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in Engineering, Water and Earth Sciences

ENGINEERING, VANCOUVER, CANADA, 46 OCTOBER 2006

Editors

Dave Chan

Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta,

Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

K. Tim Law

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carleton University,

Ottawa, Canada

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Published by: Taylor & Francis/Balkema

P.O. Box 447, 2300 AK Leiden, The Netherlands

e-mail: Pub.NL@tandf.co.uk

www.taylorandfrancis.co.uk/engineering, www.crcpress.com

ISBN13: 978-0-415-42280-2

2007 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN13 978-0-415-42280-2

Table of Contents

Preface

XI

Organizing Committee

XIII

Keynote papers

Stability analysis accounting for macroscopic and microscopic structures in clays

K.Y. Lo & S.D. Hinchberger

Soft soil stabilisation with special reference to road and railway embankments

B. Indraratna, C. Rujikiatkamjorn, V. Wijeyakulasuriya, M.A. Shahin & D. Christie

35

P.A. Vermeer, M. Leoni, M. Karstunen & H.P. Neher

57

Experimental study on shear behavior and an improved constitutive model of saturated sand

under complex stress condition

M. Luan, C. Xu, Y. He, Y. Guo, Z. Zhang, D. Jin & Q. Fan

73

Sensitivity analysis of magnetic extensometers for measuring vertical movement

of earth dams on soft soils

R.J. Chenari

95

B.T. Wang & K.T. Law

105

W.M. Camp III & T.C. Siegel

117

S. Apimeteetamrong, J. Sunitsakul & A. Sawatparnich

123

R. Vega-Meyer, R.S. Garrido, A.R. Piedrabuena, I.N. Larios & R.P. Lapuente

129

W.F. Van Impe, R.D. Verstegui Flores, J. Van Mieghem, A. Baertsoen & P. Meng

139

Y. Zhu & Y. Zhou

145

P. vanut, M.R. Turk & J. Logar

153

structure in view of creep

S. Aitalyev, N. Ter-Emmanuilyan, T. Ter-Emmanuilyan & T. Shmanov

159

Foundation

Pile resistance variations over time for displacement piles in young alluvium

A.A. Hanifah, M.N. Omar, N.F.A. Rahman & T.K. Ong

171

A.L. Kouby, J. Canou & J.C. Dupla

2D numerical modeling of Pile-net composite foundation of high-speed

railway embankment in soft soils

J.-D. Niu, L.-R. Xu, B.-C. Liu & D.-W. L

179

189

Y. Zhang, J. Zai & K. Qi

199

H.-B. Zhou, Z.-C. Chen & N.-F. Hong

205

A.Zh. Zhusupbekov, Y. Ashkey, V.N. Popov, A.J. Belovitch & G.A. Saltanou

213

Design and performance of a combined road-channel-dike structure founded on very

soft Bangkok clay

P. Boonsinsuk

219

Improvement of a very soft dregded silty clay at the port of Valencia (Spain)

M. Burgos & F. Samper

231

S.-J. Chao

237

A study on dynamic shear modulus ratio and damping ratio of recently deposited soils

for southern region of Jiangsu province along Yangtze River, China

G.-X. Chen, X.-Z. Liu & D.-H. Zhu

245

under embankment on soft clay foundation

H.I. Chung & J. Yu

251

constructed on soft-soil

K. Fakharian & I.H. Attar

257

S.R. Kaniraj & R.R. Joseph

267

Y.-T. Kim & H.-J. Kim

275

A case study of building damage risk assessment due to the multi-propped deep excavation

in deep soft soil

S.-J. Lee, T.-W. Song, Y.-S. Lee, Y.-H. Song & J.-K. Kim

281

C.F. Leung, K.L. Teh & Y.K. Chow

291

Apparent earth pressure of soft soils overlying hard bedrock at South Link in Stockholm

J. Ma, B.S. Berggren, P.-E. Bengtsson, H. Stille & S. Hintze

299

S.N. Malarvizhi & K. Ilamparuthi

309

A.S. Muntohar & J.-L. Hung

315

with 3rd world constraints

W. Orsmond

VI

321

A geotechnical data base development and applying data mining techniques to extract

the common trendes of offshore geotechnical properties of South Pars

Gas Field/Persian Gulf IR-IRAN

H. Shiri GJ. & M.H. Pashnehtala

Inaccurate interpretation of offshore geotechnical site investigation results and risk

associated: A case study of conductors collapse in driving

H. Shiri GJ. & B. Molaei

327

333

S.P. Singh & S.V. Ramaswamy

341

Dissipation process of excess pore water pressure caused by static pressed pile in soft soil

W. Wang, J. Zai & T. Lu

347

hill and above soft foundation in Wenzhou expressway

H.-L. Yao, Y.-Q. Zhou, Z. Lu & Q. Zhou

Engineering performances of soil disturbed by underground mining and its application

G.-Y. Yu, P. Sheng & L.-B. Wang

351

357

Material behaviour

Compressibility properties of reconstituted organic soils at Khulna Region of Bangladesh

M.R. Islam, M. Alamgir & M.A. Bashar

367

D.T. Bergado, H.M. Abuel-Naga & A. Bouazza

373

by laboratory small and large tests

H.I. Chung, Y.S. Lee & Y.M. Park

381

I.N. Grammatikopoulos

385

R. Imam & N. Morgenstern

389

C.J. Leo

397

N. Boylan & M. Long

403

Experimental study of ageing effect on the undrained shear strength of silty soil

M. Ltifi

415

New relationships to find the hydraulic conductivity and shear wave velocity of soft Pusan clays

K.G. Rao & M. Suneel

421

Geotechnical characteristics of a very soft dredged silty clay and a soil-cement mix

in Valencia Port (Spain)

M. Burgos & F. Samper

427

A.P.S. Selvadurai & H. Ghiabi

437

H. Ghiabi & A.P.S. Selvadurai

447

A.N. Sinha & O. Kusakabe

457

VII

C. Stamatopoulos & A. Stamatopoulos

463

J. Sukolrat, D. Nash, M. Lings & N. Benahmed

471

C.-J. Yin, X.-H. Wang & S.-C. Ma

481

C. Zhou

485

Numerical modeling of interaction between flexible retaining wall and saturated

clayey soil in undrained and drained conditions

A.M. Bazrafshan & A. Pak

493

Y. Bian, F. Zhuo, Y. Zhu & X. Ji

499

O. Jenck, D. Dias & R. Kastner

505

on soft Bangkok clay

R. Katzenbach & S. Pokpong

515

Three dimensional nonlinear finite element analyses for horizontal bearing capacity

of deeply-embedded large-diameter cylindrical structure on soft ground

Q. Fan, M. Luan & Q. Yang

521

Numerical modelling of a very soft dredged silty clay improvement in Valencia port (Spain)

F. Samper & M. Burgos

531

A new method for slope stability analysis of foundation pit due to groundwater seepage

G. Chen, C. Li & Y. Fan

541

Y.H. Chen, T. Zhang, X.H. Ma, Y.Q. Zhou, M.J. Gao & C.C. Gu

547

R.Q. Huang & L.Z. Wu

553

slope stability analysis

L. Liang, C. Shichun & Y.M. Cheng

557

Simple critical state model predicting the response along slip surfaces

C. Stamatopoulos

563

The other soil parameters in stability limit analysis of soil-nailed walls in soft soil

Y. Yang

573

Soil improvement

Centrifuge study on assessment of geological barrier of soft ground with floating type sand drains

B.L. Amatya, J. Takemura, T. Ashida & O. Kusakabe

The use of dynamic compaction in liquefaction hazards mitigation at reclaimed lands in Assalouyeh

petro-chemical complex-Iran

S.S. Yasrobi & M. Biglari

VIII

581

587

Optimization of strength and ductility of Class C fly ash stabilized soft subgrade soils

S. Bin-Shafique, A. Senol, C. Benson & T. Edil

595

Stabilization of soft clay site for development using Rammed Aggregate PiersTM

W. Sheu, E.M. Vlaeminck, B.T. FitzPatrick & J. Bullard

601

R. Shiozaki, K. Uehara, S. Ikenoue, K. Ookori, Y. Umeki, M. Mori & M. Fukue

611

M. Fukue, K. Kita, C. Mulligan, K. Uehara, Y. Umeki & T. Inoue

619

R. Ishikura, H. Ochiai, K. Omine, N. Yasufuku & T. Kobayashi

625

S. Jaritngam & S. Swasdi

637

based investigation

S. Jayasekera & S. Hall

643

H. Krenn, M. Karstunen & A. Aalto

649

S.-R. Lee, W.-Y. Byeon, H.-G. Park & S.-H. Jee

657

Comparison of performance between the dry and wet Deep Mixing method in soft

ground improvement

S. Liu, L. Chen & Y. Deng

667

A fundamental study on the remediation of contaminated soil with heavy metals based

on electrokinetic and magnetic properties

K. Omine, H. Ochiai & N. Yasufuku

673

Effect of zeolite and bentonite on the mechanical properties of cement-stabilized soft clay

A.A.-M. Osman & A. Al-Tabbaa

681

P.V. Sivapullaiah, B. Katageri & R.N. Herkal

691

pressure and injection rate in completely decomposed granite

S.Y. Wang, D. Chan, K.C. Lam, S.K. Au & L.G. Tham

697

The physical and mechanical properties of lime stabilized high water content expansive soil

B. Wang, X. Ma, W. Zhang, H. Zhang & G. Chen

703

Combined preloading compaction and composite ground to treat the soft subgrade of highway

G. Zheng, S. Liu & H. Lei

709

The use of statistic analysis in predicting of ground and wall movements in soft clay

P. Chaichi & N. Shariatmadari

717

C.J. Leo

723

T. Lu & W. Wang

731

S.-Z. Ma, H.-B. Jia, G.-T. Meng & S.-L. Liu

735

IX

A simplified plastic hysteretic model for multi-directional nonlinear site response in soft soils

J.M. Mayoral, J.M. Pestana, M.P. Romo & R.B. Seed

741

G.-X. Mei, J.-M. Zai & J.-H. Yin

749

Back analysis of three case histories of braced excavations in Boston Blue Clay

using MSD method

A. Osman & M. Bolton

755

Effect of ratio of influence zone and type of vertical drain on consolidation of soft clay

due to radial flow

A.V. Shroff, M.V. Shah, T. Khan & N. Joshi

765

Q. Yang, P.-Y. Li & M.-T. Luan

775

Elastic viscoplastic modeling of two cases involving PVD improved Hong Kong marine clay

Z. Fang, J.H. Yin, C. Zhou & J.G. Zhu

779

2007 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN13 978-0-415-42280-2

Preface

Soft soil is found in many places in the world and especially in coastal cities like Shanghai, Tianjin and Vancouver.

Soft sensitive clay, such as the Quick Clay along the St. Lawrence Seaway and in the Ottawa region in Canada,

provides many challenges to geotechnical engineers when building in or on this material. In many instances, soft

soil has to be treated using a variety of soil improvement techniques to improve its strength, deformation and

hydraulic properties.

The Fourth International Conference on Soft Soil Engineering provided an opportunity for geo-professional,

geotechnical engineers, academic and researchers, to share their experiences and research results on soft soils.

It was a continuation of previous three conferences held in Guangzhou, Nanjing and Hong Kong. The Fourth

International Conference on Soft Soil Engineering was held in Vancouver where there are soft soil problems

since Vancouver is situated at the river delta of the Fraser River. Delegates from over 20 countries gathered in

Hotel Vancouver between October 4 and 6, 2006 to discuss soft soils engineering. The conference dealt with

many technical issues of soft soil engineering such as soft soil construction, ground improvements, constitutive behaviour of soft soils, numerical modeling, hazard mitigation and post hazard ground investigation and

improvements. There were four keynote lectures given by leading professors/engineers from Canada, Germany,

Australia and China who shared their research findings and experiences in dealing with soft soils.

XI

2007 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN13 978-0-415-42280-2

Organizing Committee

Conference Chair

Prof. Dave Chan

Steering Committee

Prof. D. H. Chan Prof. C. F. Lee

Dr. C. K. Lau,

Prof. L. G. Tham

Prof. K. T. Law

Prof. J.H. Yin

International Advisory Committee

Prof. Dave Chan

Dr. H. L. Liu

Dr. Dennis Becker

Dr. Charles Ng

Dr. Dennis Bergado

Prof. Pieter Vermeer

Prof. Buddhima Indraratna Prof. Richard Wan

Dr. Suzanne Lacasse

Dr. H. S. Yu

Dr. K. C. Lam

Prof. Askar Zhusupbekov

Prof. Serge Leroueil

Local Organizing Committee

Dr. Ranee Lai (Chair) Mr. Makram Sabbagh

Dr. Reza Iman

Mr. Daniel Yang

Mr. Gavin Lee

Dr. Mustapha Zerguon

Mr. Howard Plewes

Technical Program Committee

Prof. Tim Law (Chair)

Prof. Julie Shang

Prof. Masaharu Fukue

Prof. Siva Sivathayalan

Dr. Kai Sing Ho

Prof. Keizo Ugai

Prof. Jean-Marie Konard Prof. Baotian Wang

Prof. Maotian Luan

Dr. Quentin Yue

Organized by

The University of Alberta

The University of Hong Kong

The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

Supported by

The Canadian Geotechnical Society

XIII

Keynote papers

2007 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN13 978-0-415-42280-2

structures in clays

K.Y. Lo & S.D. Hinchberger

Geotechnical Research Centre, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London,

Ontario, Canada

ABSTRACT: Geotechnical Engineering has advanced to the present stage that various types of earth structures

can be designed and constructed safely and economically in most instances. However, in some cases, difficulty

arises either in the form of failure during construction or after many years in existence. The soils in which these

problems occur include but are not limited to highly sensitive clays and stiff fissured clays of various geological

origins. These clays possess pronounced macroscopic and microscopic structures that control the strength and

deformation properties. Macroscopic structures are visible features that include fissures, joints, stratifications

and other discontinuities in an otherwise intact soil mass. Microscopic structures would include soil fabric

and cementation bonds. A typical soft clay deposit usually is composed of a weathered crust at the top that is

fissured and thus macroscopic structures are dominant and soft clay at depth in which microscopic structures

are significant. The properties of these clays are complex, having a stress-strain relationship that exhibits a peak

strength and a post peak decrease in strength, a non-linear failure envelope, strength anisotropy and a significant

decrease in strength with a slower rate of testing or longer time to failure.

This paper explores the implications of microscopic and macroscopic structure on stability problems and the

conditions under which difficulties arise. Results of laboratory and field tests together with case histories show

that the dominant effect of a macroscopic structure is exhibited in the reduction of undrained and drained strength

with the sample size. The mass strength, whether in the undrained or drained condition, is only a fraction of the

intact strength. Design analysis for stability conditions should therefore start with the mass strength at initial

time followed by a reduction in strength as time progresses. A case history of an embankment founded on stiff

fissured clay on which it failed after 32 years is analyzed in detail to illustrate progressive development of plastic

zones with construction details and time. The effect of cementation bonds in influencing the strength properties

of soft clays is studied by artificially deposited bonds using the electro-kinetic process and examination with the

electronic microscope. It is shown that in addition to the classical increase in strength with decrease in water

content, a strength increase occurred with time due to the deposition of cementation bonds by diffusion. An

important bonding agent is identified and its effect on bond strength is compared with bonding in natural clays.

As the height of an embankment founded on a sensitive clay deposit is increased, a plastic zone will develop and

increase in size. The pore pressures at a point will increase at a greater rate when the point is engulfed by the

plastic zone as a result of bond breakage. Concurrently, the strength will drop to the post-peak state. Case histories

of embankments on these clays are analyzed to illustrate the propagation of the plastic zone in controlling the

foundation behaviour at imminent instability. The difference in performance of embankments with different

geometries in the same clay deposit is investigated. It is shown that the stability and subsequent strength changes

are controlled by the loading geometry and extent of the plastic zone. Finally, design considerations are suggested

to accommodate the effects of the macroscopic and microscopic structures in these clays.

INTRODUCTION

problems occurred include but are not limited to stiff

fissured clays and highly sensitive clays, as exemplified by the following two well-documented case

records.

The first case involved an embankment constructed

at Nanticoke, Ontario, on a deposit of stiff fissured

clay after extensive field and laboratory investigations.

stage that earth structures can be designed economically and constructed safely in most cases. There are,

however, circumstances in which failure has occurred

during construction or after many years in existence in

spite of the detailed field and laboratory investigations

Table 1.

Site

LL

PI

LI

Undrained

Strength (kPa)

Sensitivity

References

Nanticoke

Wallaceburg (depth 4.2 m)

Sarnia Till

St. Vallier

St. Louis

St. Alban

Olga

Vernon

55

46

38

60

50

50

60

65

31

18

26

37

23

23

32

40

0.06

1.0

0.16

0.97

1.83

2.4

1.6

1.14

380

37

150

43

43

11

10

30

1

6

2

20

50

14

13

4

Lo et al. (1969)

Becker (1981)

Quigley and Ogunbadejo(1976)

La Rochelle and Lefebvre (1970)

La Rochelle and Lefebvre (1970)

La Rochelle et al. (1974)

Dascal et al. (1972)

Crawford et al. (1995)

The embankment was originally designed for a maximum height of 17 m (locally) with 2:1 slopes. It was

constructed in 1969 as a containment dyke for fly

ash disposal. Surficial instability occurred at various

periods after construction with time to failure of several months to several years. The downstream slope

was flattened in 1977 to 2.75:1. However, instability

occurred at 32 years after construction.

The second case involved a dramatic and most

instructive case record presented by Crawford et al.

(1995) who described two consecutive failures of an

embankment on soft clay, in spite of the fact that two

test embankments were already constructed on either

side of the failures and that the test embankments were

higher than the embankments that failed.

The conditions under which these problems

occurred are explored in this paper. Additional considerations to conventional design methodology are

suggested.

from 4.5 m depth.

of relatively insensitive intact stiff clays, and a few

additional observations are also made on the behaviour

of sensitive clays. In order to avoid the effects of sample disturbance, only results of tests from specimens

trimmed from block samples or high quality large

diameter samples are considered.

geological origins possess pronounced macroscopic

and microscopic structures that control the strength

and deformation properties.

Macroscopic structures are visible features that

include fissures, joints, stratifications and other discontinuities in an otherwise intact soil mass. Microscopic

structures would include soil fabric and cementation

bonds identifiable, for example, using electron microscope techniques. A typical soft clay deposit usually is

composed of a weathered crust at the top that is fissured

and thus macroscopic structures are dominant and soft

clay below the crust wherein microscopic structures

are significant.

The properties of these clays are complex, having a

stress-strain relationship that exhibits a peak strength

and a post peak decrease in strength, a non-linear

failure envelope, strength anisotropy and a significant

decrease in strength with a slower rate of testing or

longer time to failure. Leroueil (2005) has presented

a comprehensive review of the behaviour of sensitive

Traditionally, engineers have adopted a linear relationship for the Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope. In reality,

test results have invariably shown that the envelope is

intrinsically nonlinear. However, the details of nonlinearity are markedly different between highly sensitive

and relatively insensitive clays. Properties of the clays

discussed in the following paragraphs are shown in

Table 1.

Figure 1 shows the Mohr-Coulomb envelope determined from intact specimens trimmed from block

samples of insensitive stiff fissured clay taken at the

Nanticoke Generation Station, Ontario (Valle 1969).

It can be seen that the envelope is mildly nonlinear over

a wide stress range with the strength increasing with

effective stresses. This behaviour is also exhibited in

other materials such as intact rock and concrete.

Figure 2 shows the results of tests on Wallaceburg

Clay (Becker 1981) near Sarnia, Ontario. The clay is

Clay. (after Lo and Morin 1972)

Figure 2. Effective strength envelope of firm Wallaceburg

Clay. (after Becker 1981)

tests at i = 0 on St. Louis Clay. (after Lo and Morin 1972)

about one and a sensitivity of six by field vane tests.

It can be seen that the envelope is nonlinear. However,

over the stress range from 70 kPa to 90 kPa straddling

the preconsolidation pressure, there is little increase in

strength with increasing effective stress.

Figure 3 shows the results of CIU tests on St. Louis

Clay (St = 50) (Lo and Morin 1972). The envelope

is strongly nonlinear. The remarkable feature is that

there is a significant decrease in strength with an

increase in effective stress as the consolidation pressure approaches the preconsolidation pressure. Similar

behaviour can be seen for St. Vallier Clay (St = 20) in

Figure 4.

drained triaxial tests. (after Lo 1972)

overshadows the strength gain due to effective stress

increases until most of the bonds are broken, whereupon their effects are obliterated. At effective stresses

that exceed the preconsolidation pressure, the envelope enters into the unstructured portion where the

strength increases linearly with effective stress. Further study of cementation bonds will be discussed in

Section 5.

2.2 Anisotropy

The results of triaxial compression tests on specimens

from St. Vallier with their axes trimmed at i = 0 , 45

and 90 from the vertical are shown in Figure 4. The

apparent anisotropy of the strength envelope is evident although the trend of decreasing strength with

an increase in effective stress is less distinct. The

decrease in strength with an increase in effective stress

may be attributed to bond breakage, a progressive

process of damage to the microscopic soil structure

The stress-strain relationship of specimens from block

samples of St. Vallier Clay measured in isotropically

consolidated drained triaxial tests at consolidation

pressures below the vertical preconsolidation pressure

are shown in Figure 5 (Lo 1972). One series of tests

was performed at the conventional axial stain rate of

conditions at failure in sensitive clays. (after Lo and Morin

1972)

St. Vallier Clay (after Lo and Morin 1972)

40 times slower. It may be seen that both strength and

stiffness decreased with the slower rate of testing. The

dependence of the failure envelope on the rate of testing, including CIU tests, are shown in Figure 6 (Lo and

Morin 1972). Since the strain rates of laboratory tests

are vastly different from the strain rates in the field,

the results of these tests indicate that the effect of time

to failure is a significant factor to be considered in the

design of earth structures.

2.4

Post-Peak envelope

strength decreases after the peak strength has been

reached. For sensitive clays, it was recognized that an

envelope defined by the state of stresses at strains in the

order of 6% to 10% is of particular engineering significance for the analysis of slope stability (Lefebvre and

La Rochelle 1974, Lo and Morin 1972). It was considered that the effect of anisotropy, time rate and the

potential for progressive failure all tend to reduce the

peak strength envelope towards the post-peak strength

as shown in Figure 7 (for details see Lo and Morin

1972). Analyses of natural slope failures in Champlain

Clays showed that the results lie close to the post-peak

envelope as shown in Figure 8 (Lo and Lee 1974). For

first time slides of cut slopes, the results lie above the

post-peak envelope (see points for Orleans (Lo 1972),

Lachute 1 and Lachute 2 (Lefebvre 1981)) as expected,

since the progression of progressive failure can satisfy

the limiting equilibrium condition before the post-peak

strength is reached over the entire slip surface.

An important contribution to the verification of

the concept of the post-peak strength was made by

Law (1981). A comprehensive series of tests on specimens prepared from 100 mm Osterberg samples from

Rockcliffe in the Ottawa region was performed using

different stress paths. The results showed that:

Figure 8. Summary plot for natural slope failures in Champlain Sea Clay. (after Lo and Lee 1974, with additional

cases)

of both clays is still manifested (see Figure 9).

(b) The post-peak envelope is independent of the stress

path and is remarkably similar to that deduced by

Lo and Lee (1974) (see Figure 10).

It appears, therefore, that the concept of post-peak

envelope remains valid since its inception as a basis

for the evaluation of the stability problem.

3 THE MASS STRENGTH OF FISSURED

CLAYS

In soil deposits that are essentially free of discontinuities, the properties of intact specimens measured in the

laboratory would be representative of field behaviour,

apart from accounting for their complex behaviour.

In a soil mass populated by features such as fissures

and joints, the properties measured in small intact

specimens in conventional sampling and testing can

be misleading.

clay decreases from a constant 3 test to constant

are drawn together, forming honeycomb patterns

of cracking during aging;

(c) one-dimensional swelling due to removal of overburden such that the strain required to reach

passive failure is attained (Skempton 1961);

(d) tectonic stresses;

(e) stress relief and valley rebound due to erosion;

(f) slumps on steep rock valleys during deposition,

forming large scale discontinuities;

(g) glacial shear;

(h) temperature effects.

While joints, shear zones and faults affect the

directional stability of an earth structure, the most

ubiquitous discontinuities are fissures prevalent in stiff

fissured clays and the crust of soft or firm clay deposits.

An example of the large difference in undrained

strength between fissures and intact material of Nanticoke Clay is shown in Figure 11. Because of the large

difference in strength, whether in the undrained (Figure 11) or drained (Table 2) condition, the presence of

fissures considerably weakens the otherwise intact soil

mass. The degree of weakening would depend on the

difference between the intact strength and the fissure

strength as well as the density and size distribution of

the fissures. An example of a decrease in strength with

sample size (area of potential failure surface) is shown

in Figure 12.

The impact of macroscopic structures on the stability of earth structures such as cut slopes is substantial.

Table 3 summarizes some case histories of failure

in stiff fissured clays. The quantities Su and Su,m

represent the strengths from conventional unconsolidated undrained tests and the mass strength from back

analysis of failure, respectively. Fu is the factor of

safety computed from conventional U-U strength. It

can be seen that these conventional factors of safety

considerably exceed one. It follows, therefore that a

design approach without consideration of macroscopic

structure could be unsafe.

(after Law 1981)

Rockcliffe Clay. (after Law 1981)

It has been recognized that the macroscopic structures of a clay can dominate its strength behaviour and

that the strength of the soil mass is only a fraction

of that of the intact material (e.g. Bishop and Little 1967, Lo 1970). Macroscopic structures include

fissures, joints and other discontinuities in an otherwise intact soil mass. For comparison, the effective

stress parameters of some stiff clays in the intact state,

along natural surfaces of weakness, and in the residual state are given in Table 2. It may be seen that

the strength along the discontinuities is much lower

than the intact material but distinctly higher than the

residual strength.

Many hypotheses for the mechanisms of formation

of discontinuities in clays have been put forward that

include but are not limited to:

a stiffer crust exists of one to several metres thick.

The crust is typically fissured with high vane strength.

The strength decreases through the transition zone

and from there to the soft layer where the strength

increases again (see, for example, Figure 28 and 40).

The assumption of the value of undrained strength for

the crust has a significant effect on the design factor

of safety for embankments on soft clays.

The field vane test is commonly used for the measurement of undrained strength in field investigations.

However, the failure surface is cylindrical in the field

(a) weathering: one of the generally accepted mechanisms, including cycles of deposition, desiccation,

erosion and redeposition;

OF SOFT CLAY DEPOSITS

Table 2.

Clay

Index

Properties

WL WP WN

%

%

%

Type of

Discontinuities

Strength Parameters

Intact

DisconMaterial

tinuities

Residual

Nanticoke Clay

Ontario

Upper Siwalik

Clay Sukian

Blue London

Clay Wraysbury

Barton Clay

Hampshire

Magho District

Northern Ireland

Shale

cw

w

cr

Reference

r

c

kPa

( )

kPa

( )

kPa

( )

31

36

13

18

15

58

22

17

16

14

58

24

26

60

28

16

Fissure

(depth = 6 m)

Minor Shear

70

27

28

31

20

18.5

16

83

32

30

Fissure

26

38

18

13

Bedding Joint

25

18

Lo & Valle

(1970)

Skempton and Petley

(1967)

Skempton et al.

(1969)

Marsland & Butler

(1967) and Corbett (1967)

Prior and Fordham (1974)

depth. (after Lo 1970)

The effect of macroscopic structure therefore would

require the field vane strength to be reduced to correspond to the mass strength of the crust. Field results of

crust mass strength are scarce but the work of Quigley

and Ogunbadego (1976) and Lefebvre et al. (1987) are

discussed below.

4.1 Sarnia till

In a comprehensive study of the properties of Sarnia Till in connection with pollutant migration in a

Sarnia landfill site, Quigley and Ogunbadejo (1976)

performed large in situ shear box tests on the SarniaTill

using the same equipment and similar procedure as Lo

et al. (1969). The tests were performed at three depths

of 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 metres. The first two levels correspond to the crust and the third level corresponds to

the transition zone below the crust. The results, shown

in Table 4, indicated that the ratio of mass strength

to intact strength increases with depth, reflecting the

decreasing intensity of fissuring with depth. It is also

Figure 11. Stress-strain relation of intact and fissure samples-unconsolidated-undrained tests. (after Lo 1970)

Therefore, the likelihood of containing fissures in the

vane test is small and the vane test measures essentially

the intact strength (Lo 1970) apart from disturbance

Table 3.

Case Record

Bradwell 1

(England)

Bradwell 2

(England)

Wravsbury

(England)

Durgapur

(India)

Dunvegan

(Alberta)

South

Saskatchewan

Witbank

Colliery (South

Africa)

Houston (Texas)

Soil

Type

WL

Structure (%)

Wp

(%)

WN

(%)

Brown

London Clay

Brown

London Clay

Blue

London Clay

Blue

Silty Clay

Clay

Shale

Clay

Shale

Coal

Cut

95

30

33

0.05 97

1.8 54

Cut

95

30

33

0.05 97

1.9 50

Cut

73

28

28

0.0

118

3.3 36

Simons (1967)

Cut

58

20

23.4

0.09 113

8.7 13

Dastidar (1967)

Fill

50

24

22

0.04 217

2.6 83

Cut

70

2.5 28

Pillar

7.4 4300

Bieniawski (1968)

Fissured

Clay

Anchored 65

Sheet

Pile Wall

Su

kPa

IB

Fu

Su,m

kPa

Reference

Skempton and

La Rochelle (1965)

31 900

22

22

(1982)

Note: IB = Brittleness Index; Su = Undrained Strength from Conventional UU tests; Fu = Factor of Safety used on Su

Su,m = Mass Strength Computed from Failure

* Increases with depth

Table 4.

Soil Deposit

Depth (m)

Sui (kPa)

Su,m (kPa)

Su,m

Sui

Sarnia Till

1.5 (Crust)

3.0 (Crust)

4.5 (Transition)

0.21.2 (Crust)

280

250

150

75 (25)

80 (40)

333

390

371

77

55

104

85

18

18

56

95

97

31

0.20

0.41

0.56

0.24 (east trench)

0.23 (north trench)

0.17

0.24

0.26

0.40

Nanticoke G.S.

Fissured Clay

Brown London Clay, Maldon

3.3

4.8

6.1

1.42.0

Su,m = undrained mass strength from in situ shear box tests

both in two test trenchs (east and north) and there was

substantial variability of the vane strength. The results

of in situ shear box tests, however, were quite consistent. The ratio of the undrained strength from in situ

shear box tests to the field vane strength was about

one quarter and is shown in Table 4.

drop in strength for this clay from the in situ shear box

test with the brittleness index being about 0.07.

4.2

Olga embankment

in Mattagami, in Quebec (Dascal et al. 1972). The

factor of safety computed was 1.6. Trak et al. (1976)

re-analyzed the failure using the concept of undrained

post-peak strength. However, because of the uncertainty of the crust strength, an investigation was carried

out in the crust by Lefebvre et al. (1987). In situ shear

box tests and plate loading tests were performed in the

1.2 m thick crust but no tests were done in the transition zone which extended to about 3 m depth. A large

4.3

described in the preceding paragraphs and the study on

stiff fissured clays at Nanticoke (Lo et al. 1969) and at

Maldon (Bishop and Little 1967; also shown in Table

4) that the macroscopic structure of fissuring could

reduce the mass strength to about one quarter to one

on the intensity of fissuring at a particular site. As a

guideline, the vane strength in the crust of a soft clay

deposit should conceivably be reduced to this range.

It is of interest to note that in the planning and execution of the Gloucester Embankment at the National

Test Site near Ottawa, the impact of the crust of the

sensitive clay was recognized by Dr. M.M. Bozozuk

(Bozozuk and Leonards 1972) and it was removed

prior to the construction of the test embankment.

5

5.1

MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE

Conceptual view of microstructure

have been carried out by numerous authors (see e.g.

Mitchell 1976, Rosenquist 1966). As early as 1966,

Quigley and Thompson (1966) using the X-ray diffraction technique showed that for a block sample of Leda

Clay, soil fabric underwent a large change once the preconsolidation pressure as determined in an oedometer

test was exceeded. It was hypothesized that cementation bonding was predominantly destroyed at yield

and greater anisotropic loading led to an increased

parallel arrangement of clay particles in the oedometer tests. More recently, Leroueil and Vaughan (1990)

reviewed the strength behaviour of many natural soils

and weak rocks and considered that the effects of

structure (microstructure) on engineering behaviour

should be treated as a basic concept in geotechnical

engineering.

A conceptual view of the microstructure of clays is

shown in Figure 13. The structure, consisting of the

fabric and the cementation bonds, was developed during and after deposition of the soil under a field stress

system and physico-chemical environment. The fabric

of sensitive clays may be conceived as a highly complex space frame and derives its resistance to shear

by displacements and deformations of its constituent

members and joints. The cementation bonds at the contacts of clay platelets are randomly distributed, and

are brittle in behaviour requiring little deformation to

rupture. For a given physico-chemical system, the relative contribution of the bonds and fabric to the overall

mobilized resistance of the soil to deformation would

predominantly depend on the intensity and strength of

the cementation bonds.

Starting from an equilibrium state, an increase in

applied stresses will be transmitted through the soil

skeleton (fabric) producing the deformations arising

from (a) the elastic deformation of the soil skeleton,

(b) deformation and sliding at points of contact, and

(c) deformation of the soil particles. Component (c)

may be neglected since the compressibility of the soil

skeleton is orders of magnitude greater than that of the

with shearing in sensitive clays.

soil particles. The vectoral summation of these microscopic deformations are observed as strain in a given

direction.

As the applied stresses are increased, the external stresses are transferred to the points of contact.

Since there is a lack of symmetry in the fabric and

the distribution of bonds, the distribution of normal

and shear forces at the contact points is not uniform.

In addition, distortion of the soil fabric would induce

tensile stress in some contact points. The criteria of

rupture, whether in shear or in tension, will be satisfied at some contact points leading to bond breakage.

The failure at points of contact leads to some particle

re-arrangement (see Figure 13), observed externally

as plastic (irrecoverable) deformation. The stresses

originally carried at the contact points will partly be

transferred to the pore water, increasing the pore pressure and partly to the neighbouring points of contact.

The shearing resistance of the broken contacts would

reduce to that similar to the post-peak strength of the

clay. Therefore, even at external stresses well below

macroscopic failure of a test specimen, bond breakage occurs and produces some plastic deformation

and slight re-arrangement of soil fabric as shown in

Figure 13.

This process was well illustrated by incremental

stress-controlled CIU tests on normally-consolidated

sensitive clays in which both plastic deformation

(creep) and pore pressure at a constant applied stress

increased simultaneously with time (Lo 1961). The

progressive nature of bond rupture during shear can

also be illustrated by Figure 14 in which the modulus of deformation of St. Louis Clay in CIU and CID

tests are plotted against consolidation pressure. It can

be seen that at half of the failure stress, the trend of

10

Figure 14. Variation of modulus of deformation with consolidation pressure for St. Louis Clay (after Lo and Morin

1972).

that of the curved strength envelope shown in Figure 3.

As the applied stress increases in a triaxial test

towards the peak stress, localization of deformation

occurs due to the formation of a failure zone. Within

the failure zone at the peak stress, the bond strength is

fully mobilized. The test specimen then softens and

exhibits a decrease in strength with further strain (more

correctly, further displacement in the failure zone).The

post-peak strength is reached at a moderate nominal

strain in the range of 6%10% in sensitive clays. However, particle parallelism can only be approached at

much larger displacement in the region of the residual

strength in natural clays.

5.2

the contribution of cementation bonds to the strength

behaviour of soft clays will firstly be examined

using artificial bonding achieved by electrokinetic processes. The bonding agent will be iron compounds

derived from the iron electrodes during the treatment.

The soft clay used in the experiment is a marine

clay from Yulchon, South Korea. The liquid limit of

the clay is 59%, the plasticity index is 27%, and the

water content ranges from 80% to 110%. The clay is

normally consolidated. The undrained shear strength

is between 1 and 6 kPa.

Briefly, the test procedure involved the following

steps:

(i) Establish the classical relationship of the undrained

shear strength and water content for normallyconsolidated clays.

(ii) Set up two identical clay samples under the same

pressure and boundary conditions. One sample acts

as the control test.

(iii) Treat electrokinetically (EK) the test sample at the

applied voltage of 6.2 V using the direct current for

seven days, after consolidation at 15 kPa.

(iv) Allow the test to continue for diffusion to take place

for a further 45 days after EK treatment.

The test set-up for EK treatment of theYulchon Clay

is shown in Figure 15. Details of the test procedure

have been presented in Micic et al. (2002).

Tests were performed before and after the electrokinetic treatment to investigate the changes in the

physical, mechanical and chemical properties of the

Yulchon Clay due to electrokinetic treatment. The testing program included undrained shear strength and

water content measurements, soil chemistry analyses

(x-ray fluorescence or XRF, specific surface and cation

exchange capacity) and soil surface analyses using a

scanning electron microscope (SEM) including energy

dispersive x-ray (EDX) analyses for identification of

the elemental composition of the soil. Based on the

results of the tests, the contribution of cementation

bonds to the strength behaviour of the Yulchon Clay

was evaluated.

in sensitive clays in Eastern Canada have been undertaken by Kenny et al. (1967), Yong et al. (1979)

and Quigley (1980), among others. While there was

some difference of opinion regarding the details of

the methods of these mineralogical and geochemical

investigations, there appears to be a general agreement that calcium carbonate and amorphous materials

including SiO2 , Fe2 O3 and Al2 O3 are the most likely

cementing agents in these sensitive clays.

To proceed from qualitative to more quantitative

assessment of the contribution of cementation bonds to

the overall shear strength of soft clays, one difficulty is

the lack of baseline reference for natural clays. It seems

appropriate therefore to artificially induce cementation

bonds by employing only one potential cementation

agent in natural clays, using an untreated sample as

a control test throughout the long duration of experimentation, so that their contribution to strength can

be ascertained and the possible mechanism of bonding

identified.

Analyses of the relationship between the undrained

shear strength and water content of the normallyconsolidated (7-15 days of consolidation) Yulchon

Clay show that the undrained shear strength and water

content of Yulchon soil yield an exponential relationship as shown in Figure 16. Results of isotropicallyconsolidated undrained triaxial (CIU) tests shown in

Figure 17 indicate the ratio su /pc of 0.3, where p is

the consolidation pressure. This value is similar to the

in situ value of su /p = 0.26 at theYulchon site in South

11

40

p'=45 kPa

35

yield

30

p'=30 kPa

1-3, kPa

25

yield

2su

20

15

Shear Strength vs Consolidation

Pressure

40

10

su, kPa

30

20

p'

10

su

0

0

su/p'=0.3

10 20 30 40 50

p', kPa

0

0

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

Axial Strain , %

Figure 17. Results of CIU triaxial tests on natural Yulchon

Clay

Figure 15. Experimental apparatus (All dimensions in mm;

not to scale).

after EK treatment of the Yulchon Clay are shown in

Figure 18. Figures 18(a) and (b) present the relationship between the water content and undrained shear

strength after electrokinetic treatment and diffusion

phases in the vicinities of the anodes and cathodes,

respectively. The change in strength may be attributed

to the processes operating in the tests, including:

100

10

su = 551e-0.05w

UUp'=15 kPa)

CIU(p'=15 kPa)

CIU(p'=30 kPa)

CIU(p'=45 kPa)

Vane tests

UU - Unconfined compression test

CIU - Isotropically consolidated undrained triaxial test

0.1

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

130

(a) aging a process of bond growth with time without introduction of external agents (Leonards and

Ramiah 1959, Bjerrum and Lo 1963);

(b) electroosmotic consolidation a process of electrically induced water flow from anode to cathode

(see e.g. Casagrande 1949, Mitchell and Wan 1977,

Lo and Ho 1991); and

(c) deposition of cementation bonds under ionic diffusion.

The small increase in strength in the control samples

after 52 days may be attributed to the process of aging

under the constant applied stress of 15 kPa. During

electrokinetic treatment, all three processes would be

operating but the dominant mechanism is electroosmosis as can be seen by the large decrease in water

content at the anode region and little change in water

content at the cathode region. Finally, after the current

is switched off, the mechanism operating would be

soil versus water content

Korea reported by Hyundai Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd. (HDEC) in 1996. As expected, the

stress-strain curves in Figure 17 showed no post-peak

decrease in strength.

12

100

(a) Anode Region

100

10

After EK treatment

(7 days)

After 52 days

EK traeted-45 days after EK treatment (diffusion)

Control-after 52 days

(pc=15 kPa; Uo=6.2 V)

1

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

(normally consolidated)

Anode

Cathode

-0.05w

su=551e

D

EK

D

EK

10

Cathode

Anode

Untreated

soil

1

65

100

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

105

water content changes of the Yulchon Clay during and after

EK treatment.

10

After EK treatment

(7 days)

30

After 52 days

28

26

(pc=15 kPa; Uo=6.2 V)

24

1

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

22

(a) at anode and (b) at cathode

During this period, deposition of cementation bonds

predominately occurs.

Figure 19 illustrates the development of strength

during the entire experiment by following the strengthwater content paths starting from an initial water

content of 95%. At the anode region, the shear strength

increased from 4.5 kPa to 16.5 kPa immediately after

electrokinetic treatment along with a decrease in

water content from 95% to 74%. The undrained shear

strength further increased from 16.5 kPa to 21 kPa after

a diffusion phase of 45 days in spite of an increase in

the soil water content from 74% to 85%. At the water

content of 85%, consolidation alone as indicated by

the results of the control test would yield a strength

value of 7 kPa. Thus, the strength contribution from

bonding amounts to 67% of the total strength.

At the cathode region, the undrained shear strength

increased from 4.5 kPa to 11.5 kPa immediately after

electrokinetic treatment along with a decrease in water

content from 95% to 91%. The shear strength further increases from 11.5 kPa to 15 kPa after 45 days

of the diffusion phase along with a slight decrease in

water content from 91% to 87%. At a water content

of 87%, consolidation only would yield an undrained

18

16

14

12

10

untreated

8

6

4

2

0

0

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

Axial Strain, %

would constitute 64% of the total strength.

The stress-strain curves from unconfined compression tests on treated soil are presented in Figure 20. As

can be seen, the results of compression tests are consistent with the results of vane tests discussed earlier,

showing that the undrained shear strength increased

due to EK treatment. In addition, brittleness developed in the soil as a result of electro-cementation. It is

also noted that the brittleness is more prominent at the

cathode than at the anode region, which is consistent

with the strength development paths in Figure 19.

13

20

Table 5.

2.4

pc'=40 kPa

2.3

2.2

Void Ratio

2.1

2

1.9

Cathode

1.8

1.7

Anode

1.6

1.5

1

10

100

1000

Oxides (%)

Control

EK Treated Soil

SiO2

TiO2

Al2 O3

Fe2 O3

MnO

MgO

CaO

K2 O

Na2 O

P2 O5

Cr2 O3

L.O.I.

Total

56.55

0.72

16.70

5.74

0.09

2.41

1.23

2.96

1.67

0.10

0.01

11.60

99.78

49.90

0.64

14.61

11.78

0.13

1.82

2.50

2.60

1.39

0.95

0.02

13.10

99.45

Table 6.

from the anode and cathode region as well as from the

control test. The results are shown in Figure 21. It may

be seen that a preconsolidation pressure of approximately 40 kPa has developed in both the anode and

cathode region as a result of electro-cementation. The

control test gives a preconsolidation pressure of 16 kPa

compared with the applied pressure of 15 kPa. It may

therefore be observed that an overconsolidation ratio

of about 2.5 has been induced by cementation bonding.

The mechanism of this electro-cementation may be

attributed to selective sorption and ionic exchange of

ionic species on clay particle surfaces and precipitation of amorphous chemical compounds such as iron

oxide/hydroxide and calcium carbonate which serve

as cementation agents (Quigley 1980). X-ray fluorescence (XRF), specific surface and cation exchange

capacity (CEC) analyses were performed on the soil

samples to detect the chemical changes in the soil due

to electrokinetic treatment and to identify cementing

agent(s) involved. The XRF analyses provide the major

element composition of the soil. The results of the

analyses shown in Table 5 show that the percentage

of iron oxide (Fe2 O3 ) increased significantly in the

soil after electrokinetic treatment while the percentages of other oxides (e.g. SiO2 , TiO2 , Al2 O3 , MnO,

MgO, CaO, K2 O, Na2 O, P2 O5 , Cr2 O3 ) only slightly

changed. In particular, the percentage of iron oxide

increased from 5.7% up to 11.8% while the percentage

of other potential bonding agents of SiO2 and Al2 O3

showed no increase. The increase in iron oxides is also

confirmed by the change in the soil colour from grey

to yellowish-brown in the zone of influence of electrokinetic treatment. The source of the iron was from

the steel electrodes, which corroded during the electrokinetic treatment. The released iron precipitated as

oxide or hydroxide due to the extremely low solubility

Properties

Control

EK Treated Soil

Specific Surface (m2 /g)

CEC (meq/100g soil)

Iron Fe (Wt%)

5.7

23

6.7

8

11.8

34

26.4

36

oxide that adsorbed on soil particle surfaces induced a

cementation effect that led to the consequent development of strong aggregation of soil particles and thus

an increase in the soil shear strength.

