contact with others that a job requires
o Things workers interaction with inanimate objects such as
tools, machines, equipment, work products
- has a 9-digit code
o 1-3 - occupational code, job title, type of industry
o 7-9 alphabetical ordering of jobs within a particular group
Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) a reference guide that classifies and describes over
40,000 jobs
O*NET Occupational Information Network
- The U.S. Department of Labors website that provides comprehensive information
about jobs and careers
Hierarchy of Work Functions used in Functional Job Analysis:
o

3. Position Analysis Questionnaire - uses a structured questionnaire to analyze jobs based


on six main categories:
a. Information Input where and how the worker obtains the information needed to
perform the job
b. Mental Processes thinking, reasoning, and decision-making
c. Work Output tasks that the worker must perform and tools/machines needed
d. Relationship with others
e. Job Context physical/social contexts in which the work is performed
f. Others
- Produces a very detailed profile of a particular job that can
be used to compare jobs within a company or similar
positions in different organizations
- Each of these job elements is individually rated using 6
categories
Extent of Use
Importance to Job
Amount of Time
Applicability
Possibility of Occurrence
Special Code for Miscellaneous Job Elements
4. Critical Incidents Technique - identifies and records specific worker behaviors that have
led to particularly successful or unsuccessful job performance
- Particularly suited to analyzing specific and complex jobs
- Discover actual incidents of job behavior that makes a
difference (positive and negative)
- Usually identified by job incumbents then experts decide on
whether good or bad performance
5. Comparing the different Job Analysis Techniques

Chapter 4 & 5: EMPLOYEE RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, PLACEMENT, AND


ASSESSMENT
Human Resource Planning:
One model of human resource planning suggests that companies need to focus on 4
interrelated processes:
o Talent Inventory assessment of the current KSAOs of current employees and
how they are used
o Workforce Forecast plan for future HR requirements
o Action Plans development of a plan to guide the recruitment, selection,
training, and compensation of future hires
o Control and Evaluation having a system of feedback to assess how well the HR
system is working and how well the company met its HR plan
Employee Screening process of reviewing information about job applicants used to select
workers
Employee Recruitment - process of attracting potential employees to apply for jobs in the
organization
- 2-way process
Employees competencies (KSA), job/org fit
Companies - stability, competitiveness, org culture
Walk-ins employee referrals and applicant-initiated contacts
Realistic Job Preview (RJP) an accurate presentation of the prospective job and organization
made to applicants
Expectation Lowering Procedures used to dispel misconceptions about certain jobs
Recruitment Methods:
1. Recruitment Ad - print/online
2. Job Fair - on and off campus
3. Agencies
4. Recruitment Consultants
5. Referrals - includes internal posting
Employment Selection process of choosing applicants for employment
Comprehensive Selection - using all the relevant assessment tools to get as much information
as possible about the person
Deciding Whom to Hire:
Discounting unsuitable candidates
Scoring
Decision- making strategies
Psychological Basis for Selection Practices:
Criterion - measures of job success typically related to PERFORMANCE
Predictors - variables about applicants that are related to or predictive of the criterion/ criteria
Benefits of Proper Selection:
o Hiring people who are both skilled and motivated to perform their duties
o Reduce post-hiring expenses
o Lower turn-over saves time, money and effort
Decision Errors in Employee Selection:
1. False-Positive Errors erroneously accepting applicants who would have been
unsuccessful
2. False-Negative Errors erroneously rejecting applicants who would have been
successful
Models in Employee Selection:

1. Clinical Approach a decision-maker simply combines the sources of information in


whatever fashion seems appropriate to obtain some general impression about
applicants
2. Statistical Decision-making Model combines information for the selection of applicants
in an objective, predetermined fashion
3. Multiple Regression Model combines separate predictors of job success in a statistical
procedure
- Compensatory model high scores on one predictor can
compensate for low scores on another
- Correlation Coefficient examines the strength of a relationship
between a single predictor
4. Multiple Cutoff Model uses a minimum cutoff score on each of the predictors of job
performance
- Applicant must obtain a score above the cutoff on each of the
predictors to be hired
5. Multiple Hurdle Model requires that an acceptance or rejection decision be made at
each of several stages in a screening process
- Uses an ordered sequence of screening devices
- An applicant who does not pass the exam is no longer considered
for the job
Selection Process:
1. Job Analysis
2. Determine the Required Competencies
3. Determine the Methods to Assess Competencies common assessment methods:
a. Application Forms - education, work history, skills, health, as well as references
- Information is objective and verifiable
- Different from resumes
b. Tests - use of an OBJECTIVE and STANDARDIZED measure of a sample behavior
i. Objective - validity, accuracy, reliability, consistency and stability
ii. Standardized - same structured tests and scoring procedures for all
iii. Reliability - stability or consistency of the test over a period of time
1. Test-Retest Reliability - administering the same test on an individual
at two different times, in a gap of 1 to 2 weeks
2. Parallel Forms Method - administering 2 equivalent tests, checking
the same objective but using different set of questions
3. Internal Consistency - examining if the different items of the
instrument inter co-relate
o The higher the co-relation between scores, the better is the
reliability.
iv. Validity - accuracy of inferences we draw from measurements
1. Content Validity - the ability of the items in an instrument to
measure well, different characteristics needed to accomplish the
task
2. Construct Validity - the ability of the instrument to measure what it
is supposed to measure
3. Criterion-Related Validity - how accurate is an instrument in
determining the relationship between score and criteria of job
success
v. Test Formats how tests are administered
1. Individual Vs. Group tests
2. Speed Vs. Power tests
3. Paperpencil Vs. Performance tests
vi. Types of Tests:
1. Cognitive Ability tests - Designed to measure the ability to learn
jobs, follow instructions and solve work related problems
- Ex.: Otis Self Administering Test (Mental Ability),
Wonderlic Personnel Test
2. Mechanical Ability tests - standardized tests to check the abilities in
identifying, recognizing and applying mechanical techniques

Largely used for technical jobs related to


machinery & equipment
- Ex.: Bennett Mechanical Comprehension Test
(BMCT)
3. Motor & Sensory Ability tests - tests to measure the fine motor
dexterity in hands & fingers required in jobs specially in assembling
parts or dealing with electronic components
- Ex.: Crawford Small Parts Dexterity test,
Purdue Pegboard
4. Job skills & Knowledge tests - standardized test used to assess the
specific job skills & job knowledge
o Work Sample Test measure applicants abilities to perform
brief examples of important job tasks
o Job Knowledge Tests assess specific types of knowledge
required to perform certain jobs
- Ex.: typing test, computer knowledge,
medical processes, financial knowledge,
knowledge of profit & loss accounts etc.
5. Personality tests - battery of tests to measure the psychological
characteristics or personality traits and thereby matching them with
the requirements of the job
- Ex.: MBTI, 16PF, Belbins Inventory, FIRO B,
Emotional Intelligence tests
6. Honesty & Integrity tests - Polygraphs & Lie detectors were initially
used, followed by Integrity tests to measure the honest & dishonest
attributes of behaviors
o Goldbricking ignoring or passing off assigned work tasks
- Led to False Positives and lots of innocent
people were scoring low, thereby leading to
discontinuity in usage
Graphology makes judgments about an applicants job potential by examining the
personality characteristics that are supposedly revealed in shape, size, and slant of letters in
a sample of handwriting
General Intelligence most consistent predictor of performance, across all types and
categories of jobs
Emotional Intelligence ability to understand, regulate, and communicate emotions and to
use them to inform thinking
vii. Effectiveness of Employee Screening Tests:
1. Test Battery a combination of employment tests used to increase
ability to predict future job performance
2. Validity Generalization predict performance in a job or setting
different from the one in which the test was validated
3. Test Utility value of a screening test in helping to affect important
organizational outcomes success of a test in terms of dollars
gained through improved performance
4. Faking purposely distorting ones responses to a test to try to beat
a test
5. Assessment Center detailed, structured evaluation of job
applicants using a variety of instruments and techniques
6. Situational Exercises require the performance of tasks that
approximate actual work tasks
a. In-Basket Test requires the applicant to deal with a stack of
memos, letters, and other materials that have supposedly
collected in the in-basket of a manager
b. Leaderless Group Discussion applicants are put together in
a small group to discuss some work-related topic to see how
each applicant handles the situation and who emerges as the
discussion leader

