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THE RAFFLES BULLETIN O F ZOOLOGY 1999 Supplement No.

6: 125-1330
O National University of Singapore

AN ANNOTATED CHECKLIST OF THE BIRDS OF


PULAU TIOMAN, PENINSULAR MALAYSIA
Navjot S. Sodhi
Dq~trrrmer~r
of Biological Science.\. Nufio~ralUniver.\itv of Singapow, Krwt Ridge, Singapore 11Y260,
Republic of Singapure

Clive Briffett
.School of Building and Real Esmre, Nationcrl I!niver.c.ity of.Singal)ore. Kent Ridge, Singupow 119260,
Repuhlic of Singapow

Benjamin P. Y-H. Lee


Depnrrmcnt of Biologil-a1 Scienc.es, National Universiry oj Singapore, Kent Ridge, Singapow 119260,
Studies and Geogrcrphy.
Rapublic of Singapore (present atldress: Department o!f Tropical En~'iro~rmerzt
Janrrs Cook Unit,c'r.sir), Townsville. Queensland 4811. Australia )

R. Subaraj
L)~partmrntofBiolo,~icalSc.irnc.c.v.National University ofSirr,ycrpore, Kent Ridge, Slnguporr 119260,
Republic of Singapow

ABSTRACT. - This study is based on bird surveys of the island of Pulau Tioman
made between 1986 and 1998. The surveys were conducted hetween 7- 10 April 1986.
2-4 April 1996.54-30 June 1996,2427 June 1997,20-22 August 1997,23-27 February
1998, 7- 1 I September 1998 and 10- 13 October 1998. Attempts were made to sample
all habitat types of the island. We recorded 106 bird species of which 38 species are
probably new records for the island. Based on our observations and previous three
published checklists. a total of 138 bird species have been recorded on the island.
KEY WORDS.

- Pulau Tioman, b~rds.inventory. endemic fauna.

INTRODUCTION
Pulau Tioman 1s an island of approximately 100 km' in area, lying 20 km off the south
eastern coast of the Malay Peninsula. The avifauna of the island has been previously
documented with three published inventories (Medway, 1966; Lee et al., 1977; Bransbury,
1993) and numerous reports (Wells, 1986, 1 9 9 0 ~1990b; Csorba et al., 1997). Taxonomically.
eight subspecies of birds (Treron verntrns ndinu, Pvcnonotus p l ~ ~ r n o ~chiroplethzs,
us

Received 12 Dec 1996

Accepted 22 Oct 1998

125

Sodhi ct al: A n annotated checkli5t of the bird4 of P L I ~ ;T~OIII;LII


~LI

The number of bird specie5 recorded for Pulau Tioman has progressively increased since the
Sirst rccordcd cxpcdition to the island which was in 1899 (Mcdway, 1966). The Sirst formal
checklist of b i r d for Pulau Tiornan cited 53 species (Medway, 1966) while the most recent
list published by Bransbury (1993) contained a total of 87 species. The progressive intensities
of the s u n e y 5 carried out coupled with possible immigration are probable explanations for
the q q n r e n t increase in the diversity of bird species on the island. We here report 38 possible
new bird records for Pulau Tioman. We also present a checklist of birds seen or heard
during our sur\cys. We hope that this updated list of birds that occur on the island will serve
as a precursor for more detailed a ~ i a nstudies on the island.