The results of specific surface and CEC analyses

of the treated soil are listed in Table 6. For comparison, the corresponding values of untreated soil are also

included in the table. It can be seen from the table that

the values of specific surface and CEC of the electrokinetically treated soil particles were higher than those of

untreated soil. This increase in specific surface area,

and thus in the CEC, also indicates the presence of

the higher content of iron oxides in the treated soil

because it is known that iron oxides have high specific surface area amenable to act as coating on other

particles (Dixon et al. 1977).

In addition, Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses were performed to identify the elemental composition of the soil. The average of the percentage of

iron per total weight of the untreated soil was approximately 8 Wt%, while the percentage of iron after

treatment was about 36 Wt%.

The microscopic structure of the Yulchon Clay

before and after EK treatment was studied using a

scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM analyses were undertaken in order to visually identify the

occurrence of cementation in the soil due to electrokinetic treatment. Figures 22(a) and (b) show the

surfaces of the untreated (control) and treated soils,

14

Vallier Clay.

materials

Although the existence of bonds in soft clays has

been accepted by some researchers for some time (e.g.

Crawford 1963, Kenney et al. 1967), direct measurement of bond strength in natural soils is difficult and

their order of magnitude can only be inferred. In the

case of St. Vallier Clay, the drained tensile strength

is only about 3 kPa. This would represent the minimum bond strength under tensile stress induced at the

contact points.

In an attempt to evaluate the bond strength under

shear, three series of CIU tests were performed on St.

Vallier Clay by isotropically consolidating specimens

trimmed from block samples to pressures of 140, 210

and 280 kPa and then reducing the consolidation pressure to achieve OCRs up to eight (see Morin 1975).

The results of one of the series are shown in Figure 23

in which the post-peak envelope from Figure 8 is also

shown. It may be observed that for OCR exceeding

three, the shear strengths lie close to the post-peak

envelope but not on the extension of the unstructured

envelope. Similar observations may be made on results

from the St. Louis Clay. The results of these tests are

an additional indication of the robustness of the postpeak envelope. Using this envelope as the baseline

reference, the maximum bond strength under shear for

St. Vallier Clay would be about 20 kPa and represents

about 30% of the shear strength in the effective stress

region considered. Similar results were also obtained

for St. Louis Clay.

Substantially higher bond strength may exist in stiff

quick clays in the lower St. Lawrence region. The soil

involved in the Toulnustouc Slide (Conlon 1966) has

a liquid limit of 22, plasticity index of 4, with a high

liquidity index of 3.4. The undrained shear strength

is 400 kPa. A drained tension test indicated that the

minimum tensile bond strength is about 17 kPa. The

bond strength in shear may be interpreted to be as

much as 350 kPa.

(a) Control samples; (b) EK treated samples.

respectively. It is evident that some amorphous cementation compound(s) were formed and precipitated on

the clay particles.

Finally, it is noted that the iron oxide (Fe2 O3 ) has

been measured in natural St. Alban and Gatineau Clay

(Yong et al. 1979) with values of 5% and 6%, respectively. These values are comparable to that of Yulchon

Clay used in the experiments as shown in Table 6. In

addition, the authors suggested that the oxides would

coat the particles. The EM image in Figure 22 lends

support to this hypothesis.

From this study on electrokinetically induced

cementation bonds, the following observations may

be made:

(1) Iron oxides can act as an effective cementing agent

in soft clays.

(2) Cementation bonds can contribute up to approximately 60% to 70% of the undrained strength of

the clay with brittle behaviour.

(3) Similarly, an overconsolidation ratio of about 2.5

can be induced by electro-cementation.

15

pressures and settlements were measured during the

construction of the test fills and the road embankment.

Construction of the road embankment started in

early December 1988 and slowly filled to 7 m to 9.5 m

along the alignment by June 30, 1989, when the first

failure occurred on the north side encompassing a portion of the east test fill, as shown in Figures 25 and 26.

The test fill had been in place since 1986, and according

to the results of monitoring, all excess pore pressures

had dissipated (see Fig. 12 of Crawford et al. 1992).

The failure was deep-seated and probably circular. It

appears that the only significant warning sign was that

the ratio of the pore pressure increase to the applied

loading increase u/p approached one within the

failure zone. The pore pressure response to embankment load within the failure area is shown in Figure

27.

Reconstruction of the embankment was carried out

by adding 5 m thick and approximately 30 m wide

berms on both sides of the failure. Filling started

in August 1989 and progressed at a very slow rate.

On March 10, 1990, a second failure, much larger in

extent and including most of the first failure, occurred

between the two test fills that had been in existence

since 1986 (Figures 25 and 26). The height of the fill

at the time of the second failure was 11.2m, which is

somewhat higher than that of the first failure. The road

was eventually completed with berms and lightweight

fill.

This case record, with test fills and well executed

instrumentation and monitoring, led to several obvious

but perplexing issues.

Quigley (1968) performed a mineralogical analysis on a small block sample of the clay and reported

the strong bonding exhibited by the Toulnustouc Clay

is also related to aluminium and iron hydroxide precipitates in the soil. These materials probably form

bonds in two ways: (1) by direct precipitation to form

a cement linking the soil grains together, and (2) by

growing in the mineralogical continuity at the edges

of the clay crystals, thus increasing their size. The

latter would result in increased Van der Waals attractive forces as crystals grow closer together and could

even form cementation bonds if the crystals came into

contact with one another. The reasonableness of this

hypothesis has been supported by the results of the

artificial cementation study in Section 5.4.

An example of very large bond strength is described

in Leroueil and Vaughan (1990) for a mudstone in

Japan (Ohtsuki et al. 1981). An examination of their

data shows that in the normal stress range from 1500

to 3000 kPa, the friction angle is only 8 with the

shear strength of about 1800 kPa. In this stress range,

the shear strength mobilized is therefore mostly bond

strength.

It can be observed from these cases that while the

bond strength in tension is low, the bond strength in

shear of natural material may differ by three orders of

magnitude and may constitute the major component of

the total shearing resistance that are measured in conventional tests in some natural materials. The degree

to which it can be mobilized depends on the nature of

the engineering problem under consideration.

6 ANALYSIS OF THE VERNON

EMBANKMENT

6.1

1. Why was the observational approach, which is generally accepted and now a time-honoured method,

not successful in preventing either the first or

second failure?

2. In what way are the results of the two test fills

misleading? Is the degree of natural horizontal variation of soil properties sufficient to cause the results

of the test fills to be inapplicable?

3. Why did the designed provision of berms not

prevent the second failure?

presented by Crawford et al. (1995) who described

two consecutive failures of an embankment on soft

clay, in spite of the fact that two test embankments

were already constructed on either side of the failures

and that the test embankments were higher than the

embankments that failed. The site is at Vernon, British

Columbia. The subsoil conditions shown in Figure 24

consisted of approximately 4 m of interlayered sand,

silt and clay, followed by a 5 m thick stiff to very stiff

clay crust, then by a deep deposit of soft to firm silty

clay. The undrained shear strengths measured by field

vane tests were approximately 80 kPa in the stiff clay

and 30 to 40 kPa in the soft to firm clay. The plasticity

index was about 35 and the natural moisture contents

varied from 60% to 80%. Figure 25 shows the locations of the test embankments and the embankment

that failed twice. The west test embankment was constructed to approximately 11.5 m thickness. The east

test embankment with wick drains was constructed

To investigate these issues, a series of limit equilibrium and finite element analyses were performed

and the results of these analyses are discussed in the

following sections.

6.2

the first failure assuming a uniform undrained strength

in both the crust and in the soft clay layer below the

crust. The results of their study showed that a factor

of safety of approximately one could be obtained for

a crust strength of 50 kPa and a strength of 30 kPa in

the soft clay layer below the crust.

16

Figure 24. Profiles of water contents, Atterberg limits and shear strengths (after Crawford et al. 1995)

Figure 25. Site plan showing location of test fills and failure zones (after Crawford et al. 1995)

to 9 m depth from which the strength increases linearly with depth. Bearing in mind that the depth of

the slip surface lay within the first 15 m depth, three

strength profiles are shown in Figure 28, together with

the 1960 and 1985 measured vane strength. It is considered that the middle profile marked M appears to

be the most representative of the vane strength data

strength profiles was used in this paper based on the

vane strength data shown in Figure 24. In accordance

with the observations on the effect of fissures on the

mass strength discussed in Section 4, the strength of

the crust was corrected to 40 kPa down to a depth of

6 m where the strength decreases in the transition zone

17

Figure 26. Longitudinal section through the embankment (after Crawford et al. 1995)

Figure 27. Height of fill, settlement, and piezometric surface at centre line of station 27+80 during

construction (after Crawford et al. 1995)

18

H and the slightly lower (by 10%) strength profile

marked L are obviously within reasonable limits of

interpretation of the strength data. The material parameters of the fill used were unit weight of 20.4 kN/m3

and c = 0, = 33 , as in Crawford et al. (1995).

Table 7 summarizes the material parameters used in

the analysis.

The results of stability analysis are shown in Table 8.

It may be seen that, for the first failure, both the Mprofile and the L-profile yield a factor of safety not far

from one. As discussed earlier, both profiles are within

reasonable limits of interpretation of measured vane

strength data. Without correcting the crust strength to

account for fissures, the factor of safety would be 1.3.

The factors of safety for the second failure are slightly

higher than the corresponding ones of the first failure

but are still within the limits of reliability of = 0

analysis. It is recognized that part of the fill would have

settled into the subsoil rendering the results somewhat

difficult to interpret. Nonetheless, the results of the

second failure may be considered as supplementary

of the first failure.

From the discussions in the preceding paragraphs,

it is apparent that the instability condition of the Vernon Embankment is similar to other embankments in

soft to firm sensitive clays. While limit equilibrium

analysis might have (from hindsight) predicted the

instability of the two failures, conventional stability

analysis alone would not have addressed the questions

in Section 6.1.

6.3 Finite element analysis of vernon embankment

It has been recognized that the development of an overstressed zone (plastic region) in soft clay controls the

development of high pore pressures and thus the stability of embankments with low factors of safety (Lo

1973; Law 1975). In order to explore the behaviour of

the Vernon Embankment in more detail, finite element

analyses were performed.

6.3.1 Method of analysis

The first series of analyses carried out involved elastoplastic total stress analysis under plane strain condition

using the program AFENA (Carter and Balaam 1995)

for the two successive failures. The parameters used

are the same as those used in the limit equilibrium analysis (Table 7). Additional parameters required are the

coefficient of earth pressure at rest, Ko , which is taken

to be 1.04 in the crust and 0.84 in the soft clay. The

undrained elastic modulus, Eu , was evaluated assuming an Eu /Su ratio of 500 and Su from the M-profile in

Figure 28. The fill strength used was c = 10 kPa and

= 33 .

The construction of the embankment was simulated

by activating the elements of fill material layer by layer,

20

Fill

0

Crust

Depth (m)

-6

-9 Transition Layer

-40

Table 8.

H Strength Profile

M Strength Profile

L Strength Profile

Measured Vane Strength 1985

Measured Vane Strength 1960

-60

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

H Strength Profile

M Strength Profile

L Strength Profile

from Crawford et al. 1995)

FS

FS

1.19

1.07

1.00

1.29

1.13

1.04

Table 7. Material properties used in the limit equilibrium analysis of the Vernon

Embankment.

Depth

(m)

Crust Layer

Transition Layer

Soft-Stiff Clay Layer

06

69

940

H

40

4035

3575

40

4028

2860

40

4024.5

24.552.5

19

Unit Weight,

(kN/m3 )

20

17

17

Unit: Meter

55.0

11.5

11.2

9.4

Step11

Step10

Step9

Step8

Step7

Step6

Step5

Step4

Step3

Step2

Step1

(0.9m)

(0.9m)

(1.1m)

(1.1m)

(1.1m)

(1.1m)

(1.0m)

(1.0m)

(1.0m)

(1.0m)

(1.0m)

9.3

26.7

7.5

1.5

1.0

1.5

1.0

5.0

Figure 29. The numerical construction scheme (The shaded area represents the construction after the first failure).

the following observations may be made:

(a) The plastic zone starts to form in the soft clay

below the crust and engulfs the location of the

piezometer at 10 m depth when the embankment

height reaches 4 m at Stn. 27 + 80. Subsequent to

the yielding of the soil at this moment, an increase

in rate of pore pressure rise may be expected. Figure 33 shows the measured pore pressure with an

increase in embankment height. It can be seen that

the yielding of the clay is well indicated by the

results of pore pressure measurements.

(b) The depth and the overall location of the velocity

field boundary are in general agreement with the

slip surface deduced by Crawford et al. (1995); and

(c) The horizon of maximum deflection at failure

agrees well with the location indicated by the

results of inclinometer measurements.

80

Smooth Boundary

Soomth Boundary

Unit:meter

Rigid Boundary

300

nine layers for the first failure and eleven layers for the

second layer as shown in Figure 29. The mesh used is

shown in Figure 30.

the critical height of the embankment is shown in Figure 34. It can be seen that the H-profile over predicts,

the L-profile under predicts slightly and the M-profile

yields good agreement with the observed critical

height of 9.4 m for the first failure. The computed

settlement with embankment height relationships are

compared with the measured settlements in Figure 35.

Bearing in mind there would be some effect of partial

consolidation, it can be seen that there is overall consistency between the results of the M-profile and the

observed settlements.

From the discussion in the preceding sections, it

is apparent that there is overall general agreement

between the results of analysis and the observed field

behaviour including critical height, pore pressure, lateral deflection, settlement and position of the slip

surface.

The incremental simulation of the embankment construction portrays the development of the plastic zone

and velocity field. Figure 31 illustrates the extent of

the plastic zone and velocity field at an embankment

height of 8.3 m (prior to failure) and 9.4 m (at failure), respectively. The distinct changes in the plastic

zone and velocity field when the fill height reached

9.4 m can be observed. As the embankment height

approaches the collapse load, the plastic region extends

to the ground surface outside the embankment and a

kinematic collapse mechanism develops as shown in

the velocity field. At 9.4 m, both the plastic zone and

velocity field indicate a failure state is imminent or has

been reached.

The propagation of the plastic zone with an increase

in embankment height is shown in Figure 32 together

with the velocity field boundary. The measured lateral

deflection close to the toe at Station 27 + 80 (Figure 11,

Similar analyses were carried out for the second failure

using the same parameters as for the first failure. The

20

Figure 31. Plastic Zones and Velocity Fields at embankment heights of H = 8.3 m and H = 9.4 m

20

20

40

60

80

100

10

Crawford's Deduced Slip Surface

0

Su=40kPa

-6m

-9m

-10

Su=28kPa

M-Profile

-20

8.3

7.2

H=3.7m

-30

9.4

4.0

Depth, m

6.1

5.0

-40

-50

-60

-70

-80

0

20

40

60

80

Figure 32. Development of the plastic zone in the foundation at increasing embankment height

21

100

20

18

16

14

The beginning of yielding

in FEM analysis

PWP, m

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

0

10

Embankment Height,m

Figure 33. Measured pore water pressure on 10 m depth at centre line of station 27+80.

Settlement at Centre Line of Embankment, m

0.0

Observed critical height

of the first failure=9.4m

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8

-1.0

Calculated settlement with M strength profile

Calculated settlement with L strength profile

0.0

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8

Calculated settlement with H strength profile

Calculated settlement with M strength profile

Calculated settlement with L strength profile

Measured settlement

-1.0

-1.2

-1.2

0

10

11

12

9.4

10

11

12

Embankment Heigh,m

Figure 34. Settlement of embankment centre vs embankment height with different strength profiles at station 27 + 80

(the first failure).

embankment centre station 27 + 80 (the first failure).

Table 8.

results of computed embankment height versus settlement relationships for the three strength profiles are

shown in Figure 36. The results for the L-profile yield

agreement with the observed critical height of 11.2 m.

One interpretation would be that this might indicate

an overall loss of strength of about 10% after the first

failure due to disturbance. This interpretation would

Two test fills were successfully constructed on the

west (Waterline Test Fill) and east (West Abutment

Test Fill) of the two failures as shown in Figure 25.

Because the performance of the West Abutment Test

Fill was affected by the installation of prefabricated

22

20

Observed critical height of

the second failure=11.2m

-0.2

20

40

60

80

100

H=11.4m

10

-0.4

1.0

1.4

0

-0.6

-6m

-9m

-10

-0.8

Depth, m

0.0

-1.0

-1.2

Calculated settlement with H strength profile

Calculated settlement with M strength profile

Calculated settlement with L strength profile

-1.4

-1.6

0

Su=40kPa

Su=28kPa

M-Profile

-20

-30

-40

10

11

12

13

-50

14

Embankment Heigh,m

-60

embankment height with different strength profiles at station

27 + 80 (the second failure).

H=9.40m Waterline test fill (Axisymmetric Strain)

H=11.4m Waterline test fill (Axisymmetric Strain)

-70

-80

0

40

60

80

100

will be analyzed so as to investigate the difference

in behaviour between the failed embankment and the

stable condition of the Waterline Test Fill.

An examination of the geometries of the Waterline

Test Fill shows that the problem is closer to threedimensional than a plane strain condition. Therefore,

any plane strain analysis (including limit equilibrium

analysis) based on plane strain conditions may be misleading. Although a 3-D elastoplastic analysis would

be preferable, a simpler axi-symmetric analysis was

performed so as to obtain some insight, as a first

approximation, into the impact of geometry on the

vast difference in behaviour of the embankments. The

rectangular geometry of the Waterline Test Fill was

idealized to a circular load with its diameter equal to

the average dimension of the two sides.

Figure 37 shows the progress of the plastic zone

from 9 m to 11.2 m to which the test fill was successfully completed. It is evident that at 11.2 m, the

condition is that of a contained plastic zone and the

test fill is stable. (A conventional limit equilibrium

analysis with the M-profile would have shown that the

factor of safety would be well below unity. In contrast, a back analysis assuming a factor of safety of

one would have indicated high strength. Both results

would be misleading.)

The plastic zones at H = 9.0 m and H = 9.4 m for a

strip and circular embankment are shown in Figure 38.

The large difference in extent of the plastic zones due

to different geometries of loading is evident. In addition, the propagation from 9.0 to 9.4 m is quite small

for the circular load. In contrast, the increment 0.4 m

of loading for the strip embankment results in a continuous plastic zone that has propagated to the ground

surface leading to collapse.

It is therefore suggested that observations at the

Waterline Test Fill may not be directly applicable to

fill (Axi-symmetric strain assumption).

20

10

0

1.5

1.0

1.0

1.4

Plane Strain H=9.4m (Strip Embankment)

Axisymetric Strain H=9.0m (Waterline Test Fill)

Axisymetric Strain H=9.4m (Waterline Test Fill)

Depth, m

-6m

-9m

Failure

-10

Su=40kPa

Su=28kPa

M-Profile

-20

-30

-40

-50

-60

-70

-80

0

20

40

60

80

100

Figure 38. Development of plastic zones under Waterline

test fill and strip embankment at station 27 + 80.

the road embankment due to the difference in development of the plastic zone under different loading

configurations.

In a subsequent section, case records of well defined

loading geometries will be analyzed to verify the

findings discussed for the Vernon case records.

23

20

BEHAVIOUR OF FOUNDATION CLAY

order to verify the effect of embankment geometry

on the behaviour of underlying soft clay deposits as

seen in the Vernon embankment and test fills.

The Sk-Edeby case involved construction and

monitoring of embankments with well defined geometries. The test fills were monitored over a period of

more than 10 years. Lo (1973) and Law (1975) have

both studied the impact of embankment geometry on

the behaviour of the foundation clay in this case.

7.1

In 1957, the Swedish Geotechnical Institute constructed a series of test fills at the Sk-Edeby test field

situated 25 km west of Stockholm Sweden. Figure 39

shows a plan of the test site showing the locations and

dimensions of each test fill. Originally, four circular

fills were constructed at Sk-Edeby of which three fills,

Areas I, II and III, were provided with sand drains

at different spacing to accelerate primary consolidation of the underlying foundation clay; a fourth test

fill, Area IV, was built without sand drains. In 1961,

four years after construction of the original circular

fills, a 40 m long test embankment was constructed

at Sk-Edeby by unloading Area III (see Figure 39).

The test embankment had a crest width of 4 m and

it was built without sand drains permitting comparison of its performance with that of Area IV. Holtz and

Broms (1972) provide a detailed account of the performance and assessment of the circular test fills whereas

the plane strain embankment is described by Holtz

and Lindskog (1972). For both the embankment and

Area IV, the height was 1.5 m with an applied surface

loading of 27 kPa, giving a factor of safety of 1.5.

Based on the case record, the foundation conditions

at Sk-Edeby comprise an upper deposit of postglacial clay underlain by a lower deposit of normally

consolidated glacial clay. Figures 40 and 41 summarize the natural moisture content, Atterberg limits and

the field vane strength profile (SGI vane) for the soils

encountered below the embankment and test Area IV.

For both the test fills, the field vane strength profiles

were measured prior to construction, in 1957 for Area

IV and in 1961 for the embankment, and again in 1971.

Referring to Figure 40, before construction, the

undrained strength of the clay below the test embankment was only 12 kPa near the ground surface decreasing to about 8 kPa at a depth of 3.8 m. Below 3.8 m, the

undrained strength increased from 8 kPa to 14 kPa at

10 m and to 25 kPa at a depth of 14 m. Below test Area

IV (Figure 41), the undrained strength of the clay was

found to decrease from 25 kPa near the ground surface

to about 8 kPa at a depth of 3 m. The strength then

Figure 39. Plan of the Sk-Edeby test field (after Holtz and

Broms 1972).

25 kPa at a depth of 12 m. Thus, the initial strength

profiles of both areas are very similar.

However, the changes in strength with time below

the two embankments are very different. Based on the

case records (see Figures 40 and 41), the field vane

strength below Area IV increased by about 5 kPa after

14 years of sustained loading. However, for the plane

strain embankment, there is virtually no increase in the

undrained strength of the foundation after 10 years of

loading even though the depth of the deposit and duration of loading are comparable. Consistently, there is

also little reduction in water content in the case of the

embankment while there is a more discernable reduction of water content in Area IV. To investigate the

possible cause of this behaviour, the test embankment

and Area IV fill were analyzed using the finite element

method.

The undrained shear strength profile for the

embankment and Area IV adopted for the analyses

are shown in Figures 40 and 41, respectively. For each

case, the foundation and embankment soils were modeled as linear elastic-perfectly-plastic materials with

an undrained strength governed by Mohr-Coulombs

failure criteria, a Poissons ratio of 0.49 (e.g. constant

volume deformation) and an Eu /Su ratio of 500. The

finite element analysis was performed using the program PLAXIS taking care to ensure enough elements

and load increments were used to obtain reliable solutions. For the test embankment, plane strain conditions

were assumed since the length of the embankment

24

Atterberg Limits

2.0m

(average value)

Stress, kPa

1

1

20

1.5m

60

10

15

20

25

30

35

1961

UPPER POST

GLACIAL CLAY

LOCAL

FAILURE

40

-2

LOWER GLACIAL

VARVED CLAY

1971

(Solid) PLASTIC

ZONE

1961

(Hollow)

-4

Depth (m)

-6

1961

(Light)

-8

Used in Analysis

1971

(Solid)

-10

-12

1971

(Dark)

-14

-16

ROCK OR MORAINE

Figure 40. Sk-Edeby Test Field Zones of local failure and subsurface profile from the plane strain test embankment (soil

properties from Holtz and Lindskog 1972).

Natural Moisture Content

Atterberg Limits

15.3m

1.5

0

UPPER POST

GLACIAL CLAY

NO ZONES OF

LOCAL FAILURE

Stress, kPa

1.5m

(average value)

20

1961

(Light)

40

60

10

15

20

25

30

35

1971

(Solid)

-2

1961

(Hollow)

-4

LOWER GLACIAL

VARVED CLAY

1971

(Solid)

-6

1961

(Hollow)

-8

-10

Used in

Analysis

-12

1971

(Dark)

-14

ROCK OR MORAINE

Figure 41. Sk-Edeby Test Field Zones of local failure and subsurface profile for the circular test fill area IV (soil properties

from Holtz and Broms 1972)

It is concluded from this study that the main difference in behaviour of Area IV compared with that

of the test embankment is due primarily to the loading geometry and its consequent effect on stresses and

zones of failure in the embankment foundation (see

also Law 1975). Given the sensitivity of the Sk-Edeby

Clay which was generally in the range of 7 to 20, it

is most probable that the effect of the microstructure

is significant. Therefore, the absence of strength gain

below the embankment fill after ten years of sustained

loading may be attributed to the process that the clay

was destructured within the zone of local failure. In

contrast, no plastic zone exists below the circular fill

Area and the behaviour of the clay follows the classical concept of strength increase with time of sustained

loading.

was approximately ten times the crest width. Axisymmetric conditions were assumed for theArea IV fill

which was circular. The construction of each embankment was simulated in six lifts and the results of the

analyses are summarized in Figures 40 and 41 which

show the calculated zones of failure in the foundation

after construction. It is noted that the results of the

present analysis are very similar to the results obtained

by Law (1975).

It can be seen by comparing Figures 40 and 41 that

there is a significant extent of plastic zone in the foundation of the Sk-Edeby test embankment whereas

there is no plasticity in the foundation of the Area

IV fill. This illustrates the importance of the loading geometry on embankment performance as in the

Vernon case described previously.

25

7.2

sk-edeby embankments

is evident that the behaviour of embankments founded

on soft clay depends not only on the properties of

the foundation soil but also on the configuration of

the applied loading. With respect to the issues raised

in Section 6.1 regarding the failures of the Vernon

Embankment, it may be observed that:

DYKE

PRIMARY

LAGOON

1997 FAILURE

B

2002

FAILURE

S2

SECONDARY ASH

A

S2

FLY ASH

SETTLING

D

DYKE

LAYOUT:

A - Secondary Ash Settling Pond 1 (normal water level el. 193.3m)

B - Secondary Ash Settling Pond 2 (normal water level el. 192.2m)

C - Secondary Ash Settling Pond 3 (normal water level el. 192.2m)

D - Bottom Ash Settling Pond (max. water level el. 195.4m)

1974; Graham 2003 and Man et al. 2003).

It is therefore of interest to examine the long term

stability of a section of the Nanticoke dyke which

failed 32 years after construction. The Nanticoke case

is of interest because the soil properties were comprehensively investigated in the original design, the

post-construction change in the dyke geometry and

pore pressure conditions were reasonably known, and

the geometries of the failed and stable sections were

clearly defined.

CONDITIONS

In clays with pronounced macrostructures mainly constituted by fissures, first time slides of excavated slopes

under long term conditions are well documented. For

example, in cuttings in Brown London Clay, Skempton

(1977) documented twelve cases with time to failure

varying from immediately after excavation (Bradwell

shown in Table 3) to 65 years after construction. The

slopes varied in height from 5 m to 17 m and inclinations from 0.5:1 (Bradwell) to 3.75:1. However, long

term failures of embankments on clay foundations are

relatively infrequent. Perhaps the best known examples

are the Seven Sisters dykes in Manitoba on the banks

of the Red River. Large movements of these dykes, of

heights between 7 to 8 m and downstream slopes of

2:1 to 2.5:1 founded on Lake Agassiz Clay had been

occurring for long periods of time in the order of tens

The Nanticoke Ash Lagoon dyke was built in Nanticoke, Ontario, between 1969 and 1970 on a deposit of

stiff fissured clay. The dyke was constructed to provide containment for the storage of bottom ash and fly

ash produced by the Nanticoke Thermal Generating

Station. Figure 42 shows an air photograph of the ash

storage area.

The Nanticoke Ash Lagoon dyke is an earthfill

embankment comprising predominantly clay fill, a

thin downstream granular shell comprising crushed

rock and a thin zone of rockfill slope protection on

the upstream slope (see Figure 44). The embankment

crest width is 4m, the dyke height varies from 6 m to

locally 17 m and the dyke has a total length of about

2130 m. Initially, the Nanticoke dyke was designed and

built with 2:1 upstream and downstream slopes. The

26

SECONDARY

LAGOON

INTERCEPTER

DITCH

based on geometrically similar surface loading and

accompanied by appropriate analyses before the

results thus verified are applied to the full scale

structure.

(b) Examination of the available information in Crawford et al. (1995) shown in Figures 24 and 25

indicates there is no definite trend of variation of

vane strength or water content between the 1960,

1985 and 1990 investigations for the soft to firm

clay layer. While there is some variation in the stiff

to very stiff crust, the reduction of vane strength

in the crust to account for fissures in the analyses

rendered the effect of variation on the results of

analyses negligible.

(c) Design for remedial measures of embankments at

locations of previous slides should be based on

some degree of loss of strength. A slow rate of

construction does not necessarily ensure stability.

(d) For embankments (plane strain) loaded close to

failure, the rate of propagation of plastic zone at fill

heights approaching failure is very rapid (see Figure 38 for plastic zones at fill heights 9.0 to 9.4 m).

At this meta-stable state, as the critical height is

approached, it is difficult to arrest an imminent

instability.

DYKE

2:1 SLOPES (1970)

4m

El. 197m

2

1

2

1

El. 185m

CRITICAL SLIP SURFACE

(Limit Equilibrium Analysis)

2A

El. 177m

El. 175m

2B

El. 174m

ZONE 1

2A

2B

3

4

5

CLAY FILL

UPPER NANTICOKE CLAY (FISSURED)

LOWER NANTICOKE CLAY (INTACT)

BASAL TILL

LIMESTONE BEDROCK

CRUSHED ROCK

Figure 43. Original as-built geometry of the Nanticoke Ash Lagoon dyke Section S2-S2.

AS-BUILT DYKE WITH

2:1 SLOPES (1970)

FLATTENED TO 2.75:1

IN 1977

4m

El. 197m (15m above ditch invert)

TENSION

CRACK

El. 193.3m (Raised in 1984)

2.75

1

INTERCEPTOR DITCH

(ADDED IN 1971)

El. 185m

2

1

2A

El. 182m

El. 179m

El. 177m

2B

El. 176m

ZONE 1

2A

2B

3

4

5

CLAY FILL

UPPER NANTICOKE CLAY (FISSURED)

LOWER NANTICOKE CLAY (INTACT)

BASAL TILL

LIMESTONE BEDROCK

CRUSHED ROCK

Figure 44. Summary of modifications made to the Nanticoke Ash Lagoon dyke geometry and operation after construction.

was required at all locations of the perimeter dyke due

to wide spread shallow slumping of the downstream

slope between 1970 and 1977. Finally, the third modification involved raising the upstream pond level from

el. 189 m to 193.3 m in 1984 (see Section S2-S2 near

Secondary Ash Settling Pond 1 in Fig 42).

After the final modifications, the Nanticoke Ash

Lagoon Dyke performed satisfactorily from 1984 to

1997. However, in November 1997, a 100 m long section of the dyke slumped adjacent to Secondary Ash

Settling Pond 2. The location of the failure is shown on

Figure 42. The dyke was subsequently repaired in 1997

by locally flattening the downstream slope to 3:1 and

lowering the crest from el. 197 m to 194 m. Although

the incident was not well documented, based on the

nature of the repairs it is inferred that this might be the

first incident of deep-seated moment of the dyke.

dyke foundation comprises a deposit of overconsolidated (OCR 6) stiff fissured clay overlying basal till

and limestone bedrock. The clay deposit is on average about 8m thick. Figure 43 shows the as-built dyke

geometry and the results of limit equilibrium analysis

to assess the design factor of safety, which was 1.26

for the dyke section considered below.

Since construction of the Nanticoke dyke, there

have been three significant modifications made to the

as-built dyke geometry and its operating conditions.

These changes, not known at the time of the original

design, are summarized in Figure 44. First, in 1971

a 3 m deep interceptor ditch was added 6 m downstream of the original embankment but only adjacent

to the Ash Settling Ponds (see Figures 42 and 44).

The ditch was built to divert runoff from fields to the

west of the storage area. Then, in 1977, the downstream slope of the dyke was flattened from 2:1 to

27

N-Values (blows/ft)

0

204

06

10 20 30 40 50 60 70

TOPSOIL

wP

10-8

10-7

10-6

10-5

wL

fissured, moist, high

plastic clay.

(ZONE 2a)

Fissured clay

Depth (m)

(AVERAGE DEPTH)

6 (ZONE 2b)

Predominantly intact

clay.

10

(AVERAGE DEPTH)

clayey silt to silt,

trace of sand, occ. silty

sand layers.

(AVERAGE DEPTH)

slumped adjacent to Secondary Ash Settling Pond 1

(see Figure 42). This slump was relatively well documented with photographs and some displacement

monitoring. The approximately shape of the failure

surface is shown on Figure 44. The time-dependent or

viscous nature of the 2002 failure is of particular interest. In January 2002, the first signs of distress appeared

when a 50 mm wide crack was discovered on the crest

of the dyke adjacent to Secondary Ash Settling Pond 1.

Between January 2002 and April 2002, vertical deformations of the crest increased from initially 50 mm to

nearly 1 m. Horizontal deformations at the toe of the

embankment increased similarly over the same period.

From the observed deformations, the 2002 failure was

deep seated and of a circular nature. The rate of movement during the failure, however, was relatively slow

compared with documented failures in sensitive clays

(for example see the Vernon case). It is interesting that

the time to failure was approximately 32 years post

construction making this a relatively unique case. In

the following sections, the engineering properties of

Nanticoke clay are discussed and theAsh Lagoon Dyke

is analyzed using limit equilibrium analysis and finite

element analysis to investigate the factors leading up

to the 2002 failure.

8.2

300

250

PRESENT STUDY

50mm dia. Samples

'= 28o

c' = 20 kPa

150

100

MASS STRENGTH

(Vallee 1969)

100mm dia. Samples

'm=18o

c'm=13kpa

50

0

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

Effective Normal Stress,'N (kPa)

RESIDUAL STRENGTH

(All sample sizes)

'r= 15o

c'r= 13 kpa

400

450

500

envelope of Nanticoke clay (from Valle 1969, Lo et al. 1969,

and Liang 2006).

whereas the lower zone, Zone 2B, is less fissured. The

impact of the relative frequency of the fissures can

be seen in the variability of such parameters as the in

situ Hydraulic Conductivity and the Standard Penetration Test N-Values (see Figure 45). The basal till and

limestone encountered below the clay, although well

characterized, are of lesser importance in assessing the

failure.

The strength and deformation behaviour of stiff fissured clay were comprehensively investigated by Lo

et al. (1969) and Lo et al. (1971). It has been shown

in Figure 12 that for fissured clay there is a significant

reduction of undrained strength from that of the intact

material to that of the material mass as the specimen

size and consequent size of the failure plane increases.

Similarly, as shown in Figure 46, sample size also

summarized in Figure 45. The foundation of the Nanticoke dyke at Section S2-S2 comprises 8 m of stiff

fissured clay underlain by a very stiff to hard basal

till and then limestone bedrock. In general, the stiff

fissured Nanticoke clay can be divided into two basic

28

INTACT STRENGTH

(Vallee 1969)

'p=32o

c'p=22kpa

200

Table 9.

Soil Layer

Hydraulic

Conductivity used

in the Analysis (cm/s)

Unit Weight

(kN/m3 )

Cohesion

Intercept

(kPa)

Effective

Elastic

Friction Angle Parameters

(degrees)

(E in kPa and )

Upper Nanticoke clay (Zone 2a)

Lower Nanticoke clay (Zone 2b)

Basal Till

Bedrock

kv = kh = 5 108

kv = kh = 5 108

kv = kh = 1 108

kv = kh = 5 107

kv = kh = 5 105

19

19.5

19.5

NA

NA

14

13

13

NA

NA

24

18

18

NA

NA

25000 0.4

30000 0.4

30000 0.4

NA

NA

NA Not modeled because a rigid boundary was assumed at the bottom of the Nanticoke clay deposit.

Peak strength parameters

Mass strength parameters

Nanticoke foundation clay were calculated assuming

Ko = 1.5 with the initial groundwater table at a depth

of 5.4 m. In the analysis, peak strength parameters were

used for the fill and mass strength parameters for the

foundation.

The solution scheme involved the repeated usage

of finite element seepage analysis and elasto-plastic

analysis to establish the appropriate groundwater conditions and states of stress. At each stage, the results

of seepage analysis were checked against field observations of pore pressures which were monitored from

1988 to 2004. The results of the analysis are shown

in Figures 47a to 47d. Details of the solution can be

found in Liang (2006).

Limit equilibrium calculations were also performed

using the program Slope/W (Geoslope 2004) to complement the finite element analysis. The soil strength

and material parameters used in the limit equilibrium analysis were identical to those used in the finite

element calculations (see Table 9). For each of the

operating conditions considered, the piezometric head

in the dyke and its foundation was calculated by finite

element seepage analysis and imported into the limit

equilibrium analysis.

Nanticoke clay. Figure 46 shows the Mohr Coulomb

envelop for Nanticoke clay as determined from drained

triaxial compression tests (peak strength) and multiple pass direct shear tests (residual strength). For

18mm diameter specimens, the effective peak strength

parameters of Nanticoke clay are c = 22 kPa and

= 32 neglecting curvature of the failure envelop

at very low normal stresses: These are considered to

be the peak strength parameters of the intact material.

As the sample size is increased, the Mohr-Coulomb

strength parameters reduce to c = 13 kPa and = 18

for 100 mm diameter samples, which is slightly above

the residual strength of Nanticoke clay as measured

using multiple pass direct shear tests (e.g. c = 13 kPa

and = 15 ). The impact of macrostructures or fissures on the engineering behaviour of Nanticoke clay

is evident in Figure 46 and for stability analysis the

mass strength of the material should be used: in this

case cm = 13 kPa and m

= 18 .

Lastly, in order to assess the failure of the Nanticoke dyke in 2002, the strength parameters of the dyke

fill were also obtained from multiple pass direct shear

tests. Both peak and residual strength parameters were

obtained for the dyke material and the peak strength

parameters are summarized in Table 9. The dyke fill

comprised Nanticoke clay borrowed from within the

perimeter of the ash storage area and compacted at

the optimum moisture content (about 26%). The residual strength of the fill and the undisturbed foundation

material are identical, as would be expected.

8.4

and groundwater conditions since construction on the

stability of the dyke have been evaluated and are discussed below. Figure 47a shows the calculated zones

of plasticity or local failure in the Nanticoke case after

filling the head pond to el. 189 m and before excavating the downstream interceptor ditch in 1971. For

the condition of the original design, the factor of safety

determined from limit equilibrium analysis is 1.26 and

there are small zones of local failure in the foundation

near the toe of the dyke and in the centre of the fill.

Figure 47b shows the impact of excavating the interceptor ditch in 1971 6 m downstream of the dyke. For

To gain insight into the stress changes in the Nanticoke

case, the 2002 failure was assessed using finite element

analysis. The procedure of analysis followed the stress

history generated by construction and operation of the

facility, so as to determine the states of effective stress

and groundwater conditions at a particular stage. The

material parameters used in the analysis are shown in

29

Discussion of results

PEAK STRENGTH

FOR THE FILL

2:1 SLOPES (1970)

4m

El. 197m (15m above ditch invert)

2

2

1

El. 185m

K'o = 1.5

(LIMIT EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS)

El. 177m

El. 175m

2A

2B

El. 174m

THE FOUNDATION

ZONE 1

CLAY FILL

2A UPPER NANTICOKE CLAY (FISSURED)

2B LOWER NANTICOKE CLAY (INTACT)

3 BASAL TILL

4 LIMESTONE BEDROCK

5 CRUSHED ROCK

PEAK STRENGTH

FOR THE FILL

2:1 SLOPES (1970)

4m

El. 197m (15m above ditch invert)

TENSION CRACK

1

El. 189m (Original Design)

2

1

2

1

INTERCEPTOR DITCH

(ADDED IN 1971)

El. 185m

El. 179m

El. 177m

El. 182m

2A

K'o = 1.5

2B

El. 176m

THE FOUNDATION

PEAK STRENGTH

FOR THE FILL

AS-BUILT DYKE WITH

2:1 SLOPES (1970)

FLATTENED TO 2.75:1

IN 1977

4m

El. 197m (15m above ditch invert)

TENSION CRACK

1

El. 189m (Original Design)

2

2.75

1

INTERCEPTOR DITCH

(ADDED IN 1971)

El. 185m

PLASTIC ZONES

El. 179m

El. 177m

2A

K'o = 1.5

El. 182m

2B

El. 176m

THE FOUNDATION

PEAK STRENGTH

FOR THE FILL

AS-BUILT DYKE WITH

2:1 SLOPES (1970)

FLATTENED TO 2.75:1

IN 1977

4m

El. 197m (15m above ditch invert)

TENSION CRACK El. 193.3m (RAISED IN 1984)

1

2.75

1

INTERCEPTOR DITCH

(ADDED IN 1971)

El. 185m

2

1

PLASTIC ZONE

PLASTIC ZONES

El. 179m

El. 177m

El. 182m

2B

El. 176m

THE FOUNDATION

(d) After raising the pond level to el. 193.3m (F.S. = 1.20)

Figure 47. Zones of local failure in the Nanticoke dyke and foundation during its operation.

30

2A

K'o = 1.5

2:1 SLOPES (1970)

4m

El. 197m (15m above ditch invert)

FLATTENED TO 2.75:1

IN 1977

2.75

INTERCEPTOR DITCH

(ADDED IN 1971)

El. 185m

El. 197m

2

1

K'O = 1.5

PLASTIC ZONES (FE ANALYSIS)

El. 182m

2A

2B

Figure 48. Zones of local failure using residual strength parameters for the geometry and operating condition

from 1984 to 2002.

and the foundation. With more than 40% of the potential failure plane reached the peak strength or mass

strength of either the fill or foundation, respectively.

Such stresses significantly exceed the residual strength

of the dyke and foundation materials thereby inducing

the potential for softening and decrease of strength

from the peak or mass strength to the residual strength.

Figure 48 shows calculated zones of local failure based on the residual strength parameters of both

the foundation and the fill materials (cr = 13 kPa and

r = 15 ). The critical slip surface obtained from limit

equilibrium analysis is also plotted in Figure 48 for

the conditions considered. Base on this analysis, zones

of failure in the dyke and foundation are contiguous

and the dyke is on the verge of collapse (e.g. the factor of safety is about 1). In addition, the extent and

distribution of plastic zones from finite element analysis agree well with the results of limit equilibrium

analysis. Thus, the analysis summarized in Figure 48

indicates that the residual strength of the Nanticoke fill

and foundation was mobilized at the time of the 2002

failure. The time required for the failure to manifest

was 32 years after construction and about 18 years

after raising the level of the upstream pond.

the dyke or the foundation. This is due primarily to the

positive effect of the ditch, which caused a reduction of

piezometric head in the dyke that counterbalanced the

removal of material from downstream of the dyke. For

this case, the calculated factor of safety of the dyke was

1.21, which is slightly lower than before excavating the

ditch.

In 1977, the downstream slope of the dyke was flattened from 2:1 to 2.75:1. The calculated zones of local

failure for this condition are plotted in Figure 47c.

Based on the finite element calculations, it appears

that flattening the downstream slope caused a stress

concentration and a zone of local plasticity near the

interceptor ditch. At this stage, the global factor of

safety of the dyke increased to about 1.28 based on

limit equilibrium analysis. Thus, a remedial measure

that was implemented to control shallow slumping of

the dyke fill caused a slight increase of the global factor

of safety; However, the remedial measure also created

a stress concentration near the downstream toe and

interceptor ditch.

The third and final change to the dyke geometry and

operation occurred in 1984 when the upstream pond

level was raised to el. 193.3 m. Figure 47d shows the

resultant zones of local failure and the eventual failure

surface for this condition.At the higher head pond level

(el. 193.3 m), there are extensive zones of local failure

in the fill and the foundation. Over 40% of the critical

slip surface has reached the peak strength of either the

dyke or foundation materials. From limit equilibrium

analysis, however, the global factor of safety was about

1.2, which at the time would probably not have caused

major concern.

