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4G Macro-Cellular Networks

Pedro Vieira , Paula Queluz and Antonio Rodrigues

DEETC,

de Telecomunicaco es / IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal

email: pvieira@deetc.isel.ipl.pt, paula.queluz@lx.it.pt, antonio.rodrigues@lx.it.pt

Instituto

Output (MIMO) capacity enhancement considering the Universal

Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) Long Term Evolution (LTE) technology, in the downlink, including the effects of

system bandwidth and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) efficiency.

Firstly, the system bandwidth efficiency is calculated for LTE

framework. It becomes 63% for Single Input Single Output

(SISO) and around 58% for multi-antenna MIMO configurations,

which underlines the importance of considering system bandwidth efficiency when using Shannon spectral efficiency to estimate the system performance of LTE. Then, the SNR efficiency

using Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) is approximated

using curve fitting. The used fitting function is an attenuated and

truncated form of the Shannon bound in order to approximate

the LTE composite spectral efficiency for the Modulation and

Coding Set (MCS). Finally, the total capacity expected results are

calculated for different multi-antenna configurations, revealing

large capacity gains when compared with SISO.

Index TermsWireless Communications, MIMO, LTE, Spectral Efficiency.

I. I NTRODUCTION

Recently, UMTS networks worldwide were upgraded to

High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) in order to

increase data rate and capacity for downlink packet data. In

the next step, High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) has

boosted uplink performance in UMTS networks. While HSDPA was introduced as a 3rd Generation Partnership Project

(3GPP) release 5 feature, HSUPA is an important feature of

3GPP release 6. The combination of HSDPA and HSUPA is

often referred to as High Speed Packet Access (HSPA).

However, even with the introduction of HSPA, evolution of

UMTS has not reached its end. HSPA+ will bring significant

enhancements in 3GPP release 7. The objective is to enhance

performance of HSPA based radio networks in terms of

spectrum efficiency, peak data rate and latency, and exploit

the full potential of WideBand Code Division Multiple Access

(WCDMA) based 5 MHz operation. Important features of

HSPA+ are downlink MIMO, higher order modulation for

uplink and downlink, improvements of layer 2 protocols, and

continuous packet connectivity.

In order to ensure the competitiveness of UMTS for the

next 10 years and beyond, concepts for UMTS LTE have been

investigated. The objective is a high-data-rate, low-latency and

packet optimized radio access technology. Therefore, a study

item was launched in 3GPP release 7 on Evolved UMTS

of 3GPP release 8 core specifications [1].

One of the most important features of LTE is MIMO. The

MIMO technology, exploiting the spatial multiplexing concept,

is considered the enabling technology for LTE high data rates,

along with the AMC. Hence, its study is of great interest and

constitutes a serious research target.

In the following, this paper studies the MIMO capacity

enhancement considering the UMTS LTE technology, in the

downlink. The spatial multiplexing concept will be developed

and the associated LTE downlink capacity will be calculated

including the effects of system bandwidth and SNR efficiency.

The paper is organized as follows. Section II introduces a

new approach for LTE realistic capacity calculation, using the

spatial multiplexing MIMO setup, AMC and power allocation

technique. Next, the capacity expected values are calculated in

section III for different MIMO setups using an outdoor macrocell environment. Finally, in section IV, conclusions are drawn.

II. LTE D OWNLINK C APACITY E STIMATION

Consider the LTE system, in the downlink [1]. The channel

bandwidth is split into Q flat-fading sub-channels H (fq ), with

a 180 kHz resource block frequency separation. Considering

the channel eigen-analysis [2], the channel matrix H (fq ) may

offer Kq parallel sub-channels with different power gains

(eigenvalues), k,q , where,

Kq = Rank(R (fq )) M in(U, V )

(1)

matrix and the minimum value of the arguments, respectively;

U and V are the number of Base Station (BS) and Mobile

Station (MS) antennas. This corresponds to the spatial multiplexing concept.