METHODS AND STUDY SITES


Numerous visit5 (7- 10 April 1986.20-22 August 1997.23-27 February I998,7- 1 1 September
1998. and 10- 13 October 1998) have been made to Tioman over the past twelve years and
e
s u r ~ e y e dThe
. interior of the island is difficult to penetrate
many oS its coastal areas h a ~ been
except for a few steep trail5 o n the west side into the hill forcst located at Paya Village.
Lalang Village and Tekek Villase. The latter tsoil extends right across the island to Juara.
Surveys were made from Lalang to Tckck and on to Ayes Batang Village on the west coast.
Surveys were conducted on a random basis m d only numbcrs of species wcrc recorded.
Observations of Rcnggis Idand during the\e periods \\ere mide at dush and dawn and large
numbers oS Srigatc birds were recorded.
Bctwcen 2-4 April 1996. birds were ob5erved ;unecdot;~llyin village Tckck. Bctwcen 24 and
30 June I996 foul- diffcrcnt habitat type5 (lowland rain forest. mangrove$. plantations
Ipredoniinantly banana plantations]. and roads) i n \ illagcs Tckck and Paya were surveyed.
Each habitat type wa\ wrveyed by two to four observers by slowly walking along fixed
length transects (100 m). Howcvcr. no transects were established in mangroves and this
habitat type was surveyed o n two mornings (0700 h to 0900 h: 25 and 28 June) and one
afternoon ( 1400 h to I600 h: 27 June) hy walking ;dong the habitat edge and recording birds.
Sur\/eys of the other habitat types \\,ere conducted from 25 June to 30 June I996 during the
mornings between 0700 h ;und 1000 h. Species that were nor recorded during morning surveys
but wcrc recorded during other tirnes of the clays at the htudy sites are also included in the
following l i h t . 411 birds seen or heard ivere recorcieci at all sites. Doubtful sightings were
cunfirrned by prolonged obhcn ations in\.ol\ ing note-taking and drawings which later were
identified using various field guides (e.g.. Lek;~guICG Rou~id.199 1 ; Strange & Jeyarajasingam
1993: Davison CG Chew. 1995). All surveys w r e done during fair weather (no heavy winds
and rain). The lowland rain forcst (along Tckek-Juar;~trail). plantations. and roads were
found in the ~ i c i n i t yof Tekek whereas the 1nangroLc.s werc located in Paya. Between 2427 June 1997, \rarious habitat types were surveyed in villages Asah, Paya, Juara, and Tekek.
All surveys were made betwccn 0700 h and I000 h and all bircis seen or heard were recorded.

THE RAFFLES BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGY 1999 Supplement No. 6

ANNOTATED LIST
Wc recorded the following bird species. New records and endemic subspecies for Pulau
Tioman are indicated with
and '*'. respectively. The nomenclature follows Inskipp ct A.
( 1996).
'0'

COMMON FLAMEBACK Ditzopi~rttl,juvanen.se


DOLLARBIRD E~it~xtonius
or.it~nta1i.v
COMMON KINGFISHER Alceilo trttlzis
BLACK-CAPPED KINGFISHER Halr.~~on
pilealrr
COLLARED KINGFISHER Todirhamphus chloris
ASIAN KOEL E~cc!\.namys.sc~olapuc.t~a
CHESTNUT-BREASTED MALKOHA Ph(i~t~it~ol,llrrc~lrs
curviro.str-is
GREATER COUCAL Cer~tropussinetzsi.v
BLACK-NEST SW IFTLET Colloc~rliatrzunimo
EDIBLE-NEST SWIFTLET C. ,fiieiphtt,qci
HOUSE SWIFT Apus &rris
BARN SWALLOW Hir-urdo rusticrr
PACIFIC SWALLOW H. ttrhitica
RED-RUMPED SWALLOW H. t1uuric.u
COLLARED SCOPS-OWL 0tu.r htrkkamoet~u
EURASIAN SCOPS-OWL 0 . scops
ROCK PIGEON Colurnhc~lillia
SPOTTED DOVE Streptopelicr chirlerzsis
EMERALD DOVE Clitrl~.ophap~s
itdicu
* PINK-NECKED GREEN-PIGEON Trrr-on ~~errzat~s
LITTLE GREEN-PIGEON T.o1tt.u
LARGE GREEN-PIGEON T. c u p l l e i
GREEN IMPERIAL-PIGEON Ducula trerietr
MOUNTAIN IMPERIAL-PIGEON D. huclia
PIED IMPERIAL-PIGEON D. hicolor
WATERCOCK Gallicrex c,inrt.ea
WHITE-BREASTED WATERHEN Amnmrorr~isphoc~nicurus
GREY PLOVER Pluvialis .squrrttirola
MALAYSIAN PLOVER Cl~urudr-iusper-otrii
COMMON SANDPIPER Actitis hypoleucos
GREY-TAILED TATTLER Hetertjst~rlrr~
hr~vipes
ORIENTAL PRATINCOLE Glareola tnalrlivarum
BLACK-NAPED TERN Sterntr sitniatrurzo
BRIDLED TERN S. ~n?oethetus
BLACK-SHOULDERED KITE Elanus twruleus
BRAHMINY KITE Huliast~wiridr~s
WHITE-BELLIED FISH-EAGLE Hulitrretus leueogrrstet~
CRESTED SERPENT-EAGLE Spi1orni.r clzeolu
JAPANESE SPARROWHAWK AccYpiter gru1ari.s
CHANGEABLE HAWK-EAGLE Spizoptus cirr1iuru.s
LITTLE EGRET Egrettu gurzetta
PACIFIC REEF-EGRET E. sucr.cr
GREAT-BILLED HERON Ardea .srrttrtrtrunu
GREAT EGRET Casmerodius albus