Based on the preceding results and discussions, it is

concluded that changes to the Nanticoke dyke geometry and operating conditions had a significant impact

on the state of effective stresses in the Nanticoke dyke

and foundation. The impact of these changes did not

and could not be reflected on the global factor of safety

based on limit equilibrium analysis. The most significant change in the stress state occurred after raising the

upstream pond level to el. 193.3 m in 1984 resulting

macroscopic and microscopic structures of clays on

the stability of earth structures. The microscopic structure consisting of the fabric and bonds of the clay

particles was studied by a review of the behaviour

of sensitive clays, experiments with electrokinetic

cementation and bonding in natural soils. The effects

of macroscopic structure which is mainly constituted by fissures in stiff clays and in the crust of

soft to firm clay deposits are examined using the

results of field tests and previous case histories. Two

recent case histories of failures, one in soft clay and

one in stiff-fissured clay, were analyzed in detail so

as to address some important issues relating to the

31

CONCLUSIONS

capability to predict imminent instability using a conventional design method. From the results of this study,

the following conclusions can be drawn:

(1) In sensitive clays, the concept of post-peak strength

developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s which

would allow for strength anisotropy time effects

and progressive failure and is independent of stress

paths remains valid. Design based on a post-peak

envelope would implicitly account for the effects

of microstructure.

(2) Electrokinetically-induced bonding tests showed

that iron compounds, and Fe2 O3 in particular,

are effective bonding agents capable of increasing the strength, inducing brittleness and producing pseudo-overconsolidation, all in substantial

amounts. An important mechanism of formation of

bonding is ionic diffusion.

(3) Mineralogical studies showed that iron compounds

are prevalent in Champlain Sea Clays both in the

soft and very stiff sensitive clays, acting as an

important bonding agent in these natural deposits.

(4) In clay deposits where fissuring is evident, it is

important to appreciate the difference in strength

of the intact material, along the fissures and the soil

mass (operational strength). The strength of stiff

fissured clays, whether in the undrained or drained

state, decreases with an increase in sample size

towards the mass strength in the field. Therefore,

strength determined from conventional U-U tests

on 50 mm samples would be on the unsafe side if

directly used for design.

(5) Field evidence indicates that the fissured crust of

soft to firm clay deposits showed similar behaviour

as stiff-fissured clay. The strength in the crust measured by the field vane test is close to the intact

strength and should therefore be reduced accordingly for the design of embankments on soft clay

deposits.

(6) Results of analysis of the Vernon Embankments and

Sk-Edeby Test Field emphasize the vast difference

in behaviour between different loading geometries

at the same surface loading. The key factor is the

generation and extent of the plastic zone which

delineates the region of damage to the microstructure of soft sensitive clays. Within the plastic zone,

pore pressure increases at a rapid rate and may continue to rise at constant loading due to an increase

in shearing strain causing further bond breakage.

Propagation of the plastic zone to the ground surface led to collapse (Vernon Embankment). For

stable embankments, no increase in strength with

time results within the plastic zone for long periods

(Sk-Edeby Embankment).

(7) As the critical height of the embankment is

approached, the stability of the embankment is

at a meta-stable state. The plastic zone increases

progressive failure at constant loading. This state

of behaviour cannot be reflected in limit equilibrium analysis. Appropriate finite element or similar

stress analysis should be performed to delineate the

details of foundation behaviour.

(8) The use of mass (operational) strength in terms of

effective stress which accounts for the macrostructure of fissured clays appears to be able to capture

the development of plastic zones caused by postconstruction changes in geometric and groundwater conditions under long-term embankment

loading.

(9) Analogous to conclusion (7) relevant to soft clays,

factors of safety from limit equilibrium analysis

cannot reflect the subtle change in stability conditions for embankments in stiff-fissured clays. For

the evaluation of stability, the development of plastic zones due to minor changes in post-construction

condition should be investigated.

It is suggested that relevant sections of the above

conclusions may serve as additional design considerations for embankments on clay foundations.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors would like to acknowledgement the work

of Dr. Silvana Micic Trow International and Messrs.

Guangfeng Qu and Yi (George) Liang Graduate

Students at The University of Western Ontario. In addition, the research performed is supported by NSERC

Discovery Grant 7745-03. Appreciation is expressed

to Ontario Power Generation for the information on

the Ash Disposal Dyke of Nanticoke G.S.

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Rosenqvist, I.T. (1966). Norwegian research into the properties of quick clay a review. Engineering Geology, 1, pp.

445450.

Simons, N.E. (1967). Discussion on shear strength of stiff

clay. Proceedings Geotechnical Conference, Oslo 2, pp.

159160.

Skempton, A.W. (1977). Slope stability of cuttings in brown

London clay. Proceedings, IX International Conference

SMFE (Tokyo), Vol. 3, pp. 261270.

Skempton, A.W. and La Rochelle, P. (1965). The Bradwell

slip: a short-term failure in London Clay. Geotechnique,

Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 221241.

Skempton, A.W. and Petley, D.J. (1967). The strength

along structural discontinuities in stiff clays.Proceedings

Geotechnical Conference, Oslo 2, pp. 2946.

Skempton, A.W., Schuster, R.L. and Petley, D.J. (1969).

Joints and fissures in the London Clay at Wraysbury and

Edgware. Geotechnique, 19 No. 2, pp. 205217.

Trak, B., La Rochelle, P., Tavenas, F. and Leroueil, S. (1980).

A new approach to the stability analysis of embankments

on sensitive clays. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol.

17, pp. 526543.

Valle, J. (1969). The influence of fissures on the shear

behaviour of a stiff clay. MESc Thesis, Dept. of Civil

Engineering, Laval University.

Yong, R.N., Sethi, A.J. and La Rochelle, P. (1979). Significance of amorphous material relative to sensitivity in some

Champlain clays. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 16, pp.

511520.

34

2007 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN13 978-0-415-42280-2

railway embankments

Buddhima Indraratna & Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn

University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia

Vasantha Wijeyakulasuriya

Dept. of Main Roads, Brisbane, QLD, Australia

Mohamed A. Shahin

University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia

David Christie

RailCorp (Sydney), NSW, Australia

ABSTRACT: Much of Australian railway tracks traverse coastal areas containing soft soils and marine deposits.

Pre-construction stabilization of soft formation soils by applying a surcharge load alone often takes too long. The

installation of prefabricated vertical drains (PVDs) can reduce the preloading period significantly by decreasing

the drainage path length, sometimes by a factor of 10 or more. The analytical solution based on actual radial

soil permeability is proposed considering the variation of vacuum pressure, and the Cavity Expansion Theory is

employed to predict the smear zone caused by the installation of mandrel driven vertical drains. The predicted

smear zone and the effect of drain unsaturation are compared with data obtained from a large-scale radial

consolidation tests and the results are explained. When a higher load is required to meet the desired rate of

settlement and the cost of surcharge is also significant, the application of vacuum pressure with reduced surcharge

loading can be used. In this method, an external negative load is applied to the soil surface in the form of

vacuum pressure through a sealed membrane system. The applied vacuum pressure generates negative pore

water pressure, resulting in an increase in effective stress and accelerated consolidation, also avoiding the need

for a high surcharge embankment. The analytical and numerical analyses incorporating the authors equivalent

plane strain solution for both Darcian and non-Dracian flow are conducted to predict the excess pore pressures,

lateral and vertical displacements and several selected case histories are analysed and presented. Cyclic loading

of PVDs is also examined in the laboratory in a manner appropriate for railway environments. It is shown that

short PVDs can dissipate excess pore pressure as fast as they are built up under repeated loading conditions. The

research findings verify that the impact of smear and vacuum pressure can significantly affect soil consolidation,

and these aspects need to be simulated properly in the selected numerical approach. Finally, the use of native

vegetation to stabilise soft soils in railway environment is discussed with the aid of preliminary suction models

developed on the basis of evapotranspiration mechanics applied to tree roots.

INTRODUCTION

settlement characteristics, affecting major infrastructure including buildings, roads and rail tracks (Johnson

1970). Therefore, it is essential to stabilize the existing

soft soils before commencing any construction activities in order to prevent differential settlements. Also in

such low-lying areas it is necessary to raise the existing

ground level to keep the surface above the groundwater

table or flood level. A common practice to overcome

these problems is to support the structure on special

development activities taking place, especially in the

congested coastal areas, construction activities have

become concentrated in low-lying marshy areas, which

are comprised of highly compressible weak organic

and peaty soils of varying thickness (Indraratna et al.

1992a). The entire coastal belt is dotted with very

soft clays up to significant depths. These soft clay

35

settlement to a greater degree, or to support them on

pile foundations (Indraratna et al. 1992b, 2005a). In the

case of a deep strong bearing stratum foundation, costs

may become prohibitively high and not commensurate

with the cost of the super structure, for example in the

case of rail tracks subject to cyclic loads (Broms 1987).

Preloading is the most successful ground improvement technique that can be used in low-lying areas.

It involves loading of the ground surface to induce a

greater part of the ultimate settlement that the ground

is expected to experience after construction (Richart

1957; Indraratna and Redana 2000; Indraratna et al.

2005a). In order to control the development of excess

pore pressures, this surcharge embankment is usually

raised as a multi-stage exercise with rest periods provided between the loading stages (Jamiolkowski et al.

1983). Since most compressible soils are characterised

by very low permeability and considerable thickness,

the time needed for the required consolidation can be

long, and also the surcharge load required may be significantly high (Indraratna et al. 1994). Currently this

may not be possible with busy construction schedules.

Installation of sand drains and geosynthetic vertical

drains can reduce the preloading period significantly

by decreasing the drainage path length in the radial

direction, as the consolidation time is inversely proportional to the square of the length of the drainage

path (Hansbo 1981; Indraratna and Redana 1998;

Indraratna and Redana 2000). Due to the rapid initial

consolidation, vertical drains will increase the stiffness and bearing capacity of soft foundation clays (Bo

et al., 2003).

Application of vacuum load can further accelerate the rate of settlement, generally compensating

for the adverse effects of smear and well resistance

(Indraratna et al. 2005b). Sand compaction piles provide significantly increased stiffness to soft compressible soils (Indraratna et al., 1997). Geosynthetic drains

are usually composed of a plastic core (protected by

fabric filter) with a longitudinal channel. The filter

(sleeve) is made of synthetic or natural fibrous material

with a high resistance to clogging. Vertical drains are

applicable for moderately to highly compressible soils,

which are usually normally consolidated or lightly

over consolidated, and for stabilizing a deep layer of

soil having a low permeability. The above remediation

techniques allow coastal structures such as transport

systems, embankments and tall buildings to be more

stable under large static and cyclic loads.

In this paper, the effects of the compressibility

indices, the variation of soil permeability and the magnitude of preloading are examined through the consolidation process. The smear zone prediction based

on the Cavity Expansion Theory is discussed based

on the large scale laboratory results. The equivalent

(transformed) permeability coefficients for plane

band-shaped

cross section

dw = f(a,b)

Geotextile filter

equivalent circular

cross-section

equivalent diameter of drain well (Indraratna et al., 2005f).

codes, employing the modified Cam-clay theory. A

case history is discussed and analysed, including the

site of the New Bangkok International Airport (Thailand) and the predictions are compared with the available field data. The use of native vegetation for stabilising rail tracks is described with a selected case history,

with the aim of achieving reduced track settlement.

SYSTEM

Various types of vertical drains including sand drains,

sand compaction piles, prefabricated vertical drains

(geosynthetic) and gravel piles have been commonly

used in the past. Apart from increasing cost of sand

quarying in some countries and conventional sand

drains that can be damaged from lateral ground movement, the flexible prefabricated vertical drains (PVD)

systems with relatively more rapid installation have

replaced the original sand drains and gravel piles. The

most common band shaped drains have dimensions of

100 mm 4 mm. For design purposes, the rectangular

(width-a, thickness-b) section must be converted to an

equivalent circle (diameter, dw ) because, the conventional theory of radial consolidation assumes circular

drains (Fig. 1).

The following typical equation is used to determine

the equivalent drain diameter:

dw = 2(a + b)/

(Hansbo, 1979)

(1)

Atkinson and Eldred (1981) proposed that a reduction factor of /4 should be applied to Eq. 1 to take

account of the corner effect where the flow lines rapidly

36

Polypropylene core

dw=0.5a+0.7b

Long & Covo (1994)

Relatively

uniform soil

mass

a) uniform bending

Band drain

a

dw=2(a+b)/

Hansbo (1979)

b) sinusoidal bending

H

Weak

zones

Weak

zones

Assumed water

flow net

Pradhan et al. (1993)

de

c) local bending

d) local kinking

e) multiple kinking

Figure 2. Assessment of equivalent diameter of band shaped

vertical drains (Indraratna et al., 2005f).

C

L

Benchmark and

Dummy piezometer

(1986) proposed that:

dw = (a + b)/2

1 2

1

2a

d + a 2 2 de

4 e

12

Then, dw = de 2 s2 + b

Piezometer

Sub-surfacesettlementplate

(3)

preloading (Indraratna et al. 2005d).

(4)

expel water away from the drains and to provide a

sound-working mat for vertical drain rigs.

Before installing the vertical drains, general site

preparations including the removal of vegetation and

surficial soil, establishing site grading and placing a

compact sand blanket are required.

Field instrumentation for monitoring and evaluating

the performance of embankments is vital to examine

and control the geotechnical problems. Based on the

construction stages, field instrumentation can be separated into two categories (Bo et al., 2003). The first

category is employed to prevent sudden failures during construction (e.g. settlement plates, inclinometers

and piezometers), whereas the second group is used

to record changes in the rate of settlement and excess

pore pressure during loading stages (e.g. multilevel

settlement gauges and piezometers).

equivalent diameter dw could be computed using an

electrical analogue field plotter:

dw = 0.5a + 0.7b

(5)

parameter that controls the performance of prefabricated vertical drains. The discharge capacity depends

primarily on the following factors (Fig. 3): (i) the area

of the drain; (ii) the effect of lateral earth pressure; (iii)

possible folding, bending and crimping of the drain

and (iv) infiltration of fine particles into the drain filter.

In practice, static and dynamic methods can be used

to install vertical drains. Static procedure is preferred

for driving the mandrel into the ground, whereas the

dynamic methods seem to create a greater disturbance

to the surrounding soil during installation (e.g. drop

hammer impact or vibrating hammer). A typical installation rig is shown in Fig. 4. The degree of disturbance

during installation depends on several factors such as

the soil types, mandrel size, mandrel shape and soil

The vacuum preloading method was originally introduced in Sweden by Kjellman (1952) for cardboard

wick drains. It has been used extensively to accelerate

37

Sand Blanket

Inclinometer

(2)

diameter of band-shaped drains should be estimated

by considering the flow net around the soil cylinder of

diameter de (Fig. 2). The mean square distance of their

flow net is calculated as:

s2 =

Sealed

pa

CL

pa

time

u0

Membrane

Vacuum Pump

Sand Blanket

Peripheral slurry

Trench

pa

Impervious

Slurry Wall

time

u0 = pa

= pa (u0 u) = u

(adopted from Chu and Yan, 2005).

0

Time

-100

100

Maximum excess

pore pressure

0

Time

Vertical effective

stress (kPa)

-100

100

0

Time

-100

(a)

100

p (preloading

pressure

p0 (Vacuum

pressure)

Time

-100

100

Maximum excess

pore pressure

0

Time

-100

100

0

Time

-100

(b)

(b) idealised vacuum preloading (Indraratna et al. 2005d).

monitored.

The vacuum head can be distributed to a greater

depth of the subsoil using the PVD system.

The extent of surcharge fill can be decreased to

achieve the same amount of settlement, depending

on the efficiency of the vacuum system in the field

(i.e., air leaks).

Since the surcharge height can be reduced, the maximum excess pore pressure generated by vacuum

preloading is less than the conventional surcharge

method (Fig. 7).

increases equiaxially, and the corresponding lateral

movement is compressive. Consequently, the risk of

shear failure can be minimized even at a higher rate

of embankment construction. However, the inward

38

p (preloading

pressure

Excess pore

pressure (kPa)

Excess pore

pressure (kPa)

Stress/

Pressure (kPa)

100

Vertical effective

stress (kPa)

such as Philadelphia International Airport, USA and

Tianjin port, China (Holtan, 1965 and Yan and Chu,

2003). When a higher surcharge load is required to

meet the expected settlement and this cost becomes

substantial, a combined vacuum and fill surcharge

can be employed. In very soft clay area, where a

high surcharge embankment cannot be constructed

without affecting stability, the vacuum application is

preferable. Recently, the PVD system has also been

employed to distribute vacuum pressure to deep subsoil layer, thereby increasing the consolidation rate

of reclaimed land from the sea (e.g. Indraratna et al.

2005d, Chu et al. 2000). The mechanism of the vacuum preloading can be described by the spring analogy

provided by Chu and Yan (2005) (Fig. 5). The effective

stress increases through vacuum load while the total

stress remains constant.

For vacuum-assisted preloading, the installation of

some horizontal drains in the transverse and longitudinal directions is compulsory after installing the sand

blanket. Subsequently, these drains can be connected

to the edge of a peripheral Bentonite slurry trench,

which is normally sealed by an impervious membrane

(Fig. 6). The trenches can then be filled with water to

improve sealing between the membrane and Bentonite

slurry. The vacuum pumps are connected to the prefabricated discharge system extending from the trenches,

and the suction head generated by the pump accelerates dissipation of excess pore water pressure in the

soil towards the drains and the surface.

The characteristics of vacuum preloading in comparison with conventional preloading are as follows

(Qian et al., 1992):

Stress/

Pressure (kPa)

et al. 2005d).

20

CL Smear zone

Settlement (cm)

Heave

-p0

-40

Measured

Predicted

Perfect drain

-80

Smear only

-120

Vacuum

pressure

distribution

-160

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

ks kh

(Indraratna & Redana, 2000; Indraratna & Chu, 2005).

Measured

80

60

-k1p0

well resistance

Undisturbed zone

40

ds/2

Perfect drain

20

de/2

Smear only

0

0

100

200

300

distribution (modified after Indraratna et al., 2005d).

400

Time (days)

Figure 9. Excess pore water pressure variation at piezometer location, P6 (after Indraratna & Redana, 2000; Indraratna

& Chu, 2005).

constant volume compressibility (mv ) and a constant

coefficient of lateral permeability (kh ) are assumed

(Barron 1948, Hansbo 1981). However, the value of

mv varies along the consolidation curve over a wide

range of applied pressure (p). In the same manner,

kh also changes with the void ratio (e). Indraratna

et al. (2005c) have replaced mv with the compressibility indices (Cc and Cr ), which define the slopes

of the e-log relationship. Moreover, the variation of

horizontal permeability coefficient (kh ) with void ratio

(e) during consolidation is represented by the e-logkh

relationship that has a slope of Ck .

The main assumptions are given below (Indraratna

et al. 2005c):

With vacuum pressure, the inevitable unsaturated condition at the soil-drain interface may be

improved, resulting in an increased rate of consolidation.

2.3

dissipation

of PVDs, excess pore water pressures sometimes do

not dissipate as expected. This is often attributed to

filter clogging, extreme reduction of the lateral permeability of soil, damage to piezometer tips etc. However,

recent numerical analysis suggests that very high lateral strains and corresponding stress redistributions

(e.g. substantial heave at the embankment toe) can also

contribute to retarded rate of pore pressure dissipation.

Some examples are shown in Figs. 8 and 9.

Darcys law is adopted. At the external periphery of the unit cell, flow is not allowed to occur

(Fig. 10). For relatively long vertical drains, only

radial (horizontal) flow is allowed (i.e. no vertical

flow).

(2) Soil strain is uniform at the upper boundary of the

unit cell (i.e. no differential settlement in a unit

cell). The small strain theory is valid.

(3) The relationship between the average void ratio

and the logarithm of average effective stress in

the normally consolidated range (Fig. 11) can be

expressed by: e = e0 Cc log ( /i ). If the current vertical effective stress ( ) is less than pc , then

for this overconsolidated range, the recompression

index (Cr ) is used rather than Cc .

3.1 Axisymmetric unit cell analysis

Linear Darcian flow:

Conventional radial consolidation theory (including smear and well resistance) has been commonly

employed to predict the behaviour of vertical drains

in soft clay. Its mathematical formulation is based on

39

expressed as:

e

e0

Slope Cr

Ru =

Slope Cc

p0 (1 + k1 )

8Th

exp

p

2

p0 (1 + k1 )

p

2

1+

(6)

ef

Th = Pav Th

'i

p'c

'i + p

log v

Th = ch t/de2

2005c).

= ln

e

Slope Ck

ef

Indraratna et al., 2005c).

khi

log kh

ratio

(after

(4) For radial drainage, the horizontal permeability of soil decreases with the average void ratio

(Fig. 12). The relationship between these two

parameters is given by Tavenas et al. (1983):

e = e0 + Ck log (kh /khi ) The permeability index

(Ck ) is generally considered to be independent of

stress history (pc ) as explained by Nagaraj et al.

(1994).

(5) According to Indraratna et al. (2004), the vacuum

pressure distribution along the drain boundary is

considered to vary linearly from p0 at top of the

drain to - k1 p0 at the bottom of the drain, where k1

is a ratio between vacuum pressure at the bottom

and the top of the drain (Fig. 10)

(9)

n kh

+ ln s 0.75

s

kh

U p = 1 Ru

(10)

(11)

Us =

(12)

the following equations:

The dissipation rate of average excess pore pressure ratio (Ru = ut /p) at any time factor (Th ) can be

40

(8)

geometry of the vertical drain system and smear

effect, n = de /dw , s = ds /dw , de = equivalent diameter

of cylinder of soil around drain, ds = diameter of smear

zone and dw = diameter of drain well, kh = average

horizontal permeability in the undistrubed zone (m/s),

and kh = average horizontal permeability in the smear

zone (m/s). p = preloading pressure, Th is the dimensionless time factor for consolidation due to radial

drainage.

Since the relationship between effective stress and

strain is non-linear, the average degree of consolidation can be described either based on excess pore pressure (stress) (Up ) or based on strain (Us ). Up indicates

the rate of dissipation of excess pore pressure whereas

Up shows the rate of development of the surface settlement. Normally, Up = Us except when the effective

stress and strain is a linear relationship, which is in

accordance with Terzaghis one-dimensional theory.

Therefore, the average degree of consolidation based

on excess pore pressure can be obtained as follows:

e0

kh

(7)

HCr

log

,

1 + e0

i

i pc

(13a)

p

H

Cr log c + Cc log

,

1 + e0

i

pc

pc i + p

HCc

log

1 + e0

i

where i1 =

(13b)

(13c)

t=

the above equations, = settlement at a given

time, c = total primary consolidation settlement,

i = effective in-situ stress, = effective stress,

Cc = compression index, Cr = recompression index

and H = compressible soil thiskness.

Depending on the location of the initial and final

effective stresses with respect to the normally consolidated and overconsolidated domains, the following is

a summary of the relavant computational steps.

v = k(i io ) for

i i1

(14)

n1

1

1

(1 U h )n1

(18a)

1

n1

3n 1 n(3n 1)(5n 1)

(n 1)2

2

2n (5n 1)(7n 1)

(1(1/n))

1

D

h

+

1

2n

s

ds

h D (1(1/n))

s dw

(18b)

For multi-drain simulation, the plane strain finite element analysis can be readily adapted to most field

situations (Hansbo 1981; Indraratna and Redana 1997;

Indraratna and Redana 2000). Nevertheless, realistic

field predictions require the axisymmetric properties

to be converted to an equivalent 2D plane strain condition, especially with regard to the permeability coefficients and drain geometry (Indraratna and Redana

1997). The plane strain analysis can also accommodate vacuum preloading in conjunction with vertical

drains (e.g. Gabr and Szabo 1997). Mohamedelhassan and Shang (2002) discussed the application of

vacuum pressure and its benefits, but without any vertical drains. Subsequently, Indraratna et al. (2005b)

proposed the equivalent plane strain approach for the

simulation of vacuum pressure for the vertical drain

system.

(15)

(16)

41

Dw

uo

multi-drain analysis

Non-Darcian flow:

Hansbo (1997) stated that at small hydraulic gradients,

conventional linear Darcys law may be replaced by a

non-Darcian flow condition defined by an exponential relationship. Based on non-Darcian flow, Hansbo

(1997) modified the classical axisymmetric solutions.

The pore water flow velocity, v caused by a hydraulic

gradient, i might deviate from the original Darcys

law v = ki, where under a certain gradient io below

which no flow occurs. Then the rate of flow is given

by: v = k(i io ), hence, the following relations have

been proposed:

i i1

When n 1 Eq. (18) gives the same result as the average degree of consolidation represented by Eq. (9),

provided that well resistance is neglected and assuming

= ch and h /s = kh /ks .

becomes zero, the authors solution converges to the

conventional solution proposed by Hansbo (1981):

for

D2

M = 1/mv is the oedometer modulus, D is the diameter of the drain influence zone, ds is the diameter of

smear zone, n = D/dw where dw is the drain diameter,

uo is the initial average excess pore water pressure, and

n2n n

is 4(n1)

n+1 where,

in the normally consolidated range, Equations (6)

and (11) are employed to calculate Up , whereas

Equations (12) and (13c) are used to compute Us .

(2) If both the initial and final effective stresses are

in the overconsolidated range, Equations (6) and

(11) are employed to calculate Up , and Equations

(12) and (13a) are used to determine Us .

(3) If the initial effective stress falls on the overconsolidated domain and the final effective stress is

on the normally consolidated domain, then Equations (6) and (11) are employed to calculate Up ,

Equations (12) (13a) and (13b) are employed to

calculate Us .

v = in

(17)

(1979, 1997) proposed an alternative consolidation

equation. The time required to reach a certain average degree of consolidation including smear effect is

given by:

Ru = exp ( 8Th /)

io n

and = n1 i1n k

(n 1)

Darcian Flow:

Indraratna and Redana (1997, 1998, 2000) and

Indraratna et al. (2005b) converted the vertical drain

system shown in Fig. 13 into an equivalent parallel

drain wall by adjusting the coefficient of permeability

of the soil, and by assuming the plane strain cell (a

width of 2B). The half width of the drain bw and half

width of the smear zone bs may be kept the same as

their axisymmetric radii rw and rs , respectively, which

suggests bw = rw and bs = rs .

Indraratna et al. (2005b) proposed the average

degree of consolidation in plane strain condition by:

u

=

u0

p0p (1 + k1 )

8Thp

1+

exp

uo

2

p

p0p (1 + k1 )

u0

2

l z

ks

khp

p = + ()

khp

rs

(19a)

b2

bs

+ s2

1

B

3B

bs

1

(bs bw )2 + 3 (3b2w b2s )

B2

3B

khp

khp

khp

kh

kh

n

ln s + k ln (s) 0.75

(23)

(20a)

(20b)

khp

0.67

=

kh

[ln (n) 0.75]

(24)

For vacuum preloading, the equivalent vacuum pressure in plane strain and axisymmetric are the same.

Non-Darcian Flow:

Sathananthan and Indraratna (2005) determined the

solution for equivalent plane strain under non-Darcian

flow. The converted permeability relationship is

given by:

(21)

hp = 2h

n 1 p

2n2

n

(25)

plane strain permeability in the undisturbed zone is

now obtained as:

n

fp n, bBw

hp

hp

=2

=

(26a)

h

2f n, rRw

(22)

Indraratna and Redana (2000) presented a relation

. The influence of smear

ship between khp and khp

effect can be modelled by the ratio of the smear

42

bs

the above expression, then the simplified ratio of

plane strain to axisymmetric permeability is readily

obtained, as also proposed earlier by Hird et al. (1992),

as follows:

(14) of original Hansbo theory (Hansbo, 1981), the

time factor ratio can be represented by the following

equation:

khp R2

Thp

P

=

=

Th

kh B 2

bw

follows:

(19b)

the average degree of consolidation for both axisymmetric (U p ) and equivalent plane strain (U p, pl)

conditions are made equal, hence:

U p = U p,pl

kwp

khp k'

hp

plane strain condition (after Indraratna and Redana, 2000).

where, u0 = initial excess pore pressure, u = pore pressure at time t (average values) and Thp = time factor in

plane strain, khp and khp

are the undisturbed horizontal

and the corresponding smear zone equivalent permeabilities, respectively. The geometric parameters and

, are given by:

2 2bs

3

B

(a) Axisymmetric

u =

0

z

rw

and

Drain

Smear

zone

kw

kh

Excess pore pressure

extent of smear zone, caused by mandrel installation using the Cylindrical Cavity Expansion theory

incorporating the modified Cam-clay model (MCC)

as explained elsewhere by Collins & Yu (1996) and

Cao et al. (2001). Only a summary is given below. For

soil obeying the MCC model, the yielding criterion is:

= M (pc /p ) 1

(27)

(28)

q

2

p = rp +

3

3

(31)

rp

r

q

dr

r

(32)

Employing Equations (30)(32), the excess pore pressure due to mandrel driving (u) can be determined

by:

u = (p p0 ) (p p0 )

6.5 kPa

16.5 kPa

32.5 kPa

64.5 kPa

129.5 kPa

260 kPa

Smear zone

0.00

50

100

150

200

DURING INSTALLATION

(33)

smear zone can be suggested as the region in which the

excess pore pressure tends to exceed the initial over

burden pressure (v0

) (Fig. 14). This is because, in the

to mandrel withdrawal (air gap) or application of vacuum pressure through PVDs. Indraratna et al. (2004)

attempted to describe the apparent retardation of pore

43

drain

0.50

region surrounding the drains (r < rp ), the soil properties (permeability and soil anisotropy) are altered

severely at radial distance where u = v0

.

Based on laboratory tests conducted on a largescale consolidometer at University of Wollongong, the

smear zone extent can be quantified either by permeability variation or water content variation along

the radial distance (Indraratna and Redana, 1997;

Sathananthan and Indraratna, 2006). Fig. 15 shows the

variation of the ratio of the horizontal to vertical permeabilities (kh /kv ) at different consolidation pressures

along the radial distance, obtained from large-scale

laboratory consolidation. The variation of the water

content with radial distance is shown in Fig. 16. As

expected, the water content decreases towards the

drain, and also the water content is greater towards

the bottom of cell at all radial locations.

(30)

1.00

Figure 15. Ratio of kh /kv along the radial distance from the

central drain (after Indraratna and Redana 1995).

q = p

1.50

the cavity, = Poissons ratio, = slope of the overconsolidation line, = specific volume, OCR = over

consolidation ratio and = 1 ( is the slope

of the normal consolidation line). Finally, the corresponding mean effective stress, in terms of deviatoric

stress, total stress and excess pore pressure, can be

expressed by the following expressions:

OCR

1 + (/M)2

Distance (r)

2.00

1

(M + )(1 OCR 1)

f (M, , OCR) = ln

2

(M )(1 + OCR 1)

(29)

+ tan1 ( OCR 1)

tan1

M

Smear

zone

Theory.

where,

p = p0

u = ' v0

rp

yield locus, p = mean effective stress, M = slope of

the critical state line and = stress ratio. Stress ratio

at any point can be determined as follows:

(a2 a20 )

2(1 + )

ln 1

=

2

r

3 3(1 2)

f (M, , OCR)

2 3

M

Vertical drain

70

Smear zone

69

Values

Critical state line slope, M

Permeability in undisturbed zone, khp (m/s)

Poissons ratio,

Permeability in smear zone, khp

(m/s)

0.15

0.05

1.55

1.1

9.1 1011

0.25

3.6 1011

68

Drain

Table 1. Modified Cam-clay parameters used in consolidometer analysis (Indraratna et al., 2004).

(a)

67

25

50

100

200

66

65

64

(b)

Unsaturated elements

25

50

100

200

0.04

Drain

(wmax-w)/wmax

0.02

0

0

r/rm

Figure 16. (a) water content, and (b) normalized water content reduction with radial distance at a depth of 0.5 m (after

Sathananthan and Indraratna, 2006).

0.95m

through a series of models, considering the effects of

unsaturation at the drain-soil interface.

The consolidation behaviour of soft clay in the

large-scale consolidometer under combined vacuum

and surcharge preloading was analysed using the

FEM programme ABAQUS, incorporating the modified Cam-clay theory (Roscoe and Burland 1968). Fig.

17 illustrates the plane strain finite element discretisation employing 8-noded linear strain quadrilateral

elements (CPE8RP) with 8 displacement nodes plus

4 pore pressure nodes. It is sufficient to analyse one

half of the cell due to symmetry. The soil moisture

characteristic curve (SMCC) including the effect of

drain unsaturation was captured by a thin layer of drain

elements governed by elastic properties. The converted permeability coefficients based on Indraratna

and Redana (2000) method and the apparent past

maximum pressure are listed in Table 1.

The following 3 models were analysed:

Model 1 fully saturated soil with linear vacuum

pressure distribution along the drain length. The soil

behaviour is based on the modified Camclay parameters (Table 1).

Model 2 The soil is initially fully saturated. With

the application of linearly varying vacuum pressure,

a layer of unsaturated elements is simulated at the

PVD boundary. The thin unsaturated layer is modeled

elastically (E = 1000 kPa, = 0.25).

Open

drain

boundary

large-scale consolidometer (Indraratna et al. 2004).

the variation of vacuum pressure with time (vacuum

removal and reloading) is included.

Fig. 18 shows the surface settlement predicted from

the above described models. The predictions prove

that the assumption of unsaturated soil layer at the

drain-soil boundary with time dependent vacuum pressure variation (Model 3) is justified. Full saturation

represented by Model 1 over-predicts the settlement,

illustrating the effect of mandrel induced unsaturation.

The predicted and measured values of excess pore

water pressure (mid layer) are presented in Fig. 19,

and Models 2 and 3 agree well with the laboratory

44

0.225m

15 m

Stage 1

Surcharge load

=40kPa

Perforated Pipe

2.5 m

Settlement (mm)

S1

0.8 m

-20

5m

10 m

10 m

Geomembrane (LLDPE)

S3

S2

Vacuum Pump

S4

LBM

0.0 m

-3 m

Stage 2

Surcharge load

=100kPa

-40

Bentonite

Legend

Surface settlement plate

Stand-pipe piezometer

Extensometer

Electrical piezometer

Inclinometer

-6 m

-9 m

-12 m

PVD, S=1.00 m.

-15m

-60

of monitoring system (Indraratna et al., 2005d).

-100

0

Measurements

Model 1

Model 2

Model 3

10

20

Depth (m)

-80

30

10

consolidometer (Indraratna et al. 2004).

15

4

4.4

4.8

5.2

5.6

rs/rw

80

Expansion theory (where, rs : radius of smear zone, and rw :

radius of drain) (Indraratna et al., 2005d).

60

Surcharge load

40 kPa

40

20

Model 1

Model 2

Model 3

Measurements

0

The Second Bangkok International Airport (SBIA) has

been constructed since 1965 to replace the existing airport. The location of the airport is on a low-lying soft

clay. Ground improvement techniques are imperative

prior to the airport construction to prevent excessive settlement and lateral movement. Several trial

embankments were built at this site, one of them (TV2)

was built with PVDs and vacuum application (Asian

Institute of Technology, 1995). Fig. 20 illustrates the

vertical cross sections and the positions of field instruments, where 12m long PVDs with perforated and

corrugated pipes wrapped together in non-woven geotextile were used. The 0.8 m sand platform served as a

drainage blanket was constructed with an air and water

tight linear low density polyethylene (geomembrane)

liner placed on top of the drainage system. This liner

was sealed by placing its edges at the bottom of the

trench perimeter and covered with a 300 mm layer of

bentonite and then submerged with water.

The extent of the smear zone with depth was predicted using the cavity expansion theory as explained

in Section 4. The predicted smear zone variation with

depth for each soil layers is shown in Fig. 21.

A vacuum pressure up to 70 kPa (equivalent to 4 m

height of embankment) was applied using the available

Surcharge load

100 kPa

10

20

30

Time (Days)

Figure 19. Predicted and measured excess pore water pressure (Indraratna et al. 2004).

gives the lowest pore pressures, suggesting the unsaturated soil-drain boundary causing the retardation of

excess pore water pressure dissipation. In view of

both settlements (Fig. 17) and excess pore pressures

(Fig. 18), Model 3 provides the most accurate predictions in comparison with the laboratory measurements.

There is no doubt, the probable drain unsaturation is an

important aspect that should be captured in numerical

modelling, especially under vacuum pressure application. The adoption of correct SMCC in finite element

analysis is desirable.

45

Vacuumpressure (kPa)

3

2

1

= 18kN/m3

0

0

-20

-40

-60

0

40

80

Time (days)

120

160

Time (days)

Figure 23. Time dependent vacuum pressure (Indraratna

et al., 2005d).

4 stages upto 2.5 m high (the unit weight of surcharge

fill is 18 kN/m3 ) as illustrated in Fig. 22. During the

application of vacuum pressure, the measured suction

head could not be constantly maintained as shown in

Fig. 23. This variation has been attributed to air leaks

through the surface membrane or the loss of suction

head beneath the certain depth for long PVD. Intersection of natural macro-pores with drains at various

depths also lead to suction head drops, at various times.

The settlement, excess pore water pressure, and lateral

movement were recorded 160 days.

Multi-drain analysis using FEM incorporating

proposed equivalent plain strain model

The consolidation behaviour was analysed using the

finite element software ABAQUS. The equivalent

plane strain model (Equations 1415) as well as the

modified Cam-clay theory (Roscoe and Burland, 1968)

were used in the analysis (Indraratna et al., 2005d). The

ratios of kh /ks and ds /dw determined in the laboratory are approximately 1.52.0 and 34, respectively,

however in practice these ratios can vary from 1.5 to

6 depending on the type of drain, mandrel size and

shape and installation procedures used (Indraratna and

Redana, 2000). The constant values of kh /ks and ds /dw

for this case study were assumed to be 2 and 6, respectively (Indraratna et al., 2004). For the plane strain

FEM simulation, the equivalent permeability inside

and outside the smear zone was determined using

Equations (14) and (15). The discharge capacity (qw ) is

assumed high enough and can be neglected (Indraratna

and Redana, 2000).

The finite element mesh contained 8-node biquadratic displacement and bilinear pore pressure

elements (Fig. 24). Only the right hand side of the

embankment was modeled due to symmetry, as shown

in Fig. 24. The incremental surcharge loading was

simulated at the upper boundary.

The following 4 distinct models were numerically examined under the 2D multi-drain analysis

(Indraratna et al., 2005d):

Model A: Conventional analysis (i.e., no vacuum

application);

(modified after Indraratna et al. 2005d).

measurement and decreases linearly to zero at the

bottom of the drain (k1 = 0);

Model C: No vacuum loss (i.e. 60 kPa vacuum pressure was kept constant after 40 days); vacuum pressure

diminishes to zero along the drain length (k1 = 0); and

Model D: Constant time-dependent vacuum pressure

throughout the soil layer (k1 = 1).

Fig. 25 compares surface settlement between prediction and measurement (centreline). Model B predictions agree with the field data. Comparing all the

different vacuum pressure conditions, a vacuum application combined with a PVD system is found to

accelerate the consolidation process significantly. With

vacuum application, most of the primary consolidation

is achieved around 120 days, whereas conventional

surchage (same equivalent pressure) requires more

time to complete primary consolidation (after 150

days). It is also apparent that a greater settlement can

be obtained, if any loss of vacuum pressure can be

minimised (Model C).

Fig. 26 presents the predicted and measured excess

pore pressures. The field observations are closest to

Model B, implying that the authors assumption of

linearly decreasing time-dependent vacuum pressure

along the drain length is justified. Excess pore pressure

46

-0.3

Inward

-0.2

-0.1

-0.4

Outward

0.1

0.2

-0.8

Model A

Model B

Model C

Model D

Adjusted vacuum

Field measurement

4

Soft clay layer

Field measurement

Model A

Model B

Model C

Model D

-1.2

-1.6

0

40

80

Time (Days)

Depth (m)

Settlement (m)

0

0

8

10

120

160

12

14

et al., 2005d).

distribution with depth (modified after Indraratna et al.,

2005d).

0.00

0

-20

0.02

-40

Depth (m)

20

Field measurement

Model A

Model B

Model C

Model D

-60

13 days

12

40

80

Time (Days)

120

16

Unstabilized

13 days

(Failure)

PVD stabilized

20

160

(after Indraratna et al., 1997).

below the surface and 0.5 m away from centreline (modified

after Indraratna et al., 2005d).

height.

conventional case, which enables the rate of construction of an embankment to be higher than conventional

construction.

The predicted and measured lateral displacements

(at the end of embankment construction) are shown

in Fig. 27. As described by Indraratan et al. (2005d),

the observed lateral displacements do not agree well

with all vacuum pressure models. In the middle of

the very soft clay layer (45 m deep), the predictions

from Models B and C are closest to the field measurements. Nearer to the surface, the field observations

do not agree with the inward lateral movements predicted by Models B and C. The discrepancy between

the finite element models and the measured results is

more evident in the topmost weathered crust (02 m).

As discussed by Indraratna et al., 1997, if vertical

drains are not provided and the surcharge embankment is raised quickly, it can fail in 13 days in the

absence of effective pore pressure dissipation. In contrast, the same clay formation stabilised with PVDs

shows insignificant lateral displacement after 13 days.

Even after 7 years, the normalised lateral displacements will be less than that without PVDs (Fig. 28).

Normalised lateral displacement is the absolute lateral

The practical application of non-Darcian plane strain

solution is demonstrated through a well documented

pilot study (Ska-Edeby, 25 km west of Stockholm,

Sweden). The site details including the construction

history and soil parameters are given elsewhere by

Hansbo, 1997; 2005. Here, for the purpose of discussion, Area II with an equivalent loading of 32 kPa is

selected. Sand drains of 180 mm diameter are installed

in an equilateral triangular pattern at 1.5 m spacing (i.e.

D = 1.58 m).

In Figure 29, the estimated degree of consolidation based on the Darcian axisymmetric, non-Darcian

axisymmetric (Hansbo, 1997) and non-Darcian plane

strain solutions (Sathananthan and Indraratna, 2005)

are plotted with the available field data at embankment

centerline. The predicted values based on non-Darcian

flow seem to agree better with the field data in relation

to the Darcian (conventional) analysis. However, in the

opinion of the authors, this difference is usually small,

and for all practical purposes the conventional Darcy

conditions are sufficient.

47

0.10

7 years

-80

0

0.04

0.06

0.08

non-Darcian axisymmetry (Hansbo, 1997)

Field Data

25

50

75

100

2

Consolidation time (years)

(a)

Figure 29. Degree of consolidation at the embankment centreline with time for Area II, Ska-Edeby field study (after

Hansbo, 2005; Sathananthan & Indraratna, 2005).

(b)

7

DRAINS SUBJECTED TO CYCLIC TRAIN

LOADS

effect of cyclic load on the radial drainage and consolidation by PVDs (Fig. 30a). This testing chamber

is capable of accommodating specimens of 300 mm

diameter and 600 mm high (Fig. 30b). The excess pore

water pressure was monitored via miniature pore pressure transducers. These instruments were saturated

under deaired water with vacuum pressure, and then

fitted through the base of the cell to the desired sample

locations.

A reconstituted estuarine clay was tested. The sample was lightly compacted to a unit weight of about 17

to 17.5 kN/m3 . Ideally, testing requires the simulation

of k0 conditions that may typically vary in the range of

0.60.7 in many coastal regions of Australia. Most soft

clays will have natural water contents exceeding 75%,

and Plasticity Index above 35%. It is not uncommon

to find undrained shear strengths of softest estuarine

deposits to be less than 8 kPa. In Northern Queensland,

some very soft clays that have caused embankment

problems have been characterised by cu values less

than 5 kPa.

The tests could be conducted at frequencies of

510 Hz, typically simulating train speeds of say 60

100 km/h of 2530 tonnes/axle train loads. Fig. 31

shows an example of the excess pore pressure

recorded, which indicates that the maximum excess

pore water pressure beside the PVD during the cyclic

load application (T4) are significantly less compared to

that near the cell boundary (T3). Also as expected, the

excess pore pressures close to the outer cell boundary (e.g. T1 and T3) dissipated at a slower rate than

T4 and T2 closer to the PVD. The test results reveal

that PVDs decrease the maximum excess pore pressure

effectively even under cyclic loading.

can sustain high excess pore water pressures during

both static and cyclic (repeated) loading. The effectiveness of prefabricated vertical drains (PVD) for

dissipating cyclic pore water pressures is discussed

here. In poorly drained situations, the increase in

pore pressures will decrease the effective load bearing capacity of the formation. Even if the rail tracks

are well built structurally, undrained formation failures

can adversely influence the train speeds apart from the

inevitable operational delays. Under circumstances of

high excess pore water pressures, clay slurrying may

be initiated pumping the slurried soil upwards under

cyclic loads, clogging the clean ballast and causing

poor drainage.