In the situation where the channel is known at both Transmitter (TX) and Receiver (RX) and is used to compute the

antennas optimum weight, the power gain in the (k, q)th

eigenmode channel is given by the k,q eigenvalue, i.e., the

SNR for the (k, q)th sub-channel, k,q , is equal to,

k,q = k,q k,q

S

N

(2)

sub-channel, and S/N is the radio link SNR. The k,q values

depend on the sub-channel power allocation scheme; if spatial

water-filling is used, the k,q values are calculated as a function of the eigenvalues, k,q . On the contrary, if uniform power

allocation is considered, the k,q are constant, corresponding

to the uniform power distribution between all the sub-channels

[2].

In order to evaluate the performance bound of different

power allocation methods and MIMO configurations, the normalized Shannon channel capacity is usually used (in bit/s/Hz).

The Shannon Capacity bound can not be reached in practice

due to several implementation issues. To represent these losses

mechanism, a modified Shannon capacity expression for the

k th spatial sub-channel and also for the total capacity will be

used as,

Q

BW X

S

Ck =

(3)

log2 1 + k,q k,q SN R

Q q=1

N

Kq Q

BW X X

S

C=

log2 1 + k,q k,q SN R

Q

N

q=1

(4)

k=1

implementation efficiency of LTE, respectively.

Most of the spectral efficiency and digital modulation performance calculations are based on symbol error probability,

P (e). To allow comparisons between modulation schemes

with different values of M and hence, whose signals carry

different numbers of bits, a better performance measure is the

bit error probability Pb (e), often also referred to as Bit Error

Rate (BER). This is the probability that a bit emitted by the

source will be received erroneously by the user.

In summary, the evaluation of a modulation scheme may

be based on the following three parameters: the bit error

probability, Pb (e), the b /N0 necessary to achieve Pb (e),

and the bandwidth efficiency Rb /Bw . The first tells us about

the reliability of the transmission, the second measures the

efficiency in power expenditure, and the third measures how

efficiently the modulation scheme makes use of the bandwidth.

LTE uses link adaptation considering several MCSs. The

implemented modulations are Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying

(QPSK) and M -Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM),

with M = 16, 64. Hence, the two modulation types will be

approached.

The error probability of QPSK can be determined explicitly.

From [3],

Transmission over the Additive White Gaussian Noise

(AWGN) channel with a two-sided noise power spectral density N0 /2 with perfect Channel State Information (CSI) is

assumed, when modeling the LTE channel.

The bit rate of the source, Rb , is related to the number of

waveforms used by the modulator, M , and to the duration of

these waveforms, T , by the equality,

log2 M

.

(5)

Rb =

T

This is the rate in bit/s that can be accepted by the modulator.

The average power expended by the modulator, S, is

S=

(6)

T

where is the average energy of the modulator signals. Each

signal carries log2 M bits. Thus, defining b as the average

energy expended by the modulator to transmit one bit, so that

= b log2 M , we have

S = b

log2 M

= b R b .

T

(7)

The SNR (symbolically S/N ), is defined as the ratio between the average signal power and the average noise power.

The last equals N0 Bw , where Bw is the equivalent noise

bandwidth of the receiving filter. Hence, we have

S

S

b R b

=

=

.

N

N0 Bw

N0 Bw

(8)

quantities, b /N0 , the energy per bit divided by twice the

power spectral density, and Rb /Bw , the spectral efficiency of

a modulation scheme.

P (e) = erf c

r

b

N0

r 2

1

b

erf c

4

N0

(9)

approach for general M -ary Phase-Shift Keying (PSK) is to

use the upper bound to P (e) [3],

P (e) erf c

r

b

log2 M sin

N0

M

(10)

source symbols determine the amplitude as well the phase of

a carrier signal. Contrary to PSK, the signal envelope is not

constant. Several QAM families are available. We will focus

the two considered LTE square constellations with M = 16

and M = 64. A simple bound to P (e), which is only an

approximation useful for large M , will be used for the two

modulations [3],

s

!

