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Tutorial Number 16: CEL, moulding of a polymeric bottle Stefano Morlacchi May 2014 Strategic Simulation
Tutorial Number 16: CEL, moulding of a polymeric bottle Stefano Morlacchi May 2014 Strategic Simulation

Tutorial Number 16: CEL, moulding of a polymeric bottle

Stefano Morlacchi

May 2014

moulding of a polymeric bottle Stefano Morlacchi May 2014 Strategic Simulation & Analysis Ltd Southill Barn,

Strategic Simulation & Analysis Ltd Southill Barn, Southill Business Park, Cornbury Park, Charlbury, Oxfordshire, OX7 3EW T. 01608 811777 F. 01608811770 E.info@ssanalysis.co.uk W. www.ssanalysis.co.uk

1. Introduction In this tutorial, you will setup a Coupled-Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL) model of the moulding

1.

Introduction

1. Introduction In this tutorial, you will setup a Coupled-Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL) model of the moulding process

In this tutorial, you will setup a Coupled-Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL) model of the moulding process of a polymeric bottle. Plastic bottles might be created by moulding melt polymer within rigid frames. You will build the model using Abaqus/CAE and then visualize the results of the simulation with Abaqus/Viewer.

Preliminaries

- Units. Before starting to define any model, you need to decide which system of

units you will use. ABAQUS has no built-in system of units but all inputs must be specified in consistent units. Some common systems of consistent units are shown in Figure 1. In this tutorial, the unit system based on inches is used. However, the international systems based on m or mm are kindly suggested for all your future models!!!!!

m or mm are kindly suggested for all your future models!!!!! Figure 1: Consistent sets of

Figure 1: Consistent sets of units available in Abaqus.

- Main assumptions and limitations. In order to keep the tutorial simple and fast

to solve, the external and internal frames will be considered as rigid bodies while the melt polymer will be modelled as a simple elastic material with very low stiffness. Also, no 2D modelling is allowed with CEL so a thin layer of 3D

elements is here considered.

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2. Setting up the model Import the file Tutorial 16.sat (File  Import  Part)
2. Setting up the model Import the file Tutorial 16.sat (File  Import  Part)

2. Setting up the model

Import the file Tutorial 16.sat (File Import Part) containing the geometry of the different components of the system: the Eulerian region (green), the internal (blue) and external (white) moulds and the initial region where the polymer is defined at the beginning of the analysis (red). Import the file and then rename the parts as Eulerian, External, Internal and Initial. In the model tree, click with the right button on Eulerian, select edit and choose Eulerian as type of the part. Figure 2 shows the initial assembly of the model and its relevant dimensions in inches.

assembly of the model and its relevant dimensions in inches. Figure 2: Assembly of the model

Figure 2: Assembly of the model comprehending the internal (blue) and external (white)

moulds, the Eulerian region (green) and the initial state of the polymer (red). Measures

are in inches.

3. Material and section properties

Define two material models called polymer for the bottle and steel for the internal and external moulds. Due to the rigid body definitions, the steel mechanical properties in terms of Young modulus and Poisson ratio will not have any influence on the actual solution while the density chosen will drive the computational cost of the analysis due to the explicit solver used.

Consistently to the geometric dimensions, stresses are defined in lbf/in 2 while density is defined in lbf*s 2 /in 4 where:

1 Pascal (Pa) = 1.4504e-4 lbf/in 2

1 kg/m 3 = 9.3572e-8 lbf s 2 /in 4

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1. Go into the Property Module and click the Create Material icon a. In the
1. Go into the Property Module and click the Create Material icon a. In the

1. Go into the Property Module and click the Create Material icon

the Property Module and click the Create Material icon a. In the Edit Material dialog box,

a. In the Edit Material dialog box, name the material Polymer.

b. From the material editor’s menu bar, select Mechanical Elasticity Elastic

c. Enter a Young modulus equal to 30.5 lbf/in 2 (0.21 MPa) and a Poisson ration equal to 0.35.

d. From the material editor’s menu bar, select General Density

e. Enter a density value equal to 0.0001345 lbf s 2 /in 4 corresponding to 1455 kg/m 3 .

f. Click OK to exit the material editor

Repeat the same as above for a material called Steel using the following data:

Young modulus = 30,450,000 lbf/in 2 (~ 210 GPa) Poisson Ration = 0.35 Density = 0.00072 lbf s 2 /in 4 (7800 kg/m 3 )

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2. Go into the Property Module and click the Create Section icon Create a solid
2. Go into the Property Module and click the Create Section icon Create a solid

2. Go into the Property Module and click the Create Section icon

the Property Module and click the Create Section icon Create a solid homogeneous section called Section-Steel

Create a solid homogeneous section called Section-Steel using the Steel material previously defined. Create another solid section called Section-Eulerian selecting Eulerian as type and polymer as base material.