As described earlier, PVDs accelerate consolidation and curtail lateral movements. The stability of

rail tracks and highways built on soft saturated clays

is often governed by the magnitude of lateral strains,

even though consolidation facilitates a gain in shear

strength and load bearing capacity. If excessive initial settlement of deep estuarine deposits cannot be

tolerated in terms of maintenance practices (e.g. in

new railway tracks where continuous ballast packing

may be required), the rate of settlement can still be

controlled by: (a) keeping the drain length relatively

short, and (b) optimising the drain spacing and the

drain installation pattern. In this way, while the settlements are acceptable, the reduction in lateral strains

and gain in shear strength of the soil beneath the track

improve its stability significantly.

48

T2 T1

15

8

4

6

T3

T4

End of cyclic loading

1117 9

66 51 23 20

14 10

68 53 25 22 19 16 13

T4

10

67 52 24 21 18 15

T1

26 12

T2

40

80

40 m

T3

0

by PVDs

120

Time (mins)

locations from the PVD.

0

85 m

7.2

Numerical analysis

3040 m) may take a very long time and often uneconomical, especially when relatively high surcharge

embankments cannot be raised rapidly due to obvious stability problems. Under railway tracks, where

the significant proportion of the applied load is usually sustained within the first several meters of the

formation, assuming sufficient ballast and subballast

depths are provided. In this regard, there is no need for

improving the entire depth of soft clay deposit, hence,

relatively short PVDs without prolonged preloading

may still be adequate in design. Short PVDs (58 m)

may still dissipate the cyclic pore pressures, curtail

the lateral movements and increase the shear strength

and bearing capacity of the soft formation to a reasonable depth below the sub-ballast. In other words,

this will provide a stiffened section of the soft clay

up to several meters in depth, supporting the rail

track within the predominant influence zone of vertical

stress distribution.

In railway engineering, repeated train loading is

usually modelled as a static load corrected by an

impact load factor (dynamic amplification factor). The

value of impact load factor may be changed according to the field conditions simulated on track (Esveld,

2001). In the following example, a static load of 80 kPa

with an impact factor of 1.3 is applied. A typical

cross-section of the formation beneath the rail track

is shown in Fig. 32, where a relatively shallow very

soft clay deposit is underlained by a deeper soft soil

layer of slightly higher stiffness. PVDs are only used

to stabilize the shallow soil layer immediately beneath

the track. A FEM, 2D plane strain model (Indraratna

and Redana, 2000) using triangular elements with

6 displacement nodes and 3 pore pressure nodes is

considered.

Soil Properties are summarised in Table 2. Top compacted soil crust including sub-ballast fill (1 m in thickness) and the ballast layer (300 mm thick) are modelled

ballasted track (300 mm of ballast thickness and 1m thick

compacted fill and crusted layer).

Depth

of

c

+0.3

0-1

1-10

10-30

5

29

10

15

45

29

25

20

0.15

0.12

0.03

0.02

by Mohr-Coulomb theory. The two layers of soft normally consolidated clays are conveniently modelled

using the modified Cam-clay theory (Roscoe and Burland, 1968). For typical track conditions, unit weight of

artificially compacted granular fills is assumed around

16.517 kN/m3 with a deformation modulus not more

than 200 MPa. The saturated unit weights of the soft

clay layers is assumed to be 15.516 kN/m3 (deeper

soil layer having the higher unit weight).

The rapid dissipation of excess pore water pressure due to PVDs is clearly beneficial. More than 65%

excess pore pressure dissipation is seen within first

45 months (Fig. 33). In the absence of preloading

embankment or vaccum preloading, the corresponding initial settlements induced by short PVDs is less

than 0.5 m after about 3 months. This settlement can

still be acceptable over a routine maintenance period

by packing more ballast with time. More significant

is the considerable reduction of lateral displacement

in the PVD stabilised soil underlying the compacted

crust (Fig. 34). While long-term lateral displacements

at shallow depths (@ 3 m) could be as large as

250300 mm, the PVDs are shown to decrease the

49

M-C

M-C

S-S

S-S

100

80

Excess pore pressure (kPa)

No PVD

With PVDs @ 1.5m spacing

Percentage Finer (%)

60

40

80

Coefficient = 1.6

60

with Uniformity Coefficient = 4.6

40

20

20

0

0.01

0.1

0

0

100

200

300

Time (days)

400

10

500

affected and unaffected soils.

Depth

(m)

centre line of rail track.

5

10

15

20

Cone resistanse, qc

1

-4

Depth (m)

-8

2

50

100

finemarine sediments

Disturbed loose muddy sand

Loose silty sand

Medium dense sand with

mixture of silt

Reduction in

lateral displacement

3

Sleeve friction, fs

4

-12

No PVD

With PVDs @ 1.5m spacing

-16

7

-20

0.1

0.2

embankment toe.

considerable turbulent mixing.

Also near the same locations, standard cone penetrometer testing with pore pressure measurement

(CPTU) was conducted to re-examine the soil profile

up to about 10 m deep (e.g. Fig. 36). The friction ratios

determined for shallow depths (less than 1 m) confirm

remoulded, metastable sands and/or mixed fine grained

soils (marine silts and clays transported by waves) with

increased sensitivity. The presence of peat is identified

by the suddenly increased friction ratio. The test results

also indicated significantly increased water content of

the soil affected by the infiltration of water (Fig. 36).

The extreme remoulding by tsunami waters and the

blending of fine marine muds (transported) with fine

beach has resulted in a significant decrease in the original unit weight as well as causing relatively poor

drainage conditions (i.e. compared to the pre-tsunami

era, the surface soil is not free-draining anymore).

Increased degree of saturation now allows excess pore

pressures to be developed and sustained upon loading.

In such situations, the ground improvement benefits

several South and Southeast Asian countries, including Sri Lanka, Indonesia and Thailand. The effect of

tsunami waves on the surface soils is briefly discussed

here, in view of the ground improvement needs for

reconstruction of infrastructure including roads and

railways. The first author was an invited expert in

the post-tsunami site investigations of the devastated

southern coast of Sri Lanka, and various soil testing

was conducted under his guidance. At a trial pit beside

a major rail disaster (more than 1000 casualties in the

overturned and damaged train carriages), the particle

size distributions (Fig. 35) indicated blended and significantly more well-graded nature of the fine sandy

soils close to the surface, in the areas where uniform

and relatively clean fine beach sand existed before

the tsunami. The uniformity coefficient has changed

50

results of soil layers after tsunami occurrence.

example demonstrates the role of short PVDs installed

beneath rail tracks.

7.3

0.3

Transpiration

Transpiration

Capony

Trunk

Assumed

root zone

or

uptake

volume

Root water uptake

(a)

Water flow

(b)

equilibrium: (a) transpiration; (b) soilplantatmosphere

interaction (Indraratna et al., 2006).

from conventional vibratory compaction and preloading to increase the shear strength. Particularly in

railway track areas, the use of short PVDs will be most

advantageous for dissipating cyclic pore pressures and

curtailing lateral displacements as described earlier.

The use of short PVDs to facilitate the dissipation

of cyclic pore pressures are imperative to consider

through sound research evidence.

distribution of a native tree (Miram, VIC, Australia).

STABILISATION OF SOFT FORMATIONS

Soil suction

Soil suction retards the free water movement towards

the root zone and affects the transpiration rate. The root

water uptake (S(x, y, z, t)) is represented by a combined

function of the maximum possible root water uptake,

Smax , and matric suction, :

reinforcement apart from dissipating the excess pore

water pressure, and generate sufficient matric suction

to increase the shear strength of the surrounding soil.

In Australia, various forms of native vegetation grow

along rail corridors. It is well recognised that such

biostablisation has a number of mechanical and hydrological effects on ground stability. The loss of moisture

from the soil due to uptake by tree roots may be categorized as: (a) water used for metabolism in plant tissues,

and (b) water transpired to the atmosphere from the

canopy (foliage). In order to quantify pore pressure dissipation and induced matric suction, Indraratna et al.

(2006) introduced an appropriate mathematical model

for considering soil suction, root density and potential

transpiration (Fig. 37).

8.1

(34)

(x, y, z) at time t.

Root distribution

In the development of the model, the geometric slope

of the root zone has to be assumed, based on the field

observation of typical root cross sections. Trench excavation is one of the appropriate methods to map the

root density distribution (Fig. 38). The distribution of

transpiration within the root zone depends on the root

density, hence,

Conceptual modelling

S(x, y, z, t) = f ()G()F(TP )

is the rate of root water uptake, which is difficult to

assess because of the considerable variation of root

geometry from one species to another. In this section,

the key factors, such as soil suction, root distribution

and potential transpiration rate are briefly discussed.

where, G() is a function associated with the root density distribution, F(TP ) is a function to consider the

potential transpiration distribution, and (x, y, z, t) is

the root density.

51

(35)

(Indraratna et al., 2006)

Value

Reference

rmax

zmax

PI

an

w

d

e0

Cc

ks

9m

1.5 m

23

4.9 kPa

1500 kPa

40 kPa

0.60

21 kN/m3

0.13

1010 m/s

Biddle (1983)

Biddle (1983)

Biddle (1983)

Feddes et al. (1978)

Feddes et al. (1978)

Feddes et al. (1978)

Powrie et. al (1992)

Powrie et. al (1992)

Skempton (1944)

Lehane and Simpson (2000)

et al., 2006).

Change in soil matric suction (kPa)

Parameter

Potential transpiration

The potential transpiration is defined as evaporation

of water from plant tissues to the atmosphere, assuming that the soil moisture content is not restricted. The

potential transpiration is, therefore, estimated by:

TP = ETP EP

(36)

evapotranspiration (both plant and soil), and EP is the

potential evaporation from the soil surface.

The finite element program ABAQUS was used to

evaluate the soil suction generated by transpiration.

Equations (34)(36) are incorporated as a sub-routine

in ABAQUS supplementing the effective stress-based

equations.

0.5m depth

1200

1000

Line of maxima

800

600

1m depth

400

200

1.5m depth

0

0

(Indraratna et al., 2006).

model

To verify the model for rate of root water uptake, a

case history reported by Biddle (1983) has been considered for a lime tree grown in Boulder clay. The

estimated parameters based on the available literature are shown in Table 3. Fig. 39 illustrates the mesh

and element geometry and boundary conditions of

the finite element model. A two-dimensional plane

strain mesh employing 4-node bilinear displacement

and pore pressure elements (CPE4P) was considered.

The maximum change in the soil matric suction from

the finite element analysis (fig. 40) is found at about

0.5m depth, which coincides with the same location of

the maximum root density.

A comparison between the field measurements and

the FEM predictions for moisture content reduction

around the lime tree is presented in Fig. 41. The

numerical model is in accordance with the field observations by Biddle (1983). The main differences noted

between field data and the predictions are observed at

68 m from the trunk. This discrepancy is attributed

to the simplicity of the assumed root zone shape. In

addition, the foliage prevents uniform distribution of

reduction (%) close to a lime tree: (a) Biddle (1983), (b)

FEM predictions (Indraratna et al., 2006).

rainfall around the tree. As a result, moisture content can increase at the canopy edges, thereby further

contributing to this disparity

Fig. 42 shows the ground settlement at various

depths. In this analysis, only the suction related settlement was considered. On the surface, the predicted

80 mm settlement beside the tree trunk decreases to

less than 20 mm, at a distance 10 m away from the

52

1400

predict accurately. This may be attributed to the complexity of evaluating the true magnitudes of soil

parameters inside and outside the smear zone, correct

drain properties as well as the aspects of soil-drain

interface unsaturation. Therefore, one needs to use

the most appropriate laboratory techniques to obtain

parameters, preferably using large-scale testing equipment. It was found that the smear zone radius was 23

times the radius of the mandrel. The soil permeability

in the smear zone is higher than that in the undisturbed

zone by a factor of 1.52.

For large construction sites, where many PVDs are

installed, the plane strain analysis is sufficient given the

computational efficiency. Recently developed conversion from axisymmetric to plane strain condition gives

good agreement with measured data. These simplified

plane strain methods can be rapidly employed in the

numerical analysis. A finite element code (ABAQUS)

was employed to analyse the behaviour of PVDs and

compared with field measurements. A conversion procedure based on the transformation of permeability

and vacuum pressure was also proposed to establish

the relationship between the axisymmetric (3D) and

equivalent plane strain (2D) conditions. The equivalent plane strain solution was applied for selected case

histories, demonstrating its validity in predicting the

real behaviour. Field behaviour as well as model predictions indicate that the efficiency of vertical drains

depends on the magnitude and distribution of vacuum

pressure as well as the degree of drain saturation during

installation.

The accurate prediction of lateral displacement at

shallow depths depends on the correct assessment of

soil properties including the overconsolidated surface

crust.This compacted layer is relatively stiff, and therefore it resists inward movement of the soil upon the

application of vacuum pressure. The modified Camclay model is inappropriate for modeling the behavior

of the weathered and compacted crust. This surface

crust is sufficient to be modeled as an elastic layer

rather than a soft elasto-plastic medium. The analysis of case histories proves that the vacuum application

via PVD substantially decreases lateral displacement.

As a result, the potential shear failure during rapid

embankment construction can be avoided.

There is no doubt that a system of vacuum-assisted

consolidation via PVDs is a useful and practical

approach for accelerating radial consolidation. Such a

system eliminates the need for a high surcharge load,

as long as air leaks can be prevented in the field. Accurate modeling of vacuum preloading requires both

laboratory and field studies to quantify the nature of

vacuum pressure distribution within a given formation

and drain system.

The ground improvement techniques including

PVDs prior to rail track construction can be applied

in coastal areas containing a high percentage of clayey

0

10

40

60

Ma

set ximu

tlem m

line ent

Settlement (mm)

20

z=0m

z=1m

80

z=2m

z=6m

100

trunk. As shown in Fig. 42, the location of the maximum settlement is closer to the trunk at shallower

depths, which tends to coincide with the points of

maximum change in suction (Fig. 40).

It was shown that the numerical analysis incorporating the proposed model could predict the variation

of moisture content surrounding the tree trunk. Knowing the moisture content variation, the development of

matric suction can be predicted reasonably well using

the SMCC. Native biostabilisation improves the shear

strength of the soil by increasing the matric suction,

and also decreases the soil movements. This contribution from trees grown along rail corridors and rail slope

is of immense benefit for improving track stability in

problematic soil. In other words, native vegetation generating soil suction is comparable to the role of PVDs

with vacuum pressure, in terms of improved drainage

(pore water dissipation), and associated increase in

shear strength. In addition, the tree roots provide a

natural reinforcement effect, which the current model

has not simulated thus far.

9

CONCLUSIONS

have been used to accelerate the rate of primary consolidation. A revised mathematical model for soft

clay stabilised by vertical drains incorporating the

compressibility indices (Cc and Cr ) and vacuum surcharge has been introduced.The variation of horizontal

permeability coefficient (kh ) was represented by the elogkh relationship. The variables such as the slopes

of the e-log relationship(Cc and Cr ), the slope of elogk h relationship(Ck ), vacuum pressure ratio (VPR)

and the loading increment ratio (p/i ) were explicitly integrated in the mathematical model to predict the

consolidation behaviour.

The lateral displacements and pore pressures dissipation associated with PVDs are often difficult to

53

Chu, J., and Yan, S.W. 2005. Application of vacuum preloading method in soil improvement project. Case Histories

Book (Volume 3), Edited by Indraratna, B. and Chu, J.,

Elsevier, London, pp. 91118.

Chu, J., Yan, S.W. and Yang, H. 2000. Soil improvement by

the vacuum preloading method for an oil storage station.

Geotechnique, Vol. 50, No. 6, pp. 625632.

Collins, I. F. andYu, H. S. 1996. Undrained Cavity Expansion

in Critical State Soils. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, Vol. 20, pp.

489516.

Feddes, R.A., Kowalik, P. J. and Zaradny, H. 1978. Simulation

of field water use and crop yield. Simulation Monograph.

Pudoc, Wageningen, pp. 930

Gabr M.A., and Szabo D.J. 1997. Prefabricated vertical drains

zone of influence under vacuum in clayey soil. Proceedings of the Conference on In Situ Remediation of the

Geoenvironment, ASCE, 449460.

Hansbo, S. 1979. Consolidation of clay by band-shaped prefabricated drains. Ground Eng., Vol. 12, No. 5, pp. 1625.

Hansbo, S. 1981. Consolidation of fine-grained soils by prefabricated drains. In Proceedings of 10th International

Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Stockholm, Balkema, Rotterdam, 3, pp. 677682.

Hansbo, S. 1997. Aspects of vertical drain design Darcian or non-Darcian flow. Gotechnique Vol. 47, No. 5,

pp. 983992.

Hansbo, S. 2005. Experience of consolidation process from

test areas with and without vertical drains. Ground

ImprovementCase Histories Book (Volume 3), Edited by

Indraratna, B. and Chu, J., Elsevier, London, Chapter 1.

pp. 349.

Holtz, R.D., Jamiolkowski, M., Lancellotta, R. and Pedroni,

S. 1991. Prefabricated vertical drains: design and performance, CIRIA ground engineering report: ground

improvement. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd, UK, 131 p.

Hird C.C., Pyrah I.C., and Russel D. 1992. Finite element

modeling of vertical drains beneath embankments on soft

ground. Geotechnique, Vol. 42(3), pp. 499511.

Holtan, G.W. 1965. Vacuum stabilization of subsoil beneath

runway extension at Philadelphai International Airport. In

Proc. of 6th ICSMFE, 2.

Indraratna B., and Chu J. 2005. Ground Improvement Case

Histories Book (Volume 3), Elsevier, London 1115 p.

Indraratna B., and Redana I.W. 1997. Plane strain modeling

of smear effects associated with vertical drains, Journal of

Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE,

Vol. 123(5), pp. 474478.

Indraratna, B., and Redana, I. W. 1998. Laboratory determination of smear zone due to vertical drain installation. J.

Geotech. Eng., ASCE, Vol. 125 No. 1, pp. 9699.

Indraratna, B., and Redana, I. W. 2000. Numerical modeling

of vertical drains with smear and well resistance installed

in soft clay. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 37, pp.

132145.

Indraratna, B., Balasubramaniam, A. S. and Balachandran,

S. 1992a. Performance of test embankment constructed

to failure on soft marine clay. Journal of Geotechnical

Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 118, No. 1, pp. 1233.

Indraratna, B., Balasubramaniam, A., Phamvan, P. and Wong,

Y.K. 1992b. Development of Negative Skin Friction on

Driven Piles in Soft Clay. Canadian Geotechnical Journal,

Vol. 29, June issue, pp. 393404.

drains (PVDs) can be used under rail tracks to dissipate cyclic excess pore pressure and curtail lateral

displacements to improve stability. Native vegetation

can also be used close to the rail track to reduce settlement and lateral movement. The proposed root water

uptake and transpiration model verifies that the suction

induced by the tree roots contributes to a substantial

gain shear strength. Similar to PVDs, the tree roots

induce good drainage, pore water pressure dissipation

and in addition provide natural reinforcement of the

soil. As the influence zone of each tree can be several

meters in radius, the methodological planting of native

trees along rail corridors at a practical distance away

from the track is currently considered by rail organizations in Australia. Considering various soil conditions,

the type of vegetation and atmospheric conditions, the

proposed mathematical model for biostabilsation is

most useful to predict the formation behaviour in a

rail track environment.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors wish to thank the CRC for Railway Engineering andTechnologies (Australia) for its continuous

support. Cyclic testing of PVD stabilised soft soil

forms a part ofAnaasAttyas doctoral thesis. Extensive

research on biostabilisation by native trees is currently conducted by doctoral student Behzad Fatahi.

A number of other current and past doctoral students,

namely, Redana, Bamunawita, and Sathananthan have

also contributed to the contents of this keynote paper.

More elaborate details of the contents discussed in

this paper can be found in previous publications of the

first author and his research students in ICE proceedings (Geotechnical Engineering), ASCE and Canadian

Geotechnical Journals, since mid 1990s.

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55

2007 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN13 978-0-415-42280-2

P.A. Vermeer & M. Leoni

Institut fr Geotechnik, University of Stuttgart, Germany

M. Karstunen

University of Strathclyde, UK

H.P. Neher

Ed. Zblin AG, Technical Head Office, Germany

ABSTRACT: At Stuttgart University an isotropic creep model has been developed, in which Modified Cam

Clay type of ellipses are used to describe the contours of volumetric creep strain rate in p-q plane. Starting from

the simplest case of 1D creep, the 3D formulation of an isotropic creep model is given. This constitutive model has

been implemented in a finite element program and validated by simulating simple lab tests, as published in other

papers. In this paper the isotropic creep model is used to simulate a complex boundary value problem, namely

the Leaning Tower of Pisa. The isotropic model is able to capture many aspects of soil time-dependent behaviour,

but nevertheless further model development is necessary. Therefore a new anisotropic creep model is proposed,

based on the experimental observation of many natural soils. The anisotropic creep model is a straightforward

generalization of the IC model in which the anisotropic fabric tensor is adopted and the Modified Cam Clay

ellipses are replaced by rotated ovals in p-q plane.

INTRODUCTION

When a saturated clay is loaded one usually distinguishes between primary consolidation and secondary

compression. During consolidation excess pore pressures are transferred into effective stresses, whereas

all stresses are constant during secondary compression. Straining at constant stress is referred to as pure

creep.

Pure creep at constant effective stress occurs both

in the laboratory and in the field, but in the most

general situation stresses change with time. In such

general cases one cannot use the traditional logarithmic time-law of secondary compression. Instead, one

needs to express the rate of creep strain as a function

of stress in order to obtain a visco-elastic or a viscoplastic model. In this paper the traditional concept of

secondary compression will straightforwardly be converted into an elastic-visco-plastic model as illustrated

by Figure 1. The elastic strains are typically observed

in unloading and reloading of clays, whereas primary

loading of normally consolidated clays is dominated

by creep strains, i.e. by visco-plastic strains. Indeed,

viscous material behaviour does not only occur during secondary compression, but also during primary

consolidation of NC-clays.

In soil mechanics creep has primarily been studied for one-dimensional compression. The pioneering

results of Buisman (1936) and Garlanger (1972) have

established the logarithmic time law, whilst Bjerrum

(1967) added the concept of a creep dependent preconsolidation stress as also used in the present study.

In these early studies, however, the void ratio is a function of the creep time and such models cannot be used

when stresses vary with time.

The above pioneering research was continued by

various researchers as nicely reviewed by Leroueil

(1987). For one-dimensional compression an elasticviscoplastic model in the sense of Figure 1, has among

others been proposed by Yin and Graham (1999). The

57

1D version of the models presented here are somewhat similar, but in contrast with Yin and Graham,

the concept of a preconsolidation stress as measured

in standard oedometer tests is retained. Fast constant

strain rate oedometer tests (Leroueil et al. 1985; Sllfors 1975) may give e-log lines beyond the normal

consolidation line (NCL), but this does not mean that

one should drop the NCL-concept. Instead, it needs

further consideration as discussed later on. For this

reason the 1D version of the model is described in

detail.

On developing models for general states of stress

and strain, one generally begins with the simplifying

assumption of material isotropy. Similarly, the early

3D creep model by Adachi and Okano (1974) and the

one by Nova (1982) assume material isotropy. This

also applies to the models by Vermeer et al. (1998) and

Yin and Graham (1999). The isotropic creep model by

Stolle et al. (1997) forms the basis of a new anisotropic

creep model described in this paper. It is shown that

this is a viscoplastic version of the well-known Modified Cam Clay model. Moreover, the application of the

isotropic creep model to 3D modelling of the Leaning

Tower of Pisa is presented.

No doubt, natural clays are highly anisotropic and

the final aim of constitutive modelling must be to

describe anisotropic soil behaviour. Pioneering work

in that sense was done by Sekiguchi and Ohta (1977),

Gens and Nova (1993) and Wheeler et al. (2003). The

latter adopted a rotated yield surface in p-q plane which

is embraced as normal consolidation surface in the

present study. It is shown that this rotated oval matches

measured creep lines. Finally, it is demonstrated that

the new anisotropic creep model yields highly realistic stress paths in undrained triaxial extension, and

consequently realistic values for the undrained shear

strength.

strain implies a change of void ratio and it is convenient to formulate the deformation in terms of void

ratio (e). Hence,

e = e e + e c

The elastic change of void ratio is formulated as:

e e =

e c =

(2)

C

ln 10

p

with =

Cc Cs

C

(3)

it will be shown that can mostly be taken equal to

one day. C is the well-known secondary compression

index that is also referred to as the creep index and Cc

is the well-known compression index.

An important soil deformation characteristic, as

observed for states of normal consolidation, concerns

the normal consolidation line in Figure 2. On this line

we have the preconsolidation stress p , which increases

during creep according to the differential equation

1D CONSTITUTIVE MODEL

p

ln 10

e c

=

p

Cc Cs

Basic equations

(4a)

for a constant temperature. The influence of temperature on p will be considered in Section 2.7. The

integrated form of Eq. [4a] is

modelled. First of them is the more or less elastic deformation, as directly observed in an unloading path or

along a recompression branch. The other component

of strain is irreversible and time dependent. Volumetric

p = po exp

58

Cs

ln 10

index, which is sometimes called the unloadingreloading index and denoted as Cur .

The second deformation type is creep that is modelled by the power law

relates to the one-dimensional version proposed by

Stolle et al. (1997) and Vermeer et al. (1998). As it

is tradition in soil mechanics, compression is taken

positive. A dot over a symbol implies differentiation

with respect to time, and the superscripts e and c refer

to the elastic and creep components, respectively.

2.1

(1)

ln 10 ec

, ec = ec eco

Cc Cs

(4b)

ec = eco . For numerical simulations of deformation, one

does not only need values for the material constants

Cc , Cs , C and the reference time , but also the initial

values of effective stress and the state parameter p .

Hence po is an important input parameter, whereas

eco is not directly needed. Indeed, during computations

one may evaluate ec without explicitly knowing eco .

The creep Eq. [3] is rather similar to the well-known

creep law = ( 0 ) as introduced by Norton

(1929) for metals. Instead of Nortons threshold stress

0 the preconsolidation pressure p is used. In contrast

to Nortons law p is not a threshold stress, i.e. creep is

assumed to take place also in overconsolidated states.

To illustrate the tremendous effect of the overconsolidation ratio on the creep rate, let us consider a typical clay with Cc = 0.15, Cs = 0.015 and C = 0.005,

giving for the creep exponent in Eq. [3] the typical

value of = 27. The creep law [3] now gives

e c = e cnc

for OCR = 1

e c e cnc 103

e c e cnc 106

OCR > 1.3. On the other hand the rate of creep is

notable for more or less normally consolidated clays.

2.2

The creep law [3] holds for general states of stress and

strain, as both the effective stress and the preconsolidation stress p may vary as a function of time. In fact,

the latter increases monotonically with creep deformation and for a better understanding of the model it

is convenient to consider the creep law with p being

eliminated. To this end, one has to insert the evolution

Eq.[4b] for p into the creep law [3] to find:

C

e =

ln 10

c

po

ec eco

exp

C/ ln 10

Figure 3. Time is reset to zero for every load step.

(5)

than po and it does not need to be constant. In the

simplest case of creep at constant effective stress the

creep rate reduces monotonically due to the decreasing

void ratio in the exponential term.

For the special case of a constant effective stress, the

differential creep law [5] can be integrated analytically

to obtain

t

ec = ec eco = C log 1 +

po

= OCR o

(6b)

A logarithmic creep law was first proposed by Buisman (1936), but the above form with was first

introduced by Garlanger (1972). The reference time

depends completely on the initial state of overconsolidation. Consider for instance a standard oedometer

test in which the load is daily increased, as illustrated

Figure 3 and Figure 4. Depending on the permeability

of the sample, the end of consolidation may be reached

in one or more hours after loading, but for the remaining part of the day the sample will creep at a constant

effective stress. The logarithmic Eq. [5] is fully valid

(6a)

59

(primary) consolidation. In oedometer testing time is

mostly reset to zero at the beginning of consolidation

rather than at the end, and therefore, the curves shown

in Figure 4 do not fully reflect Eq. [6a].

According to the classification of creep models by

Liingard et al. (2004) Eq. [6a] belongs to the family of

empirical relations, and he would classify the present

model as a constant C model. However, it is emphasized that the reference time varies with OCR, as

shown in Eq. [6b], being not discussed by Liingard et

al. As a result the slope of the final part of e/logt curves

varies with OCR in the overconsolidated range.

2.3

2000

1D creep model

time resistance rs

1600

0

0

Consider an overconsolidated soil sample being stepwise recompressed. During recompression the sample

is in a state of overconsolidation with OCR > 1. In

this case equation [3] predicts a very low creep rate

and consequently there is very little change of OCR.

This is also reflected by the logarithmic law [6a], as it

yields

C

dec

=

dt

ln 10

1

+ t

1.5

2.5

Section 2.6. Since the soil data were not available

to the Authors, typical soil data have been used for

this fitting: 0.0055 and 20 for C/(1 + eo)/ln10 and ,

respectively.

2.4 Normally consolidated states (t >> )

In standard oedometer tests, samples are recompressed

until the normal consolidation line is reached. Then the

load is increased beyond the NC-line and the sample

is left to consolidate and creep back to the NC-line, as

indicated in Figure 3.

As oedometer samples are relatively thin, consolidation is generally fast and most of the deformation

occurs at a constant effective stress. During such a

creep period, the overconsolidation ratio increases

from the low initial value of OCRo < 1 at the end

of consolidation up to OCR = 1. In a standard 24hour incremental test the load is daily doubled so that

OCRo0.5. In such a situation Eq. [6b] indicates that

is extremely small and and the testing is done on a

time scale with t >> . In this case Eq. [8] reduces to

(8)

It is only for t >> that this rate reduces to the constant value of C, but this is not relevant for the overconsolidated range.

Janbu (1969) introduced the so-called time resistance number rs and Eqs. [6b] and [8] can be used to

derive that

de

C for t >>

dlog t

(10)

slope C, so that the creep index can directly be measured from load steps in the normally consolidated

range.

(9)

by Claesson (2006). A very good fit is obtained for

/t = 0.1 as can be observed from Figure 5. This

ratio of 0.1 would seem to be realistic because Claessons definition of the preconsolidation stress implies

Up to now it has been indicated that the reference time

in Eq. [3] is mostly equal to one day, but as yet

60

comparison with 1D creep model.

Indeed, for overconsolidated states of stress, the reference time is very large and t is consequently

small with respect to . Hence, on a usual time scale

with t << , as relevant in laboratory testing, overconsolidated soils show a very small nearly constant

creep rate. This behaviour is reflected by the upper

set of curves in Figure 4. In soil mechanics it is often

suggested that even overconsolidated clays show logarithmic creep, but this is only true on a very large time

scale. Indeed, it follows from Eq. [6a] that the slopes

of the curves in Figure 4 satisfy the equation

1 + eo

d ln t

=

ln 10 1 + OCR o

rs

d

C

t

0.5

/po

C 1

for << (7)

ln 10

dec

t

= C

textdlogt

+t

800

400

1200

value. In this Section it is shown that the reference time

relates to the definition of the NC-surface and that the

usual definition of this surface implies a reference time

of one day. In order to show this, we consider the creep

in a particular load step of a conventional oedometer

test. According to Eqs. [6a] and [4b] we have

t

ec = C log 1 +

(11a)

p

po

(11b)

respectively. The first expression for ec is the fundamental equation, whereas Eq. [9b] basically defines

the preconsolidation stress as a function of ec . On

eliminating the void ratio, the above two equations

yield

+ t

=

p

po

in conventional 24 h test and CRS oedometer test (from

Hanzawa 1989).

(12)

OCR =

+ t

many cases CRS tests are done relatively fast and the

results overshoot the NC-line from a 24-hours test, as

can be seen in Figure 6. However, any CRS test line can

be adopted as NC-line, provided that an appropriate

reference time is assigned to this line, as will be

shown in the following.

Consider a CRS test with a particular constant rate

of void ratio, then it follows from Eq. [1], [2] and [4a]

that

1/

(13)

already argued in the previous section. Then Eq. [13]

reduces to the very simple expression

OCR (t/)1/

for t >>

(14)

e = e e + e c =

OCR will rapidly increase from its initial small value

of OCRo up to OCR = 1.

Most often the load is increased every 24 hours and

consolidation takes typically one hour. In such a test

the creep time for reaching the normal consolidation

line would be 23 hours or roughly one day. On substituting OCR = 1 and t = 1 day into Equation [14],

one obtains = 1 day. No doubts, oedometer tests may

also be carried out with 12 or 48 hours load steps to

find somewhat shifted NC-lines with = 12 or = 48

hours respectively.

2.6

(15)

the elastic strain rate is given by Cs /(Cc Cs ) times

the creep rate. This can be used to write

e =

Cc

C

Cc

e c =

Cc Cs

Cc Cs ln 10

p

(16)

e cnc =

C

Cc

Cc Cs ln 10

(17)

If is assumed to be one day, the CRS test has to be carried out at the appropriate rate according to Eq. [17].

On the other hand, one may also adjust to any possible

CRS test. This is clear when writing Eq. [17] as

particular clay on the basis of a multi-stage loading

test, one may use a constant rate of strain test. Data

by Hanzawa (1989) as shown in Figure 6 demonstrate

that these so-called CRS tests give oedometer curves

61

Cs

Cc Cs p

ln 10

ln 10 p

Cc

C

1

Cc Cs ln 10 e nc

(18)

= 0.01 per C. As an alternative to the above equation, one might also use ideas from Moritz (1995) to

obtain

T

ln 10 ec

p = po

exp

(21)

To

Cc Cs

where replaces as a temperature parameter. The

influence of temperature on the preconsolidation stress

is thus easily incorporated into the model by using an

extended equation for p .

2.8

at various temperatures (Eriksson 1989).

constant effective stress. On taking the NC-line from a

CRS test, the applied deformation rate is assumed to be

e nc and one may compute the corresponding reference

time form Eq. [18].

Eriksson (1989) was probably the first to conduct

a systematic study on the effects of temperature on

the compressibility of clays. His CRS test results are

shown in Figure 7. With increasing temperature, the

soil becomes more compressible in the overconsolidated range and the preconsolidation stress decreases.

This is of great importance to practical applications of

creep models, as laboratory tests are usually performed

at a temperature close to 20 C, whereas in situ temperatures tend to be around 10 C. It can be derived from

the data in Figure 7 that the preconsolidation stress

of this particular clay drops from about 60 kPa down

to about 50 kPa when temperature raises from 10 C

to 20 C.

Leroueil (2006) reviewed data from eight different

sources and concluded that the change of the preconsolidation stress is essentially the same for all the clays

considered, being almost 1% per C between 5 and

35 C. This observation can directly be used to assess

the temperature parameter in the proposed equation

p = p

ln 10 c

e + T

Cc Cs

oedometer tests on peat and very soft natural clays,

e-log plots seldomly result in straight compression

curves, as assumed in previous sections of this paper.

Instead one tends to find slightly concave curves as

for instance shown in Figure 6. The concave form is

logic as there is a theoretical lower boundary of e = 0

to the void ratio, being asymptotically approached in

high-pressure oedometer tests. For this reason, several

authors, e.g. Butterfield (1979) and Den Haan (1994),

have advocated the use of bilogarithmic plots and they

define the NC-line by the equation

ln

1+e

= ln

1 + eo

o

as a true material constant, Cc is found to increase

with e, as observed in large strain oedometer tests. For

small strains, however, we have e eo and Cc reduces

to a fixed material constant. In the following will

be used rather than Cc .

The use of Eq. [22] complies to the concept of logarithmic strain as often used for large-strain problems in

mechanics. Within this concept the volumetric strain

is defined as

vol ln

V

V

= ln (1 +

)

Vo

Vo

(19)

or in integrated form

vol ln (1+

V

V

)

Vo

Vo

for

V << Vo(24)

(20)

which is the usual definition of infinitesimal strain.

62

(23)

where V is the volume of the material element considered and compressive strains are taken positive. Within

the range of small strains, V/Vo and Eq. [23] can be

linearised giving

ln 10 ec

p = po expT exp

Cc Cs

(22)

Vs is the volume of the solid phase, and on assuming

this phase to be incompressible, one obtains together

with Eq. [22]

vol ln

1+e

= ln

1 + eo

o

(25)

and strain, the well-known stress invariants p and q for

mean and deviatoric stress are adopted. The summation convention is used throughout the paper unless

differently stated. Hence p = ii /3 and

sij = ij p ij

(26)

The ellipses of Modified Cam Clay are taken as contours of volumetric creep rate in p-q plane. Hence the

same volumetric creep rate applies to all stress states

which lie on a particular ellipse. The ellipse which

intersects with the p-axis in pp is referred to as the

normal consolidation surface (NCS), as indicated in

Figure 8.

Just like the oedometric preconsolidation stress p ,

the isotropic one pp must be updated continually during

the analysis according to the evolution of the volumetric creep strain. The evolution of the preconsolidation

pressure is governed by temperature variations as well,

but for the sake of simplicity, the isothermal case will

be considered.

and a modified swelling index respectively. It yields

for small strain

=

and

potentials, one needs a suitable measure for these

ellipses. Stress invariants p and q are used to define

the scalar quantity

peq = p +

(27)

Modified Cam Clay ellipse in p-q plane. A soil element

is overconsolidated for peq < pp and underconsolidated for peq > pp , as indicated in Figure 9. The

constant M represents the slope of the critical state

line.

The preconsolidation pressure changes during creep

according to the law

pp = ppo exp

cvol

eij = Cijkl kl

With the definition [27] in mind, Eq. [3] is modified to

become:

1

peq

C

, =

(29)

cvol = sign(d)

pp

ln 10 1 + eo

(28)

63

1

1

3 (1 ) Cs

2 Cs

1+

ln 10 1 + eo

ln 10 1 + eo

and Cs , the reader is referred to Vermeer and Neher

(1999). For soft soils the effective Poissons ratio has

typically a value of 0.2. This Poissons ratio is used

in the elastic compliance fourth-order tensor Cijkl in

q

M 2 p

1

Cc

ln 10 1 + eo

The variable d is introduced in the following. According to Eq. [29] the volumetric creep rate is driven by

peq /pp which is the inverse of the overconsolidation

ratio. This ratio can be considered as a measure of the

distance from the actual state of stress to the NCS.

As in classical elastoplasticity, the 3D creep model

has a flow rule giving the directionof the creep strain

rate. Similarly to the MCC model associated plasticity is assumed and ellipses are thus taken as plastic

potential surfaces. The rate of creep strain can hence

be written as

cij =

peq

ij

(30)

Figure 10. NC-ellipses, Mohr-Coulomb failure line and

tension cut-off of IC model.

=

cvol

peq

with d =

=1

d

p

q/p

M

2

(31)

ratio q/p . As long as this ratio is smaller than M, d

is positive and Eq. [29] predicts contractive creep. On

the other hand, stress paths above the critical state line

yield negative d-values and dilation. Similarly to the

MCC-model, soil contraction implies an expansion of

the NC surface and dilation causes shrinkage of the

NC-ellipse.

It now follows form Eqs. [29] and [30] that

cij =

|d|

peq

pp

peq

ij

(32)

model in the sense that there is no truly elastic domain.

Well below the NC-surface creep rates are extremely

small, but just below this surface the creep rate is

significant. Moreover, stresses may exceed the NCsurface, so that it is not a yield locus in the sense of

plasticity. On the other hand, strain rates for stress

points around the NC-surface are so high that this

surface creates the effect of a yield surface.

4

In order to remain within the framework of a classical continuum and to avoid numerical difficulties, the

dry side of critical state is modelled by a fixed Hvorslev

type failure surface as indicated in Figure 10. In this

way one obviously introduces two extra model constants, i.e. the cohesion c and the friction angle .

It would be most realistic to make c density dependent, but for the sake of convenience the cohesion is

assumed to be constant. In principal stress state the

failure surface is of the Mohr-Coulomb type, as shown

in Figure 11. Because of the failure surface, the total

number of model constants now increases from five up

to eight, as listed in Table 1.

Rough estimates of , , and are also indicated inTable 1, to give an impression of the magnitude

of these constants. An important feature of the ICmodel is that relative steep NC-surfaces can be used

by adopting relatively large values for MNCS . On doing

model involves dilation and associated softening for

stress states on the dry side (left of the intercept of

the CSL). In numerical analyses softening cannot easily be simulated as it leads to mesh-dependency and

possible numerical instabilities. For a proper analysis

of softening problems, without such difficulties, one

would need to formulate the model in the framework

of a non-local or micropolar continuum theory.

64

Table 1.

/5

/30

MNCS <=> Konc

0.2

a modified swelling index

a modified creep index

height of the normal consolidation

surface

elastic Poissons ratio

c

0

effective Hvorslev friction angle

Hvorslev angle of dilation

51 m. The construction was finished between 1360 and

1370 with the bell chamber.

In 1838/1839 a circular ditch, the so-called Catino,

was dug around the tower to expose the column plinths

and foundation steps which had settled below the

ground surface level. From 1933 to 1935 the Catino

wall and the foundation were injected with cement

grout to stop water inflow into the Catino. In the 1990s

the northern side of the foundation ring was ballasted

with lead ingots, as a temporary stabilization measure.

In the years 1999-2001 soil was extracted from under

the same side using inclined drill holes, and the lead

ingots were removed.

The first known exact inclination measurements

were made in 1817. Since 1911 the inclination has

been measured regularly by different methods, while

the measurements of settlements started in 1965.

doubt, MNCS may be equal to M, but the model gives

the possibility to use MNCS values well beyond M.

On doing so we deviate from the Modified Cam

Clay model, as this model tends to give too large horizontal stresses in oedometric loading. In order to make

sure that the model predicts realistic Knc

o -values quite

large MNCS -values need to be used, and consequently,

relatively steep normal consolidation ellipses in p-q

plane.

5

The layers underneath the tower foundation (Figure 12)

are holocene sediments of the quaternary period. The

tower is founded on top of a 5.4 m thick layer of sandy

to clayey silt, which is covered by a 3 m thick fill layer.

The approximately 30 m thick formation B basically

contains clay layers and includes a sand layer. Formation C starts at a depth of 37 m below sea level

and consists of sand with a thickness of 2025 m.

The formations B and C are of marine origin. The

consistency range of the clays is between soft and

medium, hence showing a high compressibility. Soil

parameters were estimated upon several broad soil

investigations between 1907 to 1992. The sampling

quality was improved with time: the so-called Laval

block sampler has been used for the latest samples,

thus giving samples with a very low disturbance.

of the Leaning Tower of Pisa requested the Institute of

Geotechnical Engineering at Stuttgart University to

analyse the long-term behaviour of the tower after the

recent restauration measures. The numerical analyses

thereby performed were an important benchmark for

assessing the effectiveness of the proposed 3D creep

model in capturing the time-dependent behaviour of

soft soils.

The boundary value problem has been solved

via finite element analysis using PLAXIS code

(Brinkgreve and Vermeer 2001). The numerical algorithm and the implementation of the isotropic creep

model has been described in Stolle et al. (1997), and

this Section focuses on the description of the geometry

of the problem. For a more exhaustive description of

the FE analyses, refer to Neher et al. (2003)

5.1

The finite element analyses are performed with an

enhanced version of the Plaxis 3D Tunnel code allowing for consolidation analysis and large deformations

with updating of the mesh. The layering of the finite

element model and the soil parameter set are based

on Calabresi et al. (1996). In Table 2 and Table 3 the

parameter set of the soil layers are given. The Pre Overburden Pressure (POP), as referred to in Table 2, is

defined as p o . It is an input parameter for specifying the vertical preconsolidation stress (Brinkgreve

and Vermeer 2001).

The finite element model is calibrated on the basis

of the history of construction In the first construction

phase from 1173 to 1178 the tower is simulated up

to a height of 29 m. In the second stage of construction from 1272 to 1278 a height of 51 m was reached,

in 1173 and ended in 1370. The foundation of the

tower is a circular ring consisting of stones and mortar

with an outer diameter of 19.6 m and an inner diameter of 4.5 m. The height of the tower is 58 m, with

an estimated total weight of 140 MN. During the first

construction phase from 1173 to 1178 the foundation

and the first three and half storeys were built up to a

height of 29 m. After a break of nearly 100 years the

tower was erected up to the seventh storey in the years

65

Table 2.

layer

[kN/m3 ]

[]

[]

[]

[ ]

c

[kN/m2 ]

k

[1010 m/s]

POP

[kN/m2 ]

A1N

A1S

B1

B2

B3

B4/B5

B7a

B7b

B8/B9/B10

19.1

19.1

17.3

17.8

16.7

20.0

19.6

17.8

19.0

0.045

0.065

0.15

0.12

0.15

0.07

0.1

0.12

0.1

0.0045

0.0065

0.015

0.012

0.015

0.007

0.01

0.012

0.01

0.0015

0.00217

0.005

0.004

0.005

0.0023

0.0033

0.004

0.0033

34.0

34.0

26.0

26.0

26.0

28.0

27.0

27.0

25.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

104

10

5

5

5

2

5

5

3

140

140

70

50

50

130/200

70

70

70

Table 3.