3 log2 M b

P (e) 2erf c

(11)

2 (M 1) N0

Considering a certain maximum BER target, Pb,target with

Gray Mapping and expressions (8), (10) and (11), the spectral

efficiency, Rb /B, is calculated in function of the SNR as,

S

log2 M

2

f orM P SK

2 sin

1

M

N

(erfc (Pb,t arg et ))

Rb

=

3 log2 M

S

2 N

f orM QAM

1

2(M 1) erfc

(12)

where B is the transmission bandwidth and it was considered

equal to the equivalent noise bandwidth, Bw .

TABLE I

LTE SYSTEM BANDWIDTH EFFICIENCY.

The LTE bandwidth efficiency, BW , is decreased by several

issues that will be described below. Due to the constraints

of Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio (ACLR), the bandwidth

occupancy is reduced. The ACLR is a measure of TX performance for wideband networks, and it is defined as the

ratio and the transmitted power to the power measured after a

RX filter in the adjacent radio-frequency channel. Considering

the parameters for LTE downlink transmission scheme, the

bandwidth efficiency due to ACLR, ACLR is calculated as,

DL

Nsc

1 f

ACLR =

= 0.9

(13)

B

DL

where Nsc

is the number of downlink data subcarriers, f

is the subcarrier bandwidth and B is, again, the transmission

bandwidth.

Furthermore, the bandwidth efficiency due to the Cyclic Prefix (CP) overhead, CP , will be considered. CP is calculated

as,

DL

DL

Tslot Nsymb

Tu

Nsymb

Tu

CP = 1

=

.

(14)

Tslot

Tslot

Tslot is the LTE 0.5 ms time-slot and a subcarrier spacing f = 15 kHz corresponds to a useful symbol time

Tu = 1/f 66.7s. The overall Orthogonal Frequency

Division Multiplexing (OFDM) symbol time is then the sum

of the useful symbol time and the cyclic-prefix length TCP .

LTE defines two CP lengths, the normal CP and an extended

DL

CP, corresponding to Nsymb

equal to seven and six OFDM

symbols per slot, respectively. Furthermore,

Normal cyclic prefix: CP = 0.93, for TCP 5.2s

(OFDM symbol #0) , TCP = 4.7s (OFDM symbol #1

to #6);

Extended cyclic prefix: CP e = 0.80, for TCP e

16.7s (OFDM symbol #0 to OFDM symbol #5).

The obtained channel parameters in [4] point to delay

spreads from 0.5 s up to 0.7 s. Hence, the normal CP will

be considered, since it represents a 10 times value greater than

the delay spread.

To carry out downlink coherent demodulation, the MS needs

estimates of the downlink channel. A straightforward way

to enable channel estimation in case of OFDM transmission

is to insert known reference symbols into the OFDM timefrequency grid. The reference symbol density depends on the

number of TX antennas used in the multi-antenna configuration. In the sequence, the bandwidth efficiency caused by

reference symbols insertion using r TX antennas , RS,r is,

(

r = 1, 2

1 N RB4r

DL

sc Nsymb

(15)

RS,r =

2r+4

1 N RB N DL

r = 3, 4

sc

RB

Nsc

DL

Nsymb

symb

and

are 12 subcarriers per resource block

where

and 7 OFDM symbols per subcarrier, respectively.

At the system level, additional overhead related to common control channels is added such as the Synchronization

Channel (SCH) and Broadcast Channel (BCH). Besides other

Bandwidth Efficiency

ACLR efficiency (ACLR )

CP efficiency (CP )

Reference signal efficiency (RS,r )

L1/L2 efficiency(L1/L2 )

Total link-level efficiency (BW,r )

Total system-level efficiency

Nr. of TX antennas

1

2

3

0.90

0.93

0.95 0.90 0.89

0.78

0.80 0.76 0.75

0.63 0.60 0.59

(r)

4

0.86

0.72

0.57

feature.

Furthermore, the more essential control signaling overhead

in LTE is related with the transmission of downlink transport

channels, more specifically the Downlink Shared Channel

(DL-SCH) transmission. This control signaling is normally

referred to as the Layer 1 (L1)/Layer 2 (L2) control signaling.

