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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN KIMIA


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY
(CHE453)
NAME
(2013467436)

GROUP
EXPERIMENT
DATE PERFORMED
SEMESTER
PROGRAMME / CODE
SUBMIT TO

No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Title
Abstract/Summary
Introduction
Aims
Theory
Apparatus
Methodology/Procedure
Results
Calculations
Discussion
Conclusion
Recommendations
Reference
Appendix
TOTAL MARKS

Remarks:
Checked by:
--------------------------Date:

AHMAD SIDDIQ BIN MOHD SANI

EH2203A
: L6 CONCENTRIC HEAT EXCHANGER
: 1ST OCTOBER 2014
: 3
: EH220/CHE524
: PUAN RABIATUL ADAWIYAH ABDOL AZIZ

Allocated Marks (%)


5
5
5
5
5
10
10
10
20
5
5
5
10
100

Marks

Abstract
This report is done to test the overall learning process that I have learn in classroom and to
apply it to the real world engineering The experiment that I done is the concentric heat
exchanger which relate to the heat transfer and the thermodynamic subject. The important
point in this experiment is the temperature difference and the flow rate and the direction of
the flow. However, by doing the calculation after the experiment, we can get other things,
such as, the heat emitted, log mean temperature difference, and heat transfer coefficient

Introduction
Heat exchanger is a device designed specifically to transfer heat or exchange heat between
two medium whether it is liquid-air or liquid-liquid heat exchange between them. In industry,
there many uses for this heat exchanger such as the for the cooling process or to retain heat
energy such as in heat recovery steam generator . It come to be common today because of it
flexibility and simplicity to operate. In addition, there many types of heat exchanger that can
be found today such as shell and tube heat exchanger, plate heat exchanger, concentric heat
exchanger and many more. Usually, it is their heat transfer area design or the fitting of its
type toward specific process that differ them.
In this experiment, we will focus on the heat transfer process by using the concentric heat
exchanger. This would be done in the SOLTEQ Heat Exchanger (Model: HE 158c) which is
consists of other type heat exchanger which can be used by changing the arrangement. To
minimise the water loses, the pipe that channel the water to the heat exchanger is insulated
and the hot water flow in the inner tube while the cold water at the outer tube. There are
temperature sensor installed at the inlet and outlet tube to measure the temperature difference.
The temperature that been investigate and flow rate and be seen at the instrumentation panel.
The hot water system is totally self-contained. A hot water storage tank is equipped with an
immersion type heater and a temperature controller. Circulation to the heat exchanger is
provided by a pump, and water returns to the storage tank via a baffle arrangement to ensure
adequate mixing .

The heat exchanger uses the heat transfer knowledge in order to understand how it works.
Basically, it relate more on convection and conduction in it process. There will a radiation
too but due to its small effect. Engineer or scientist usually neglect it in the heat exchanger.
The convection occur when heat is transfer from the hot fluid to the wall of the tube. The
flow rate will give a significant effect on the process. It will followed by the conduction at the
wall of the tube. It will be better if the tube is thin to increase heat transfer rate but strong to
withstand high pressure. The convection will occur again when the heat is transfer from the
wall of the tube to the coolant. There are factor that effect the heat transfer such as the flow of
the fluid, whether it is counter current or co current or the flow rate of the fluid.

Counter-current flow

Co-current flow

Objective
-To investigate the heat transfer and the heat loss for energy balance study
-To calculate the log mean temperature difference
-To calculate the heat heat transfer coefficient
-To perform the temperature profile study and the flow rate effects on heat transfer

Theory
The conservation of energy is First Law Thermodynamics which is the theory that involve in
operation of the cooling tower. As we know, conservation energy is the energy that enters the
system is same as the energy that exit the system and it can be neither destroyed nor created.
Energy just transformed from one form to another.
The important in understanding the theory of this experiment is to know concept of the heat
transfer since this experiment involve the transfer of heat between the fluid. As stated in the
introduction above this experiment involve mainly on conduction and convection. Therefore,
we want to know how to calculate the heat that been transfer into between the fluid. The
temperature of hot and cold water at the inlet is the key in calculation of the heat transfer.
Both of them are the responding variable data that we collected after manipulating the flow
rate of the hot and cold water and the flow direction. So, we will calculate first the heat that
been transfer by using the energy balance.
U + P+ K=Qw

(1)

By assuming there are no phase changes and work done toward the system and the potential
and kinetic energy is negligle. We will get the formula of

Q
emit /absorb =VpwaterCp water ( T hot/ cold )