c. Interviews - formal in-depth conversation conducted to evaluate candidates


ability to do well in key areas critical to successful job performance
- Based on identified competencies
- Has two objectives:
a. To establish whether a candidate is suitable for the job
b. To ensure that candidate has clear understanding of the job
- Types of Assessment Questions:
a. Criterion-based explores knowledge, skills or abilities
- Ex. Tell me how you would handle a customer
complaint?
a. Situational cite critical incidents
- Ex. Your husband and kids are sick in bed with
colds. There are no relatives or friends available to
look in on them. Your shift starts in 3 hours. What
would you do?
a. Behavior Description elicit past behaviors (STAR)
- Ex. Describe a situation when you felt
extremely stressed? What did you do?

Interviewing Errors:
a. Stereotyping
b. Contract Effect all subsequent applicants may then be
evaluated either negatively or positively in comparison to the
one before them
c. Similar to Me
d. First Impression - whats good is looking good
e. Snap Judgment arriving at a premature, early overall
evaluation of an applicant in a hiring interview
f. Talking too much
g. Telegraphing desired responses
h. Asking inconsistent questions among various applicants
i. Being unable to put interviewee at ease
j. Interruptions
k. Allowing personal bias
Interview Kit:
a. Cover page (name and position of interviewer, target Position
of interviewees, list of content)
b. Interview schedule

c. Job Description
d. Resume of Candidates
e. Interview Guide Questions
f. Interview rating forms/candidate
d. Reference Check - involves collecting information from applicants previous
employers/ associates
- Can be done thru phone, letters, or face-to-face interviews
- Things that you ask:
a. Job title
b. Performance evaluations
c. Discipline problems
d. Strengths and weaknesses
e. Over-all opinion on candidates
f. Persons reason for leaving
g. Willingness to rehire that person
4. Resume Screening by HR Dept
5. Tests/HR Interview
6. Supervisory or Panel Interview
7. Background Investigation
8. Job Offer
9. Medical Tests
10. Hiring Decision
Employee Placement assigning workers to appropriate jobs
- Worker has already been hired so personnel specialists job is to find the
best possible fit between the workers KSAOs and the requirements of the
job openings
Equal Employment Opportunities:
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) federal agency created to protect
against discrimination in employment
Protected Groups groups including women and certain ethnic and racial minorities that have
been identified as previous targets of employment discrimination
Adverse Impact when members of a protected group are treated unfairly by an employers
personnel action
Affirmative Action voluntary development of organizational policies that attempt to ensure
that jobs are made available to qualified persons regardless of sex, age, or ethnic background
Bona Fide Occupational Qualifications (BFOQs) real and valid occupational needs required
for a particular job

Chapter 6 &7: PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT/ TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT


Performance Management:
Performance Assessment - a system whereby an organization assigns some score to
indicate the level of performance of a target person or group
- Primary use is to provide feedback on behavior
- Determination of the employees strengths and areas for improvement
Performance Management - Process or a set of processes for establishing shared
understanding about what is to be achieved (and how it is to be achieved), and of managing
people in a way that increases the probability that it will be achieved
Benefits of Performance Management:
Ensures each individual is working toward clearly stated goals
Helps improve overall performance by tapping into the employees motivation to
achieve the set goals
Provides a foundation for coaching
Encourages open communication concerning expected results and performance
progress

Performance Management Cycle:


I.
Planning performance goals, objectives, development plan, agreement
Goals - written statements of purpose and direction that form a contract between the
employee and the organization with the employee being held accountable for specific results
Importance of Goals:
They specify intentions as to what is desired to be done
They provide purpose and direction
They establish standards against which performance may be gauged.
Writing SMART Objectives:
1. Specific - states expected results and end results in work actions or behaviors
2. Measurable - how performance will be measured and behavior used in achieving goals
3. Attainable - reasonable chance that goal can be achieved goal is challenging but
actionable
4. Relevant - goal is aligned with Business/Functional Goals
5. Time bound - deadline in provided
Effective Feedback Formula:
Situation + Specific behavior + Effect on me and task/relationship
Effective feedback - giving perceptions non-threateningly so that they will be received nondefensively
II.
Reviewing development plans, progress of goals
Appraise evaluate
Praise acknowledge/ recognize
Raise - areas for improvement (raise the competence)
Rise individual career growth and organization objective achievement
Performance Appraisal formalized means of assessing worker performance in comparison to
certain established organizational standards
- Has many functions, for both individual and organization
o Foundation for pay increases and promotions
o Provide feedback to help improve performance and recognize
weaknesses
o Offer information about the attainment of work goals
1. Performance Assessment means of measuring a workers performance to make
personnel decisions
2. Performance Feedback giving information to a worker about performance level with
suggestions for future improvement
Performance Criteria means of determining successful or unsuccessful performance
1. Objective Performance Criteria measures of job performance that are easily quantified

Less prone to bias and distortion and more directly tied to


bottom-line assessments of an organizations success, but
may focus too much on specific, quantifiable outcomes
- Ex.: number of units produced, dollar amount of sales, time
needed to process information
2. Subjective Performance Criteria measures of job performance that typically consist of
ratings or judgments of performance (trait-based)
- Often used when objective criteria are unavailable, difficult
to assess, or inappropriate
Criterion Relevance the extent to which the means of appraising performance is pertinent to
job success
Criterion Contamination extent to which performance appraisals contain elements that
detract from accurate assessment of job effectiveness
Criterion Deficiency degree to which a criterion falls short of measuring job performance
Criterion Usefulness extent to which a performance criterion is usable in appraising a
particular job
Sources of Performance Ratings:
1. Supervisor Appraisals have higher reliability (higher position)
2. Self-Appraisals - more lenient, focused more on effort exerted
a. Modesty Bias giving ones self lower ratings of jobs performance than
supervisors
3. Peer Appraisals have opportunity to observe directly workers on the job, like
supervisors
4. Subordinate Appraisals most commonly used to assess the effectiveness of persons in
supervisory or leadership positions
5. Customer Appraisals offer an interesting perspective on whether certain types of
workers are doing a good job
360-Degree Feedback gathers ratings from all levels (multi-rater feedback)
Methods of Assessment:
1. Trait-Focused - measure the extent to which an employee possesses certain
characteristics
2. Individual Methods evaluate an employee by himself without explicit reference to
other workers
- Behavior-Focused Methods
a. Graphic Rating Scale - a predetermined scale to rate the worker on important job
dimensions
b. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) - use critical incidents (samples of
behavior) to provide meaning to the numbers on a rating scale
- Uses rating scales with labels reflecting
examples of poor, average, good behavioral
incidents
- creates a scale based on job analysis
- Supervisors job:
Records incidents of employee behavior
Compare incidents to the ones written on
the scale
Record the value/summed up
Average incident value is the employee
rating
c. Behavior Observation Scale (BOS) - similar to BARs but measures the frequency
of observed behavior using memory/ recollection or a recording of critical
incidents (STARs)
3. Comparative Methods - compare the performance of an employee with his peers or coemployees
a. Rank-order - rank employees (best to worst) on a given performance
dimension/competency
b. Paired Comparison - each employee is compared with every other employee in
the group being evaluated