Jamiolkowski (1999)

5

MG

A2

B6

18.0

18.2

19.1

8700

13700

11600

c

[]

k

[1010 m/s]

4

Settlement [m]

[ ]

st

0.33 34.0 0.0 104

0.33 34.0 0.0 104

AGI (1991)

nd

2 calibration analysis

calibration analysis

a)

3

2

1

height 1370

0

1000

height 1278

1500

2000

2500

Time [year]

5.5

(Neher et al. 2003).

58 m

height 1178

center of gravity

Jamiolkowski (1999)

8

st

1 calibration analysis

AGI (1991)

nd

calibration analysis

22.5 m

fill (MG)

sandy and clayey silt(A1)

wP=22%; wL=38%; IC=0.63

upper sand (A2)

3.0 m

-5.4 m

-7.4 m

19.6 m

Inclination []

+3.0 m

0.0 m

horizon A

wP=30%; wL=70%; IC=0.45

-17.8 m

-22.0 m

-24.4 m

wP=13%; wL=43%; IC=0.63

middle sand(B6)

b)

horizon B

horizon C

0

1000

wP=25%; wL=51%; IC=0.5

-37.0 m

lower sand (C1)

1500

2000

2500

Time [year]

(Neher et al. 2003).

then a second construction break of about 80 years follows. The subsequent construction of the bell chamber

is simulated by adding volume elements to the tower.

During the following consolidation and creep period

of overall 500 years, consolidation was the major process occurring in the first decade. Creep settlement

observed after such period increased moderately while

inclination almost doubled since the last loading step

(see Figure 13a,b). The simulation of the excavation

around the foundation within a circular crown 2.2 m

wide, has a substantial influence on the inclination

of the Tower. The application of counterweights on

the North side of the tower has been simulated, thus

showing a backward rotation of 0.07 whereas 0.02

were measured.

66

than the real one, as small strain stiffness is not modelled. This result is confirmed by the further step of soil

extraction, simulated by volume reduction of some of

the elements below the northern side in order to simulate the extraction of 25 m3 of soil, necessary to reach

the backward rotation of 0.05 . The amount of soil

actually extracted was considerably higher, thus showing again a softer soil behaviour due to neglecting the

small strain stiffness.

A second set of analyses were performed considering an increased stiffness for the soil, giving a

more realistic simulation of the settlement and of the

inclination. In the light of such reasonable results, a

settlement/inclination prediction has been carried out

thus allowing to estimate in 500 years the time necessary to reach the same settlement and inclination

measured before the intervention (Figure 13a,b).

5.4

Figure 14. Contours of volumetric creep strain rate for a

natural soil (after Boudali 1995).

realistic predictions for settlement and the evolution of

the inclination of the tower in the forthcoming years,

there are several aspects to be refined both in the

geometry of the mesh and in the constitutive modelling. First, the Catino has a width of only 2.2 m,

whilst around 3.5 m is the real width. Secondly, the

excavation of the Catino involved larger depths than

those considered within the first analysis. In the light

of those considerations and of the enhanced computational power of modern CPUs, a new set of FE analyses

will be performed, first with an improved mesh and

then with a further development of the creep model,

which is described in the next Section.

consolidation surface for the AC-model. On developing an anisotropic model, the use of classical stress

invariants for defining this surface is no more possible. However, as long as triaxial states of stress without

principal stress rotation and 2 = 3 are referred to

and the soil is assumed to be initially (and stay) crossanisotropic, it is still possible to make use of q and p

as defined in Section 3.

In this particular case, only a scalar quantity

(describing the inclination of the normal consolidation surface) is necessary to describe the orientation

of the surface and the equivalent mean stress peq is

defined as

2

q p

(33)

peq = p + 2

M 2 p

The isotropic creep model as considered so far is

based on MCC ellipses, which are symmetric with

respect to the p axis. This assumption was made for the

sake of simplicity, but it does not match experimental

evidences for natural soils, as shown in Figure 14.

Rotated yield surfaces have been observed for a

wide range of soft soils, and it is clear that it originates

from the mechanism of formation of natural soils and

the subsequent ageing. The natural anisotropy is erased

if the material is loaded isotropically or remoulded.

An advanced constitutive model must take the initial

anisotropy of the natural soil into account as it is possible by using a rotated ellipse. Both expansion and

rotation of the normal consolidation surface should be

related to the creep strain and the stress path.

6.1

equivalent mean stress peq and scalar . It can easily be seen that this equation degenerates to Eq. [27]

for = 0. Hence, the anisotropic normal consolidation

surface incorporates the isotropic one of Figure 10 as

a special case. For NC-soils, the initial value for nc is

typically in the range between 0.5 and 0.6.

The scalar quantity acts like a hardening parameter. Its evolution is governed by creep strains according

to the equation

3q

q

=

cvol +

c

(34)

4p

3p

and are soil constants that control the rate of

In order to match creep rate contours shown in Figure 14, the yield surface of the so-called S-CLAY1

67

o dependence on MNCS .

Wheeler et al. 2003).

c = 2/3|c1 c2 |. The constant is typically close to

unity and is mostly around 20.

6.2

used as a plastic potential function, so that the AC

model is an associated visco-plastic model. For practical applications of this model, it should be made sure

that the model yields realistic horizontal stresses in

oedometer loading, including constant rate of strain

oedometer tests. In such tests on NC-soils, it yields

= nc and = 0.

It can be demonstrated that Knc

o is a function of M,

, , and the parameter as used in Eq. [34]. The

AC model offers the possibility to choose the value

such that the Knc

o -value matches the Jaky correlation

Ko 1

nc

sin cv

o dependence on .

Table 4.

nc

0.204

0.013

0.0017

0.3

1.6

20.0

1.02

0.533

consolidated state with Knc

o , and considering a strain

rate of 0.01/day. In Figure 18 two sets of simulations

are shown. The first set (solid line) shows a compression and an extension test using the AC model. For an

initial vertical stress of 50 kPa. The second set (broken

line) shows results for a compression and an extension

test using the IC model for an initial vertical stress of

70 kPa. The different initial stresses were chosen only

for the sake of clarity in visualising the stress paths.

It can easily be observed that the behaviour in compression is virtually the same for both models. This

is due to the small rotation of the NC-surface during

the simulation; from the initial value of nc = 0.533

to the final one of 0.537. On the other hand, in triaxial

extension major differences occur. In both simulations

the critical state line is reached, but along qualitatively

different paths. In the AC model case the rotation of

the NC-surface is evident since varies from the initial value of 0.533 to the final value of 0.44 at the end

AC model, undrained triaxial test simulations are considered. The material chosen for the simulations is

Murro clay with soil parameters as indicated in Table 4.

68

(35)

model a Drucker-Prager type generalization has been

used, thus giving the same shear strength both in compression and in extension. This assumption must be

regarded as a simplification. For the future it is planned

to use a Matsuoka-Nakai type model (Matsuoka and

Nakai 1982).

Figure 16 and Figure 17 illustrate the difference

between IC model and AC model. In the former the

MNCS -line is not necessarily the critical state line. In

AC model, no distinction is made between the MNCS line and the CSL, and Knc

o value can be adjusted by the

parameter .

6.3

CSL

ACM

SCLAY-1

SSC

MCC

Konc

60

60

CSL

40

MNCS> M

40

20

0

02

20

40

AC model

60

20

MNCS= M

IC model

0

0

20

40

60

AC model

CSL

IC model

Table 4 and MNCS = 2.1.

more realistic undrained shear strength values than the

IC model, at least in extension.

It should be emphasized that the same Knc

o -values

were used for all simulations. To this end the IC model

simulation was performed with MNCS = 2.1, rather

than MNCS = M. In this case the AC model and the

IC model have the same Knc

o line.

Another set of undrained simulations has been performed with MNCS = M, such that the models have

different Knc

o lines but the same critical state line. This

has the advantage that results can be compared to corresponding time-independent models. Results of the

IC model can be compared to the elastoplastic Modified Cam Clay model (MCC) and results from AC

model can be compared to the elastoplastic S-CLAY1

model (Wheeler et al. 2003). It appears from Figure 19

that the elastoplastic models behave very similar to

the creep models, at least when simulating undrained

tests with a strain rate of 0.01/day. No doubt, the creep

models yield steeper stress paths for faster loading and

flatter paths for slower tests (Vermeer and Neher 1999).

However, the present simulations are not meant to

show this effect. Instead, they are meant to demonstrate

that the IC model is an extension of MCC to include

creep and AC model is an extension of S-CLAY1 to

include creep.

Figure 18 and Figure 19 show significant differences between triaxial compression and triaxial extension. For undrained triaxial compression anisotropy

is not very important, but it is for extension paths.

CSL

Figure 19. Undrained simulations for soil parameters of

Table 4 and MNCS = M.

Both Figure 18 and Figure 19 demonstrate that extension needs to be modelled anisotropically, otherwise

the undrained shear strength is considerably overestimated.

In this paper a new anisotropic model for creep is proposed. The model is a straightforward extension of

the isotropic creep (IC) model, formulated at Stuttgart

University. First, a complete description of the framework is given, starting from the formulation of the 1D

model to extend then the analysis to the 3D model,

based upon a modified version of MCC to model time

dependent behaviour. A detailled explanation of the

meaning of the parameters involved is given, with particular reference to the time parameter . After a brief

description of the IC model, the analysis of the stability of the Leaning Tower of Pisa is presented as

an example of a 3D boundary value problem solved

through finite element method using the IC model.

69

CONCLUSIONS

supported the European Community through the program Human Resources and Mobility.

new anisotropic model which is under development at

Stuttgart University.

Some important conclusions can be already drawn:

as for the IC model, its capability to capture many

aspects of the time-dependent behaviour of soft soils,

such as the variation of C with OCR is demonstrated.

Moreover, it is worth stressing the possibility to define

the normal consolidation line even for a CRS oedometer test, setting the ratio t/ to a suitable value. The

model, in its most general formulation, is also capable to take into account temperature variations, which

have been proven to play a significant role in the

time-dependent behaviour.

The clear advantage of the IC model, built directly

on the structure of the 1D model, is the possibility to

analyse every kind of stress path, not just limited to 1D

compression. It has been shown that the Ko predicted

when simulating standard oedometer tests matches the

Jakys formula only if a suitable value is chosen for M ,

which has no link to the critical state stress ratio.

An anisotropic generalization of the model is then

proposed: the motivation for this work comes from

several experimental observations on natural soils

which show the effects of initial and strain induced

anisotropy. Besides, AC model overcomes the problem of Knc

o prediction restoring the physical meaning

of M value thanks to the formulation of the rotational

hardening law, as shown in Section 6.

As a first benchmark for the new model, four

sets of undrained tests have been simulated with the

anisotropic and the isotropic model. These are in good

agreement with the predictions by their corresponding

elastoplastic counterparts S-CLAY1 and MCC. This

fundamental result shows that both the creep models

give predictions which are consistent with those one

can get by using classical elastoplastic models, thus

confirming to some extent their reliability.

Nevertheless, the new anisotropic model needs

further development: in the current version a DruckerPrager failure criterium has been implemented, while

it is well-known how a different formulation, such as

the one proposed by Matsuoka-Nakai, is more suitable

for the modelling of soil behaviour.

In addition, the simple one-integration point routine used for this work must be enhanced to a full

implementation into a FE code in order to be able to

use the model to solve boundary value problems of

engineering interest.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The work presented was carried out as part of a

Marie Curie Research Training Network Advanced

Modelling of Ground Improvement on Soft Soils

(AMGISS) (Contract No MRTN-CT-2004-512120)

70

Stress-strain-strain rate relation for the compressibility of

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Neher, H.P., Vogler, U., Vermeer, P.A., and Viggiani, C.

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Vermeer, Schweiger, Karstunen, and Cudny. Noordwijkerhout (NL), pp. 607612.

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Nova, R. 1982.A viscoplastic constitutive model for normally

consolidated clays. In IUTAM Conference on Deformation and Failure of Granular Materials. Delft, pp.

287295.

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Gteborg.

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229238.

Stolle, D.F.E., Bonnier, P.G., and Vermeer, P.A. 1997. A soft

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Amsterdam. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 249261.

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the classical theory of secondary compression to modern

creep analysis. In Computer Methods and Advances in

Geomechanics. Edited by Yuan. Balkema, Rotterdam.

Wheeler, S.J., Ntnen, A., Karstunen, M., and Lojander, M.

2003. An anisotropic elastoplastic model for soft clays.

Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 40: 403418.

Yin, J.-H., and Graham, J. 1999. Elastic viscoplastic modelling of the time dependent stress-strain behaviour of

soils. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 36: 736745.

71

2007 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN13 978-0-415-42280-2

model of saturated sand under complex stress condition

Maotian Luan1,2 , Chengshun Xu1,2 , Yang He1,2 , Ying Guo1,2 , Zhendong Zhang1,2 ,

Dan Jin1,2 & Qinglai Fan1,2

1 State

Dalian, Liaoning Province, P. R. China

2 Institute of Geotechnical Engineering, School of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering,

Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning Province, P. R. China

ABSTRACT: A variety of stress-controlled monotonic and cyclic shear tests on saturated loose sand under

various complex initial consolidation conditions and different variation patterns of shear stress are conducted by

using the soil static and dynamic universal triaxial and torsional shear apparatus. Through these experimental

tests, the followings are achieved: (1) Under the application of monotonic shear loading, orientation of principal

stress obviously influences effective stress path and stress-strain relationship. When the orientation of major

principal stress approaches to the vertical, loose sand displays the features of strain-hardening and shear dilatation.

Along with increase of deviation of orientation of major principal stress from the vertical, loose sand displays

obviously different features such as strain-softening and shear-contraction or others. Compared with the effect

of orientation of principal stress, It seems that the coefficient of intermediate principal stress do not remarkably

affect shear deformation behavior of sand. (2) Under the condition of cyclic loading, the influences of orientation

of principal stress at initial consolidation stage are appreciable. The pre-shearing effect of initial deviatoric stress

on application plane of dynamic stress imposes a considerable effect on cyclic behavior and accumulative mode

of residual deformation. (3) Cyclic shear behavior of sand is interrelated to monotonic shear characteristics.

The strain-hardening or/and softening features in monotonic shear test are closely related to cyclic mobility and

flow-slide deformation in cyclic shear test. And occurrence of cyclic mobility and flow-slide is dependent on

initial texture of sand. (4) In the paper, the steady-state concept of modern soil mechanics and the state-dependent

equation of stress-dilatancy are integrated with the empirical stress-strain relationship obtained from measured

data in tests, a refined elasto-plastic constitutive model is proposed and the related parameters are defined

accordingly. It is shown by experimental verification and numerical simulation or prediction of the model that the

proposed model is capable to well display influence of initial stress and physical states on shear behavior of sand.

INTRODUCTION

of deformation and strength behavior of sands as stated

by Madsen (1978), Ishihara and Towhata, (1983) and

Nakata (1998). For this sake, it is practically significant to carry out studies on deformation and strength

properties and on constitutive model of marine and

ocean soils under loading conditions as induced in

seabed and foundations. However, the conventional

triaxial shear and torsional shear tests are incapable to

reproduce the above-mentioned complex initial stress

condition and cyclic loading pattern. An intensive and

systematic experimental study for such a special issue

had hardly been made due to lack of modern soil testing

technology in reality.

Undrained triaxial compression tests and triaxial

extension tests conducted in the field have shown

loss of stability of sandy seabed under wave loading, and are closely related to the process of build-up,

development, diffusion and dissipation of excess pore

water pressure generated during cyclic loading. Practically the initial stress state in seabed usually is of

anisotropy. Moreover, the initial stress states of soil

elements located at different parts in structural foundations are all different. The orientation of initial

stresses of any point on a potential slip surface strongly

depends on the location of the point. Therefore, as an

essential issue in evaluation the stability of seabed and

structural foundations, the complex anisotropic initial

stress state and the complex variation pattern of cyclic

73

of triaxial extension is characterized by more shear

contraction. If the maximum excess pore water pressure generated in monotonic shear test is taken as the

index indicating trigger of the flow feature, the highest flow potential is mobilized under triaxial extension

condition while the lowest flow potential is displayed

under triaxial compression condition, the flow potential is in middle under monotonic condition. Such

a difference in shear characteristics may closely be

associated with the combined influence of orientation

of principal stress and intermediate principal stress

on undrained shear behavior. In order to understand

shear behavior of sand under three-dimensional stress

condition, undrained monotonic shear tests were carried out by Yamada and Ishihara (1981) by using a

true triaxial apparatus and it was found that when the

vertical principal stress was minor principal stress,

the undrained shear behavior of sand presented more

remarkable contraction. Through hollow cylindrical

torsional shear tests, it was manifested by Symes et al

(1985), Yoshimine et al (1998) that the more the orientation of major principal stress deviated from the vertical or the more the coefficient of intermediate principal

stress was, the more remarkable shear contraction the

sand behaves. Under different combinations of sand

density and confining pressure, the shear tests conducted by Uthayakumar et al (1998) with unchanged

orientation of principal stress and coefficient of intermediate principal stress indicated that intermediate

principal stress and orientation of principal stress

affect both effective stress path and stress-strain relationship respectively in a certain extent. However, the

combination of the orientation of principal stress and

coefficient of intermediate principal stress is specified

in all the above experimental tests.

In order to perform the shear tests under complex initial stress and physical conditions, an intensive

effort has been made by the Institute of Geotechnical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology

to establish the soil static and dynamic universal triaxial and torsional shear apparatus. By using this

advanced apparatus, a number of experimental tests

are conducted on saturated loose sands under various

complex stress conditions. Then a comprehensive and

systematic investigation on deformation and strength

characteristics of saturated loose sand under monotonic and cyclic shear loading is carried out. On the

basis of experimental results, improvements on conventional elasto-plastic constitutive models are made

and a refined model is proposed.

vh

( v - h )/2

(a)

vh

( v - h )/2

(b)

( v - h )/2

(c)

includes direct shear box, simple shear apparatus, triaxial shear apparatus, torsional shear apparatus and

resonance column.

These test apparatus have been playing an irreplaceable important role in understanding of fundamental

deformation behavior and strength properties as well

as constitutive relationship of soils. However, conventional cyclic triaxial shear or/and torsional shear

apparatus are only capable to implement pure shear

state by imposing cyclic deviatoric stress or torsional

shear stress on soil sample and cyclic principal stress

axis changes abruptly for 90 in a cycle of loading

as shown in Figure 1(a) and 1(b) respectively. Both

apparatus can not be simulate complex initial stress

state with different combinations of the coefficient of

intermediate principal stress and orientation of initial

major principal stress and cannot fulfill complex variation pattern of cyclic stresses as induced by wave or

traffic loading.

The soil static and dynamic universal triaxial and

torsional shear apparatus was jointly designed by

Dalian University of Technology and Seiken Corp.,

Inc., Japan and independently manufactured by Seiken

Corp., Inc., Japan in 2001. This new apparatus enables

to simultaneously impose and individually control

both axial pressure W and torque MT as well as outer

chamber pressure p0 and inner chamber pressure pi .

And different combinations of these components can

be fulfilled. Therefore the consolidation and loading

paths under different complex stress condition of soils

can be implemented. This apparatus is composed of

five components including loading system, air-water

transfer system, analogue control system, data acquisition and computer control system, and hydraulic

servo-loading system, as shown in Figure 2.

APPARATUS

Generally soil test apparatus in laboratory used for

investigating static and dynamic shear behavior of soils

74

vh

W

1.1.1

MT

pi

2=r

po

(a)

MT

pi

po

3

uo

ui

(b)

pi

po

2=r

(c)

Ri

Ro

(d)

maximum and minimum void ratios are emax = 0.848

and emin = 0.519 respectively; maximum and minimum dry unit weight are dmax = 1.74 gcm3 , and

dmin = 1.43 gcm3 respectively.

Sand samples are prepared with layers filling in dry

state. Proper quantity of stoving-dried sand is weighted

out according to the assigned relative density. For sand

of Dr = 30%, naturally dropping stacking can meet the

requirements of sample preparation. After filling of

dry sand is finished, CO2 and deaerate water are successively poured into the sample and backpressure of

200kPa is pre-imposed in order to the sample fully

saturated. Pore water pressure parameter B of all the

prepared samples are required to gain a value over 0.98.

For the hollow-cylinder soil samples used in the

study, the outer- and inner-diameters of the sample

are 100 mm and 60 mm respectively and the height is

150 mm. Stress state of soil element in the sample is

shown in Figure 3.

In order to examine the effect of the orientation of

principal stress and intermediate principal stress on

soil behavior, the coefficient of intermediate principal

stress b and the orientation angle of major principal

stress with respect to the vertical direction defined

as following are employed in this paper

functions: (1) static or/and dynamic vertical load

and torque can be imposed simultaneously. For static

loading, the rate of loading can be controlled. For

dynamic loading, the amplitude, frequency of vertical

load and torque and the phase lag between them can

be freely controlled. (2) Isotropic-, anisotropic- and

K0 -consolidation all can be fulfilled. For hollow cylindrical samples, three-dimensional anisotropic consolidation state can be fulfilled through adjusting innerand outer-chamber pressures together with various

combinations of the orientation of initial principal

stress and coefficient of intermediate principal stress.

(3) Both static loading and dynamic loading may be

controlled optionally in either load- or displacementcontrol manner.A closed-loop feedback control is used

during test process.

By this system, both inner- and outer-chamber

pressures, as well as individual components of static

or/cyclic torque or/and axial force can be independently imposed on soil sample and controlled. Accordingly, any types of complex consolidation stress states

of soil with an arbitrary combination of coefficient

of intermediate principal stress and orientation of initial principal stress can be simulated. In addition,

cyclic shear stress induced by cyclic toque and cyclic

deviatoric stress caused by cyclic axial force can be

simultaneously imposed on soil samples and therefore complex variation patterns of stress or stress paths

such as continuous rotation mode of dynamic principal

stress axis, as shown in Figure1(c) can be accomplished. A typical stress state of soil element in hollow

cylindrical sample is illustrated in Figure 3.

b=

2z

1

arctan

2

z

normal stresses while z is mean shear stress induced

by torque in the hollow cylinder sample. Furthermore,

mean effective stress p and deviatoric stress q as well

as deviatoric stress ratio are respectively defined as

DEFINITION OF STRESS PARAMETERS

1

p = m = (1 + 2 + 3 )

3

1

q=

[( 2 )2 + (2 3 )2 + (3 1 )2 ]

2 1

q

=

p

Chinese Fujian Standard Sand. The initial relative

density is made to be Dr = 30%. The basic physical properties of such a loose sand are measured. Its

specific gravity is Gs = 2.643; mean granular size is

75

2 3

;

1 3

OF SANDS

state and monotonic shear stress paths, five patterns

of stress-controlled monotonic undrained shear tests

as defined as below are conducted.

b=0.22~0.2

5

b

0 0.22 0.5 0.8 1

0 30 45 60 90

(a) Pattern 1

condition with mean principal stress of pm0 =

100 kPa and initial effective deviatoric stress ratio

of 0 = q/p = 0.43 as well as orientation angle

of principal stress of 0 = 0 , monotonic shear

tests are conducted for different values of coefficient of intermediate principal stress, e.g., b = 0,

0.22, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0 respectively in order to examine the independent influence of the coefficient of

intermediate principal stress.

(2) Pattern 2: Under the isotropic consolidation condition with mean principal stress of pm0 = 100 kPa

and initial effective deviator stress ratio of 0 =

q/p = 0, for a specified coefficient of intermediate principal stress such as b = 0, 0.22, 0.5, 0.8,

1.0 respectively, monotonic shear tests are conducted for different orientation angles of principal

stress, e.g., 0 = 0 and 0 = 45 , so that the influence of coefficient of intermediate principal stress

under isotropic consolidation condition can be

systematically investigated.

(3) Pattern 3: Under the anisotropic consolidation

condition with mean principal stress of pm0 =

100 kPa and initial effective deviator stress ratio of

0 = q/p = 0.43 as well as coefficient of intermediate principal stress of b = 0.220.25, monotonic

shear tests are conducted for different orientation angles of principal stress, e.g., 0 = 0 , 30 ,

45 , 60 , 90 respectively in order to examine the

independent influence of orientation of principal

stress.

(4) Pattern 4: Under the anisotropic consolidation condition with mean principal stress of

pm0 = 100 kPa and initial effective deviator stress

ratio of 0 = q/p = 0.43 as well as coefficient

of intermediate principal stress of b = 0.22

0.25, monotonic shear tests are conducted for a

specified orientation angles of principal stress

0 = 45 , the soil sample fully consolidated is

unloaded until a isotropic condition is gained, then

the sample is re-sheared in order to observe the

influence of stress path.

(5) Pattern 5: Under the condition with mean principal

stress of pm0 = 100 kPa and coefficient of intermediate principal stress of b = 0.220.25 as well as

orientation angle of principal stress of 0 = 90 ,

monotonic shear tests are conducted for a specified initial deviatoric stress ratio 0 = q/p = 0.6.

The test results are compared with those obtained

from the tests under the condition of = 90 and

(b) Pattern 3

anisotropic consolidation condition.

160

160

120

120

b=0.00

b=0.22

b=0.50

b=0.80

b=1.00

80

40

0

60

80

100 120

140

b=0.00

b=0.22

b=0.50

b=0.80

b=1.00

80

40

0

40

p'

01

2

g(%)

Figure 5. Effect of the coefficient of intermediate principal stress on undrained shear behavior under anisotropic

consolidation condition.

the effect of initial deviatoric stress ratio.

All the above tests are implemented under stresscontrolled undrained condition. The stress paths of

pattern 1 and pattern 3 are shown in Figure 4.

4.1

stress on undrained shear behavior under

anisotropic consolidation condition

The effective stress paths and stress-strain relationships measured in shear tests with pattern 1 are

displayed in Figure 5 for different values of b, e.g.,

b = 0, 0.22, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0. The initial consolidation

ratios are all specified as 0 = q/p = 0.433 while the

orientation of major principal stress is in vertical, i.e.,

0 = 0 . It can be seen that under undrained condition for all these coefficients of intermediate principal

stress, the loose sand displays strain-hardening characteristics and obvious dialatancy feature through shear

loading and ultimately approaches to a steady state at

a certain deviatoric stress ratio. While the orientation

of major principal stress keeps unchanged, the coefficient of intermediate principal stress has no noticeable

influence on effective stress path and stress-strain

relationship as well as flow potential of sands.

4.2 Effect of coefficient of intermediate principal

stress on undrained shear behavior under

isotropic consolidation condition

For pattern 2 with different values of the coefficient of intermediate principal stress, e.g., b = 0, 0.22,

76

0=0

160

40

0

30

60

p'/kPa

120

b=0

b=0.22

b=0.5

b=0.8

b=1.0

80

40

90

120

(a) 0=0

30

60

p'/kPa

90

120

(b) 0=45

2

3

g/%

b=0

b=0.22

b=0.5

b=0.8

b=1.0

120

b=0

b=0.22

b=0.5

b=0.8

b=1.0

80

40

80

=45

40

0

(a)

3

g/%

(b)

isotropic consolidation.

consolidation.

consolidation condition are shown in Figure 6 respectively for = 0 , = 45 . Through the experimentally

measured data, the combined influence of both the

coefficient of intermediate principal stress and orientation of principal stress on undrained monotonic shear

behavior can be observed.

It was proposed by Yoshimine and Ishihara (1998)

that the maximum pore water pressure generated during undrained shear loading is usually used to evaluate

flow potential. It can be found from Figure 6 that under

the same isotropic consolidation condition, sand samples subjected to shearing with different orientation

of resulting major principal stress exhibit different

flow potential with a somewhat remarkable difference.

The more the orientation of major principal stress deviates from the vertical, the more flow potential the sand

displays. However, similar to anisotropic consolidation condition, for a definite orientation of principal

stress, the coefficient of intermediate principal stress

does not affect effective stress paths remarkably. For

the condition of = 0 , pore water pressures generated

under the four cases of b = 0, 0.22, 0.5, 0.8 do not show

much difference each other while relatively higher

pore water pressure is developed at extension phase

(b = 1). For the condition of = 45 , however, under

the five cases of b = 0, 0.22, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0, the resulting

pore water pressure are rather close to each other and

the pore water pressure developed at extensioin phase

(b = 1) does not attain its maximum.

The Influence of the coefficient of intermediate

principal stress on stress-strain relationship is indicated in Figure 7 respectively for = 0 and = 45 .

For the case of = 0 which corresponds to an extension state, deformation of sand develops rather faster

with considerable strain-hardening feature. Through

the comparison between two cases of = 0 and

= 45 , it is implied that the coefficient of intermediate principal stress imposes a much less obvious effect

compared with the influence of orientation of principal

stress.

For a given orientation of principal stress under

either isotropic or anisotropic consolidation condition,

the influence of coefficient of intermediate stress on

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

20

160

140 =0

0

0=30

120

0=45

100

0=30

0=45

0=0

80

0=60

0=60

60

C

40

0=90

0=90

20

0

40

60

80 100 120

01

23

45

6 7

p'

(%)

g

(b) Stress-strain

undrained shear characteristics of sand.

is not remarkable. It seems that the flow potential is

not intimately related to the coefficient of intermediate

principal stress.

4.3 Effect of orientation of principal stress on

undrained shear behavior under anisotropic

consolidation condition

For pattern 3 with orientation angles of principal stress

of 0 = 0 , 30 , 45 , 60 , 90 respectively, the measured effective stress paths and relationships between

generalized deviatoric stress and generalized shear

strain are shown in Figure 8 in which the point C

denotes consolidation stress state. It can be found

that orientation of principal stress influences quite

remarkably on either effective stress path or stressstrain relationship. The more the orientation of major

principal stress deviates from the vertical, the more

remarkably the pore water pressure rises and the more

dilatant and heavier strain softening the loose sand

displays at transitional state. For example, when the

orientation of major principal stress is vertical, i.e.,

0 = 0 , build-up of pore water pressure is only up to

about 21% of the mean confining pressure while when

orientation of major principal stress is horizontal, i.e.,

0 = 90 , rise of pore water pressure may be up to 61%

of the mean confining pressure. Even for the sands

with the same initial physical conditions, difference

of orientation of principal stress results in obviously

77

160

=0

120

q/kPa

b=0

b=0.22

b=0.5

b=0.8

b=1.0

80

q/kPa

q/kPa

120

=45

q/kPa

160

=0

160

140

140

b=0.22

120

100

100

q PT

80

100

path5( 0=90)

80

60

40

60

20

path4( 0=90)

path3( 0=45)

0

40

40

60

path1( 0=45)

120

path1( 0=45)

80

p'm

120

80

60

40

path2

( 0=45)

100

120

path2( 0=45)

path4( 0=90)

path3( 0=45)

20

0

path5( 0=90)

b=0.22

3 4

g(%)

20

0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

sin

0.8

Figure 10. The effect of effective stress ratio and shear stress

paths on stress-strain relations.

1.0

deviatoric stress at phase-transformation state almost

linearly descends with increase of orientation of major

principal stress. In general, the more the orientation

of major principal stress deviates from the vertical,

the more serious the shear contractive softening is

during undrained shear loading. In general the deviatoric stress at the phase-transformation stage is defined

as quasi-steady-state strength. Therefore the quasisteady-state strength reduces with the increase of

orientation of major principal stress with respect to

the vertical.

Presented in Figure 10 are the measured effective

stress paths and stress-strain relationships for different

test patterns indicating the influences of consolidation

condition and shear loading paths on undrained shear

behavior. The observations are given as following:

with orientation of principal stress .

different flow potential under undrained shear condition. Therefore the loose sand may present different

deformation features such as strain softening or strain

hardening. This may be related to the anisotropic state

of the sample formed in preparation of the sample. In

fact, the sample is prepared in layer and consolidated

due to gravity force. Water drainage in the sample is

downwards or upwards. It is easy to form horizontal

planes of deposition. Therefore, the larger the orientation angle of major principal stress is, or the closer to

horizontal layer plane the orientation of major principal stress is, the easier the sand is compressed and thus

pore water pressure generates rapidly and develops to

a large value.

Through observation of the test results shown

in Figure 8 and Figure 5 and Figure 6, it can be

seen that influence of orientation of major principal stress on flow potential is much more remarkable stronger than that of coefficient of intermediate

principal stress. The tests on undisturbed soil samples conducted by Yoshimine, Ishihara and Matsuzaki

(1995) demonstrated that saturated sand at triaxial extension condition behaves completely different

shear features from that at triaxial compression condition. Strain softening feature is manifested for loose

sand under undrained triaxial compression condition

( = 0 , b = 0). Under undrained triaxial extension

condition ( = 90 , b = 1), However, full static liquefaction is displayed. It was explained by Yoshimine,

Ishihara and Matsuzaki (1995) that such a characteristic is related to orientation of major principal stress

and coefficient of intermediate principal stress. However, experimental data given in this paper justifies the

fact that flow potential under triaxial extension is heavier than that under triaxial compression. Therefore the

effect of rotation of principal stress on shear behavior

of sands may be appreciable and cannot be overlooked

in engineering practice.

Shown in Figure 9 is the effect of orientation of

principal stress on generalized shear stress ratio at

(1) Under the same initial consolidation condition with the orientation of principal stress of

0 = 45 , a comparison of test results of pattern 3 and pattern 4 indicates that prior stress

history does almost not affect the following effective stress path and phase-transformation state

or ultimate steady state of the samples. It is

noted that in pattern 4, the same isotropic stress

state as the initial consolidation state in pattern

3 is attained through unloading from an initial

anisotropic consolidation state and thereafter the

samples in pattern 3 and pattern 4 undergo the

identical shear loading. During further shear loading, the samples reach phase-transformation state

and ultimately approach to stead state of deformation in the almost same way at a nearly identical

deviator stress ratio.

(2) Through the comparison between test data

under anisotropic consolidation condition of

0 = q/p = 0.433 in pattern 3 and under isotropic

condition of 0 = q/p = 0 in pattern 2 for the

same case of 0 = 45 , and comparison between

test results under 0 = 45 in pattern 3 and

under 0 = 90 in pattern 5 for the same case

of b = 0.220.25, it is demonstrated that if

both the orientations of principal stress and the

coefficients of intermediate principal stress are

78

20

20

10

-20

-10

20

10

20 -20

-10

-10

20 -20

10

-10

(z - )/2

(z - )/2

-20

10

20

(z - )/2

(b) 0

-6

-4

-2

20

d/kPa

10

10

-10

-20

(a) 90

6 -6

-4

-2

60

40

40

20

20

30

-20

(b) 0

6 -6

-4

-2

d/kPa

-40 -20

0

-20

50

60

0

0

-20

z/%

-40

30

40

50

-40 -20

20

40

-40 -20

0

0

-10

(z- )/2.0

-20

20

40

(z- )/2.0

(b) 0=90

40

40

20

40 -40 -20

0

0

20

40 -40 -20

(c) 0=90

-40

20

40

-20

-20

(z- )/2.0

20

20

-20

identical for different loading patterns, the effective stress paths and the stress-strain relationships

as well as strain-hardening or softening tendency

under undrained shear condition are basically

similar.

(3) Compared with the effect of fabric anisotropicy

caused by preparation of sample, anisotropic

effect induced by initial stress ratio imposes

relatively less influence on shear behavior of sand.

10

(a) 0=0

40

(c) 180

-40

(z- )/2.0

(d) 0=45

-40

(z- )/2.0

(e) 0=60

tests.

increase of cyclic number of loading. Under isotropic

consolidation condition, time-history of pore water

pressure development for the case of 0 = 90 is shown

in Figure 13. It appears that the deformation is of symmetric mode and is not accumulated in a certain single

direction.

UNDER ISOTROPIC CONSOLIDATION

CONDITION

Under three-dimensional consolidation condition

which corresponds respectively to different orientation of initial principal stress of 0 = 0 , 30 , 45 , 60 ,

90 and coefficient of intermediate principal stress of

b = 0.5, different patterns of loading paths as shown in

Figure 14 are imposed in cyclic torsional shear tests.

Accordingly, the dynamic stress-strain relationships

measured from these tests are described in Figure 15.

When the initial orientation of principal stress is

0 = 0 or 0 = 90 , no pre-shear stress induced by

initial consolidation is imposed on the horizontal and

vertical planes. Residual component of shear strain

is rather less and cyclic deformation feature is rather

obvious relative to the accumulated residual deformation. Since pore water pressure can not rise to

the confining pressure under anisotropic consolidation

condition, effective stress will not drop to vanish.

in the triaxial-and-torsioinal coupling shear tests under

isotropic consolidation condition with different phase

lags of 90 , 0 and 180 between cyclic axial load and

torque.

The stress-strain relationships achieved from various tests as given in Figure 11 are shown in Figure 12.

It can be seen that for whatever loading path, both

cyclic effect and accumulative effect are rather remarkable. When the sample has been pre-sheared before

subjected to cyclic shear, development of shear strain

follows basically symmetric cyclic mode and accumulative mode. Under isotropic consolidation condition,

the residual accumulative component of shear deformation develops rapidly since pore water pressure

79

20

20

Figure 12. Shear stress-strain relations in triaxial-andtorsional coupling shear tests under isotropic consolidation

condition.

5.1

10

20

20

-10

z/%

40

10

n

0

40

20

-10

z/%

60

(c) 180

d/kPa

80

shear tests under isotropic consolidation condition.

20

u/kPa

80

20

-20

-20

(a) 90

u/kPa

-10

-10

100

100

10

10

does not reach 0.5%, and it is obviously different

from the accumulative effect in isotropic consolidation condition. The typical time-history of pore water

pressure development under anisotropic consolidation condition with 0 = 0 is depicted in Figure 13.

However, when 0 = 30 , 45 , 60 , in fact, due to

pre-shearing effect of initial stress imposed on the

horizontal and vertical planes, in addition to the

cyclic component of deformation, the residual shear

strain progressively accumulates with the cycle number of loading and becomes rather substantial and

reaches rapidly a certain amount over than 5%. At

this moment, the accumulative effect of deformation is

rather remarkable compared with cyclic deformation.

Furthermore, shear deformation is accumulated in a

30

under isotropic consolidation condition.

This observed feature is almost independent on

the coefficient of intermediate principal stress. This

is confirmed by Figure 16 where the test results of

0 = 0 or 0 = 60 for two cases with the coefficients

of intermediate principal stress of b = 0 and b = 0.85

are compared. On one hand, it can be observed by

comparing Figure 16(a) with Figure 16(b) that even

though the coefficients of intermediate principal stress

are not the same for both two cases, they display

similar feature since no pre-shear stress is acted on

the horizontal planes, i.e., cyclic effect is obviously

more significant than accumulative effect. On the other

hand, Comparison between Figure 16 (b) and Figure

16 (c) indicates that for the same coefficient of intermediate principal stress of b = 0.85, the stress-strain

relationships for 0 = 0 and 0 = 60 are noticeably

different. Under anisotropic consolidation condition

with 0 = 60 , an initial shear stress is pre-imposed

on the horizontal plane, the unidirectional accumulative effect obviously play a predominant role compared

with the cyclic effect, resulting in rapidly-increased

shear strain.

For the calcareous sand of Nansha Islands, the relationships between dynamic stress and strain measured

from torsional shear tests are manifested in Figure 17.

For both isotropic consolidation (IC) and anisotropic

consolidation (AC) conditions with 0 = 0 as shown

in Figure 17(a) and Figure 17(b), no pre-shear stress

is initially applied on the horizontal plane while a

certain initial shear stress is preloaded on the horizontal plane for anisotropic consolidation (AC) condition

with 0 = 30 as given in Figure 17(c). Shear behavior of this type of calcareous sand is quite similar to

the performance of Fujian standard sand subjected

to undrained cyclic shear under various consolidation conditions. Therefore, for both clean sand and

calcareous sand, it is consistently demonstrated by

experimental test data that pre-shear stress applied on

action plane of dynamic stress exhibits a considerable

effect on dynamic stress-strain relationship pattern.

The influence is almost independent on sand material and the coefficient of intermediate principal stress

d/kPa

15

0

-15

z /%

-30

-0.4

-0.2

0.0

0.2

0.4

(a) 0=0

20

d/kPa

10

0

-10

z /%

-20

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

(b) 0=30

20

d/kPa

10

0

-10

-20

z /%

(c) 0=45

20

10

d/kPa

0

-10

z /%

-20

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

(d) 0=60

30

10

5

20

30

20

20

/kPa

d

/kPa

d

10

d/kPa

10

10

0

0

-0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 -6

-10

-10

0

-5

-10

-0.3

/kPa

d

z /%

-0.2

-0.1

0.0

0.1

0.2

-10

-20

0.3

-30

(e) 0=90

z /%

-20

-30

z /%

-20

z /%

tests under anistropic consolidation conditions.

tests under anisotropic consolidation conditions.

80

0

-3

principal stress in a certain extent.

that under the same orientation of initial principal

stress, the sands may display following similar features

during monotonic and cyclic shear.

(1) With increase of the orientation of major principal stress relative to the vertical, development of

generalized shear strain becomes more remarkable and strain- softening feature gets more

noticeable.

(2) After undergoing strain softening stage, the sand

under any initial stress state exhibits strainhardening feature. As illustrated in Figure 18,

generalized shear strain develops rapidly within

the first three load cycles. The deformation during this stage is defined as flow-slide deformation

or the sand undergoes flow failure stage which

corresponds to strain-softening stage in monotonic shear. Then strain is alternatively varied

in both directions with no unidirectional accumulation. Consequently, the deformation progressively approaches to steady state which is

defined as cyclic mobility and corresponds to

stepping into the strain-hardening stage during monotonic shear as stated by Hyodo et al

(1994). Therefore, the flow-slide deformation and

cyclic mobility during cyclic shear are closely

related to strain-softening and strain- hardening features during monotonic shear respectively. When deviatoric stress amplitude during

cyclic shear is higher than the lowest strength

in strain-softening stage or in quasi-steady state

during monotonic shear, remarkable flow-slide

AND CYCLIC SHEAR FEATURES

monotonic and cyclic torsional shear tests are conducted. The relationship between deviatoric stress and

generalized shear strain measured from these tests are

30

/kPa

/kPa

20

20

10

-6

-4

-2

10

0

-10

0

-0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6

-10

z /%

4

6

z /%

-20

-20

-30

-30

(a) IC condition

30

15

/kPa

-15

z /%

-30

01

23

Figure 17. Shear feature of calcareous sand under various

initial consolidation conditions and loading patterns.

140

100

(a)

monotonic

80

60

cyclic

40

20

3 4

g/%

(b)

100

60

40

40

2

3 4

g/%

(d)

0=0

cyclic

monotonic

60

60

(e)

monotonic

40

40

20

0

20

0

0=0

80

/kPa

q

q/kPa

80

100

120

100

80 monotonic

60

3

g/%

20

cyclic

0

3

g/%

Figure 18. The stress-strain relations under monotonic shear and cyclic shear in torsional shear tests.

81

(c)

100

cyclic

0=0

120

monotonic

80

20

140

0=0

120

q/kPa

q/kPa

140

0=0

120

q/kPa

30

cyclic

3 4

g/%

orientation of principal stress on this feature is

substantial.

at phase-transformation state and at steady state in

monotonic shear tests are nearly equal to the partners respectively at the moment when obvious shear

dilatancy starts and at steady state in cyclic tests. It

is implied that the phase-transformation-state line and

steady-state or failure line under monotonic and cyclic

shear conditions are respectively identical.

Stress-strain relationships measured from monotonic tests and cyclic torsional shear tests are shown

in Figure 21 in term of deviatoric stress ratio and

genralized shear strain. Both monotonic and cyclic

shear loading tests exhibits a very similar pattern.

The variation feature of peak deviatoric stress and

strain in each cycle in cyclic loading test almost

approaches the model relating deviatoric stress and

strain in monotonic loading test. For any a given value

of the orientation of principal stress, the relationship

between deviatoric stress and generalized strain follows a fully strain-hardening type quasi-hyperbolic

model. Such an empirical model will offer a basic

support for establishing modern practical nonlinear

elasto-plastic constitutive model of sand.

Shown in Figure 19 is the relations between deviatoric stress and generalized shear strain observed from

triaxial-and-torsional coupling shear tests in the case

of 0 = 60 and b = 0.5. It can be seen that after the

triaxial-torsional coupling shear, stress path enters into

the strain-softening stage with a substantial deformation. This phenomenon is similar to what happens

in cyclic torsional shear tests. When the amplitude

of cyclic stress becomes larger, the flow feature of

deformation gets more obvious.