Where
3

V =The flowrate of hotcold water

pwater =The density of water =1000

Cp water =4.18

kJ
kg . K

kg
3
m

m
s

T hot/ cold=Temperature difference of the water K

We will get the the amount of heat emitted by the hot fluid and the heat absorb by the cool
water
The heat transfer coefficient also can be obtain by relation between the amount of heat that
been transferred which is calculated by using
U=

emit
Q
AreaLMTD

where
Dm

Area= *

*L
D 0 + Di
=30.02103 m
2

D m=

D 0=33.40103 m

D i=26.6410 m

L=500103

LMTD (Log Mean Temperature Difference)


LMTD=

T 1 T 2
T 1
ln (
)
T 2

For counter-current flow


T 1= T hot ( ) ( TT 1 ) T cold (out ) ( TT 4 )

T 2= T hot (out ) ( TT 2 ) T cold ( ) ( TT 3 )

For co-current flow


T 1= T hot ( ) ( TT 1 ) T cold ( ) ( TT 4 )
T 2= T hot (ou t ) ( TT 2 ) T cold ( out ) ( TT 3 )

Apparatus
-Heat Exchanger Training Apparatus (model:HE158C)

Concentric
Heat
Exchanger

Cold
Water
Tank

Control Panel

How
Water

Rotamet
er

Motor
Pump

General Starting Procedure


General Start-up Procedure
1. The quick inspection must be done to ensure the equipment in proper working condition
2. Except valve 1(V1) and valve 2(V12) all the the other valve must be close

3. The water supply hose was connected to V27 to fill up the hot water tank until it full. The
valve was closed.
4. The water supply hose was connected to V28 to fill up the hot water tank until it full. The
valve was left open to ensure continuous water supply
5. The drain hose connected to cold water drain point
6. After the main power was switch on, the heater for the hot water tank is set by at the
temperature controller to 50C
7. Leave the apparatus until it reach the temperature of 50C.
8. The experiment was ready to run

Experiment A: Counter Current Concentric Heat Exchanger


Procedure
1. V1,V12,V15,V18, and V28 opened while V16,V17,V27,V29,V30 closed for the countercurrent arrangement. The other valve do not involve
2. Pump 1(P1) and pump 2(P2) opened
3. The flow rates needed obtained by open and adjusting V3 and V14 for cold and hot water
streams
4. Leave the apparatus for 10 minutes for it to reached steady state
5. Record the initial reading FT1,FT2,TT1,TT2,TT3 and TT4
6. Step 3 to 5 repeated with different combinations of flow rate
7. The pump switch off order for the arrangements of the next experiment

Experiment B: Co-Current Concentric Heat Exchanger


Procedure
1. V1,V12,V16,V17,V28 opened while V15,V18,V27,V29 and V30 closed. The other valve
will be leave alone
2. Pump 1(P1) and pump 2(P2) opened
3. The flow rates needed obtained by open and adjusting V3 and V14 for cold and hot water
streams
4. Leave the apparatus for 10 minutes for it to reached steady state
5. Record the initial reading FT1,FT2,TT1,TT2,TT3 and TT4
6. Step 3 to 5 repeated with different combinations of flow rate
7. After finished the experiment. The shut-down procedure was done

General Shut-down Procedure


1. The heater switched off
2. When the temperature drop below 40C, both of the pum switched off

3. The main power switch off


4. All the water in the process line drain off while the water in hot and water tanks retained
5. All the valve closed

Result & Calculation


Counter-Current
FT1(LPM)

FT2(LPM)
10

TT1(C)
TT2(C)
TT3(C)
TT4(C)
2
34.4
28.3
48.3
49.2

10
10
10
10

FT1(LPM)

4
6
8
10
Average

FT2(LPM)
2
4
6
8
10

10
10
10
10
10

30.9
30.3
30.4
30.5
31.3

28.6
28.8
29.2
29.5
28.8

48.5
48.2
48.1
48.2
48.3

49.9
49.3
49.1
49
49.3

TT1(C)
TT2(C)
TT3(C)
TT4(C)
30.3
29.7
46
49
30.7
29.9
47.5
49.5
31
30.2
47.6
49
31.1
30.2
48.2
49.3
31.2
30.3
48.2
49

Table 1(a)
FT1(LP
M)

FT2(LP
M

10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0

2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
10.0

FT1(LP
M)

FT2(LP
M

2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
10.0

10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0

emit ( kW )
Thot () Tcold () Q
6.1
2.3
1.5
1.2
1

0.9
0.9
1.1
1
0.8

-4.260
-1.600
-1.05
-0.84
-0.70

emit (W )
Thot () Tcold () Q
0.6
0.8
0.8
0.9
0.9

3
2
1.4
1.4
0.8

-0.08
-0.22
-0.33
-0.49
-0.63

absorb (kW ) LMTD(


Q
K)