c. Forced Distribution Method - each employee is assigned to established


categories of poor to good performance with fixed limitations on how many
employees can be assigned to each category
4. Results Methods evaluates employee accomplishments based on agreed standards
- More objective evaluation of employee accomplishments
- Ex.: quantity/quality of output
- Follows the assumptions of MBO (Management by Objectives)
5. Checklist uses a scale of statements derived from a job analysis about job
performance
a. Forced Choice Scale rater is unaware of how positive an appraisal is being
made
6. Narratives open-ended written accounts of a workers performance used in
performance appraisals
7. Mixed Model Performance Assessment - ensures a balance between WHAT are
achieved, and HOW these are achieved
Performance Factors:
1. Contributions - what is achieved?
- actual Results or Outputs in the form of KRAs, Objectives
Programs
Systems
Revenues
Target numbers
Improvements in Turn-around time
2. Competencies - how is it achieved?
- demonstrated knowledge, abilities, attitudes
Core - all employees
Job/Role/Functional - front-line, support
Performance Review Errors:
1. Halo Effect overall positive evaluation of a worker based on one known positive
characteristic/action
2. Horn Effect overall negative evaluation of a worker based on one instance of failure or
negative characteristic
3. Central Tendency give all workers the midpoint rating in performance appraisals (no
differentiation)
4. Leniency give all workers very positive performance appraisals
5. Severity give all workers very negative performance appraisals
6. Recency weightage on recent behavior
7. Contrast not like me / boss
8. Similar To Me just like me / boss
9. Causal Attribution people assign cause to events/behaviors
10.Actor-Observer Bias observers attribute cause to characteristics of worker while
worker attribute cause to situational characteristics
Conducting the Performance Conversation:
Ask for Self-assessment
Invite Participation
Express Appreciation
Minimize Criticism
Change the Behavior, not the Person
Focus on Solving Problems
Be Supportive
Establish Goals
Follow Up Day to Day
Factors that Influence Performance:
Performance = f(A,M,E)
1. Motivation
a. Career Ambition
b. Employee Conflict
c. Frustration

d. Fairness/satisfaction
e. Goals/expectations
2. Environment
a. Equipment/materials
b. Job design
c. Economic conditions
d. Unions
e. Rules and policies
f. Management support
g. Laws and regulations
3. Ability
a. Technical Skills
b. Interpersonal skills
c. Problem-solving skills
d. Analytical skills
e. Communication skills
f. Physical limitation
Employee Training and Development:
Employee Training - a planned & organized effort by the employer to help the employees
LEARN, RETAIN, and TRANSFER job knowledge, skills, and other characteristics
Areas of Training:
Orientation, Induction
Retraining, Refresher
Career Development
Retirement Planning
International Assignments
Diversity issues, harassment, ethics
Soft skills training (team dynamics)
New Employee Orientation & Induction Training:
Organization & its history
Vision, Mission & Goals
Policies, procedures
Organization structure
Departments & Division
Compensation & Benefits
Job Functions & Interaction with related departments
Career Planning
Retraining & Continuous Education:
Refresher training to hone the skills
Keeping up with technological & functional updates
Providing information about new systems
Requirement for re-licensing
And finally to boost confidence
Career Development - provides a variety of programs to employees helping them to grow in
their chosen area / function
o Career Counseling Programs help individuals set career goals and develop a plan for
getting the type of training and education necessary to meet these goals
o Courses in Career Planning
o Tools & techniques in Career Management
Retirement Planning - offering seminars & counseling to prepare employees for retirement:
o Retirement decision
o Retirement planning vs. options
o Money management (investments)
o Services & offers for retirees & seniors
o Adjustment to non-working lifestyle
International Assignment - Preparing the employees to be more global

- Cross cultural training


- Work in international settings
- Foreign language skills
- Law & order of the respective country
- Having courtesy, respect & patience for other nationalities
Cultural Intelligence can easily adjust to different international assignments
Diversity Issues, Harassment & Ethics:
Handling diversity (male female, old young, cultural & racial diversity)
Prevent harassment
Fighting against discrimination
Building a culture of respect & trust
Knowledge of your rights within the set up ex.: whom to approach & stand up for
your rights
Soft Skills/ Team Dynamics:
Organizations help the employees to become better in terms of:
o Team working
o Communication
o Leadership
o Motivation
o Time management
o Decision making & Problem solving
o Personality development
Theories of Learning:
A relatively permanent change in behavior, potentials or cognitive structures that
occur, are a result of experience
1. Social Learning - learning by observation
- Ex.: mentoring, coaching
a. Modeling - learning that occurs through the observation and imitation of the
behavior of others
2. Cognitive Processes humans as information processors
a. Information Processing - individuals store and retrieve information, or come up
with novel or creative ideas to solve problems or make decisions
3. Adult Learning
a. Deductive Method - adult learners are motivated by a need to address specific
learning issues that are relevant to them particularly if they can be immediately
applied
Key Issues in Learning:
Transfer of Learning whether training is actually applied in the work setting
- occurs when:
o Training tasks are similar to actual tasks
o The work environment supports applying newly learned
behavior
o Training goals are set
o Feedback and reinforcement are given
Trainee Readiness individuals potential for successful training
- When the participants exhibit the following, training effectiveness is
higher:
o Positive Attitude
o Self-efficacy
o Ability
o Motivation
Program Structure
o Frequency of the training program
Massed Practice continuous practice
Spaced over time
o Segmentation of Material
Part Learning