The L1/L2 control channels are mapped to the first (up

to three) OFDM symbols within each 1 ms sub-frame. The

overhead depends on the number of MSs to be scheduled,

the MIMO/beamforming schemes selected and the resource

assignment. The resource assignment indicates which resource

units (and layers, in case of multi-layer transmission) the MSs

should demodulate. Additionally, it also depends on the used

modulation scheme, payload size and the Hybrid Automatic

Repeat-reQuest (H-ARQ) process the current transmission is

addressing [5].

Hence, the maximum overhead scenario will be considered,

3 OFDM symbols within each 1 ms Transmission Time

Interval (TTI) will be occupied with L1/L2 control signaling,

leading to a bandwidth efficiency, L1/L2 , equal to

L1/L2 = 1

3

DL

2Nsymb

= 0.7857.

(16)

in [6] using system simulators, for a simultaneously scheduling

in the order of 10 MSs using a 10 MHz bandwidth.

The total results for the LTE link-level bandwidth efficiency

are given by,

BW,r = ACLR CP RS,r

(17)

reached by multiplying BW,r by the L1/L2 control signaling

parameter, L1/L2 .

Including the additional system overhead, the LTE bandwidth efficiency becomes 63% for SISO and around 58% for

multi-antenna MIMO configurations. Additionally, the L1/L2

control signaling overhead was considered constant and independent from r, the number of TX antennas, for simplistic

reasons. Since the worst-case scenario was set, the bandwidth

efficiency value for a lower number of TX antennas will be

slightly pessimistic.

C. LTE SNR Efficiency

The previous section presented the LTE bandwidth efficiency calculation. It is a straightforward process, since most

TABLE II

LTE DOWNLINK PHYSICAL LAYER PARAMETRIZATION .

Parameter

Carrier Frequency [MHz]

OFDM Parameters

Channel Model

MCS

Channel Estimation

Mobility

Value

2000

short CP, 7 data symbol per 0.5 ms

sub-frame, 1 ms TTI

Extended COST 273 DCM [8]

QPSK: 1/8, 1/5, 1/4, 1/3, 1/2,2/3,4/5

16-QAM: 1/2, 2/3, 4/5

64-QAM: 2/3, 3/4, 4/5

Ideal

20 km/h average speed, vehicular [9]

direct calculation of the several spectral efficiency losses.

On the other hand, the SNR impact on spectral efficiency

depends on a higher number of factors, some of them much

more difficult to model than the previous bandwidth efficiency

approach.

Consider the basic LTE downlink physical layer parameters

in Table II. There are constraints to the maximum spectral

efficiency from the supported MCSs and also the used MIMO

mode. Additionally, there are performance aspects related with

the TX and RX algorithms (linear, non-linear, etc) [1] which

makes the SNR efficiency definitely more complex to directly

calculate than the bandwidth efficiency. The presented method

will use curve fitting as in [7] and will be explained in the

following. LTE downlink system uses several MCSs that can

be characterized by a modulation type and a code rate, see

Table II.

In what concerns the LTE coding scheme, Release 6 HSDPA

compliant turbo coding is used. For each encoding scheme, the

coded bit error probability is often determined using system

level simulations [10], which allow to compute the coding

gain for certain BER. The coding gain, GM CS (Pb,target ), is

defined as the relation between the SNR levels associated to

the uncoded and coded system required to reach the same

Pb,target . Hence, using system level results, a coding gain can

be set, for each MCS and Pb,target . Moreover, the maximum

spectral efficiency of a given MCS is the product of the code

rate (k/n) and the number of bits per modulation symbol,

log2 (M ).

The spectral efficiency performance using coded modulation

schemes can be estimated using the previous inputs. From

equation (12), the LTE spectral efficiency with coded QPSK

(M=4), 16-QAM (M = 16) and 64-QAM (M = 64) is,

3 log2 M

2

Pb,t arg et log2 M

Rb

1

(18)

2

= min 2(M 1) erfc

B

S k

n

k GMCS (Pb,t arg et ) N , n log2 M

The spectral efficiency results are presented in Fig. 1 as a

function of the SNR and for the LTE MCSs (see Table II); The

BER target, Pb,t arg et is 103 . Fig. 1 also shows the Shannon

bound (in yellow), which represents the maximum theoretical

throughput that can be achieved over an AWGN channel

with a given SNR. The performance of LTE using AMC is

approximated in the following, using curve fitting as presented

AWGN channels assumed.