0.12
0.25
0.453
0.54
0.56

-17.3
-19.19
-19.19
-18.80
-18.60

absorb (W ) LMTD(
Q
K)

2.09
1.40
0.98
0.98
0.56

-17.47
-18.19
-17.70
-18.65
-17.54

U(

kW
)
m2 K

5.22
1.77
1.16
0.94
0.80

U(

W
)
m2 K

0.01
0.26
0.40
0.56
0.76

Table 1(b)
Example temperature profile of counter-current flow: At 10 (LPM) hot water and 2
(LPM) cold water

Temperature Profile
60
50
40
Temperature

30
20
10
0
0

0.5
Length Of Heat Exchanger Tube (m)

Co-Current
FT1(LPM)

FT2(LPM)
10
10
10
10
10

FT1(LPM)

2
4
6
8
10

TT1(C)
TT2(C)
TT3(C)
TT4(C)
30.9
33.1
48.8
49.2
30.8
32
48.7
49.2
30.4
31.5
48.5
49.2
30.3
31.1
48.5
49.1
30.3
31.1
48.4
49.2

10
10
10
10
10

TT1(C)
TT2(C)
TT3(C)
TT4(C)
30.4
30.7
46.5
49.3
30.5
30.9
47.8
49.3
30.5
31
47.9
49.3
30.4
31.1
48.6
49.6
30.5
31.2
48.8
49.7

FT2(LPM)
2
4
6
8
10

Table 2(a)
FT1(LP
M)

FT2(LP
M

10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0

2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
10.0

FT1(LP
M)

FT2(LP
M

2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
10.0

10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0

emit (W )
Thot () Tcold () Q
2.2
1.2
1.1
0.8
0.8

0.4
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.8

-1.54
-0.84
-0.77
-0.56
-0.56

emit (W )
Thot () Tcold () Q
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.7
0.7

2.8
1.5
1.4
1.0
0.9

-0.04
-0.11
-0.21
-0.38
-0.49

absorb (W ) LMTD(
Q
K)

0.06
0.14
0.25
0.33
0.56

U(

-16.97
-17.54
-17.94
-18.09
-18.09

1.92
1.02
0.91
0.66
0.66

absorb (W ) LMTD(
Q

U(

K)

1.95
1.05
0.98
0.70
0.63

-17.30
-17.83
-17.83
-18.33
-18.33

W
)
m2 K

W
)
2
m K

0.05
0.13
0.25
0.44
0.57

Table 2(b)
Example of temperature profile for co-current:At 10(LPM) hot water and 2(LPM) cold
water flow

Temperature Profile
60
50
40

Temperature

30
20
10
0
1

2
Length Of Heat Exchanger Tube (m)

Sample Calculation
Conversion of LPM
10.0

L
m3 1 M
m3
=1.67 x 104
M 1000 L 60 s
s

Assume that density of water along the experiment constant.


p=1000

kg
3
m

Heat capacity of water


C p =4.18

kJ
kg . K

Heat Transfer
T hot =( 34.4 28.3 )= 6.1K

T cold =( 49.248.3 )=0.9 K


Cp ( T
emit /absorb =v hot p water
Q
water
hot /cold )

3
emit=1.67104 m 1000 kg 4.18 kJ 6.1 K =4.26 kJ
Q
s
kg . K
s
m3

m3
kg
kJ
kJ
Qcold=3.3105
1000 3 4.18
0.9 K =0.0124
s
kg . K
s
m

Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD)


LMTD=

T 1 T 2
T 1
ln (
)
T 2

For counter-current
T 1= T hot ( ) ( TT 1 ) T cold (out ) ( TT 4 ) =( 34.4 49.2 )=14.8
T 2= T hot (out ) ( TT 2 ) T cold ( ) ( TT 3 )=( 28.6 48.3 ) =20
LMTD= -17.3K

For co-current
T 1= T hot ( ) ( TT 1 ) T cold ( ) ( TT 4 )= (30.9 49.2 ) =18.3
T 2= T hot (out ) ( TT 2 ) T cold ( out ) ( TT 3 )=( 33.1 48.8 )=15.7
LMTD= -16.97 K

Heat Transfer Coefficient


U=

emit
Q
AreaLMTD

Area= *
D m=

Dm

*L

D 0 + Di
=30.02103 m
2

D 0=33.40103 m
3

D i=26.6410 m
L=500103 m
2

Area=0.04716 m

kJ
s
U=
=5.22
2
( 0.04716 m )(17.3 K )
4.26

Effect Of Flow Rate On Heat Transfer In Counter-Current Flow

Heat Absorb Versus Cold Water Flow Rate


0.6
0.5
0.4
Heat Absorb,(kW)

0.3

Heat Absorb

0.2
0.1
0
2

10

Cold Water Flow Rate (LPM)