Whole Learning
o Duration of a program
o How many people in a program
o Methodology of the program
o Post training feedback to participants
Cycle of Training:
1. Needs Analysis - organizational, task, person, demographic
2. Setting of Objectives
3. Designing
4. Delivering
5. Evaluating
Is it really a Training Need?
Performance = f (A, M, E)
A - Employee Ability (Can she do it?)
M - Employee Motivation (Does she want to do it?)
E - Work Environment (Is the organization supportive)

Model for Successful Training Programs:


1. Assessing Training Needs an idea of what workers need to know to perform their jobs
a. Organizational needs and goals of organization
b. Task requirements for performing the task
c. Person skills and knowledge required to do the job
d. Demographic determining training needs for specific demographic groups
2. Establishing Training Objectives specific and measurable goals for what the training is
supposed to accomplish
3. Development and Testing of Training Materials
a. On-Site Methods conducted on the job site
i. On the Job Training - putting an inexperienced worker in the workplace and
assigning an experienced worker to teach him firsthand information about
the job
ii. Apprenticeship training technique that usually lasts several years and
combines on-the-job experience with classroom instruction
iii. Vestibule Training - simulates the actual work setting in a place adjacent to
the work area, training is given by trainers
iv. Job Rotation - workers are rotated among a variety of jobs to gain
understanding of the different roles and organizational processes cross
training of workers
b. Off-Site Methods conducted away from the actual workplace
i. Seminars - an expert provides job-related information in a classroom setting
ii. Audiovisual Instruction use of films, videos, and other electronic media to
convey training material

iii. Behavior Modeling Training - trainees are exposed to videotaped or live role
models displaying both effective and ineffective work behaviors and their
outcomes
1. Experiential Learning learning by doing
iv. Simulation - replicates job conditions without placing the trainee in the actual
work setting
v. Web-based Training webinars (live or recorded)
1. Programmed Instruction self-paced individualized training in which
trainees are provided with training materials and can test how much
they have learned
2. Computer Assisted Instruction programmed instruction delivered by
computer that adapts to the trainees learning rate
vi. Management/Leadership Training Methods
1. Problem-Solving Case Study presents trainees with a written
description of a real or hypothetical organizational problem
2. Role Playing trainees act out problem situations that often occur at
work
3. Management Games scaled-down enactments of the management of
organizations
4. Conference unstructured management training technique in which
participants share ideas, information, and problems group discussion
5. Action Learning teams assembled to work on a company-related
problem or issue to learn by doing
6. Mentoring an inexperienced worker develops a relationship with an
experienced worker who serves as an advisor
7. Coaching one-on-one relationship where a consultant helps an
executive improve performance
4. Implementation of Training Program
5. Evaluation of Training Program detailed analysis of whether training objectives were
met
a. Kirkpatricks Levels of Evaluation:
i. Reaction assess trainees opinions about the training and their learning
ii. Learning
iii. Behavior measures of the amount of newly-learned skills displayed once
the trainee has returned to the job
iv. Results measure outcomes that are important to the organization
b. Four Methods of Evaluation:
i. Posttest-Only Design measures training success criterion following
completion of training program
ii. Pretest-Posttest Design makes comparisons of criterion measures collected
before and after the introduction of the program
iii. Pre and Posttest with Control Group
iv. Solomon Four-Group using 2 treatment groups and 2 control groups
1. Pre and Post - with Trained and Control Group
2. Post - for second Trained and Control Group
v. Nonequivalent Control Group Design used when it is impossible to assign
trainees randomly to experimental and control groups
1. Nonequivalent Control Group consists of similar employees form
another company location that is not undergoing the new training
program