Sodhi et al: An annotated checklist of the birds of Pulau Tioman


CATTLE EGRET Bubulcus ibis
CHINESE POND HERON Arrlcwla h u c ~ h u s
LITTLE HERON Butorides striatrrs
YELLOW BITTERN I x o b r ~ ~ h usinensis
s
CINNAMON BITTERN I. cinnnmorneris
LESSER FRIGATEBIRD Fregirta oriel
CHRISTMAS ISLAND FRIGATEBIRD F. andrewsi
ASIAN FAIRY-BLUEBIRD Ireira puella
BROWN SHRIKE Lanius cristat~ls
HOUSE CROW C o n u s splendens
LARGE-BILLED CROW C. mctcrt>rhyncho.s
BLACK-NAPED ORIOLE Oriolrrs chinensis
ASHY MINIVET Pericrocvtus divaricatrls
SCARLET MINIVET P. flumrneus
BLACK-WINGED FLYCATCHER-SHRIKE H~rnipushir-untlinuceus
BLACK DRONGO Dicr-uru.s ttruc~roczrcw
* GREATER RACKET-TAILED DRONGO D. purnrliseus
PIED FANTAIL Rhipiduru ,juvunicu
BLACK-NAPED MONARCH Hypothymis uzurcw
BAR-BELLIED CUCKOOSHRIKE Corucinu striuia
GREEN IORA Aegitlzina viridissirna
COMMON IORA A . tiplzin
ORIENTAL MAGPIE ROBIN Cc>p.sychus.raulari.s
WHITE-RUMPED SHAMA C. mrr1abaricu.s
* ASIAN GLOSSY STARLING Ap1oni.s pancr,vensis
COMMON MYNA Acridorheres tristis
* HILL MYNA Gruc-ulu r-elib'rosa
STRIPED-THROATED BULBUL Pyozonotus ji:nlc~ysoni
* OLIVE-WINGED BULBUL P. plutno.s~ls
CREAM-VENTED BULBUL P. simplex
:I: RED-EYED BULBUL P. hrunnrus
SPECTACLED BULBUL P. erythropihrrlrno.~
HAIRY-BACKED BULBUL TI-icho1este.rcrinigrr
ASHY BULBUL Henzixos flavulu
ORIENTAL WHITE-EYE Zosterops pu1l)ehrw.s~~
ORIENTAL REED WARBLER Acrocephcr1u.s 0ri~nta1i.s
:I' DARK-NECKED TAILORBIRD Orrhotomus mrrogultrris
RUFOUS-TAILED TAILORBIRD 0 . sericc~us
ASHY TAILORBIRD 0. ruficeps
WHITE-CHESTED BABBLER Trichastorna rostruiunz
FERRUGINOUS BABBLER T. bicdorABBOTT'S BABBLER T. ubbotti
SHORT-TAILED BABBLER Mulacncincla muluccensis
MOUSTACHED BABBLER Mcd~coptcrorzmogtzir-ostre
STREAKED WREN-BABBLER Ncq)oth~rcihrc~r'icuudnm
GREY-THROATED BABBLER Sttrchyri.~nigricel~s
STRIPED-TIT BABBLER M t ~ c r o n o ~gulcrri.~
~s
ORANGE-BELLIED FLOWERPECKER Dicueunz ti-igonostignzu
SCARLET-BACKED FLOWERPECKER D. ~ ~ r u m r u t u m
YELLOW-BREASTED FLOWERPECKER Prionoc~hi1u.snztrcu1at~l.s
'