Under the same initial stress condition, the effective

stress paths measured in both cyclic and monotonic

shear tests are given in Figure 20. The enhanced stress

path for 0 = 45 is shown in Figure 20(f). During

monotonic or cyclic shear, the mean principal stress

keeps unchanged. Variation of pore water pressure

induced by shear-dilatancy or contraction leads to

change of effective stress. Under the condition with

the almost same coefficient of intermediate principal stress of b = 0.220.25 and a given orientation

120

1.5

0=60

1.2

monotonic

100

0.9

monotonic

cyclic

q/kPa

0.6

80

0.3

0

qcyc=15.1kPa

qcyc=13.4kPa

60

1.5

1.2

40

g/%

(a) 0=0

monotonic

cyclic

0.9

20

3

4

g/%

0.6

1.5

1.2

120

100

80

80

60

60

100

=90

0

80

monotonic

cyclic

g/%

0.3

0

1.5

=45

0

(c) 0=60

0.9

p'

(f)

40

60

80

100

monotonic

cyclic

0.6

0.3

1.2

q

0.6

60

40

40

40

20

20

p'

p'

(d)

(e)

0

20

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 20

(d) 0=90

g/%

5

generalized strain in monotonic and cyclic shear loading.

and cyclic torsional shear tests.

82

0.9

160

160

140

140 q

140 q =0

=30

120 q 0=45

0

0

120

120

100

100

100

80

80

80

60

60

60

40

40

40

p'

20

p'

p'

20

20

(b)

(a)

(c)

0

0

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

q

100

0=60

(b) 0=30

cyclic torsional shear tests.

120

g/%

0.3

0

CONSIDERING INITIAL ANISOTROPY

void ratio. On one hand, both confining pressure and

void ratio are taken into consideration by utilizing the

state parameter. On the other hand, the empirical quasihyperbolic equation relating deviatoric stress ratio and

generalized strain established on the basis of experimental data is directly used and its dependency on the

orientation of initial principal stress is duly considered.

of sands is indispensably dependent on initial states

such as initial relative density and effective confining

pressure. The sand may behave dilative or contractive

during shear dependent on the initial condition. On

one hand, loose sands are easy to be dilative while

dense sands easily tend to be contractive during shear

loading under the same confining pressure. On the

other hand, sands with the same initial relative density

may be shear dilative under lower confining pressure

and may be shear contractive under high confining

pressure (e.g., Luo and Zhang, 2004a and 2004b).

In fact, relative density of material or effective confining pressure during loading may alter, leading to

change of physical state of the material. In order to

represent the combined influence of change of physical state of material induced by change of relative

density and confining pressure on deformation and

strength behavior of sand, the state parameter proposed

by Been and Jefferies (1985) was introduced into constitutive model of sand based on the fundamental of

critical soil mechanics in recent year (e.g., Jefferies,

1993). The state parameter, = e ec , is defined as

the relative difference between the current void ratio e

and the critical void ratio ec at which the sand undergo

steady deformation under the same confining pressure

as that corresponds to the current void ratio. It is used to

describe the degree of denseness of material relative to

its reference density. Different types of elasto-plastic

constitutive models were successively developed by

Wood et al. (1994), Cubrinovski and Ishihara (1998),

Li (1997), Li and Ming (2000), Li and Dafalias (2000)

to simulate the state-dependent behavior of sands for a

wide range of material density and confining pressure

by virtue of the state parameter. In fact, in addition

to the combined effect of relative density and confining pressure, other parameters of initial physical and

stress state, such as the orientation of initial principal stress and the coefficient of intermediate principal

stress, may play a significant role in monotonic or/and

cyclic shear behavior of sands. Indeed, it is verified

by the experimental tests as illustrated above that the

orientation of initial principal stress profoundly affects

the shear- dilative or contractive and strain-hardening

or softening feature of sands. Under the initial condition with the same confining pressure and identical

relative density, the more the orientation of major

principal stress deviates from the vertical, the more

remarkable the shear contractive feature is. Relatively

the influence of the coefficient of intermediate principal stress is much minor.Therefore the state-dependent

elasto-plastic constitutive model is refined in the following in order to take account the influence of the

orientation of major principal stress in addition to the

elasto-plastic constitutive model of sands

Similar to the critical state given in critical-state soil

mechanics, as defined by Poulos (1981), the steady

state of deformation for any mass of particles is

that state in which the mass is continuously deforming at constant volume, constant normal effective

stress, constant shear stress, and constant velocity. It

is emphasized that the steady state of deformation can

be only achieved when both deviatoric stress ratio and

void ratio attain their critical values. The critical void

ratio is dependent on pressure and can be expressed as

below

p

ec = e c

pa

Accordingly, the state parameter defined by Been and

Jefferies (1985) can be given as following for a given

current stress p ,

p

(1)

= e ec = e e c

pa

Void Ratio e

and corresponding relative void can be represented by

this unified state parameter. As shown in Figure 22,

from the viewpoint of relative density of sand, the

state parameter gives the measurement of how far the

current state is from the corresponding steady state.

(Dilative)

>0

(Contractive)

Steady state line

(p/pa)

83

<0

It is noted that the dependency of dilatancy on initial intrinsic state of material is overlooked in all the

above stress-dilatancy relations that therefore can not

authentically reproduce shear feature of sand. In fact,

it has been observed experimentally that dilatancy of

sand not only depends on deviatoric stress ratio, but

also is closely related to internal state of material.

Especially influence of density can not be ignored.

Based on experimental observation on the feature

of shear response of sand and simplified analysis

of microscopic deformation, a general mathematical

expression of dilatancy such as d = d(, e, Q, C) was

proposed by Li and Dafalias (2000) in order to take

account the dependency of dilatancy on material intrinsic state by using the common terms Q and C to

describe internal state of material excluding void ratio

e. Therefore, the dilatancy given by Li and Dafalias

(2000) is uniquely associated with the current state

including changes of both internal parameters, e and Q,

and external parameter, . This state-dependent dilatancy provides the basis of flow rule of plasticity and

is used in this paper to establish constitutive model

of sand.

The stress-dilatancy equation proposed by Li and

Dafaliad (2000) is expressed as

According to the position of the current state parameter with respect to the steady-state line, the soil is

divided into two types of states, i.e., shear dilative and

shear contractive.

Sand of shear-dilative type denotes the current

state parameter of which is located at left below the

steady-state or critical-state line and volume of the soil

displays expansive feature during shear failure. However, soil of shear contractive-type denotes the current

state parameter of which is located at right above the

steady-state line and volume of the soil displays the

contractive feature during shear failure.

As a fundamental element of elasto-plastic constitutive model of soils, the stress-dilatancy equation is

usually employed as flow rule to define the direction of

plastic flow. For the well-known Cam-clay model, the

original and improved dilatancy equations are given

respectively as

d =M

or

d=

(M 2 2 )

2

dilatancy d is defined as the ratio of plastic volumetric

strain to plastic shear strain, i.e.,

d=

dv

d0

[Mc exp (m) ]

p =

Mc

dq

(2)

d=

dv

p

dq

shear components of incremental plastic strain while

Mc is the deviatoric stress ratio at steady state, i.e.,

= e ec = 0. at which dilatancy vanishes completely. When d0 = Mc , m = 0, the general form of

dilatancy relation of Eq. 2 can be reduced to the simplified dilatancy expression of the original Cam-clay

model, i.e., d = M .

Furthermore, when the orientation of major principal stress from the vertical gets larger, the sand displays

much more shear-contraction while strain-softening

takes place then, as shown in Figure 8. However,

no matter whether it is strain-hardening or softening, shear-dilatation or contraction, the relationship

between deviatoric stress ratio and generalized strain

all follows a hardening-type quasi-hyperbolic model,

as shown in Figure 21. It is indicated that development

of irrecoverable deformation is closely related to stress

ratio.

Therefore the following empirical relation between

deviatoric stress ratio and generalized strain similar to

that proposed by Cubrinovski and Ishihara (1998) is

used when elastic shear deformation is overlooked,

stress ratio. The cam-clay model can successfully

reproduce shear behavior of normally consolidated

clay and slightly over-consolidated clay. For sands,

a constitutive model for sand under triaxial compression condition was proposed by Nova and Wood

(1979) in which the following stress-dilatancy relation

is employed

= M d

Where is a material constant. When = 1, the above

dilatancy equation is directly reduced to the original version of the Cam-clay model. The following

complex stress-dialtancy equation is utilized in the

constitutive model of sands developed by Jefferies

(1993)

d=

(M )

(1 N )

equation is simplified to the original Cam-caly-type

stress-dilatancy relation.

G N g

0

GN q

=

p

M P + G N g

MP 0

MP + G N q

84

(3)

GN

p + GN

q q

=

(M

)M

p

0

p

p

p

q

(Mp + GN q )2

is modulus of plasticity dependent on plastic deformation which decreases with increase of plastic strain as

below

p

q

GN = (GN,max GN,min ) exp f 0 + GN,min (4)

q

or

GN

f

p = 0 (GN GN , min )

q

q

are initial maximum and minimum generalized shear

modulus respectively at small strain and at large strain,

both of which depend on the orientation of major principal stress. The parameter, f, controls the extent of

shear modulus GN from GN,max to GN,min , is generally no less than 3. When assuming the plastic shear

strain is q0 = 0.01, f is almost unchanged. The effect

of orientation of principal stress on GN is usually represented by GN,min . The parameter f approaches to a

constant when GN attains to GN,min .

In conventional elasto-plastic model, the total incremental strain is usually composed of both elastic and

p

plastic components, i.e., dij = dije + dij . When it is

further assumed that elastic deformation is linear and

isotropic, the anisotropic component of deformation

response of sand is determined by plastic deformation.

The following loading function is assumed

f = q p = 0

2

p

Mp 1 Mp

q

G

=

f

(G

G

)

N

N

N , min

p

(Mp 0 )

q0

q

(7b)

From which the plastic hardening modulus dependent

on deformation is given as

2

p

Mp 1 Mp

q

GN f 0 (GN GN , min )

H p = p

(Mp 0 )

q

(8)

Then the incremental strain can be obtained as below

f

1

1 f

dp +

dq =

(dq dp)

dqp = L =

Hp p

q

Hp

(9a)

d

dvp = Ld =

(dq dp)

(9b)

Hp

(5)

below based on the associated flow rule

1 f

f

f

p

dij = L

=

dij

ij

Hp ij

ij

to elastic strains to gain the total incremental strains

1

dq

+

(dq dp)

3G

Hp

d

dp

dv = dve + dvp =

+

(dq dp)

K

Hp

Where

dq = dqe + dqp =

L = dqp =

1 f

dij

Hp ij

yields

1

1

+

dp

dq

dq =

3G

Hp

Hp

1

d

d

dq +

dp

dv =

Hp

K

Hp

f

f p

f p

dij +

d = LHp +

d = 0

ij

qp q

qp q

Accordingly, the modulus of plasticity can be written as

Hp =

(7a)

f

qp

(10b)

modulus K are given as following

(2.97 e)2 p

(11a)

G = G 0 pa

1+e

pa

(6)

Eq (3) respectively

p

GN

f

q

=

(G

G

)

exp

f

N , max

N , min

p

q0

q0

q

K =G

85

(10a)

2(1 + )

3(1 2)

(11b)

12

1500

1- 3/kPa

1000

10

8

6

p=50kPa

p=200kPa

p=500kPa

2000

1.0

1.0

0.9

0.9

0.8

0.8

0.7

500

0.7

0.6

-4

600

p'/kPa

-6

(a)

-2

-500

Dr=30%

-1000

Dr=60%

-1500

-2000

Dr=80%

-2500

0

10

20

30

40

dq =

D

C

dq +

dv

A+B

A+B

(12a)

dp =

BD

AC

dq +

dv

A+B

A+B

(12b)

KHp

,

Hp Kd

1200

0.6

02

4

6

(p/pa)0.88

(b)

qss/kPa

1600

1200

800

400

0

0

200

400

600

800

1000 1200

p'ss/kPa

Where

C=

900

2000

stresses and incremental strains can be rewritten as

Hp + 3G

,

3G

300

-10

-12

50

volumetric strain as well as axial strain in drained triaxial

shear tests.

A=

-8

z/%

B=

Kd

,

Hp Kd

D=

order to represent uniquely such an empirical relation,

the correction procedure as proposed by Luan, et al

(2000) is employed as following

Hp

includes 10 parameters to be defined.

7.2

e=0.81-0.01(p/pa)0.88

2500

e = e

(13)

where e and e are respectively the original and correlated void ratios at steady state while Rc and Rcr are

original and arbitrarily-chosen reference relative densities. It is noted that the relative density is defined as

the ratio of current dry density to its maximum dry density. In this paper, the reference relative density is given

at 89%. As shown in Figure 24(b), the steady-state

line correlated by relative density may be considered

to be unique. On the other hand, the measured steadystate line in qss pss space is given in Figure 25. It

can be seen that the steady state line expressed in

term of stress ratio is basically unique, and the stable

stress ratio is qss /pss = 1.386. It is nearly identical to

Mp = 1.4 of the ultimate stress ratio which is measured

from undrained shear tests at = 0 . The fact that the

steady-state line in e-pss space is not unique while the

steady-state line in qss pss space is unique is similar to

the observation for completely-decomposed granites

in Hong Kong area as stated by Luan et al (2000).

model, Mc , e , c and of steady state parameters may

be determined by conventional undrained or drained

triaxial tests. Presented in Figure 23 are the interrelationships among deviatoric stress and volumetric

strain as well as axial strain measured from drained triaxial tests under the conditions of mean consolidation

pressure of pm = 50 kPa, 200 kPa, 500 kPa and relative

density of Dr = 30%, 60%, 80% respectively. It can be

seen that when deformation reaches about 30%, the

deviatoric stress and volumetric strain approach nearly

a steady stage, i.e., a steady state is basically achieved

then. As shown in Figure 24(a), at steady state of deformation, the shear strength defined is correlated with

the initial void ratio under undrained shear.

It is found that such a steady-state line in the space

of void ratio and mean effective stress is not unique and

86

Rc

Rcr

p=50kPa

p=200kPa

p=500kPa

1E-4

160

G0

600

120

80

GN, min

1/E0

800

200

2E-4

40

0

0

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

z/%

200

400

p/kPa

600

400

200

0

0.0

0.2

1.1

1.0

0.4 0.6

sin0

0.8

1.0

GN=GN,max

0.9

1.6

0.8

1.5

0.7

1.4

MP

GN =GN,min

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.0

1.3

1.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.1

g/%

1.0

0.0

0.2

0.8

1.0

feature. m can be determined accordingly by Eq 2

when d is assumed to be zero on the basis of the

steady state defined from undrained torsional shear

tests. d0 is determined by the v q relationship measured from drained shear tests with elastic deformation

is overlooked.

The elasticity parameters include Poissons ratio

and maximum shear modulus G0 . When Poissons ratio

is given at 0.2, G0 can be determined from conventional drained triaxial tests. The test results of drained

triaxial tests under different combinations of confining

pressure and relative density as shown in Figure 26(a)

are used to define the Initial elasticity modulus which

is then converted through Eq 10 into the constant

G0 . The values of G0 defined in this manner are

given in Figure 26(b). It is found that G0 = 6065 is

appropriate.

The parameters in the hyperbolic-type empirical

relation between deviatoric stress ratio and generalized strain include GN,max , GN,min and Mp . GN,max

and GN,min correspond to module of plasticity at large

strain of 0.01% and small strain of 1% respectively. As

shown in Figure 27, in order to appropriately reproduce

full stress and strain response at both small and large

deformation stages, two parameters are specially used.

GN,max can be evaluated from the empirical correlation

Eq 11a according to initial consolidation stress. As

pointed out by Guo (2003), the dependency of initial

stress is not significant and is not taken into account

in this paper.

When deformation gets rather large, the minimum shear modulus is obviously dependent on initial

anisotropy of sand. It means that GN,min would depend

on orientation of principal stress. The parameters measured in tests are shown in Figure 28 by solid squares. It

can be seen that GN,min is related linearly to orientation

of principal stress as following

GN ,min = B1 B2 sin 0

(14)

stress with respect to the vertical, the value of Mp

obtained from undrained shear tests under complex

stress condition are shown in Figure 29. It seems that

Mp is related nearly linearly to orientation of principal

stress as following

Mp = C1 C2 sin 0

(15)

When orientation of major principal stress is in vertical, the value of Mp approaches to that obtained from

drained triaxial tests. Parameter f is used to describe

the extent of plastic strain and it is usually no less than

3 and f = 4 is given here.

87

0.4 0.6

sin0

Elasticity

parameter

State

parameter

G0

e

c

d0

M

B1 , B2

f

C1 , C2

65

0.2

0.88

0.81

0.01

1.07

2.8

630, 490

4

1.4, 0.18

800

800

Eq. 10

Eq. 11

Eq.1

160

40

0=90

0

0.2

40

0=90

0.0

4

g/%

10

g/%

15

20

under different consolidation stress conditions.

160

0.9

120

200

150

q/kPa

1.2

0.6

e=0.70

80

e=0.75

e=0.78

e=0.80

40

0.3

e=0.70

e=0.75

100

e=0.78

50

e=0.80

e=0.82

0

4

g /%

the improved constitutive model.

40

80

120

160

p'/kPa

(a) Effective stress paths

e=0.82

0

g/%

under anisotropic consolidation condition so that it can

well display the influence of the initial anisotropy on

undrained shear behavior of sands.

After shear modulus is defined by above-mentioned

equation, the parameter GN,max can be obtained by

dividing elastic shear modulus by confining pressure.

Then the parameter GN,min can be estimated initially

by a proper reduction of GN,max and then optimized

to match the full stress-strain relations. Under different confining pressure for a given identical relative

density of , and under different relative densities for a

given same confining pressure of , both effective stress

paths and stress-strain relationships are predicted by

the proposed model and are shown in Figure 31 and

Figure 32.

obtained from measured data of tests with refereed

formulae.

Experimental verification

For the test cases, the effective stress paths and stressstrain relationships are simulated by the proposed

refined constitutive model with corresponding parameters as shown in Figure 30. It can be seen that

the proposed improved constitutive model can agree

well with the experimental data. The model is capable to reproduce fairly the effect of orientation of

major principal stress on shear- dilation or contraction

88

under different initial void ratios.

7.3

20

p=2000kPa

1.5

0.0

15

0.6

0=60

20 40 60 80 100 120

p'/kPa

10

g/%

p=100kPa

0.8

80

q/kPa

0=0

q/kPa

q/kPa

80

1.0

0.4

0=0

120

p'/kPa

1.2

0=30

0=45

160

0=30

0=45

0=60

500

Eq. 2

Eq. 2

Eq.13

Eq. 4

Eq. 14

200

120

p=2000kPa

p=1000kPa

p=500kPa

p=200kPa

p=100kPa

400

400

Dilatancy

parameters

Stress-strain

relationship

parameter

Refereed

Equation

Value

1200

q/kPa

Parameter

1200

q/kPa

160

q/kPa

120

=30

1

80

120

2

80

2

1: GN, max =800, G N, min =450

40

40

=30

20

40

60 80 100 120

p'/kPa

0 0

g/%

GN,min on undrained shear behavior of sands.

160

160

1: m=4, d0=1.07

1: m=2.8, d0=1.07

1: m=2.8, d0=2

80

2

3

40

0

80

1: m=4, d0=1.07

1: m=2.8, d0=1.07

1: m=2.8, d0=2

40

=30

=30

0

120

q/kPa

q/kPa

120

20

40

60

80 100 120

p'/kPa

(a) Effective stress paths

3

4

g /%

undrained shear behavior of sands.

and 650, it can be seen that the influence of the parameter GN,max on the mode of both stress paths and

stress-strain relationships although the sand becomes

stiffer in shear rigidity and higher in strength with

increase of GN,max . However, it is observed through

comparison of the cases 2 and 3 with the same value

of GN,max = 650 while GN,min = 450 and 300 that the

influence of shear modulus GN,min is relatively more

appreciate than that of GN,max .

7.4.1

and GN,min

As pointed out by Guo (2003), under the condition of

relatively small deformation, orientation of principal

stress does not remarkably influence initial shear modulus. however, it is found by Tong and Zhu (1998)

that initial shear modulus progressively reduces with

increase of orientation angle of major principal stress

with respect to the vertical. Since the initial shear modulus GN,max at small- strain amplitude is approximately

taken as the shear modulus at the strain level of about

0.01% in this paper, GN,max is somewhat dependent on

orientation of principal stress. Three cases with different groups of GN,max and GN,min are considered in

numerical simulations in order to examine the sensitivity of shear behavior on the parameters GN,max and

GN,min . Based on the given values of both parameters,

the main features of undrained shear behavior of sands

can be displayed by the proposed model as shown in

Figure 33. Through comparison of cases 1 and 2 with

In order to examine the influence of the dilatancy

parameters m and d0 on undrained shear behavior

of sands, three cases with different values of both

parameters are considered and the predicted effective

stress paths and stress-strain relationships are given in

Figure 34. It can be seen through comparison between

cases 1 and 2 with the same value of d0 = 1.07 while

m = 4 and 2.8 that hardening feature gets stronger

with higher strength with increase of m. On the other

hand, for the cases 2 and 3 with the same value of

m = 2.8 and d0 = 1.07 and d0 = 2, with increase of d0 ,

the sand may undergo both strain-hardening and softening stages through the phase transformation state.

Then strength rises rapidly after a fair shear dilation

stage. Therefore the dilatancy parameters m and d0

should be given carefully in order to describe main

features of undrained shear behavior of sands.

89

160

q/kPa

dilates at first and then contracts during undrained

shear. For samples with the same density, the sample

under higher initial confining pressure is at a relatively looser initial state, so it undergoes more amount

of shear contraction while the sample under lower

initial confining pressure is at a relatively denser initial state, so the amount of shear contraction is less.

Figure 31 indicates that except the case of consolidation pressure of p=2000kPa, the samples behave

basically strain-hardening with no obvious softening

observed. Moreover, the samples under the condition

of same initial void ratio finally approach to the same

steady state which is dependent on the initial confining pressures. It is manifested that the improved model

proposed in this paper is capable to reproduce the main

feature of sand behavior in a rather large extent of confining pressure.The sand under low confining pressure

is relatively easy to dilate while the sand under high

confining pressure tends to contract.

Shown in Figure 32 are undrained shear behavior

of sands with different void ratios of e = 0.7, 0.75,

0.78, 0.8, 0.82 respectively under the same confining pressure of pm0 = 100 kPa. It can be observed that

with increase of void ratio, the failure of sand turns

from the mode of partial contraction-partial dilation

progressively into the mode of fully static liquefaction. It agrees with main feature of undrained shear

behavior of loose sands and dense sands. It is also

demonstrated that when the parameters are given properly, the improved constitutive model proposed by this

paper is capable to reasonably simulate shear behavior of sands in a considerable range of initial relative

density or void ratio.

q/kPa

120

120

3: G0=150, =0.2

80

40

1: G0=65, =0.2

1

80

2

3

40

2: G0=65, =0.3

3: G0=150, =0.2

=30

0

20

40

and initial relative density as well as coefficient

of intermediate principal stress, the effect of the

initial deviatoric stress ratio of consolidation on

undrained shear behavior is relatively insignificant. The strain-softening and strain-hardening of

sands under different initial consolidation stress

ratio seems to be basically equivalent.

(3) Initial shear stress applied on the plane of dynamic

stress profoundly affects the pattern of stressstrain relationship. Under anisotropic consolidation condition with the orientation angle of initial

principal stress of 0 = 0 or 0 = 90 , no initial

shear stress is imposed on the application plane of

cyclic stress while a certain initial shear stress is

pre-acted on the application plane of cyclic stress

under anisotropic consolidation condition with

0 = 30 , 45 and 60 . The pattern of stress-strain

relationships for two series of anisotropic consolidation conditions is obviously different. For

0 = 0 or 0 = 90 , cyclic effect of shear strain

is obviously more predominate than its accumulative effect and accumulative residual component

of shear strain is relatively small. The shear strain

at failure arises mainly from the axial deformation induced by deviatoric stress. On the other

hand, uni-directional accumulative effect of shear

strain is very considerable and accumulative residual component of shear strain is relatively large

compared with its cyclic component for 0 = 30 ,

45 and 60 . The deformation of sample at failure

is resulted basically from shear deformation. In

addition, such a pattern seems to be independent

on the coefficient of intermediate principal stress.

Therefore it is considered that the effect of initial

shear stress on cyclic shear behavior of sand under

undrained condition cannot be overlooked. Under

the isotropic consolidation condition, the accumulative effect is basically of symmetry and no

unidirectional accumulated strains since no preshearing effect exists. With increase of number

of load cycles, the shear strength against liquefaction or shear failure is reduced while residual

accumulated deformation develops rather rapidly.

The similar characteristics are demonstrated by the

experimental data of the tests conducted for the

calcareous sand of Nansha Islands.

(4) The orientation of initial major principal stress

exhibits a remarkable influence on shear-induced

volumetric- dilative or contractive characteristics

and strain-hardening or softening feature of saturated loose sand subjected to undrained monotonic

or cyclic shear. The strain-hardening or softening

features of loose sand displayed during monotonic shear are closely related to cyclic mobility

or flow-slide deformation features manifested during cyclic shear. When cyclic shear stress level is

160

1: G0=65, =0.2

2: G0=65, =0.3

q/kPa

160

60

80 100 120

p'/kPa

(a) Effective stress paths

=30

0

3

g/%

undrained shear behavior of sands.

For the given three cases, i.e., (1) G0 = 65, = 0.2; (2)

G0 = 65, = 0.3; (3) G0 = 150, = 0.2; the predicted

shear behavior are compared as depicted in Figure 35.

It appears that the influence of both elasticity parameters G0 and on both strain-gardening or softening

and shear-dilative or contractive feature of undrained

shear behavior of sand is noticeable.

CONCLUSIONS

monotonic shear tests are conducted under complex

initial stress conditions with different combinations

of the coefficient of intermediate principal stress and

orientation of initial principal stress. Through a comprehensive comparative study of the experimental test

data, the individual or combined effects of the coefficient of intermediate principal stress and orientation of

principal stress on shear behavior are examined. The

conclusions can be summarized as below.

(1) Both effective stress path and stress-strain relationship of sand subjected to monotonic shear

loading are substantially affected by orientation of initial principal stress of consolidation.

When the orientation of major principal stress

approaches to the vertical, loose sand behaves

strain-hardening and shear-dilation. With increase

of the orientation angle of initial principal stress

with respect to the vertical, loose sand displays

complex compound feature including noticeable

strain-softening and accompanied volumetric contraction and then strain-hardening and accompanied volumetric dilatation. When orientation angle

of principal stress is in the vertical, i.e., 0 = 0 ,

pore water pressure at phase-transformation state

can only rise up to 20.9% of the mean confining

pressure while pore water pressure can attain to

61.3% of the mean confining pressure in the case

of 0 = 90 .

90

shear behavior of sands. Compared with the conventional state-dependent constitutive model, the

dependency of the orientation of principal stress

on both effective stress paths and stress-strain relationship are taken into consideration in addition to

the combined effect of both initial confining pressure and void ratio. Therefore it is shown that the

improved model proposed in the paper is capable to fairly reproduce full shear behavior of sand

under complex initial stress condition. The effects

of the orientation of principal stress and the coefficient of intermediate principal stress as well as

other related factors on main feature of undrained

shear behavior of sands can be examined.

Although the correlation of undrained shear

behavior of sands between under monotonic and

cyclic shear has been clarified through comparative experimental tests, the elasto-plastic constitutive model is limited for monotonic shear

and an improved constitutive model for cyclic

shear is required for dynamic analyses and

design of seabeds or marine or offshore structural

foundations.

higher than the lowest shear strength in strain- softening stage during monotonic shear, flow-slide

deformation will take place during cyclic shear.

Therefore cyclic stress level of dynamic design

should be not higher than the lowest strength

or quasi-steady-state strength in strain-softening

stage obtained from monotonic shear tests under

the same initial stress condition. In addition,

the occurrence of cyclic mobility and flow-slide

deformation is associated with initial texture of

sand sample in a certain manner.

(5) Under the condition with the same orientation of

major principal stress and coefficient of intermediate principal stress, the effective deviator stress

ratios respectively at phase-transformation state

and at ultimate steady state of sands during monotonic shear are nearly equal to the peak values of

the effective deviator stress ratio at first occurrence of obvious shear dilatation and at ultimate

steady state of sand subjected to cyclic shear.

Therefore for a specified initial state, both the

peak deviatoric stress ratios at steady-state and at

phase-transformation state can be regarded as two

fundamental characteristic parameters for representation of shear behavior of saturated loose sand

under monotonic or/and cyclic shear condition.

(6) Under the condition with the same initial stress

state, the development mode of peak deviatoric

stress ratio in one load cycle with generalized

shear strain is basically close to the variation pattern of deviatoric stress ratio with generalized

shear strain during monotonic shearing. Furthermore, for any initial stress condition, the measured

relationship between deviatoric stress and generalized shear strain can be well represented by a

hardening-type quasi-hyperbolic equation. Such

an empirical relation offers the physical basis

in establishing nonlinear elasto-plastic constitutive relationship of sands. Finally, combined with

the concept of steady state of deformation in

modern critical soil mechanics, a refined nonlinear elasto-plastic constitutive model of sands

is proposed by simultaneously using the statedependent stress-dilatancy equation and empirical

hyperbolic relation between deviatoric stress ratio

and generalized shear strain obtained from experimental data. The model is capable to take both

initial physical state and texture anisotropy into

account mutually. The model has totally 10 parameters including elasticity parameters, dilatancy

parameters, state parameters and quasi-hyperbolic

parameters. All the related parameters can be

determined or calibrated on the basis of experimental data. The performance of the proposed

model together with the related parameters is verified by comparing the shear response predicted by

the proposed model and experimentally-measured

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors wish to express their gratitude to Professor Dahong Qiu of Dalian University of Technology

for his continuing support and invaluable advice for

the investigation. The financial support for this study

through the grant 50579006, 50179006 and 50439010

from National Natural Science Foundation of China is

mostly grateful.

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2007 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN13 978-0-415-42280-2

movement of earth dams on soft soils

Reza Jamshidi Chenari

Persesanco Co., Tehran, Iran

ABSTRACT: Actual field conditions may vary markedly from those assumed in the design. The soil engineers

frequently can compensate for these differences by altering the design, changing the time required, etc., if

the actual field performance of the earth project is measured. In order to measure the settlement in soft soil

foundations, a specific type of instrument, namely magnetic probe extensometer is fixed in position into a

borehole backfilled with grout. In many situations, instrument observations may just reflect unstable backfill,

lack of backfill or backfill that is too stiff or too soft. A two dimensional finite element model, with an idealized

elastic-perfectly plastic interaction between the soil-mass and grout has provided insight into the behaviour and

interaction of the components. These extended finite element analyses of grout-soil mass composites revealed

that there is an optimum grout stiffness to minimize the measurement errors for a soft to medium soil.

INTRODUCTION

will be based on judgment in selecting the most probable values within the ranges of possible values for

engineering properties. As construction progresses

and geotechnical conditions are observed or behavior monitored, the design judgments can be evaluated

and, if necessary, updated. Thus, engineering observations during geotechnical construction are often an

integral part of the design process, and geotechnical

instrumentation is a tool to assist with this observation.

The behavior of embankments on soft ground tends

to be dominated by the properties of the soft ground.

A potential circular failure surface may develop, with

a large portion of the surface in the weak foundation

material as shown in Figure 1a. However, the loading

of the embankment may cause settlement and lateral

bulging of the foundation, as shown in Figure 1b, long

before the rotation failure occurs. The lateral bulging

of the soft ground transfers horizontal tension to the

embankment, which may experience tension cracking,

since it is less deformable than the soft foundation.

Many river sediments consist of soft ground, and a

dam constructed over these materials may behave as

shown in Figure 1.

Even if the design of the dam is adequate, the weight

of the embankment dam on the underlying soil or rock

must be considered. Heavily loaded soil under the dam

may settle, and there will be downward and lateral

movements of the base of the dam. Moreover, even

well-compacted fill material will experience settlements when loaded with overlying material, and poor

compaction procedures will result in greater settlements. If the crest of the dam is initially level, with

structures requiring consideration of the engineering

properties of soil or rock. In the design of a surface

facility, the ability of the ground to support the structure must be considered. In the design of a subsurface

facility, consideration must also be given to the ability of the ground to support itself or to be supported

by other means. In both cases, the engineering properties of the soil or rock are the factors of interest.

The designer of geotechnical construction works with

a wide variety of naturally occurring heterogeneous

materials, which may be altered to make them more

suitable, but exact numerical values of their engineering properties cannot be assigned. Laboratory or field

tests may be performed on selected samples to obtain

values for engineering properties, but these tests will

only provide a range of possible values.

The significance of these statements about geotechnical construction can be demonstrated by comparison

with steel construction. A designer of a steel structure

works with manufactured material. The materials are

specified, their manufacture is controlled, and fairly

exact numerical values of engineering properties are

available for design. An accurate analysis can be made

and design plans and specifications prepared. Then,

provided construction is in accordance with those

plans, the structure will perform as designed. There

will generally be no need to monitor field performance. Similar remarks apply to reinforced concrete.

In contrast, the design of geotechnical construction

95

settlement or heave, may be horizontal, providing lateral deformation measurements, or may be inclined.

Typical applications of probe extensometers are monitoring vertical compression within embankments or

embankment foundations, settlement alongside excavations, heave at the base of open cut excavations,

and lateral deformation of embankments. Various

mechanical and electrical probe extensometers are

available and comparative information is given elsewhere (Dunnicliff 1993). The preferred method of

installation and the borehole diameter depends mainly

on the predicted vertical compression, the stratigraphy,

other site-specific conditions and needs, instrument

availability, and experience of installation personnel

(Dunnicliff 1993).

2.1

(a) rotational slide along arc and (b) settlement and lateral

bulging of soft foundation.

Building Research technique (Marsland 1974). It consists of an access tube with a corrugated external

sheath installed vertically or horizontally. Magnetic

targets are fixed in the ground where movement is to

be monitored. The access tube passes through the

target rings. The target rings move together with surrounding soil movement along the axis of the tube.

A probe lowered through the tube detects the position

of the magnetic target rings. Comparison of surveys

taken over time provides profiles of ground settlement

or displacement. A schematic of a borehole installation

is shown in Figure 3.

Magnetic target rings have either springs or plate

anchor. Spring targets are suitable for borehole application and plate targets for embankments. A suspension head fitted to the column top supports the

magnetic detector probe during surveys. The bottom

end of the column is fitted with a telescopic system

to allow the extension of the access tube. It shall then

be lowered together with all magnets and necessary

accessories fixed in position into a 100 mm borehole

preferably backfilled with a bentonite: cement grout

(ASCE 2000)

time it will settle, and the centre of the dam will settle

the most. If the abutments are steep, the settlements

may put the crest of the dam in tension, as shown in

Figure 2, possibly causing cracks transverse to the axis

of the dam.

2

PROBE EXTENSOMETER

3

changing distance between two or more points along

a common axis, by passing a probe through a pipe

(Dunnicliff 1993). Measuring points along the pipe are

identified mechanically or electrically by the probe,

and the distance between points is determined by

measurements of probe position. For determination

of absolute deformation data, either one measuring

point must be at a location not subject to deformation or its position with respect to a reference

datum must be determined by surveying methods.

item that receives a disproportionate lack of attention (Mikkelsen 2002). The major cause of concern

about such instrument is the deviation of results from

the real values arisen of improper filling around the

tubes during installation. The behaviour of the backfill, the material that is in the most intimate contact

with both the formation and the instrument, is critical for obtaining correct measurements. Clearly, if

the backfill is deficient in providing intimate, stable

96

BACKFILLING OF BOREHOLES

Alternative backfill materials for boreholes include

grout, granular fills such as sand and pea gravel, and

bentonite pellets (Dunnicliff 1993). Use of sand or pea

gravel backfill is limited to downward boreholes, and

the borehole diameter should be large enough to discourage bridging, generally 2 in. (50mm) larger than

the outside diameter of the downhole components.

Rounded grains are less likely to bridge than angular grains. Sand, gravel and various bentonite products

have proven to be both too difficult to place and often

entirely inappropriate (Mikkelsen 2002). Experience

has shown that cement-bentonite grout is the most

universally applicable material for successfully backfilling a borehole instrument (Mikkelsen 2002). Grout

backfill is more likely than granular backfill to fill

the borehole completely but cannot be used if grout

would bleed into the surrounding ground (Dunnicliff

1993).

Single-component bentonite grouts have been used

in related industries a long time, and have been

adopted for borehole instrumentation with mixed success. Their uses are more involved and should be

avoided. The use of fly ash as a substitute for cement

promises to be a good way for reducing grout stiffness

when required (Mikkelsen 2002).

When selecting a mix for grout backfill, the first task

is to define the required engineering properties. As a

goal, the grout should ensure conformance between

the instrument and the surrounding soil or rock and

should not alter the value of the parameter being measured (Dunnicliff 1993). When probe extensometers

rely on grout to ensure conformance, the grout should

satisfy criteria for compressibility and shear strength.

Grout for fixed borehole extensometers in soft ground

should not have significant compressive or tensile

strength. Grout for inclinometer casing should satisfy

criteria for maximum and minimum strength. For these

reasons there is no universally suitable grout, and each

installation must be considered individually.

Little is known on the subject of grouting around

instruments in boreholes, presumably because this use

of grout represents such a tiny proportion of overall grout use (Dunnicliff 1993). Even if the perfect

grout mix can be determined, it probably will not

set as a uniform column throughout the borehole.

These realizations should color our reliance on grout

where properties and uniformity are critical. For example when a probe extensometer is to be installed to

monitor substantial vertical compression, reliance on

grout may be unwarranted, and conformance should

be ensured by using a positive anchorage at each

measuring point (Dunnicliff 1993).

Figure 3. Probe Extensometer Installation Fixed in Stable Ground (Courtesy of Soil Instruments Ltd., Uckfield,

England).

the access casing, then disturbed measurements would

result (Mikkelsen 2004). In many situations, instrument observations may just reflect unstable backfill,

lack of backfill or backfill that is too stiff or too soft.

97

3.3

Bentonite-cement grout

and water may not be volumetrically stable and introduces uncertainty about locally introduced pore water

pressures caused by the hydration process (Mikkelsen

2002). Introducing cement, even a small amount,

reduces the expansive properties of the bentonite component once the cement-bentonite grout takes an initial

set. The strength of the set grout can be designed to

be similar to the surrounding ground by controlling

the cement content and adjusting the mix proportions.

Controlling the compressibility (modulus) and the permeability is not so easy. Weaker cementitious grouts

tend to remain much stiffer than normally consolidated

clays of similar strengths. The use of fly ash as a substitute for cement promises to be a good way for reducing

grout stiffness when required. The bentonite solids

content has the greatest influence on the permeability

of cement-bentonite grout, not the cement content.

Cement-bentonite grouts are easier to use than bentonite grouts, provide a long working time before set

and are more forgiving should the user deviate from

the design recipe or mixing equipment and method

(Mikkelsen 2002). It is easier to adjust the grout mix

for variations in temperature, pH and cleanliness of

the water. Pure bentonite grouts must be mixed and

deployed by strictly following measured quantities

and procedures that are not common practice among

drillers doing test borings.

Water-Cement Ratio (after Mikkelsen, 2002).

that addition of bentonite to cement does result in a

clay-like substance. This soil-like consistency allows

cement-bentonite grouts to be directly compared to

other earthen materials. The average E/Su ratio, calculated with tangent modulus, was 785 and ranged

from 67 to 826. The expected E/Su ratio falls between

l00 and 500 for clays, and 200 and 500 for sedimentary rock.

The general rule for grouting any kind of instrument

in a borehole is that the proportions of the mix shall

be such as to imitate as closely as possible the strength

or consistency of the natural subsoil present (Gue and

Partners 2001). However, while it is feasible to match

strengths, it is unfeasible with the same mix design to

match the deformation modulus of cement-bentonite

to that of clay for example. The practical thing to do

is to approximate the strength and minimize the area

of the grouted annulus. In this way the grout column

would only contribute a weak force in the situation

where it might be an issue (Mikkelsen 2002).

Strength data collected informally from various

sources by Mikkelsen (2002) over the years are summarized in Figure 4. A trend line drawn through the

data points illustrates the decrease in strength with

increasing water-cement ratio. The water-cement ratio

controls the strength of the set grout. The bentonite

does not add significant strength to the grout. The

background data for Figure 4 also suggests the amount

and type of bentonite or hydrated lime does not influence strength as long as the grout is non-bleeding and

pumpable.

Strength is often used to characterize a grout for

deformation-type instruments, but modulus of deformation should ideally be the basis for judging compatibility with ground conditions (Mikkelsen 2002).

The grout column in a borehole will carry a total axial

force smaller or greater than the material it replaced,

according to its stiffness. When there is too much stiffness or force, displacements will be diminished and

Marslands rule-of-thumb is to make the 7-day strength

of the grout to match one quarter that of the surrounding soil (Marsland 1973). Water and cement in

proportions greater than about 0.7 to 1.0 by weight

will segregate without the addition of bentonite or

some other type of filler material (clay or lime) to

suspend the cement uniformly. In all cases sufficient

filler is added to suspend the cement and to provide a

thick-creamy-but-pumpable grout consistency.

Will (1997) showed that the unconfined compressive strength is directly related to the cement content

and w/c ratio when the bentonite content remains

relatively fixed (between 1.8 and 6.9%).A best-fit relationship for 28-day strength as a function of w/c ratio

for the combined data of this and Aymard (1996)s

study follows a power law, which is consistent with

findings in the literature. To achieve 3-day compressive strengths in the range of 50 to 200-psi with

bentonite content between 1.8 and 6.9%, the w/c ratio

should lie between 1 and 2. Strength gains from 3 to

28 days shows an average strength increase factor of

3.2, ranging from 2.1 to 4.6. To reach strengths of 50

to 200-psi at 28 days, instead of 3 days, the w/c ratio

would have to be decreased by a factor of 1 to 2.

Values for Youngs tangent modulus measured by

Will (1997) ranged from 0.2 to 69-ksi. All values

98

Table 1.

2002).

the surrounding ground. More care should be taken in

making a grout for axial borehole deformation measurements than for lateral deformation measurements

(Mikkelsen 2002). Most of the design and installation

challenge lies with deformation measurements in the

axial direction of the borehole where large volumes

of grout backfill must be placed. So, for settlement

measurement, it is better to err on the softer side of

the spectrum (Mikkelsen 2002). Lateral displacements

of an inclinometer casing are generally unaffected by

added grout stiffness. Where the grout column is too

stiff the displacements will be distributed over a greater

depth interval, but not be diminished in overall magnitude. The same is probably true if the grout is too soft,

but there is the additional concern for lack of lateral

confinement. Since inclinometer casings generally are

under compression, lack of backfill or confinement

can produce localized shifts in the borehole, masking

smaller actual displacements. So, for inclinometers,

it is better to err on the stiffer side of the spectrum

(Mikkelsen 2002).

Application

to Hard Soils1

Ratio by

Weight Weight

Materials

Weight

Water

30

2.5

gallons

94 lbs.

1

(1 sack)

25 lbs.

0.3

(as required)

Portland

Cement

Bentonite

Ratio by

Weight

75

6.6

gallons

94 lbs.

1

(1 sack)

39 lbs.

0.4

(as required)

1

The 28-day compressive strength of this mix is about 50 psi,

similar to very stiff to hard clay. The modulus is about

10,000 psi.

2

The 28-day strength of this mix is about 4 psi, similar to very

soft clay.

controlling the water-cement ratio. This is accomplished by mixing the cement with the water first.

When water and cement are mixed first, the watercement ratio stays fixed and the strength/modulus of

the set grout is more predictable. If bentonite slurry

is mixed first, the water-cement ratio cannot be controlled because the addition of cement must stop

when the slurry thickens to a consistency that is still

pumpable. Making cement-bentonite grout in the field

is a straightforward process. The most effective mixing is done in a barrel or tub with the drill-rig pump,

circulating the batch through the pump in 50 to 200

gallon quantities. The rig pump provides the kind of

jet-mixing required for getting the job done quickly.

Any kind of bentonite powder used to make drilling

mud combined with Type 1 Portland cement and water

can be used, but the appropriate quantity of bentonite will vary somewhat depending on grade of

bentonite, mixing sequence, mixing effort (agitation),

water pH and temperature (Mikkelsen 2002). Grout

mixes should be controlled by weight and proportioned

to give the desired strength of the set grout. The conversion factors contained in Appendix H.10 in Dunnicliff

(1988, 1993) are very helpful in mix design. Two mixes

are given in Table 1 that varies in 28-day strength from

50 psi to 4 psi for water-cement ratios of 2.5 to 6.6

respectively.