3. Go into the Property Module and click the Assign Section icon

Assign Section-Steel to the internal and external moulds and the Eulerian section to the Eulerian part. The initial part does not need any section assignment since it will not be part of the actual simulation but only used to define the initial conditions.

simulation but only used to define the initial conditions. Strategic Simulation & Analysis Ltd Southill Barn,

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4. Assembly and Step definitions 1. Go into the Assemby module and select the Create

4. Assembly and Step definitions

4. Assembly and Step definitions 1. Go into the Assemby module and select the Create Instance

1. Go into the Assemby module and select the Create Instance button on top of

the toolbox. Create an instance for each of the four parts.

the toolbox. Create an instance for each of the four parts. N.B. It is important that

N.B. It is important that in every CEL analysis, all the parts in contact with the Eulerian material overlap the Eulerian region at the contact surface.

material overlap the Eulerian region at the contact surface. 2. Go into the Step module and

2. Go into the Step module and select the Create Step button.

Create a Dynamic Explicit step choosing 2 seconds as Time step and making sure that the Nlgeom parameter is on.

3. In the model tree, explode the Field Output requests container and double

click on F-Output-1. Set the number of interval as 50, add EVF (Eulerian Volume Fraction) as new element output in the Volume/thickness/coordinates container and click OK.

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5. Mesh Go into the Mesh module to discretize the moulds and the Eulerian part.
5. Mesh Go into the Mesh module to discretize the moulds and the Eulerian part.
5. Mesh Go into the Mesh module to discretize the moulds and the Eulerian part.

5.

Mesh

Go into the Mesh module to discretize the moulds and the Eulerian part. Select hexahedral swept elements for all the parts.

1. Mesh of the moulds. For each mould select 0.075 as global element size and 0.04 as local element size for the edges shown in the following picture. Lastly, set 2 as the number of elements in the thickness of the moulds and 0.02 as local element size at the top of the internal mould. Select Hexahedral elements, Sweep technique and Medial axis algorithm in the mesh controls, then mesh the parts.

axis algorithm in the mesh controls, then mesh the parts. Strategic Simulation & Analysis Ltd Southill

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2. Mesh of the Eulerian Body. Set the Global element size of the Eulerian body
2. Mesh of the Eulerian Body. Set the Global element size of the Eulerian body
2. Mesh of the Eulerian Body. Set the Global element size of the Eulerian body
2. Mesh of the Eulerian Body. Set the Global element size of the Eulerian body

2. Mesh of the Eulerian Body. Set the Global element size of the Eulerian body as 0.03 and mesh it with hexahedral elements.

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6. Interactions Go into the Interaction modules . Three main tasks have to be performed

6.

Interactions

6. Interactions Go into the Interaction modules . Three main tasks have to be performed here.

Go into the Interaction modules. Three main tasks have to be performed here.

1. Create a new General Contact Interaction.

Click on the first button of the toolbox to create a new interaction. Select Initial as step and General contact as contact type. In the General Contact window, select “All* with self” as contact domain and click on the Create Interaction property button close to the Global property Assignment. Select Contact in the new window that appears and create a contact property with a Hard Contact normal behaviour and a frictionless tangential behaviour. Click OK to go back to the edit Interaction window, select the new interaction property in the global property assignment menu and click OK to exit.

2. Create two new rigid bodies constraints.

First, click on Tool Reference Point from the menu toolbar to create a new

reference point for each mould.

menu toolbar to create a new reference point for each mould. Strategic Simulation & Analysis Ltd

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Click on the third button of the toolbox’s left column to create two new rigid
Click on the third button of the toolbox’s left column to create two new rigid

Click on the third button of the toolbox’s left column to create two new rigid body constraints for the internal and external moulds. Select Rigid Body as Contraint Type, Body(Elements) as region Type and the new Reference Points as the control points.