THE KA FFLES BULLETIN O F ZOOLOGY 1999 Supplement No. 6


CRIMSON-BREASTED FLOWERPECKER P. prr-crr.r.srr.s
PLAIN SUNBIRD A i ~ t h r t ~ psiinplex
t~s
BROWN-THROATED SUNBIRD A . r?zulrrc.~v~.si.s
PURPLE-THROATED S UNBIRD N~c/arirrirr.spratcr
COPPER-THROATED SUNBIRD N. calc~o.stc~thu
OLIVE-BACKED SUNBIRD N. jrrgiduris
LITTLE SPIDERHUNTER Arach~lotho-(1lorigir~o,sfr~u
YELLOW WAGTAIL Mo/trc~illu,flur'o
PADDYFIELD PIPIT A11t1i1r.s~ * i t f ~ r l ~ ~ s
RED-THROATED PIPIT A. e,e~vin~r.s.
WHITE-RUMPED MUNIA Lorrchwo stritrtrr
WHITE-BELLIED MUNIA L. le~rc~ogu.strrr
During our survey>, we did not record the following birds that uel-e listed i n the p r e v i o ~ ~ s
published n\,ifaunal reports for Pulau Tioman (Medway. 1966: Lcc et al.. 1977; Wells 1986.
19903. 1990b; Bransbury. 1993; Anonymous. 1995: Csorba et al.. 1997):
Ruddy Kingfisher (Hcrlc.!.o~r c~oror~rtrrzcltr)
White-throated Kingfisher (If. .sr?r?rr~emi.v)
Hodgson's Hawk-Cuckoo (Crrc~rrlrrsfirgtr.r)
Plaintive Cuckoo (Ctrc.o~~lur>ti.s
117o-~r1in~r.s)
Rusty-breasted Cuchoo (C. .sc~l~irlt~rtrli.~)
Fork- tailed SwiSt ( A ~ Lpcrc.i/i'c.~rs)
I.~
Silver-rumped Spinetail (Rlzcrpl~iti~rrrr
1~~r~c~ol)j~girrllis)
Silver-backed Ncedletail (Hirur~tirrprr~
c~oc~l1ir1c~lii1ir1z~si.s)
Grey Nigh tjar ( C c r ~ ~ r ~ i ~ ~ iir1t1ic~r.s)
ul,~rrs
Large-tailed Nightjar ( C . r~lrrc.~.rrr~rs)
Nicobar Pigeon (Crilopriu.s~ric.ohcrricxr)
Cinnamon-headed Green-pigeon (Trc~~.otr
,fir/~~icolli.s)
Jainbu Fruit-Dove (Ptilirlop~rs,jrrrirDir)
Common Grecnshank (Tririgr~r~c,l~rrlaricr)
Tcnlminck's Stint (C'rrlio1r~i.sI ~ I I I M ~ ~ I K ~ ~ )
Little Ringed Plover (C'licrrtrcl~-i~~s
t1~rhirr.s)
Greater Santi-Plover (C. Ir.sc~lie~icr~rlrii)
Great Crested-Tern (Sterxu 1wr;yii)
Rlyth's Hawk-Eagle (Spi;crc~rrs u l h o ~ ~ i g e r )
Peregrine Falcon (Ftrlcv I ~ I . C ~ ~ ~ I I L I S )
Bulwcr's Petrel ( B ~ r I ~ ~ hirl\~.r~-ii)
~rici
Golden-bellied Grrygone (GPr!.yori~ .sulph~r~-~tr)
Ashy Drongo (Dicrur-rrs lcuc~oplzrro~~s)
Mugimaki Flycatcher (Fic~c~lirlu
wrrgi~~zuki)
White-sho~llderedStarling (St~rrnrrs.sirzcri.sis)
Black-headed Rul bul (Pycxorzotrrs cr/ric.ep.s)
Arctic Warbler (P11~llosc~op~r.s
Dorea1i.s
Chcxtnut-wingcd Babbler (Srudi\~ris~r?Tl~rop/erzr)
Binwn Fulvetta (Alcippr hrrrtltrcic~a~rria
j
Eurasian Tree Sparrow (Pcr.sse~r~iorztunrrx)
Forest Wagtail (I~cl~rtlroricirithIls
iriclic~rs)
Grey Wastail (Motuc~illoc.ilierecr)