TABLE III

SNR EFFICIENCY CALCULATION , USING CURVE FITTING FOR LTE AWGN.

Nr. of TX antennas, r

1

2

3

4

BW,r

0.80

0.76

0.75

0.72

SN R,r

0.91

1.05

1.11

1.24

Correlation Coef.

0.9954

0.9947

0.9943

0.9930

efficiency for the AWGN codeset, using max(.) (maximum)

function for each SNR value (black curve), this maximizes

the throughput for each SNR. The second stage is to use an

attenuated and truncated form of the Shannon bound in order

to approximate the composite performance. The proposed

function is,

Rb

=

B

S

S

BW,r log2 1 + SN R,r N

, f or N

Rb

S

(max)

,

f

or

B

N >

S

N

S

N

(max)

(max)

(19)

where BW,r is the bandwidth efficiency parameter for r TX

antennas, as calculated in section II-B; S/N (max) is the SNR

at which maximum spectral efficiency, RBb (max), is reached

(equal to 4.8 bit/s/Hz using MCS-13).

SN R,r is the SNR efficiency parameter for r TX antennas.

It will be calculated in the following using curve fitting over

the composite spectral efficiency for the AWGN codeset. The

c , and provides a simple and

fitting application is Ezyfit

efficient way to perform quick curve fitting with arbitrary (nonlinear) fitting functions. The fitting function is the truncated

Shannon bound type presented in (19) with SN R,r working

as the only calibrating parameter, since BW,r was previously

set.

The results for the curve fitting correlation and SN R,r

calculation are presented in Table III. Fig. 2 presents the

fitting function for one TX antenna ( RBb (BW,r , SN R,r )) and

also the Shannon bound. The fitting procedure correlation

LTE MCS and associated curve fitting.

Fig. 3. Total Capacity Expected Value, E(C), for the SISO and MIMO nn

setup, n = 2, 3, 4, using uniform and water-filling power allocations.

realistic approach on estimating the LTE spectral efficiency

performance for different SNR conditions.

gain is defined as the relation between the MIMO configuration expected capacity and the SISO expected capacity.

The water-fill gain relates, for each MIMO configuration, the

mean capacity using water-filling with the equivalent mean

capacity using an uniform power allocation. Starting with a

SISO reference spectral efficiency of 1.24 bit/s/Hz, the average

capacity using spatial multiplexing and water-filling is 2.38,

3.33 and 4.16 bit/s/Hz using MIMO 2 2, 3 3 and 4 4,

respectively. This represents a serious 92%, 169% and 235%

MIMO gain for these configurations.

The uniform power allocation results are slightly moderate,

but still impressive. 1.97, 2.61 and 3.21 bit/s/Hz average

spectral efficiency was achieved after simulation, for two,

three and four multiple antenna systems, respectively, with

associated 59%, 110% and 159% MIMO gain.

The modified Shannon capacity expression in order to

predict the LTE link level spectral efficiency, see equation

(4) has been presented. It depends on a number of important

factors which are the radio channel, the power allocation

scheme and the radio link SNR, properly represented by the

sub-channel eigenvalues (k,q ), the power fraction (k,q ) and

S/N , respectively. The remaining parameters, BW and SN R

are calibrating values which were previously calculated in

sections II-B and II-C for LTE and different MIMO configurations.

The LTE capacity will be calculated using an existing

MIMO channel model framework [2], which was developed in

c and requires building data information, terrain data,

Matlab

street data, BS and MS information. The BS and MS data

store the geographical positioning, height, power parameters,

MIMO antenna configuration, radiation pattern, and system

parameters like handover hysteresis and offset.