The amount of bentonite that is required for the

above mixing procedure would vary due to factors

mentioned earlier. The amount of bentonite shown in

Table 1 should only be used as a guide, but is also

handy for estimating material quantities to be shipped

to the site. With water and cement mixed first, more

bentonite is required than if water and bentonite were

mixed first. This is an advantage from the standpoint

of wanting a low permeability. When the bentonite

solids content increases, the density increases and the

Some typical mixes are given in literature, but it is

emphasized that they should not be used as a cook

book. Trial mixes should be made for each application and judgment often made by visual observation

and supplemented with simple tests such as pressing

with a thumb or use of a Trovance (Dunnicliff 1993).

Where a more exact measurement of grout properties is

required, laboratory tests of trial mixes will be needed.

The properties of grout are often dependent on

the sequence of adding ingredients, and the sequence

should be standardized. As a general rule, liquids

should be mixed first, followed by the finest through

the coarsest materials. When using cement/bentonite

grout, bentonite should be added to the water first,

because if bentonite is added to a cement and water mix

an ion exchange takes place and the expansion of the

bentonite is reduced significantly. Properties are often

also dependent on the chemical constituents of the

mixing water, and water for trial mixes should be from

the same source as the field mix (Dunnicliff 1993).

Field mixing was simulated by Will (1997) to

determine the effects of bentonite prehydration and

slurry mixing time on grout properties. The closest

match to the 3-day strengths obtained by lab mixing

occurred when the bentonite was fully prehydrated

and the slurry was mixed for 30 minutes. With this

procedure, unconfined compressive strengths reached

56-psi compared to an average compressive strength

of 53-psi determined in the lab.

In contrary to the procedures used at more sophisticated grout plants for compaction grouting and sealing

purposes, Mikkelsen (2002) believes that to keep

field procedures simple the emphasis should be on

99

permeability is lowered. A lower permeability is generally preferred since cement-bentonite grouts have a

higher permeability than high-density bentonite grout

or chip seals. Thus, it is another good reason for mixing

water and cement before adding bentonite.

Old habits die hard, so that some users will insist on

mixing water and bentonite powder first. This is normally the way drilling mud is mixed and it yields more

slurry per sack of bentonite than the above method.

Also, use of hydrated bentonite with cement added last

is common practice in grouting technology for ground

improvement. Such mixes are highly thixotropic and

rely on industrial type mixing plants and methods. The

cement content is difficult to control under ordinary

borehole installation circumstances.

2D AXISYMMETRIC NUMERICAL

ANALYSIS

The displacement response of a series of spider magnet embedded in a grout column surrounded by clay

materials is investigated for loading in vertical direction using PLAXIS finite element code. PLAXIS is

used to create and to execute a finite element analysis

of the grout-soil composite. The settlement column

is embedded into a soil cylinder with the length of

8 m and radius of 4 m. The automatic mesh generation procedure in PLAXIS allows for local refinement

and generation of the mesh, in two dimensions, relative ease. The two-dimensional mesh consists of

fifteen-noded, triangular material elements and fivenoded, zero-thickness, interface elements. Interface

elements have no thickness, but have shear stiffness

and strength properties that can be specified separately

from the material elements. The settlement column

modeled as a concrete pile is 0.15 m in diameter, 8 m

in length and is embedded in a homogeneous clay

layer. PLAXIS 2D offers a variety of material models. The Mohr-Coulomb material model which allows

for plastic deformation after meeting the failure criteria (strength) is used for elements of intervening

fill, which employs a linearly elastic-perfectly plastic

stress-strain response while the elements within grout

column are considered linearly elastic. The model

geometry only consists of half of the actual geometry due to model axial symmetry. The roller boundary

conditions are applied on all sides of the axisymmetric

block. The PLAXIS model is shown in Figure 5. Properties of the clay materials are summarized in Table 2.

Mohr-Coulomb material parameters that are variable in this analysis are the modulus of elasticity (E),

the cohesion (C) of the clay material and the Poissons

ratio (). Parameter that remain constant is the friction angle ( = 0 ). The soil strengths represented: (1)

a soft to medium clay [C = 25 kPa], (2) a medium to

stiff clay [C = 50 kPa], and (3) stiff clay [C = 100 kPa].

different analyses.

Table 2. Material properties of different clay material used

in simulations (assuming E/C = 500).

Medium

to Stiff Clay

C = 50 kPa

Stiff

Clay

C = 100 kPa

Parameters

Elasticity

modulus,

E (MPa)

Poissons

Ratio,

Density,

(kg/m3)

12.5

25.0

50.0

0.38

0.36

0.35

1800

1800

1800

medium, medium to stiff and stiff clays. For a given soil

strength and modulus of elasticity, incremental relative

values of grout stiffness are varied from 0.25 to 12 in

100

Soil

Soft to

Medium Clay

C = 25 kPa

Table 3.

Soil Type

Steel

Wood

Concrete

Sand

Silt & Clay

/ = 0.54

/ = 0.54

/ = 0.76

/ = 0.55

/ = 0.76

/ = 0.50

Figure 6. Mean Relative Error of Magnetic Probe Extensometer measurements versus relative stiffness for different

soil-grout interface properties. Constant parameters include:

all soil parameters (soft to medium clay) and grout Poisson

ratio ( = 0.35).

grout that is variable in this analysis is the modulus of

elasticity (E). Parameter that remains constant is the

Poissons ratio ( = 0.35).

PLAXIS employs a multiplier coefficient Rinter

to assign the strength and stiffness of the interface

elements. The cohesion of the interface element is

assigned as a fraction of the cohesion of the surrounding soil, therefore the interface cohesion is equal

to Rinter times the soil cohesion (Cinter = Rinter *Csoil ).

Similarly, the shear modulus of the interface elements

(Ginter ) are equal to the shear modulus of the soil (Gsoil )

times Rinter squared (Ginter = (R2inter ) * Gsoil ).

The strength and stiffness for the interface between

the borehole grout cylinder and surrounding soils were

specified as a fraction of the soil properties. For example, the interface strength is assigned a value that is

0.66 times the soil strength. This fraction was held

constant for all analyses. Further parametric analysis

shows that the resulting slipping (relative movement

parallel to the interface) is significantly affected by

varying the interface strength and stiffness between

the grout and the soil from these values (see Figure 6).

In general, for real soil-structure interaction the

interface is weaker and more flexible than the associated soil layer, which means that the value of Rinter is

less than one. Suitable values for Rinter for the case of

the interaction between various types of soil and structures in the soil can be found in the literature (Potyondy

1961). Table 3 shows the smallest ratios between and

determined in an extensive series of tests. Assuming

/ = 0.50 from the table for interface between soft

clay and plastic concrete yields Rinter <0.5.

In the absence of detailed information it may be

assumed that Rinter is of the order or 2/3 for a sandsteel contact and of the order of 1/2 for clay-steel

stiff Grout.

usually gives a somewhat higher value. A value of

Rinter greater than one would not normally be used

(Plaxis, 1998).

After the model is brought to an equilibrium state

under the initial stresses, top of the model has been

subjected to a vertical stress of 1MPa. Figure 7 shows

the vertical displacement shadings in axisymmetric

model. The wide range of color spectrum and difference between measured and free-field settlement

indicates that the grout column as an inclusion in

embankments foundation significantly affects the displacement measured by magnet probe extensometers.

Vertical displacement is of major concern in this

study so a number of control points are specified

to track these important variables in the regions of

interest. Seven points in different depth of the grout

column representing the magnetic probe extensometer

measurement are monitored during the model execution. Mean Average Error (MAE) is the main criterion

employed to evaluate the performance of different

101

Figure 8. Mean Relative Error of Magnetic Probe Extensometer Measurements versus Relative Stiffness for Different

Clays. Constant parameters include: grout Poisson ratio

( = 0.35) and grout-soil interface properties (Rinter = 0.66).

Figure 9. Mean Relative Error of Magnetic Probe Extensometer measurements versus relative stiffness for different

outer sheath conditions. Constant parameters include: all soil

parameters, grout Poisson ratio ( = 0.35), and soil-grout

interface properties (Rinter = 0.66).

clay materials explained in preceding sections. Figure 8 shows the sensitivity of magnetic extensometer

measurements to the relative stiffness of grout and

intervening fill.

Different tube assemblies employed to investigate

the effect of outer sheath in measurements of vertical

displacement installing magnetic probe extensometer.

The outer sheath can be of either plain tube with flush

or telescopic coupling with different strain allowance

and greased or non greased skin or plain tube with

flush coupling and corrugated outer sheath with trivial axial stiffness. Figure 9 indicates that axial stiffness

of outer sheath emerges to be of paramount importance in measuring vertical displacement in probe

extensometer. Also greasing has a significant contribution on improving the accuracy of measurements.

measurements in the foundation of embankments on

soft clay to what is expected, led to two dimensional

finite element analyses in order to determine the optimum grout mix to minimize these deviations. A two

dimensional finite element model, with an idealized

elastic-perfectly plastic interaction between the soilmass and grout has provided insight into the behaviour

and interaction of the components. The two dimensional model involved two different material types

(grout and soil), and two interfaces (grout-soil and

grout-tube). One hole size (similar in diameter for a

slope inclinometer), and three soil types are investigated. The model is loaded by a prescribed overburden

pressure on top. Grout stiffness is varied in order to

find out a grout which is sufficiently compliant to

imitate the behaviour of surrounding soil. This process and the associated sensitivity studies required

some 120 finite element model runs of the grout-soil

interaction. These extended finite element analyses

of grout-soil mass composites resulted the following

conclusions.

1) There is an optimum grout stiffness to minimize

the measurement errors for a given soil properties.

2) Magnetic probe extensometer declines as a result of

a material condition: the grout is stronger (stiffer)

than the surrounding soil, which prevents the soil

from adequately compressing the composite.

3) A ratio of grout stiffness to soil stiffness of less

than one will provide optimal conditions to avoid

smearing the slip surface in soft to medium and

medium to stiff soils.

4) Stiff clay is minimally affected by varying the

grout stiffness and is strong enough so as to compress the grout column. For all cases of varying

grout stiffness the measurement error remained

less than 10%.

5) Axial stiffness of outer sheath emerges to be

of paramount importance in measuring vertical

displacement in probe extensometer.

6) Greasing has a significant contribution on improving the accuracy of measurements.

7) Telescopic couplings which permit vertical and lateral movements of the inclinometer borehole are

recommended to be used for soft sub-soils when

installing combined inclinometer and probe extensometer as the use of corrugated outer sheath is not

possible in this case.

REFERENCES

ASCE (2000). Guidelines for Instrumentation and Measurements for Monitoring Dam Performance. American

Society of Civil Engineers, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive

Reston, Virginia 201914400.

102

CONCLUSION

TDR Cables in Soil, M.S Thesis, Department of Civil

and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL USA, December.

GUE & PARTNERS SDN BHD, (2001), Specification for

Instrumentation and Monitoring of Embankments.

Marsland, A. (1973), Discussion, Principles of Measurement, in Field Instrumentation in Geotechnical Engineering, British Geotechnical Society, Halsted Press, a

Division of John Wiley, pp. 531532.

Marsland, A. (1974), New Multipoint Magnetic Settlement

System,, in proceeding of the symposium on Field Instrumentation in Geotechnical Engineering, British Geotechnical Society, Butterworths, London, PP. 587589.

for Borehole Instruments. Geotechnical News, Vol. 20,

No. 4, December: 3842.

Mikkelsen, P.E. (2004), Personal Communications.

Plaxis 2D, B.V. Users Manual-Version 7.2, (1998), TERRATEC, Inc.

Potyondy, J. G. (1961), Skin Friction between Various Soil

and Construction Materials, Geotechnique, Vol XI, No. 4,

pp 339353.

Will, D. (1997), Cement Bentonite Grouts Compatible

with Compliant TDR Cables, M.S Thesis, Department

of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern

University, Evanston, IL, USA.

103

2007 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN13 978-0-415-42280-2

B.T. Wang

College of Civil Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing, P. R. China

K.T. Law

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada

ABSTRACT: A highway embankment over soft soils has been successfully constructed with the help of simultaneous application of vacuum loading. This method enables a short construction time and little post-construction

settlements. This paper describes a case study using this method of construction. Extensive laboratory tests have

been conducted before and after construction. Field testing and monitoring have also been made to help understand the performance of the foundation soils involved in this method of construction. The study shows that

(1) the installation of the prefabricated vertical drains (PVDs) disturbed the soil and reduced its strength; (2) the

observed settlement is larger and faster than the estimated; (3) the vacuum load generated an inward horizontal

movement indicative of the increase in horizontal effective stress which in turn increased the soil strength quite

rapidly and (4) there would be little post-construction settlement resulting from additional load due to surface

paving and live traffic load.

INTRODUCTION

the consideration of stability and settlement. In many

cases, the subsoils are either so weak or compressible

that some form of strengthening is needed. There are

many ways to strengthen soft soils. Vacuum preloading

has been used extensively in many parts of the world

to speedily strengthen or stiffen soft soils for support

of loads.

Vacuum preloading was first put forward as

a method to strengthen soft foundations in 1952

(Kjellman 1952). This method has been increasingly

used since 1980s as a result of improved membrane

material and pumping machines. The area of a membrane can now reach 3,000 m2 used in association

with a group of pumps (Ye 1983, Choa 1989, Shang

1988). The use of jet pumps makes it possible to

maintain a vacuum at or slightly higher than 80 kPa

during the pumping period. Recently, vacuum preloading is applied simultaneously with the construction of

embankments, further enhancing the usefulness of this

method in strengthening the soft soils and expediting

the construction process. In this way the vacuum in fact

is no longer a preload but part of the load during construction. While the vacuum is maintained, additional

fill might be added to compensate the settlement of

the fill that has occurred to meet the required final

embankment height. When the settlement has reached

the soil in a lightly over-consolidated state. Further

loading due to paving the road surface and live traffic

load will then occur in the over-consolidated state and

therefore will introduce little additional settlement.

Prefabricated vertical drains (PVDs) are used in this

method to transfer the vacuum to the subsoils and to

provide a shorter drainage path. Hence the consolidation process is accelerated, leading to a rapid increase

in the subsoil strength and a short duration for the

completion of primary consolidation is completed. As

soon as the vacuum is applied, there is an increase

in effective stress in the subsoil accompanied by an

almost immediate increase in the subsoil strength. This

will permit the placement of the initial embankment

to a substantial or even to the design height. The subsequent additional fill to compensate settlement can

be placed within a short time due to the accelerated

consolidation.

This new method has been used extensively in China

since 1990s, particularly in the eastern and southern provinces, because of numerous major expressway

constructions over soft soils (Liu et al. 1999). This

paper describes a case study for applying this method

in building an approach fill embankment for NingJing-Yan Expressway in Jiangsu, China. Extensive

laboratory testing as well as field testing and monitoring have been conducted to assess the performance

of this construction method.

105

Table 1.

Coef. of comp

(MPa1 )

Depth (m)

Void ratio

4.04.3

5.05.3

6.06.3

9.09.2

11.511.7

13.413.6

16.316.5

18.018.2

19.219.4

21.321.5

23.423.6

25.425.6

Average

Average change

27.527.7

29.329.5

31.331.5

35.535.7

37.337.5

Average

Average change

38.8

39.7

35.4

27.2

27.7

25.3

30.8

30.7

31.9

34.7

33.2

35.3

32.2

8.4%

36.0

34.1

32.0

22.9

21.3

29.7

2.7%

28.5

32.7

31.3

28.0

26.0

24.6

30.1

27.5

27.6

28.4

32.3

34.7

29.5

1.32

1.29

1.39

1.57

1.56

1.62

1.48

1.48

1.46

1.42

1.43

1.39

1.45

+4.8%

1.38

1.40

1.44

1.67

1.64

1.50

+2.0%

1.49

1.45

1.46

1.56

1.63

1.68

1.52

1.50

1.55

1.53

1.46

1.42

1.52

1.063

1.100

0.952

0.774

0.772

0.667

0.830

0.819

0.855

0.897

0.876

0.935

0.869

9.0%

0.970

0.919

0.897

0.631

0.623

0.819

3.9%

0.800

0.859

0.856

0.727

0.664

0.619

0.804

0.802

0.733

0.770

0.860

0.904

0.791

0.87

0.88

0.64

0.34

0.35

0.23

0.23

0.22

0.27

0.31

0.36

0.40

0.44

38.6%

0.39

0.39

0.25

0.20

0.24

0.30

13.0%

0.30

0.28

0.38

0.31

0.26

0.16

0.18

0.16

0.19

0.18

0.27

0.32

0.27

34.8

31.7

31.4

22.6

21.5

28.9

1.41

1.49

1.46

1.67

1.65

1.53

0.960

0.758

0.889

0.629

0.616

0.787

0.34

0.31

0.21

0.18

0.23

0.26

0.021

0.016

0.010

0.009

0.012

0.014

0.016

0.020

0.010

SITE CONDITIONS

According to site investigation, the compressible subsoils at the site is at least 40 m thick (maximum depth

of boreholes) and consist mainly of clay layers and

silty sand layers. The detailed subsoil profiles can be

divided into six main layers as given in Table 1 and

summarized in the following:

The top soil layer is clayey soil with low liquid

limit and with a thickness varying from 1.3 m to

3.2 m. Layers of silty sand and sand lenses are found

embedded in this top layer which has a water content ranging from 26% to 36%, an average void ratio

0.85, and an average coefficient of compressibility

0.38 MPa-1.

The second layer is soft clay with a thickness of

about 6 m. The average water content is 37% with

a maximum of 52%. Its average void ratio is 1.1,

reaching a maximum of 1.55. The coefficient of compressibility varies from 0.6 MPa1 to 0.9 MPa1 and

the consolidation coefficient from 5.7 104 cm2 /s to

1.3 103 cm2 /s. This layer is the most compressible

layer of the subsoils at this site.

The third layer is clay with low liquid limit with a

thickness ranging from 6 m to 8 m. The water content varies from 28% to 35%, the void ratio from

0.68 to 0.82, the coefficient of compressibility from

0.26 MPa1 to 0.35 MPa-1 , and the consolidation coefficient from 1.5 103 cm2 /s to 6.0 103 cm2 /s.

layer.

The fourth layer is silty sand with a thickness ranging from 7 m to 12 m. The water content ranges mostly

from 27% to 35% with a maximum of 41.5%. The

void ratio ranges from 0.75 to 0.90, the coefficient of

compressibility from 0.22 MPa1 to 0.36 MPa1 , and

the consolidation coefficient from 7.8 103 cm2 /s

to 3.5 102 cm2 /s. There are thin clay layers in this

layer.

The fifth layer is lean clay with a thickness ranging

from 3.4 m to 8.3 m. The water content varies from

21% to 38.5%, the void ratio from 0.6 to 1.0, and

the coefficient of compressibility from 0.2 MPa1 to

0.44 MPa1 .

The sixth layer is silty sand of a thickness exceeding 10 m as the borehole stopped at 40 m in depth in

this layer. The water content ranges from 23% to 30%,

the void ratio from 0.60 to 0.90, the coefficient of

compressibility from 0.20 MPa1 to 0.34 MPa1 , and

the consolidation coefficient from 1.3 102 cm2 /s to

3.5 104 cm2 /s. Thin clay layers are found in this

layer.

3

The method of applying vacuum loading simultaneously with the embankment construction was applied

106

PROCEDURES

Field testing and monitoring have been undertaken

for assessing the usefulness of this method. The

construction and testing consist of the following main

steps in chronological order:

(1) The site was cleared by removing plants and other

organic matters. Existing holes and depressions

were filled.

(2) Crisscrossed ditches were dug at the site to collect

surface water that was then pumped away from the

site.

(3) Undisturbed soil sampling and field vane shear

tests (VST) were conducted in the natural soils.

Thin walled tube samplers of 70 mm diameter

were used for the sampling. The field vane was

100 mm high and 50 mm in diameter.

(4) A 50 cm thick pad of medium to coarse sand

was placed at the site to serve several functions: spreading the vacuum, collecting water and

transferring it to drain pipes.

(5) Prefabricated vertical drains (PVDs) were

installed. The effective length of the PVDs was

25 m and the cross-section of the PVD was in a

corrugated shape, 6 mm thick and 100 mm wide.

The grid of the PVDs was in rectangular shape

with a spacing of 1.5 m by 1.5 m.

(6) Another series of VST was conducted right after

the installation of the PVDs to study the effect of

soil disturbance caused by the PVDs installation.

The vane boring was carried out midway between

the PVDs.

(7) Deep magnetic settlement rings were installed

in two boreholes to measure the settlement profile with depth. A flexible pipe was inserted

through the rings in the borehole for the passage of the measuring probe. This flexible pipe

could compress readily with the settlement of the

subsoils.

(8) Pumping pipes were installed in the sand pad.

These were plastic pipes, 50 mm in diameter, perforated with 0.5 mm openings and wrapped with a

layer of non-woven geotextiles. The pipes crossed

each other at a spacing of 4.5 m in one direction

and 6 m in the other direction. The central pipe

was connected to a jet pump system.

(9) A polyethylene membrane was used to cover the

sand pad. A trench around the tested area was

dug to anchor the membrane. Normally the trench

depth would not exceed 1.0 m. For this case,

however, there were sandy layers or sand lenses

down to depths ranging from 1.3 m to 3.2 m as

mentioned earlier. Therefore the trench was dug

to 3.5 m in depth to ensure that the membrane

covered completely the freely draining sandy layers. This large depth for a membrane had rarely

been attempted before. This case study therefore

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

(16)

(17)

TESTING

by means of field testing and field monitoring. In this

case study, that includes observing the vacuum pressure, measuring the soil strength, and recording the

deformations of the tested area.

Vacuum gauges were used to measure the vacuum

in the sand pad under the membrane for evaluating

the efficiency of the pump system. The sensing part

of the gauge was embedded in the sand pad, which is

107

a deep trench to anchor the membrane.

Two inclinometer casings were installed at the two

opposite edges of the tested area.

The membrane was tested by operating the jet

pump to a constant suction of 20 kPa to check for

leakage in the membrane. Any defects detected in

the membrane were repaired carefully.

A 50 cm thick silty soil layer was placed carefully

on top of the membrane to avoid damaging it.

Settlement plates were placed on this layer. The

initial elevations of these settlement plates were

measured after they were installed.

The jet pumps were operated at the maximum

power to reach a vacuum up to 80 kPa under

the membrane. This vacuum was maintained

throughout the entire test period of 90 days. The

fact that the vacuum was maintained without

problem showed that the relative deep anchoring

of the membrane was effective to envelope the

sand layers near the ground surface.

The fill of the embankment was placed to the

design height at a compaction of 95% of maximum dry density. The placement process began at

the same time of the vacuum loading and occurred

linearly with time over a period of 19 days. The

thickness of the fill for this stage was 3.0 m, giving

a vertical pressure of 56 kPa.

Surface settlements were measured daily in the

first week, then every three days in the next three

weeks, and every week for the rest of the testing

period. The horizontal deformations of the subsoils were measured with the inclinometer, and

the settlements at depths were measured using the

settlement rings at the same frequency.

At 56 days after the beginning of the vacuum loading, about a meter of fill (19 kPa) was added to

compensate the settlement.

Soil sampling and a final series of field vane shear

test were conducted at the end of the test after

the vacuum was released. Both were carried out

midway between PVDs in the general vicinity of

the central part of the loaded area.

Note: 1, 2: holes for settlements rings

3, 4: inclinometers

(1) to (6): sub-soil layers

above the membrane for ease of reading.

Surface settlements at nine points covering the

whole loaded area were measured using the settlement plates. The locations of these points are shown

in Figure 1 with Point 1 located at the centre of the test

area. The settlements were measured with a surveying

level.

Settlements at depth were measured by using the

settlement rings installed at different depths of the subsoils. Two holes for such measurements were installed

but one of them was destroyed during construction.

Horizontal deformations on two opposite edges

of the loaded area were measured by two inclinometers. Both inclinometers reached only a depth

of 30 m, which was still in the compressible layer.

Therefore the inclinometers were not fixed at their

bases as in the usual application. Additional measurements of the top of the inclinometer casings were

made by means of a theodolite to help determine the

precise horizontal movements. The locations of settlement rings and inclinometer casings are shown in

Figure 2.

Field vane shear tests were conducted before the

construction, after the installation of the PVDs, and

after the release of the vacuum. These tests were

carried out to examine the change of the vane strength

at the various stages of the construction.

Undisturbed soil samples were taken before construction and after the release of the vacuum load. The

soil samples were tested in the laboratory to provide

information on basic soil properties and change in void

ratio and compressibility due to the construction activities. The compressibility coefficients were measured

using a standard consolidometer of 30 cm2 in area and

20 mm in height.

before and after construction are shown in Table 1.

This table shows that there are measurable changes in

water content, dry density, void ratio and coefficient

of compression due to the construction process. The

changes in dry density and void ratio are related to

the change in water content, the specific gravity of

the soil particles and the degree of saturation. For the

results shown in Table 1, the specific gravity for the

various layers were determined and all the soil tested

were taken from below the watertable and hence were

fully saturated. Therefore the changes in dry density

and void ratio are functions of the change in water

content. The following discussion on the change in

water content therefore also applies to the changes in

dry density and void ratio.

In the zone where the PVDs were installed, the average decrease in water content amounts to 8.4%, with a

range from 22.0% for the softest layer (second layer)

to 2.2% at the bottom of this zone, which is largely a

sandy layer. This range corresponds to a reduction in

void ratio from 23.3% to 2.6%. These changes in water

content exceed those calculated for the fully consolidated state based on parameters obtained from the

consolidation tests. This is consistent with the observation based on measured settlements to be discussed

in the next section. Below the zone with the PVDs

(below 25 m depth), a similar observation is also made

that the measured reduction in water content exceeds

that computed based on parameters obtained from

consolidation tests.

Table 1 also lists the change in coefficients of compressibility measured from consolidation tests for the

working stress range. There is an average reduction of

38.6% in the zone with the PVDs and 13% below it.

These reductions reflect the compressibility is dependent on the void ratio. At lower void ratio caused by

108

becomes smaller.

In general, therefore, the vacuum and embankment

load has produced a marked beneficial effect in reducing the water content and the compressibility of the

subsoils.

6

reference for all the monitored items. The time history

of the application of vacuum and embankment loads

is shown in Figure 3. The vacuum under the membrane rose up sharply in three days and then it stayed

above 80 kPa during the entire field experiment. The

fill for the embankment was added linearly with time

and completed in 19 days. Additional fill was placed

to compensate settlement between day 56 to day 63.

6.1

Surface settlements

in Figure 4. During the construction of the sand pad

and the checking of the vacuum pumping for leakage,

it was not possible to measure the surface settlement.

Such surface settlement was estimated using the measured settlement at depths. The maximum settlement

of about 140 cm occurred at the centre of the test area

at the end of construction.

6.2

deformations

the embankment construction. The measured settlements at depth with time from the surviving Hole No.1

are shown in Figure 5. The settlement recorded at the

end of construction for the different layers are summarized in Table 2. The compression with respect to

the original soil thickness ranges from 3.2% to 8.5%

Note: Numbers in brackets are depths in metres.

in the zone with the PVDs with the largest compression being noted in the soft layer. Beneath this zone,

the total compression is 36 cm. Since the boreholes

reached only 40 m in depth, the compression in this

zone is at most 2.4%.

The horizontal deformations measured with the two

inclinometers are similar to each other and the results

of one are shown in Figure 6. It is of interest to note that

when the vacuum was maintained, the top of the inclinometer moved slightly towards the tested area. After

that, when the surcharge and the vacuum were both

109

soil

Soft soil

Depth

(m)

*Time of

primary

cons.

cv

cvr

cv /cvr

(day)

(m2 /day) (m2 /day)

2.55.5 66

5.58.5 62

8.515.5 44

0.008

0.008

0.033

0.021

0.030

0.072

2.63

3.75

2.18

38

0.067

0.154

2.30

Clay wit

low LL

Sity sand 15.525

= coefficient of consolidation obtained from laboratory consolidation test;

= coefficient of consolidation obtained from back-analysis

of the settlement records using the method of Ossen (1977).

of the vacuum load has been small and the soils moved

outwards as in an ordinary embankment loading case

without the vacuum.

6.3 Field vane shear strengths

the inclinometer did not move further. The directions

of lateral deformations were towards the inside of the

tested area within the zone with the PVDs. The maximum inward lateral deformations varied with time in

the vacuum application period with the average maximum lateral strain being 0.5%. At other locations, the

inward movement has been much smaller. The inward

horizontal movements suggest that there has been an

appreciable increase in the effective horizontal stress

during the vacuum loading in this zone. On the other

hand, the horizontal movements reversed in direction

below the zone with the PVDs. In this zone the effect

before loading, after the installation of PVDs, and at

the end of the vacuum loading are shown in Figure 7.

The results show that the vane strength decreased

significantly due to the disturbance of the installation

of the PVDs at which time the vacuum had not been

applied. For the soft layer, the drop in vane strength

was 26.3%. This drop reduced the safety factor of the

subsequent embankment to almost 1.0. However, the

embankment was built according to plan with no sign

of distress because the vacuum through the PVDs provided sufficient rise in effective stress to increase the

strength to prevent failure. At the end of construction,

the vane strength in the soft layer regained to almost

1.9 times higher than the original value before construction. This is remarkable as the increase in the clay

layers occurred in 90 days. According to Law (1985),

the increase of vane shear strength of normally consolidated clays is dependent on the vertical effective

pressure and the geometry of the loading. The geometry of this present case falls into those for which a

vane strength increase is possible.

The ratio of cu /po at different depths is shown in

Figure 8. Initially before construction, the average

ratio of cu /po is 0.24. This is within the range for similar soils (Law 1985). The ratio falls to 0.21 with the

embankment load at the end of construction in spite of

the absolute strength increase. Such a lowered ratio is

110

75 kPa. By using the one-dimensional consolidation

model, the estimated surface settlement at the centre

of the loaded area is 93 cm. as calculated with Eq. 1.

s = Si =

end of construction.

(Law 1985).

7

ESTIMATED SETTLEMENTS

embankment load in this case and PVDs causes the

soil to consolidate in a manner that is different from

a regular loading surcharge with PVDs. The vacuum

provides not only an equivalent vertical surcharge,

it also increases significantly the hydraulic gradient

for drainage into the PVDs. Furthermore, the vacuum reaching the soil at depth through the PVDs also

increases the effective horizontal stresses in the soil to

enhance the consolidation effect. Although traditional

analysis does not take into account of the effects of

increased hydraulic gradients and effective horizontal

stress, they are commonly used to interpret the measured results (Imai 1995, Shang 1998,). The traditional

method of analysis is also used in this study for comparing measured and traditionally evaluated results

in terms of the various aspects of the consolidation

process.

7.1 Total settlement

The computation for the total settlement is based on

soil characteristics such as the initial void ratios and

the coefficients of compressibility of sub-soils given

in Table 1. The load condition is given by the vacuum

preloading of 80 kPa acting on an the area of 48 m in

width and 60 m in length, and the surcharge supplied

(1)

and Hi are settlement and thickness of soil layer i; avi

is the coefficient of compression; pi is the applied

additional pressure on soil layer i due to the vacuum

and the embankment loads. The prediction point of the

settlement is located at the centre of the test area. The

applied stresses are calculated based on the integration

of Bousssinesq solution.

Eq. 1 is based on one-dimensional settlement with

zero lateral deformation. Any lateral deformation will

increase or decrease the real settlement. For this case

study, inward horizontal movement has been observed

throughout the deformation in the top 25 m of subsoil

in which the PVDs were installed. The Poissons effect

of this inward movement would cause a reduction

in the vertical settlement. Such an effect is reversed

in the subsoil below the depth of 25 m in which the

horizontal movement is outward. These effects will

contribute to the discrepancy between the observed

and estimated settlements. The field measured settlement is about 140 cm, which is significantly higher

than the estimated value of 93 cm. Possible reasons

for this discrepancy will be discussed later.

The settlement-time relationship in this case is more

complex than the case of regular loading. In the zone

with the PVDs, the hydraulic gradient during vacuum

loading is quite different from that of regular loading

and the coefficient of consolidation in the horizontal

direction is not equal to that in the vertical direction.

In this analysis, pore pressure dissipation is considered

horizontal towards the PVDs in the top 25 m and vertical below this zone. In the zone with the PVDs, the

consolidation in vertical direction is neglected. The

solution by Barron (1948) is used to calculate the

consolidation in horizontal direction. The equivalent

radius of a PVD is 7 cm. The radius of the equivalent

circle is 84.6 cm for the PVDs installed in rectangular

grid with the spacing of 1.5 m 1.5 m. The settlement

of a layer of thickness H is given by:

S1 (t) = mv pH (1

2

ekmt )

2

M

m=1

(2)

of thickness H inside the zone with the PVDs. The

111

avi Pi

Hi

1 + e0i

the embankment loads is p .

The measured and the estimated settlements at different depths have been compared. The comparison

shows that the measured settlement (36.0 cm) below

the depth of 25 m is much higher than the estimated

value (17.85 cm). This difference is caused partly by

the settlement of the subsoils below the depth of 40 m,

where there is no information on the compressional

characteristics. All settlements in the layers from the

ground surface to the depth of 25 m are also higher

than the estimated values, especially in the top layer

and the soft clay layer.

depths, one can determine the observed consolidation

settlements for different layers in the zone with the

PVDs that transferred the vacuum. These settlements

are plotted with the logarithm of time (t) in Figure 10.

By means of Casagrandes log time method, the time

to reach primary consolidation has been evaluated and

the results are shown in Table 2. For these layers, the

time to complete primary consolidation varies from

38 to 66 days, remarkably short time that is beneficial to expedite the construction of the embankment.

The coefficient of consolidation has been obtained

using two different methods. The first, denoted by

cv , is determined from the laboratory consolidation

tests on vertical samples. The second, denoted by cvr ,

is obtained from the settlement records interpreted

using Ossens method (1977) on radial drainage. In

the application of this method, the vacuum is taken as

an instantaneously applied load and the embankment

load a linearly increasing load over a period of 19 days.

The results from both methods are listed in Table 2. A

comparison of these two sets of results shows that the

ratio of the coefficient of consolidation determined

from the observed settlement records to those determined from the laboratory tests range from two to four.

The ratio is not as high as those reported by Leroueil

(1988). The explanation probably lies in the fact that in

the present case, there are opposing factors affecting

the coefficient of consolidation in the field. Factors

that increase the field value are the higher permeability coefficient in the radial (horizontal) direction and

the high hydraulic gradient resulting from the vacuum.

On the other hand, smear effect caused by installing the

PVDs decreases the field permeability.

This is due partly to higher permeability coefficient

in the radial (horizontal) direction and partly to the

high hydraulic gradient resulting from the vacuum.

of the test area.

surface to a depth of 25 m.

mv =

av

;

1 + e0

= f (kr,n );

M=

n=

(2m 1)

;

2

Km =

2Cvr

;

re2

re

= radius ratio.

rw

direction;

av is coefficient of compression in the vertical direction;

The smear effect due to installation of the drains is

neglected in Eq.2.

The consolidation settlement of the compressible

layer at the depths between 25 m and 40 m is calculated by the conventional Terzaghis one-dimensional

consolidation theory. The calculated consolidation settlements with time at the centre of the loaded area

are shown in Fig. 9. In general the observed settlement rate in the field is higher than the estimated

value.

112

The void ratio at the end of the field testing can be

estimated in three different ways: 1) laboratory determination of void ratio of soil samples taken at the end

of field testing, 2) theoretical consideration of the compressional characteristics measured in the laboratory

on soil samples taken before the construction, and 3)

analysis of the settlement records. The results obtained

from the three methods for soils within the zone with

PVDs are compared in Fig. 11 and Fig. 12 using the

void ratio determined from method 1 as reference. The

values of void ratio on the x-axis and the y-axis are

the same on the dashed lines in Fig. 11 and Fig. 12.

Fig. 11 shows that void ratio determined from the compressional characteristics measured on soil samples

taken before construction is higher than the actual

measured values. This is consistent with the observation that the measured settlement is higher than

the estimated settlement. Fig. 12 shows that the void

Figure 11. Relationship of void ratios obtained from laboratory tests and from estimated settlements.

Note: ee = void ratio estimated using av and change in effective vertical stress

ed = void ratio determined directly on samples taken after

construction

Figure 12. Relationship of void ratios obtained from laboratory tests and from settlement records.

ratio deduced from the settlement records is approximately equal to the directly measured void ratio. This

implies that the horizontal inward movement caused by

the vacuum load has negligible effect on the vertical

settlement.

8

The settlements calculated using Eq. [1] in this case are

appreciably lower than the measured settlements. This

observation is in line with those reported in a number of cases (Lou 1992, Shang et al. 1998, Mass et al

2001), except for the soft sensitive clay in Bangkok,

and the results are summarized in Table 3. Possible reasons for the calculated settlements being lower than the

observed values are as follows:

Soil disturbance due to the installation of PVDs

reduces the strength and increases the compressibility

of the subsoils. While this is rarely reported in the literature, the data in this present study show that there has

been a significant decrease (26%) in the vane strength

of the soft clay (Figure 7). The compressibility, though

not measured, must have increased appreciably and led

to settlement in the field larger than the calculated.

The cases with the same observation in Table 3 also

had PVDs installed and soil disturbance could also be

a contributing factor for the observed phenomenon.

The exception is the case in Bangkok featuring soft

sensitive clays. For this type of material, the soil disturbance during sampling and handling in the laboratory

produces a softening effect probably exceeding that of

the disturbance due to the installation of the drains.

Some secondary settlements could have occurred

during the application of the vacuum. According to

measurements by Tang and Shang (2000), and Ye

(1983), the pore pressure reaches a steady value in

10 days I n the subsoils during vacuum application.

Beyond the 10 days, the effective vertical stress therefore remained relatively constant. However, there was

an additional 33% (Tang and Shang 2000) settlement

from day 10 to day 90 beyond that measured in the

first 10 days, clearly indicating the significance of

secondary settlement.

A similar observation can be deduced in the present

study with soils similar to those of Tang and Shang

(2000), and Ye (1983). While no excess pore pressure

measurements have been made in the present study,

the field observed settlements as summarized in Figure 10 show that the consolidation process based on

Casagrandes logarithm time method was completed

before the release of the vacuum. The actual time

of the end of primary consolidation could have been

shorter than that estimated from the field records if

secondary compression had been accounted for. Taking this into consideration, there was ample time for

113

DISCUSSION

Table 3.

Reference

Soil characterists

sm /sp

Note

This paper

av = 0.2 to 0.9 MPa1

Soft clay, silty clay to silty sand,

1.21 to 1.50

1.55

1.11 to 1.37

1.26

1.27

Test area

Along runway

Average of 4 cases

Estimated settlements

obtained based on data

given in the paper

Lou (1992)

Mass et al. (2001)

For 5 projects

Clay and baymud with organic content,

cc = 0.31.1, eo = 1.031.87

Marine clay deposits cc = 1.2, e0 = 2

Alluvial silty clay cc = 0.9, e0 = 2.5

Bangkok soft clay* cc = 1.11.4, eo = 33.4

Alluvial deposits cc = 0.850.83, e0 = 1.72.1

1.26

1.33

0.82

1.03

sensitive clay.

a total observed settlement larger than that estimated

from laboratory tests without secondary compression.

Therefore the observed settlement being higher than

the estimated settlement involving vacuum loading

reported in this case is not without precedence. Soil

disturbance due to PVDs installation and secondary

compression are possible reasons for this discrepancy.

8.2

Post-construction settlement

additional loads to be applied. The first comes from the

paving materials to finish the road surface for traffic.

This would add about 20 kPa to the embankment. The

second comes from live traffic load, which amounts to

another 20 kPa. Therefore there will be a final addition

of stress of 40 kPa. This is less than the release of

the vacuum load of 80 kPa. Therefore the additional

loading will occur in the over-consolidated state and

hence will only give rise to a small settlement.

8.3 Advantages of the proposed construction

method

The construction of an embankment over soft soils

with simultaneous vacuum loading provides some

advantages over the method of regular surcharge loading. The advantages include speed of construction and

affordability.

The use of vacuum load speeds up the construction process. The application of the vacuum increases

the hydraulic gradient and expedites the consolidation

process. In addition, the application of the vacuum

induces immediate strength increase in the subsoils

in spite of some strength loss due to the installation

of the PVDs. This will enable the construction of the

embankment without delay. In the present case, it took

only 90 days to complete the embankment construction

due to minor load addition by surface paving and live

traffic load. Using the alternative method of surcharge

loading will take a much longer time.

The common view on vacuum loading is that it is

an expensive method. In reality it is competitive with

the surcharging method. The installation of the vacuum system and the electric power to run it does incur

some costs. In the surcharging method, there is need to

purchase a much larger volume of fill than is needed

for the final embankment. After the surcharging, there

are also expenses involved in disposing the extra fill.

A cost comparison has been made for the two methods for the present case. It has been found that the

cost for constructing the embankment with simultaneously vacuum loading is almost the same as that by the

surcharging method.

marginal stability has been successfully constructed

using simultaneous application of vacuum loading.

This method allows the embankment to be built to its

final grade and shape within a short time. The consolidation settlement was complete in 38 to 66 days in

the different layers of the subsoils. Laboratory testing,

field vane shear tests and deformation monitoring have

been conducted to help understand the behaviour of the

subsoils subjected to embankment load with concomitant vacuum load and the following conclusions can be

drawn.

(1) The field vane shear strength decreases appreciably due to mechanical disturbance generated

during the installation of the prefabricated vertical drains (PVDs). For the softest clay layer, such

disturbance led to 26% decrease in the field vane

114

CONCLUSIONS

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

shear strength. However, at the end of the embankment construction when the vacuum was released,

the field vane strength regained up to 1.9 times of

the original value.

The observed settlements in different layers are

21% to 50% larger than the estimated values

based on conventional laboratory consolidation

test results. The reason for this phenomenon is due

to softening of the subsoils as a result of mechanical disturbance due to the installation of the PVDs

and secondary compression.

The consolidation coefficients deduced from consolidation settlements under the embankment are

2 to 4 times higher than the values determined

in the laboratory. Three reasons have been suggested for the discrepancy. First, the high hydraulic

gradient created by the vacuum accelerates the

consolidation in the field. Secondly, the PVDs

enable consolidation in the horizontal direction

along which the permeability coefficient. Thirdly,

the smear in the soil caused by installing PVDs has

an opposing effect. The net results that the field

consolidation coefficients are higher than those in

the vertical direction as measured in the laboratory.

Inward horizontal movements have been observed

during the period of vacuum loading. This inward

movement indicates a significant increase in the

effective horizontal stress. This effective stress

increase has been immediate and hence the

strength increase is also immediate, leading to

favourable condition for rapid construction of the

embankment in spite of the decrease in strength

due to the disturbance by the installation of the

PVDs. This horizontal inward movement, however, does not appear to have significant effect

on the vertical settlement based on comparison

of the void ratio measured on soil samples taken

after the completion of the embankment construction and the void ratio deduced with the measured

settlements.

Future loading from paving the road surface and

from traffic will generate a pressure less than the

release of the vacuum.The future loading therefore

will occur in the over-consolidated state with little

further settlement.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Financial supports for this study from The General

Expressway Company of Jiangsu Province, China

and The Natural Science and Engineering Council of

Canada are gratefully acknowledged. Heartfelt thanks

are due to Ms H. X. Zhang and Ms Y. Yun for

conducting the laboratory experiment.

REFERENCES

Barron, R. A. 1948, Consolidation of the fine-grained soils

by drain wells, Transactions of the ASCE, 718742

Bergalo, D.T., Balasubramaniam, A.S., Fannin, R.J., and

Holtz, R.D. 2002, Prefab. Vert. drains (PVDs) in soft

Bankok clay: a case study of the new Bankok International

Airport Project, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol.39,

304315

Choa. V. 1989, Drains and vacuum loading pilot test, Proc.

XII, Intl Conf. On Soil Mech. and Found. Eng., Rio de

Janeiro, Brazil, 13471350

Das, B.M., 2001, Principles of Geotechnical Engineering

(Fifth edition), Thomson Learning

Imai, G. 1995, Analytical examination of the foundations to

formulate consolidation phenomena with inherent timedependence, Proc. Int. Sym. Compaction and Consolidation of Clayey Soils, Hiroshima, Japan, Vol.2, 891935.