Sodhi et al: An annotated checklist of the birds of Pulau Tioman

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
NSS thanks Dr. Peter Ng for organizing 1996 and 1997 trips to Pulau Tioman and Mr. Tommy
Tan for help with the logistics. NSS also thanks 1996 and 1997 Zoology Honours classes
and their demonstrators for providing field assistance. All are grateful to Dr. G. W. H.
Davison for making comments on an earlier draft. This study was partially supported by the
National University of Singapore (RP9603 16).

LITERATURE CITED
Anonymous. 1995. Inventori kcpelbagaian biologi rczab hidupan liar Pulnu Tioman Pahang darul
makmur. Jaban Pcrlindungan hidupan liar dan Tan~anSemcnarijung Malaysia (Perhilitan). Kuala
Lunipur (not pagin;~tcdsequentially).
Bransbury. J., 1993. A I~ird~~~,rti.lrc~r'.c.
guide l o Mtiluy.siu. Waymark, Australia. 282 pp.
Csorba. G.. T. Fuisz & B. Kclen, 1997. New birds and bats from Pulau Tioman. Pahang. Malaysia.
;I.l~rl(ryor~
Ntr/. J.; 50: 197- 199.
Davison, G . W. H. & Y. F. Chew. 1995. A pho/ogi-nphic guide /o hirds cfpctrir~sulurMoloy.ritr trrrd
Singupow. New Holland (Publishers) Ltd. Singapore. 144 pp.
Inskipp. I.. N. Lindscy & W . Duckuorth. 1996. A n u n ~ ~ o t u ~checklis/
~ ~ o f qf'the 1)irtl.s o f ' / h e
Oriental Bird Club, Sandy. UK. 294 pp.
Oi.if~i~tolRc~giori.
Lee, D.W., B. C. Stone. M. Ra~nasabapathy& T. T. Khoo. 1977. The ntrfrtrol Iri.story ( f P r i I ( ~ uT~OI)IUIZ.
Merlin Samudra Sdn. Bhd.. Kuala Lumpur. 69 pp.
Lekagul. B. & P.D. Round, I99 I . A ,quicle to tho hiids ( ~ r T h ~ i l t rSaha
~ ~ dK. x n Bhael Co., Ltd.. Bangkok.
457 pp.
Medway, L., 1966. The birds. Bull. Nirt. Mus., 34: 39-52.
Strange. M. & A. Jeyarajasingam. 1993. Birds - A pho/ogruphic guide to the h i d s oj'Ppt~it~.vular
Mtrltry.ritr nnil Sirr,yul~ol-c~.
Sun Tree Publishing I Singapore) Pte Ltd. 258 pp.
Wells, D. R.. 1986. Bird Keporl: 1980 and 1981. Mulytrii Not. J., 39: 279-298.
Wells. D. R., 199Oa. Malayan Bird Report: 1982 and 1983. Malci\cr~rNut. J., 43: 116-147.
Wells. D. R.. 1990b. Malayna Bird Report: 1986 and 1987. Maluvun N u / . J.. 43: 172-210.