Graph 1(a)

Heat Emitted Versus Hot Water FlowRate


0
-0.1 2

10

-0.2
Heat Emitter,(kW)

-0.3

Heat Emitted

-0.4
-0.5
-0.6
-0.7
Hot Water Flowrate(LPM)

Graph 1(b)

Effect Of Flow Rate On Heat Transfer In Co-Current Flow


Heat Absorb Versus Cold Water Flowrate
0.6
0.5
0.4
Heat Absorb,(kW)

0.3

Cold Water

0.2
0.1
0
2

10

Cold Water Flowrate(LPM)

Graph 2(a)

Heat Emitted Versus Hot Water FlowRate


0
-0.2 2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
Heat Emitter,(kW)
-1
-1.2
-1.4
-1.6
-1.8

10

Hot Water Flowrate(LPM)

Graph 1(b)

Heat Emitted

Discussion
As we know, the most important in this experiment is the temperature that been measure is
the key to understanding about the heat exchanger.
The difference when we manipulate the flow rate whether it it cold or hot water does not give
drastic increase in the reading of the temperature. It usually will brought effect ranging from
to 0 to 1.0of the reading. For example when we change the cold water flow rate at the
counter-current flow from 2(LPM) to 4(LPM), the reading of cold water outlet,TT4 change
from 49.2 to 49.9.
But we must notice that the temperature of supposed to be cold water is more higher than the
hot water. This thing might be due to the error of the apparatus or material. However, the
calculation still going through to investigate more things which relate to the heat exchanger
For counter-current flow, when the volumetric flow rate of cold water increase, the amount of
emitted release decrease from -4.260(kW) to -0.70 (kW). The negative sign indicate the heat
is release. But while volumetric flow rate of cold water increase, the rate of heat absorption
increase from (0.12)to (0.25). However, this pattern will be inverted when the flow rate of
hot water increase, the heat emitted increase but the amount if heat absorb is decreasing from
time to time. The heat emitted and absorb in the co-current also follow the same pattern in the
counter-current low. There also a reason why the heat emitted value is negative. When heat is
emitted it will carry negative value due to the loss of energy to the surrounding.
By calculating the difference between the hot water temperature and cold water temperature
inlet and outlet, we can calculate the log mean temperature difference(LMTD). Denote that,
the larger the LMTD, more heat is transferred by logically see the difference in the
temperature at the inlet and the outlet.
Finally, the other thing that we can investigate in this operation of heat exchanger is the effect
of the flowrate on the heat emitted and absorb, I choose to relate between the hot water flow
rate to heat emitted and cold water flow rate to heat absorb. By referring to the graph 1(b)
which is for the counter current we can see that as the hot water flow rate increase, the heat
emitted increase, the more negative the value mean, more heat is transferred, and for graph
1(a), the higher the cold flow rate, the higher the amount of heat absorbed. As for the cocurrent flow, the graph we refereed is graph 2(a) and graph2(b), as the flow rate of hot water
increase, the heat emitted decrease, this might be as the co-current mean parallel flow.
Therefore increasing the flowrate might decrease the time for heat to transfer. In addition, as
the cold water flow rate increase, the heat absorb also increase.
Conclusion

From my point of view, this experiment has slightly error which affect the the result of the
experiment. This can be seen on the temperature of hot water which is cooler than the
suppose to be cold water, In theory, the heat will transfer from high temperature to the cold
temperature. This might happen due to the error in apparatus or it setting. Overall, we can
deduce that, by increasing the cold water flow rate will decrease the heat emitted while
increasing the hot water flow rate will increase the heat emitted

Recommendations
All students should be clearly read and understood the manual lab before start the
experiment. During experiment, students must wear protective clothing, shoes, helmet and
goggles for safety. All students should be serious went carry out the experiments and always
run the experiment after fully understand the unit and procedures. To avoid parallax error, the
eyes must be perpendicular to the scale when adjusting the hot and cold water flowrate. Make
sure the valve of counter-current is closed when doing a co-current flow. Do the same thing
when doing a counter-current. This is because to allow the flowing of hot and cold water in
the right directions of flowing.

Reference

CENGEL.Y , BOLES.M (ed.) Thermodynamic: An Engineering Approach. New


York: McGraw-Hill

BBC UK, (n.d) Heat transfer and efficiency. [online] Available from
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/aqa_pre_2011/energy/heatrev1.sht
ml [Accessed on 29th September 2014]

CENGEL.Y,GHAJAR.J,(ed).Heat And Mass Transfer:Fundamental And


Application.New York:McGraw Hill

INCLOPERA,DEWITT,BERGMANN,(ed) Principle Of Heat And Mass


Transfer.NewJersey:Wiley