3. This step is fundamental for any CEL analysis where the Eulerian mesh does not conform to the initial material boundaries and aims at identifying which part of the Eulerian region initially contains the material. To achieve this goal, you have to first click on Tools Discrete Field Volume Fraction Tool. Follow the instruction and select the Eulerian part first and then the Initial part as the reference instance. This operation will create a discrete field that will then be associated to the Eulerian part in terms of predefined field in the initial step. At this point you have to remove the instance of the Initial part from the assembly. It might be useful to only suppress it since every change in the mesh of the Eulerian body will require a new calculation of the initial discrete field.

require a new calculation of the initial discrete field. 7. Load module Strategic Simulation & Analysis

7. Load module

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Go into the Load module . 1. Create the boundary conditions for the external and

Go into the Load module.

Go into the Load module . 1. Create the boundary conditions for the external and internal

1. Create the boundary conditions for the external and internal moulds.

Because of the rigid boy constraints previously defined, the boundary conditions have to be applied to the Reference points.

a. Click on the Create Boundary condition Icon, and create an encastre at the

reference point of the external mould to fix all its degrees of freedom.

b. Create a displacement boundary condition at the reference point of the internal

mould. Click on the Create Boundary condition Icon, select Step-1 as the step and displacement/rotation as type. Select the Reference point of the internal mould, enter 1.45 in the U1 degree of freedom and 0 in all the others. Then, click on the Create Amplitude Icon on the right and create a tabular amplitude replicating a standard ramp and apply it to the displacement condition.

2. Create the boundary conditions for the Eulerian Region.

a. Click on the Create Boundary condition Icon, select Velocity/Angular velocity as Type, select the two faces of the Eulerian region with face normal to the Z axis and select the v3 degree of freedom to fix the normal velocity on this faces. b. repeat the same operation by constraining the normal velocity (V2) at the surfaces normal to the Y axis.

3. Click on the Create Predefined Field Icon, select the Initial step, Other as

category and Material Assignment as Type than click continue. Select the Eulerian part in the viewport and the option Discrete Fields in the Volume fraction definition. At this point Select the whole Eulerian part and the Discrete Field previously created from the menu option.

8. Job module

1. Create and Run the job.

a. Go into the Job Module. Click the Job Manager icon.

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b. In the Job Manager dialog box, click Create to create the job named CEL_BOTTLE.
b. In the Job Manager dialog box, click Create to create the job named CEL_BOTTLE.
b. In the Job Manager dialog box, click Create to create the job named CEL_BOTTLE.

b.

In the Job Manager dialog box, click Create to create the job named CEL_BOTTLE.

c.

In the Edit Job window, go to Parallelization and select at least 2 processors (4 if available) and domain as parallelization method. Then, click OK.

d.

In the Job Manager dialog box, select the job created, click Submit and monitor the solution.

9.

Results visualization

At the end of the simulation, enter the Visualization module by clicking results in the Job manager.

a. Colour the parts by part instances by selecting the colouring strategy in the horizontal toolbar and click on the View cut Manager in the vertical toolbar. Here, click on EVF_VOID to only show the elements of the Eulerian part containing material. Then, animate the solution to view the results.

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b. In the vertical Toolbar, select the Plot contours on deformed shape icon and view
b. In the vertical Toolbar, select the Plot contours on deformed shape icon and view
b. In the vertical Toolbar, select the Plot contours on deformed shape icon and view

b. In the vertical Toolbar, select the Plot contours on deformed shape icon and view the SVAVG Mises contour map, then Animate the solution. From the Result options menu select the option “Compute scalars before averaging” and then put 100% the averaging threshold.

averaging” and then put 100% the averaging threshold. c. As you will notice, parts of the

c. As you will notice, parts of the polymer overlap the rigid moulds in the contact surfaces. This error is due to the rough discretization used. In the following picture, you can see the results with a more refined mesh. If time and

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computational resources are available, please refine the mesh of you Eulerian body and rerun the
computational resources are available, please refine the mesh of you Eulerian body and rerun the

computational resources are available, please refine the mesh of you Eulerian body and rerun the simulation. Rememeber to recalculate a new Discrete Field with the volume fraction tool!!!!

a new Discrete Field with the volume fraction tool!!!! Strategic Simulation & Analysis Ltd Southill Barn,

Strategic Simulation & Analysis Ltd Southill Barn, Southill Business Park, Cornbury Park, Charlbury, Oxfordshire, OX7 3EW T. 01608 811777 F. 01608811770 E.info@ssanalysis.co.uk W. www.ssanalysis.co.uk