The tested urban Radio Environment (RE) is located in the

city of Lisbon, Portugal, and several virtual test MSs travel

around the city for a period of 10 minutes. To this end, a

large number of MIMO channel realizations were generated

for each cluster oriented large-scale fading set of parameters,

that simulate the MIMO channel conditions as the MS moves

while connected to the BS. For each channel iteration, an

eigenvalue sample is recorded.

The total capacity expected results, E (C), were calculated

for the SISO and MIMO n n setup, n = 2, 3, 4 and are

displayed in Fig. 3. 5 and 0.5 antenna spacings were used

for the BS and MS, respectively. For comparison purposes,

MIMO and Water-filling Gains were calculated. The MIMO

IV. C ONCLUSIONS

This paper studies the MIMO capacity enhancement considering the UMTS LTE technology, in the downlink. The

spatial multiplexing concept is presented, and the associated

LTE downlink capacity is calculated including the effects of

system bandwidth and SNR efficiency.

A new approach is introduced for LTE realistic capacity

calculation, using the spatial multiplexing MIMO setup, AMC

and power allocation technique. First, the system bandwidth

efficiency is calculated for LTE framework and multiple antenna configurations. It becomes 63% for SISO and around

58% for multi-antenna MIMOconfigurations, which underlines

the importance of considering system bandwidth efficiency

when using Shannon spectral efficiency to estimate the system

performance of LTE.

The SNR efficiency using AMC was approximated using

curve fitting, where the used fitting function is an attenuated

and truncated form of the Shannon bound in order to approximate the LTE composite spectral efficiency for the AWGN

MCS codeset.

for different multi-antenna configurations in a macro-cell

scenario, revealing impressive capacity gains when compared

with SISO. The capacity calculation procedure presented in

this paper is LTE oriented. Nevertheless, the presented framework is generic and applicable to other radio systems.

R EFERENCES

[1] Dahlman E.; Parkvall S.; Skold J.; Beming P. 3G Evolution: HSPA and

LTE for Mobile Broadband. Academic Press, 2007.

[2] Vieira P.; Queluz M.P.; Rodrigues A. MIMO antenna array impact

on channel capacity for a realistic macro-cellular urban environment.

accepted for 68th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference Fall 2008,

Calgary, Canada, September 2008.

[3] Benedetto S.; Biglieri E. Principles of Digital Transmission with

Wireless Applications. Kluwer Academic, Plenum Publishers, New York,

1999.

[4] Vieira P.; Queluz M.P.; Rodrigues A. Terrain and clutter Impact on

Joint Statistical Properties of Azimuth Spread and Delay Spread in

Macro-cell Bad Urban Environment. IEEE International Symposium

on Wireless Communication Systems 2007, Trondheim, Norway, pages

798802, October 2007.

[5] Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network 3GPP. TR 25.814:

Physical Layer Aspects for Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access

(UTRA). 3GPP, September 2006.

[6] Pokhariyal A.; Kolding T.E.; Mogensen P.E. Performance of Downlink

Frequency Domain Packet Scheduling for the UTRAN Long Term

Evolution. 2006 IEEE 17th International Symposium on Personal,

Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications,, pages 15, September 2006.

[7] Mogensen P.; Wei Na; Kovacs I.Z.; Frederiksen F.; Pokhariyal A.;

Pedersen K.I.; Kolding T.; Hugl K.; Kuusela M. LTE Capacity Compared

to the Shannon Bound. IEEE 65th Vehicular Technology Conference

2007, pages 12341238, April 2007.

[8] Vieira P.; Queluz M.P.; Rodrigues A. Improving a Cluster Based Directional Channel Model in Realistic Macro-cell Environment. submitted

for Wireless Personal Communications Journal, Springer, Special Issue,

2008.

[9] Vieira P.;Vieira M.A.; Queluz M.P.; Rodrigues A. A Novel Vehicular

Mobility Model for Wireless Networks. Wireless Personal Communications Journal, Springer, Vol. 43, pages 16891703, August 2007.

[10] Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network 3GPP. TR

36.942: Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Radio

Frequency (RF) system scenarios (release 8). 3GPP, June 2007.

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