Kjellman, W. 1952, Consolidation of clayey soils by atmospheric pressure, Proc. Conference on Soil Stabilization,

Massachusettes Institute of Technology, Boston, 258263

Law, K. T. 1985, Use of field vane tests under earthstructures, 11th International Conference Soil Mechanics

and Foundation Engineering, San Francisco, 893898

Leroueil S., 1988, Tenth Canadian geotechnical colloquium:

Recent developments in consolidation of natural clays,

Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 25, 85107

Liu C. Y., Chen S. H., 1999, The application of vacuum combined with surcharge in the construction of expressway,

4th Conference of the Application of PVDs in the Soft

Foundations, Hohai University Press, 432438

Lou, Y. 1992, Improvement of soft clay by vacuum loading, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering (In Chinese), Vol.1,

No.2, 5659

Mass F., Spaulding C. A., Wong P. I. C., and Varaksin S.,

2001 Vacuum Consolidation A review of 12 years

of successful development, Geo-odyssey, ASCE, Virginia

Tech-Blacksburg, VA, USA

Ossen, R. E., 1977, Consolidation under time dependent loading, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Division,ASCE,

Vol.103, No. GT1, 5560

Shang, J. Q., Tang, M., and Miao, Z. 1998, Vacuum loading

consolidation of reclaimed land: a case study, Canadian

Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 35, No.5, 740749

Shang, S. Z., 1988, Experimental study of vacuum loading

with surcharge in Shanghai Harbor,Transport Engineering

(In Chinese), No.3, 18

Tang, M. and Shang, J. Q. 2000, Vacuum loading consolidation of Yaoqiang Airport runway, Geotechnique, Vol. 50,

No. 6, 613623

Tsuchida, T. 2001, Settlement of pleistocene clay layer in

coastal area, the reason, prediction, and measure, Soft Soil

Engineering, edited by Lee, C.F., Lau, C.K., Ng, C.W.W.,

Kwong, A.K.L., Pang, P.L.R., Yin, J.H., and Yue, Z.Q.

Ye B. R., 1983, The improvement of soft foundations by vertical drains with vacuum loading, Harbor Engineering (In

Chinese), No.1, 2630

115

2007 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN13 978-0-415-42280-2

William M. Camp III

S&ME, Inc., Mount Pleasant South Carolina, USA

Timothy C. Siegel

Berkel & Company Contractors, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA

ABSTRACT: As part of improvements to a roadway in coastal South Carolina, a portion of the road crossing

reclaimed marshland was widened. The new lanes were constructed on a column-supported embankment consisting of sand fill reinforced by geogrid and supported by vibro-concrete columns that penetrate through the

underlying very soft clays and into the local basement stratum. Shortly after construction, the roadway on the

column-supported embankment began to experience distress characterized by an irregular surface with humps at

the column locations and depressions in the areas between column locations. The differential vertical deformation

between the high and low points was sufficiently significant that the owner closed the roadway almost immediately after completion. Forensic study illustrated that the design applied state-of-practice design techniques;

however, certain design assumptions were not consistent with the fundamentals controlling the column-supported

embankment behavior. This paper describes the original design, construction, and the authors forensic study for

this failure.

1

INTRODUCTION

embankments (CSE) have been used to allow rapid

embankment construction over soft compressible

soils. A CSE consists of three components: (1)

embankment material, (2) a load transfer platform,

and (3) vertical elements extending from the load

transfer platform to a firm stratum. The load transfer platform typically consists of granular fill with

horizontal layers of a reinforcing geosynthetic. Conventional pile types were used as the vertical support

element (i.e., the columns) in the early use of columnsupported embankments. For more recent projects,

other types of vertical elements, including soil mix

columns and vibro-concrete columns, have been used

in lieu of conventional pile types. A column-supported

embankment is shown in cross-section in Figure 1.

2

require the consideration of a very complicated threedimensional condition involving a complex geometry,

numerous interfaces, and non-linear materials. Considering this, the available design methods make use

of simplifying assumptions that need to be confirmed

as part of the design process.As a minimum, the design

should consider the transfer of the embankment load to

2004).

and the capacity of the columns.

As illustrated by the numerous recent technical

papers on the subject (Collin, 2004; Collin et al., 2004;

Han and Collin, 2005), the CSE design methods are

still evolving within the engineering community. However, a review of published literature indicates that

there are two general principles common to the existing

design methods:

117

voids (Terzaghi, 1943). The degree of arching is

related to the embankment geometry (i.e., the soil

thickness required to form an arch and the size of the

area that must be spanned by the arch), the strength

and stiffness of the soil, and the movement within

soil strength).

Geosynthetics can aid in the transfer of the embankment load to nearby vertical elements or columns

by: (a) promoting an increase in soil arching (Collin,

2004) or (b) acting as a tensioned membrane

(Giroud et al., 1990). The distinction between the

two different purposes of the geosynthetic is crucial to the proper application of the available design

methods.

3

As part of the improvements to a roadway in coastal

South Carolina, a portion of the road crossing

reclaimed marshland was widened. The new lanes

were constructed on a column-supported embankment consisting of sand fill reinforced by geogrid

and supported by vibro-concrete columns that penetrate through the underlying very soft clays and into

the local basement stratum. Shortly after construction,

the roadway on the column-supported embankment

began to experience distress characterized by an irregular surface with humps at the column locations and

depressions in the areas between column locations

(i.e., dimpling). The differential vertical deformation

between the high and low points (>50 mm or 2 in.)

was such that the owner had to close the roadway

almost immediately after completion. The authors

were retained to review the design calculations and

plans, observe the roadway conditions, and determine

the events that led to roadway distress.

3.2

the site consist of the following (from the ground surface): (a) an upper sandy fill layer with a thickness

of approximately 2 m (6.6 ft), (2) very soft marsh clay

with occasional interbedded sand lenses, and (3) a firm

calcareous clay.

3.3

Design review

and 4. The length of the CSE is approximately 310 m

(1017 ft) and its width ranges from 7 to 20 m (23 to

66 ft). The vibro-concrete columns were installed in

a triangular pattern with a center-to-center spacing

of 2.5 m (8.2 ft). The 0.6 m (24 in.) diameter vibroconcrete columns are oversized to about 0.91 m (36 in.)

immediately below the load transfer platform.The load

transfer platform consists of 0.6 m (24 in.) of granular fill with three horizontal layers of Tensar BX 1200

geogrid vertically spaced at 0.2 m (8 in.). The typical

embankment fill thickness was 1.1 m (3.6 ft).

The authors were responsible for review of the CSE

design to determine the cause(s) of roadway distress.

The Code of practice for strengthened/reinforced soils

and other fills (British Standard 8006, 1995) provides a convenient summary of the failure modes

for column-supported embankments. The ultimate

limit states correspond to strength-related conditions

(e.g., pile capacity and side-slope stability) and the

serviceability limit states correspond to deformationrelated conditions. It is the authors conclusion that

the observed deformation-related condition was consistent with the reinforcement strain failure mode

118

Ground conditions

the BS 8006 which is illustrate in Figure 5.

The various design methods attempt to prevent a

reinforcement strain failure by establishing limits on

the ratio of the embankment height to the column spacing and/or ensuring that the load transfer platform is

sufficiently stiff to limit differential vertical deformations. The embankment height-to-column relationship is related to the geometry required to fully develop

arching in the load transfer platform. For a given column spacing, there exists a critical embankment height

at which arching is fully developed. Above the critical height, any additional fill or surcharge loading is

expected to be distributed completely to the columns

with no additional loading of the subgrade between

the columns (Han and Gabr, 2002). Within the various design methods, the assumed critical height ranges

from a minimum of 70% of the edge-to-edge column

119

500

Tension (kN/m)

35

Strain (%)

30

400

25

300

20

15

200

10

100

0

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

40

600

90

8006.

spacing to a maximum of the center-to-center column spacing (Collin, 2004). For the column geometry

of the subject CSE, the critical embankment height

would range from 1.1 to 2.5 m (3.6 to 8.2 ft) for the

various design methods. As designed and constructed,

the maximum embankment height was 1.1 m (3.6 ft)

and the majority of the embankment was too thin for

arching to fully develop.

In theory, regardless of the degree of arching, it is

possible to fully support the weight of the embankment

on a load-transfer platform that spans the columns.

Giroud et al. (1990) proposed a landfill design procedure that considers the ability of a geosynthetic

beneath a fill to span an underlying void. This tensioned membrane theory, as detailed in TTN:WM3

(Tensar, 1989) was used by the original designers of the

subject CSE. The intention of the design was to have

the horizontal layers of geosynthetic carry the embankment load in tension and transfer the load to the nearby

vibro-concrete columns. For such a design approach, it

is critical to recognize that the vertical displacement of

the embankment fill, the strain in the geosynthetic, and

the resulting tension in the geosynthetic are interrelated. As the fill between columns experiences downward vertical displacement, the geosynthetic begins

to elongate and a tensile stress is mobilized within

the geosynthetic to resist the elongation. For reasons related to geometry, the tensile stress decreases

as the vertical displacement (and the resulting elongation) increases. To avoid a reinforcement strain

failure, a design must achieve compatibility between

the tolerable vertical displacement and the computed

geosynthetic elongation and corresponding mobilized

tensile stress.

Within the original design calculations, the relationship between the strain within the tensioned membrane

and the vertical displacement (i.e., embankment settlement between the columns) was not recognized.

The computations of the geosynthetic strains, vertical displacements, and geosynthetic tension forces

were uncoupled from one another. Due to the strain

incompatibility, the actual CSE was designed and constructed with only three layers of Tensar BX 1200

geogrid with the expectation that the differential settlement would be less than 25 mm (1in.). According

to Tensar, the long term design strengths of BX 1200

are 3 kN/m (208 lbs/ft) and 6.7 kN/m (454 lbs/ft) in

the machine and cross-machine directions, respectively. Thus, the available combined tension in the

three geogrids would be a maximum of 20.1 kN/m

(1362 lbs/ft).

Figure 6 correctly illustrates the theoretical

behaviour of the tensioned membrane in this case.

The solid line is the relationship between surface

settlement and the corresponding required tension.

The dashed line is the relationship between surface

settlement and the geosynthetic strain (or deformed

shape). As the allowable surface settlement decreases,

the maximum reinforcement strain decreases and the

required geosynthetic tension increases. The design

objective for this project was a surface settlement of

25 mm (1in.) which corresponds to a required geosynthetic tension of 268 kN/m (36,750 lbs/ft). This tension

force is more than 10 times greater that the value used

in the original design. Considering that reinforcement

of this magnitude would not be practical (e.g., 88 layers

of BX1200 would be required), correct design calculations would likely have led to selection of a closer

column spacing.

3.4 Forensic exploration observations

The design deficiencies were sufficient to cause a

serviceability failure but construction deficiencies further exacerbated the distress. Construction documents

indicated that 25 of the 700 vibro-concrete columns

were not installed. The omission of a column means

that the design spacing was exceeded in some areas.

The 4% reduction in the number of vibro-concrete

columns likely increased surface settlement in localized areas, but the performance of the entire embankment was inadequate. Additional post-construction

test pit observations by the authors revealed several

conditions that probably did not reflect the designers

intentions. There was no cutoff elevation specified

for the top of the vibro-concrete columns and the

120

columns varied as much as 0.36 m (1.2 ft). As a result,

the geosynthetic reinforcement was not planar nor

evenly spaced in some areas. While it is understood

that horizontal placement of the geosynthetic reinforcement is an important assumption of the design

method, the authors have not attempted to quantify

the influence of deviations for the subject project.

4

CONCLUDING REMARKS

A column-supported embankment (CSE) was constructed across reclaimed marshland. The embankment was relatively thin (maximum height of 1.1 m

(3.6 ft) and the vibro-concrete columns were spaced at

2.5 m (8.2 ft) center-to-center. Shortly after construction, the roadway surface began to deform with humps

at the column locations with depressions between

column locations. The distressed roadway surface distinctly appeared like the reinforced strain failure

mode described the Code of practice for strengthened/reinforced soils and other fills (British Standard

8006, 1995).

The authors forensic study revealed that the design

did not properly consider the embankment height-tocolumn spacing guidelines and the interrelationship

between embankment settlement and elongation (or

strain) of the tension membrane. Because of this, the

tensile resistance available within the geosynthetic

reinforcement that composed the tension membrane

was substantially under-designed. The authors conclude that the primary cause of the deformation-related

failure was that the embankment load exceeded the

tensile resistance available in the geosynthetic layers at

the elongation corresponding to the design settlement.

The authors were requested to consider mitigation measures following the forensic evaluation. Initial

consideration was given to modifying the existing

CSE structure. While the roadway geometry precluded substantial changes in the embankment height,

it could have been possible to add vibro-concrete

columns and/or re-build the load transfer platform

with a greater geosynthetic reinforcement. The owner

decided that a pile-supported structure would be a

more economical and reliable alternative. The distressed CSE is currently being removed and replaced

with a pile-supported, structural flat-slab structure.

of this paper.

REFERENCES

BS 8006:1995, 1999. Code of practice for strengthened/reinforced soils and other fills, British Standards

Institution, London.

Collin, J.G., 2004. Column supported embankment design

considerations. University of Minnesota, 52nd Annual

Geotechnical Engineering Conference.

Collin, J.G., Watson, C.H. & Han, J., 2005. Columnsupported embankment solves time constaint for new road

construction Geotechnical Special Publication No. 131,

ASCE.

Giroud, J.P., Bonapart, R., Beech, J.F. and Gross, B.A.,

1990. Design of soil layer-geosynthetic systems overlying

voids, Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Elsevier Science

Publishers Ltd., England, 1150.

Han, J. & Akins, K. 2002. Use of geogrid-reinforced and

pile-supported earth structures, Geotechnical Special

Publication No. 116, ASCE, 668679.

Han, J. & Collin, J.G., 2005. Geosynthetic support systems

over pile foundations GRI-18-Geosynthetic Research

and Development in Progress, Geosynthetic Research

Institute.

Han, J. & Gabr, M.A., 2002., Numerical analysis of

geosynthetic-reinforced and pile-supported earth platforms over soft soils. Journal of Geotechnical and

Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 128, No.1, 4453.

Kempton, G.T., Russell, D., Pierpoint, N. & Jones, C.J.P.F.,

1998. Two- and three-dimensional numerical analysis

of the performance of geosynthetics carrying embankment loads over piles. Proc. 6th Int. Conf. Geosynthetics,

Atlanta, Georgia.

Naughton, P.J. and Kempton, G.T., 2005. Comparison of

analytical and numerical analysis design methods for

piled embankments. Geotechnical Special Publication

No. 131, ASCE.

Rogbeck, Y., Gustavsson, S., Sodergren, & Lindquist, D.

1998. Reinforced piled embankments in Sweden-design

aspects. Proceedings of Sixth International Conference

on Geosynthetics, 755762.

S&ME, Inc. 2004. Report of Design Review Virginia

Avenue Roadway Widening. Charleston, South Carolina.

Stewart, M.E., Navin, M.P. & Filz, G.M. 2004., Analysis of

a column supported test embankment at the I-95/Route 1

interchange. Geotechnical Special Publication No. 126,

ASCE.

Terzaghi, K., 1943. Theoretical soil mechanics, John Wiley &

Sons, 510 p.

TTN:WM3 Tensar Technical Note. 1989. Design of Tensar

geogrid reinforcement to support landfill lining and cover

systems, Tensar Corporation, 24 p.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors gratefully acknowledge S&ME, Inc.

and Berkel & Company Contractors, Inc. for their

121

2007 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN13 978-0-415-42280-2

Satipong Apimeteetamrong, Jutha Sunitsakul & Attasit Sawatparnich

Bureau of Road Research and Development, Department of Highways, Thailand

ABSTRACT: Department of Highways, Thailand, reconstructed the highway route number 3117 (KlongDanBangbor), which connects two major highways to the eastern part of the country. The highway embankment

constructed on improved soft Bangkok clay; those soil improvement techniques are deep mixing cement column,

shallow cement stabilization, and preload methods. Soft Bangkok clay layer in the reconstruction area is about

1215 meters thick. Total pressure cells, piezometers, inclinometers, settlement plates, and rod extensometers,

have been installed in three soil improvement sections in order to monitor the highway embankment performance

evaluation during and after the reconstruction.

INTRODUCTION

national highway route number 3117 (KlongDanBangBor) in 1963 to connect between the national

highways route number 3 (Sukumvith Rd.) and 34

(BangNa-BangPaKong) as shown in figure 1. Since

this highway is founded on the well known soft

Bangkok clay (see figure 2), an excessive settlement is expected; thus, Department of Highways

reconstructed this highway twice in 1988 and 2002,

respectively. The main contractor of the recent reconstruction is Thanasin (1991) Co., Ltd. On the latest reconstruction project, three ground improvement

techniques were introduced. These techniques are deep

mixing cement column, shallow cement stabilization, and preloaded methods. Thicknesses of highway

1.0 meter, respectively (see figure 3 for more information). Due to expected high flood level and low

embankment elevation at shallow cement stabilization

and preloaded sections, small levees are constructed

on both sides of the highway.

In order to monitor the performance of the highway embankment during and after construction, total

pressure cells, piezometers, inclinometers, settlement

plates, and rod extensometers have been installed. In

addition, vane shear tests and soil borings are performed in Bangkok clay layers. Field measurement

data are thoroughly studied and compared with current

geotechnical applications. Recommendations regarding to both geotechnical design criteria and highway

construction on soft Bangkok clay are provided for

future highway construction in the soft Bangkok clay.

Depth

(m)

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

30

32

BH-6

4+975

BH-7 BH-8

6+300 7+250

Stiff

Clay

Figure 2. Soil profiles at the construction site (after Apimeteetamrong et al., 2006)

123

0+250 1+000 2+000 3+000 4+000

STRIP SODDING

3.0 %

120

STRIP SODDING

3.0%

Figure 3.1. Typical cross-section of the highway embankment on the soft Bangkok clay improved by the preloaded

method.

STRIP SODDING

3.0 %

STRIP SODDING

3.0 %

U-Line

PI=0.9(LL-8)

100

EXISTING ROADWAY

5 CM. WEARING COURSE (AC.60-70)

5 CM.BINDER COURSE (AC. 60-70)

20 CM. CRUSHED ROCK SOIL AGGREGATE TYPE BASE GRADE A OR B

ON C.B.R. 80 % (MIN.)

20 CM. SOIL AGGREGATE SUBBASE GRADE A, B OR C ONLY, C.B.R. 25% (MIN)

SAND EMBANKMENT C.B.R. 10 % (MIN.)

80

BKK Clay

PI=0.87(LL-16)

60

40

A-Line

PI=0.73(LL-20)

20

0

EXISTING ROADWAY

5 CM. WEARING COURSE (AC. 60-70)

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

OC.B.R. 80 % (MIN.)

20 CM. SOIL AGGREGATE SUBBASE GRADE A, B OR C ONLY, C.B.R. 25% (MIN)

SAND EMBANKMENT C.B.R. 10 % (MIN.)

Figure 3.2. Typical cross-section of the highway embankment on the soft Bangkok clay improved by the shallow

cement stabilization.

Figure 4. Plasticity Plots of the Bangkok clay at construction site (after Apimeteetamrong et al., 2006).

Undrained Shear Strength (10 kPa)

0

3.0 %

12

16

20

3.0 %

Depth (m)

8

12

UCS: Sta. 3+000

UCS: Sta. 4+000

UCS: Sta. 4+975

16

UCS: Sta. 7+250

20

EXISTING ROADWAY

5 CM. WEARING COURSE (AC. 60-70)

5 CM. BINDER COURSE (AC. 60-70)

20 CM. CRUSHED ROCK SOIL AGGREGATE TYPE BASE GRADE

A OR B ON LC.B.R. 80 % (MIN.)

20 CM. SOIL AGGREGATE SUBBASE GRADE A, B OR C

ONLY, C.B.R. 25% (MIN)

SAND EMBANKMENT C.B.R. 10 % (MIN.)

24

FVT:Sta. 4+975

FVT: Sta. 6+300

28

Figure 3.3. Typical cross-section of the highway embankment on the soft Bangkok clay improved by the deep mixing

cement column.

Construction site by unconfined compression and field vane

shear tests (after Apimeteetamrong et al., 2006).

this investigation in the following stations: 1+000,

4+975, and 6+300. Undrained shear strength profile

is shown in Figure 5. The undrained shear strength in

figure 5 is uncorrected undrained shear strength; however, strength tests by unconfined compression test

are approximately the same as those by field vane

shear tests. On the embankment stability evaluation,

the undrained shear strength obtained from field vane

shear tests is corrected by following the suggestion of

Bjerrum in 1972.

INVESTIGATIONS

by Pyramid Development International (PDI), Co.,

Ltd., in which laboratory investigations are Atterberg

limits, unconfined compression tests, and consolidation tests. Additional laboratory triaxial tests were

performed at the Bureau of Road Research and Development, Department of Highways. Atterberg limit

results and undrained shear strength from unconfined

compression tests are shown in figure 4 and 5, respectively. The liquidity index of the soft Bangkok clay is

almost indentity. Soil classifications of the Bangkok

clay are CH and CL for soft and medium stiff layers, respectively. The initial void ratio and compression

Index profiles from consolidation tests are shown in

figure 6 and 7 respectively.

Eight total pressure cells, six piezometers, six vertical inclinometers, four horizontal inclinometers, three

rod extensometers, and twelve settlement plates have

124

GEOTECHNICAL INSTRUMENTATIONS

0

160

4

y = 111.4x

R2 = 0.4

140

0

120

E50 (MPa)

Depth (m.)

8

12

100

80

60

16

40

20

24

BH-2

BH-6

20

BH-7

28

0.25

0.5

0.75

1.25

1.5

UCS (MPa)

construction site (after Apimeteetamrong et al., 2006).

Initial Void Ratio

0

compressive strength of samples prepared in laboratory aged

28 days (after Apimeteetamrong et al., 2006).

0

80

4

y = 68.4x

R2 = 0.8

70

60

12

E50 (MPa)

Depth (m.)

16

20

24

28

BH-2

BH-6

50

40

30

20

BH-7

10

at construction site (after Apimeteetamrong et al., 2006).

0

0

highway embankment performances during and after

construction. The instrumentation layouts for all three

stations is shown in Apimeteetamrong et al. (2006).

Department of highways contracted the geotechnical instrumentations and monitors to the PDI Co.,

Ltd. and Soil Testing Siam (STS) Co., Ltd. Horizontal inclinometer and settlement plate measurements

are performed by technical staffs from Department of

highways.

4

clay is substantial low (see figure 5), three ground

improvement techniques are introduced to the reconstructed highway route number 3117. These ground

improvement techniques are deep mixing cement

column, shallow cement stabilization, and 270-day

preloaded methods.

0.5

0.75

1.25

UCS (MPa)

compressive strength of samples aged 28 days cored from

the construction site (after Apimeteetamrong et al., 2006).

applied; moreover, the length, diameter, and spacing

of the cement columns are 14, 0.6, and 1.5 meters,

respectively. According to the DOH standard specification, the undrained shear strength of the improved

clay samples should be more than 300 kPa. Following

the trial mix design, the minimum required cement

content at the construction is 200 kg/m3 to achieve the

DOH standard (Hem et al, 2004). The secant moduli at

50 percent of the maximum compressive strength are

shown in figure 8 and 9.Testing results indicate that the

secant modulus of the samples prepared in laboratory

at age 28 days is almost twice of those cored from the

construction site.

125

0.25

40

1st Stage Fill

Preload

Shallow Cement Stabilization

Deep Mixing Cement Column

1.7

3.9

3.4

Settlement at t (cm.)

without PVD installation. Due to the construction

delay, the preloaded time was over the specified period.

For the shallow cement stabilization, this soil improvement technique has never applied to any constructions of highway embankments in Thailand before.

Following the DOH specification for the subgrade

stabilization, the unconfined compressive strength of

the cement stabilized samples should be more than

600 kPa. DOH engineers who supervised this construction project performed the trial mix design. Based

on the trial mix design, the required ratio between

cement and dry weight of soil aggregate at the construction site is 1.75 percent in order to achieve the

specified compressive strength (Hem et al., 2004).

5

5.1

1-1 Line

20

10

0

0

10

20

30

40

Figure 10. Total settlement evaluation of the shallow stabilized section following the Asaoka method (after Apimeteetamrong et al., 2006).

Table 2. Total settlement evaluation from various methods.

Evaluation Methods

HIGHWAY EMBANKMENT

PERFORMANCES

Terzaghi

Asaoka

FEM

Preload

Shallow Cement

Stabilization

Deep Mixing Cement

Column

63

51

50

35

50

48

21

22

Unit: cm

is selected to evaluate the stability of the highway

embankments on the improved soft Bangkok clay.

Slope stability analysis results of each embankment

are shown in Table 1.

5.2

30

in finite element analyses.

Settlement evaluation

Three methods are chose to evaluate the total settlements of highway embankments. On the finite element

method, the model to calibrate the soft Bangkok clay

is Cam-Clay model, whereas the Asaokas method

(1978) is based on settlement measurements from

the construction site. The total settlement evaluation of the shallow stabilized section following the

Asaoka method is shown in figure 10. Total settlement

evaluation results are shown in Table 2.

Unit

Depth Weight

(m)

(kN/m3 )

eo

Cc

0-15

15-28

3

2

1.2 0.15 0.52 0.065 7*1010

16

18

Cr

k

(m/sec)

and time rate settlement resulting from the finite element analysis for the deep mixing cement column. On

the deep mixing cement column, the permeability of

cement columns used in the finite element analysis is

1000 times that of the Bangkok clay.

adopted in the finite element analyses are shown in

Table 3. Field measurements and theoretical evaluations from finite element analyses of the time

rate settlement due to the highway construction are

shown in Figure 11 and Figure 12 for the 270-day

preloaded and shallow cement stabilization sections,

respectively. Figure 13 shows the field measurement

the 270-day preloaded section are shown in figure 14.

Maximum displacements for 270-day preloaded, shallow cement stabilization and deep mixing cement

column are around 120, 100, and 100 mm, respectively

(Field data at 17/08/2005). Maximum horizontal displacement is occurred at around 8 to 10 meters from

the previous embankment level for all sections. Finite

126

Time (years)

0

4

10

100

150

20

Cv, lab

2Cv, lab

30

Depth (m.)

Settlement (cm.)

50

4Cv, lab

40

10Cv, lab

Monitoring Data

50

15

20

and finite element analyses with various coefficient of

permeability for 270-day preloaded section.

25

8/1/2004

4/2/2004

2/3/2004

1/4/2004

8/5/2004

8/7/2004

8/10/2004

15/2/2005

22/4/2005

17/8/2005

30

Time (years)

0

at the 270-day preloaded section.

Settlement (cm.)

0

10

20

30

100

150

200

250

4/2/2004

Monitoring Data

Cv, lab

2Cv, lab

4Cv, lab

10Cv, lab

40

1/4/2004

5

Depth (m.)

50

and finite element analyses with various coefficients of

permeability for shallow cement stabilization section.

5/8/2004

10

3/11/2004

22/4/2005

15

Hydrostatic

25

piezometers of the shallow cement stabilization section.

4

8

12

16

5/6/2004

20

Time (year)

Settlement (cm.)

50

Monitoring Data

20

and finite element analyses for deep mixing cement column

section.

displacement especially the deep mixing cement column section, since 2D finite element analysis is

applied on this study and the inclinometers was

installed between cement columns.

flood protection levee to dummy piezometers for the

shallow cement stabilization and 270-day preloaded

sections, excess pore pressure from highway embankment cannot be estimated; however, promising data are

the hydrostatic pressure deduction due to ground water

pumping as shown in figure 15. Hydrostatic pressure

deduction is not found in the 270-day preloaded and

deep mixing cement column sections since there is no

dense silty sand layer in those area, see figure 2. Excess

pore pressure distribution for deep mixing cement column section is shown in table 4. The dissipation of

the excess pore pressure matches the recent settlement measurements indicating insignificant further

increase in settlement, see figure 13.

127

Table 4.

Time (days)

5 m 10 m.

15 m.

20 m.

0

38

105

198

262

351

0

47

57

73

84

98

5.6

0

57

79

88

92

98

0

20

47

62

64

67

0

59

88

98

98

99

thick. Four Total pressure cells were installed on and

between cement columns. Stress distributions from

highway embankment thru cement columns are 66%

and 55% for the heads of cement columns at level

1 and 0 m, respectively. Low stress distributions to

cement columns coincide with high lateral movements

measured from vertical inclinometers. According to

stress distribution measurements, a stiff layer between

highway embankment and cement column heads is

required to sufficiently transfer embankment loads to

cement columns.

CONCLUSION

The performance of highway embankments with different soil improvement techniques including 270-day

preloaded technique, shallow cement stabilization and

deep mixing cement column is evaluated. The basic

soil properties used in the evaluation of embankment

performance were evaluated by using geotechnical

laboratories and in-situ soil testing techniques.

The relationship between plastic limit and the liquid limit for the Bangkok clay is bounded between the

U-line and A-line. The undrained shear strength of the

Bangkok clay in this area is around 20 kPa for the soft

Bangkok clay and increases with respect to depth for

stiff Bangkok clay. The initial void ratio is about 2.5

to 4 and tends to decrease with respect to depth. At

the depth of 0 to 20 m., the compressibility index is

about 1.5 to 2.8. The compressibility index tends to

decrease with depth when below 20 meters from the

ground level.

The measurements of total pressure cells, piezometers, inclinometers, settlement plates, and rod extensometers installed in the soils beneath the embankment were obtained. The highway embankment performances including stability analyses, settlement

evaluation, time rate settlement, horizontal displacement, water pressure distribution, and stress distribution were performed by comparing the results from

various methods including finite element analyses

(FEA). With some adjustments on the engineering

properties of the soft Bangkok, finite element analyses provide good estimated settlement of highway

embankment. From the slope stability analyses, it is

found that the factors of safety corresponded to three

soil improvement techniques are different. Shallow

cement stabilization tends to provide higher F.S. than

deep mixing cement column and 270-day preloads

techniques, respectively. Horizontal displacement is

expected to occur in the shallow cement stabilization and deep mixing cement column section even

though the safety factor is high. However, deep mixing

cement column method tends to provide the effectiveness in preventing the exceeded total settlement of the

highway embankment.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This investigation report is entirely dedicated to Dr.

Teerachati Ruenkrairergsa, who devoted his entire life

for road research works in the Road Research and

Development Center, Department of Highways, before

his untimely passed away in 2003. He has done a lot of

valuable researches in Geotechnical Engineering especially in the area of soil improvement. The Authors

wish to express the profound gratitude to Dr. Teeracharti Ruenkrairergsa for his suggestion, guidance,

and recommendation during his time at Department

of Highways; Mr. Wanchai Mahaveera, KlogdanBangbor project engineer; Mr. Pattana Kopol; and

Mr. Komkrit Deejangpak, for their helps during the

geotechnical instrumentations and measurements. In

addition, the authors would like to thank Mr. Sawat

Srimuangnon for providing the finite element computer program on this study. The authors would like

to thank all the technical staffs at Bureau of Road

Research and Development, Department of Highways,

Thailand for their diligence work in field.

REFERENCES

Apimeteetamrong, S., Sunitsakul, J., and Wachiraporn, S.

2006. The engineering behavior of highway embankments on soft clay during construction of highway number

3117 KlongDan BangBor, Bureau of Road Research

and Development, Department of Highways, Thailand (In

preparation; In Thai).

Asaoka, A., 1978. Observational procedure of settlement

prediction, Soils and Foundations, Vol. 18, pp. 87101.

Bjerrum, L. 1972. Embankments on soft ground, ASCE Conf.

On Performance of Earth and Earth-Supported Structures,

Vol. 2, pp.154.

Hem, NG., Ploykragang, V., Kopol, W., and Janhiran, J., 2004.

Soil improvements at the KlongDan BangBor highway

construction project, Bureau of Materials, Analysis, and

Inspection, Department of Highways, Thailand (In Thai).

128

2007 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN13 978-0-415-42280-2

Reinaldo Vega-Meyer

M.ASCE, Member NAGS; Senior Project Manager-International Division; Tensar Earth Technologies,

Inc., Atlanta, Georgia (USA)

QC and Pavement Director; Escopo, S.A. de C.V., Mexico City, Mexico

Project-Studies Director; Escopo, S.A. de C.V., Mexico City, Mexico

Customer Support; Tensar Earth Technologies, Inc., Mexico City, Mexico

Highway and Special Projects Engineer; Obrascn Huarte Lain, S.A. (OHL), Madrid, Espaa

ABSTRACT: Building earth structures on soft soils is one of the toughest challenges in civil engineering.

Due to the fill embankment and surcharges, the settlements associated to the overburden pressures are one of

the major concerns in roadway embankment construction. Several methods of support improvement have been

in practice for years (e.g. excavation/fill replacement, stone filling, Corduroy, etc.), but recently, geosynthetic

reinforcement has been successfully incorporated as an efficient way to improve the weak soil conditions. This

paper focuses on a case study that introduces a geogrid-reinforced roadway embankment located in the Texcoco

Lake, near Mexico City, Mexico. The structure consists of an embankment with variable heights to be built in

two different conditions: dry and saturated. The most critical section was in the saturated zone (lake) where

the maximum embankment height was 2.80 m and the water level was at 1.80 m, leaving only 1.0 m of dry

embankment body. The embankment was built on highly compressible saturated clay layers up to 40.0 m deep,

and moisture of up to 300%.

The paper presents project design information, settlement observations, and performance evaluation. The performance of the embankment was observed during and after construction using inclinometers, and deep and surface

surveying equipment. A presentation of this performance and results about the predicted vs. actual embankment

settlements are included in the paper.

INTRODUCTION

always been an engineering challenge especially when

the subsoil is saturated or as water levels fluctuate and

raise several centimeters above the original subgrade

surface or base of the embankment.

A typical solution for providing a competent foundation structure is excavation and, in some cases, overexcavation and replacement with selected fill material.

This procedure translates into more construction time,

more equipment, more labor involved, and at the end,

is more expensive. This construction methodology has

been in practice for decades but in recent years this has

been gradually changing. Not only the stability of the

well. Therefore, a competent support system must be

supplied in order to obtain controlled settlements and

appropriate internal and global stability.

A conventional embankment on soft soil has some

typical modes of potential failures (see Figure 1) such

as: bearing capacity, global stability, elastic deformation/settlement, pull-out or anchorage, and lateral

spreading.

The inclusion of geosynthetic reinforced materials

in civil works is now more common and is expanding

due to the research and development of MSE structures

and foundation improvement systems. Using materials with the proper characteristics to provide the

improvement needed is key. Therefore a structurally

129

soils (after Koerner et al., 1987).

aperture stability is most appropriate under critical

conditions of high stresses from the embankment and

low bearing capacity from the subgrade. The geosynthetic known as geogrid has different orientation

strengths: one direction (Uniaxial) or two directions

(Biaxial); the case presented in this paper was constructed using Biaxial Geogrids, BX1200 (Type I) and

BX1100 (Type II) as geosynthetic reinforcement.

2

2.1

CASE STUDY

General project information

NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement), a

different vision on Export and Import issues emerged;

therefore it was necessary to plan a feasible way to provide a route for the increase of heavy trucks carrying

different type of goods.

The presented roadway project is called Circuito

Exterior Mexiquense, CEM, (Mexican Outer Circuit)

and is part of a large project where the government

is trying to facilitate and alleviate the heavy traffic

from the Atlantic to the northern part of the country.

This roadway is classified by the SCT (Secretara de

Comunicaciones y Transporte, or Communications

and Transport Secretariat) as a SCTA4, whereA stands

for High Specifications, and 4 stands for Four lanes.

The first stage of the project started in 2003 and this

case study was part of it beginning its construction at

the end of 2003 and finishing during the first half of

2004. The second stage of the project has been completed at the time this paper is being written, and it was

inaugurated at the end of June, 2004.

This part of the project (15 KM) is located between

the cities of Ecatepec and Texcoco inside the State of

Mexico, and the studied case is specifically located in

the surroundings of the Texcoco Lake (see Figure 2).

location is circled).

The conditions encountered on site were extremely difficult and not suited to support any kind of structure,

therefore the original solution was over-excavation and

replacement with imported-selected material. Looking at one of the boring logs (SM-3) supplied by the

soil laboratory and summarized in Table 1, it was

found a soft surficial frosted (desiccated as a consequence of long term sun exposure) clay layer from

0.0 m2.40 m deep, from 2.4 m24.8 m a soft clay

layer (CH), from 24.8 m30.0 m a stiff layer of clay

(CH), and from 30.0 m40.0 m it was found a layer of

clay (CH) with medium consistency. The exploration

stopped at 40.0 m deep where a better soil consistency

was found (N = 50).

Some zones were completely saturated (under

water), making the construction of the embankment

to support the roadway difficult. The option to relocate the new roadway was considered, but the costs

were excessive.

In the next pages the analyzed section will be presented, and how the final section was design in order to

build a reliable embankment on these very weak soils,

providing first a stable working platform allowing the

construction of the body of the embankment, and the

flexible pavement structure.

2.3 Analysis and design

Basically, three types of analyses were considered to

govern the stability of the embankment in this case:

bearing capacity, global stability, and settlements. The

130

Table 1.

B.L

No.

DEPTH

m

AVG

N

SOIL TYPE

USCS

cfound

kPa

( )

Gw

%

SM-3

0.02.4

2.46.2

6.29.7

9.713.0

13.016.5

16.519.7

19.723.3

23.333.1

33.136.5

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

29.5

5.5

CH

CH

CH

CH

CH

CH

CH

CH

CH

2.6

6.9

7

4.7

5.5

6.4

4.8

5.3

3.3

24.5

19.6

26.5

19.6

42.1

50

59.8

44.1

56.8

5.2

2.4

0.3

3.2

2.6

1

6.8

6.5

15.7

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

The analysis was done using commercial type software (G-Slope) that uses the Modified Bishop method

of analysis which takes into account this kind of circular failures throughout the system being analyzed.

Figure 3 shows the output screen graph for one of

the saturated sections analyzed and displaying the

minimum Factor of Safety of 1.169 related to the

potential failure circle for one of the analyzed sections

under seismic conditions with a horizontal acceleration design coefficient of 0.13 g. In the analysis

process two different conditions were considered: saturated (this condition controlled the design) where the

embankment is flooded, and dry (unsaturated) where

the embankment is above the water table.

Figure 3. Global stability analysis of a section in saturated

conditions.

2.8 m (to reach the designed roadway elevation), with

3H:1V side slopes and a 23.0 m crest width.

Bearing Capacity: There is a limit of the embankment

height that can be placed on a given subgrade without

reinforcement (geogrid). Using conventional geotechnical engineering theory it was found that the existing

subgrade was unable to withstand the stresses generated by the embankment. Following is an illustrative

example of one of the preliminary analyses done on a

particular section based on boring log SM-3 (Table 1);

H = 2.8 m; FSreq = 2.0; Clay layer thickness, D = 7 m;

Fill Unit Weight, f = 17.5 kN/m3 ; cfoundation = 19.6 kPa

Bearing Capacity Factors: Unreinforced, Ncu = 4.25,

Reinforced, Ncr = 5.82 (Bonaparte & Christopher,

1987)

Then, FSu = c.Ncu /f . H = 1.7 < 2.0 (LOW), and

FSr = c.Ncr /f .H = 2.3; OK.

Global Stability: Deep seated circular failures are also

common in these types of structures due to the lack

of support from the foundation soil and the overburden stresses exerted by the new mass on top of it. The

embankment mass tends to rotate in part or as a whole

as a consequence of the poor resistance of the subsoil.

Settlements: In addition to the stability of the embankment, settlements were one of the most important

issues in this project because this new fill must support

an important highway.

Using conventional geotechnical methods (e.g. onedimensional analysis), and based on test results (e.g.

boring log SM-3 shown in table 3) it was estimated that

the settlements fluctuate approximately 40% to 70%

of the embankment height.

Due to different fill materials on site (Tezontle &

Gravelly soil), it was necessary to do the analyses

using a unit weightAverageValue of 17.5 kN/m3 for the

material identified as Tezontle (volcanic lightweight

material), that is an increase of 59% over the original

project specified value of 11.0 kN/m3 . The settlement

analyses were done based on boring log SM-3 (Table

1) and two specific sections:

a) KM137 + 520 Dry zone

b) Rama 600 (KM600 + 117 KM600 + 317) Saturated zone

Taking in account the above-mentioned variation,

settlement-time graphs were prepared to show four

different curves identified as follows:

1) Project Conditions: according to project requirements

2) Unfavorable Condition: unit weights are higher

than project specifications

131

t (years)

Settlement (cm)

0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

35.0

40.0

20.0

70.0

120.0

170.0

Unfavorable Condition

Favorable Condition

Project Conditions

Average

embankment.

Table 2.

Material

, kN/m3

, deg

c, kPa

Tezontle

Gravelly soil

14.0

21.0

34.0

38.0

0.0

0.0

Settlement (cm)

t (years)

20.0

100.0

180.0

260.0

340.0

0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

35.0

40.0

Unfavorable Condition

Favorable Condition

Project Conditions

Average

and It consists of variable height up to 2.8 m, a crest

width of 23 m, and side slopes from 3H:1V to 2H:1V,

containing the following materials:

over a non-woven polyester geotextile, 270 gr/m2

(8.0 oz./sy) placed on top of the original subgrade. The geogrid overlaps were 1.0 m, and side

embankment slopes of 3H:1V.

b) A variable thickness layer of free draining granular

fill identified on-site as Black Tezontle (volcanic

lightweight material) was placed on top of the Biaxial Geogrid. This fill thickness depended on the

maximum water level (submerged fill).

c) A second layer of a Biaxial Geogrid (BX), Type

II, was placed on top of the compacted granular

Tezontle, with geogrid overlaps of 0.8 m.

d) A layer of Tezontle with variable thickness, was

placed on top of the biaxial geogrid (Type II) as

most part of the embankment body (about 70% of

the embankment body).

e) Gravelly material was then placed besides the

Tezontle to conform the lateral parts of the

embankment body. The purpose of placing this

material was to alleviate the normal embankment

deformation in its bottom center and help to it to

deform more uniformly by reducing differential

settlements below the embankment).

the embankment to be built on the very soft soil: excavating some of the soft soil and replacing it with select

fill, mixing cobles into the weak subsoil to improve

bearing capacity, driving wooden piles, and building an

embankment with fill having different unit weights in

order to control differential settlements. After a Value

Engineering (VE) process, it was determined that the

solution chosen should be the easiest, fastest and most

reliable.

Therefore, the proposed reinforced embankment

was submitted to the owners consultants for review.

and for the global failure analysis of the embankment

section an average value of = 17.5 kN/m3 was used

taking into account the two types of fill used for construction (Tezontle + Gravelly soil as seen in Figure 6

above). The fill and geogrid material properties are

presented in Table 2 and Table 3 respectively.

The properties for the integrally formed geogrid

material used in the design are shown in Table 3; both

are biaxial oriented polypropylene grids.

The construction of the embankments started in

October, 2003, and finished in March, 2004. An

project specifications

4) Average: unit weight average value between (2) and

(3)

The following Figure 4 shows the predicted settlements

over time for the monitored embankment section

identified as KM 137 + 520.. It was estimated that

settlements of 30 cm would occur in six months and

settlements of 41 cm in one year. Figure 5 shows

the predicted settlements over time for the monitored

embankment section identified as Rama 600. It was

estimated that settlements of 67.3 cm would occur in

six months and 97 cm in one year.

It is clearly noted from the above graphs/figures

that the adverse unit weight changes (taken herein as

an average value) directly affects the embankment

settlements where an increment of up to 32% for KM

137 + 520, and an increment of up to 27% for Rama

600 were calculated.

132

Table 3.

Table 4.

Property

Units

Type II

Type I

Aperture

Stability

Modulus at

20 cm-kg

Rib Shape

cm-kg/deg

3.2

6.5

Rib Thickness

Nominal

Aperture

Size

Junction

Efficiency

Flexural

Rigidity

Minimum

True Initial

Modulus in

Use

MD

CMD

BENCH MARKS

(BNF N )

EMBK KM

N/A

mm

mm

Rectangular

or Square

0.76

2533

Rectangular

or Square

1.27

2533

93

93

mg-cm

250,000

750,000

1

2

3

REINFORC.

TYPE

Center

146 + 135 BX Grid +

Geotextile

146 + 185 Unreinforced

146 + 235

1&2

3, 4 &

5

6, 7 & 8

9, 10 &

13

Shoulder

Right

Left

18 & 19

11 & 12

15

16 &

17

14 &

BNF1

BNF2

BNF19

BNF18

BNF3

BNF4

BNF5

BNF17

BNF16

Open Piezo.

Pneumatic Piezo.

kN/m

kN/m

250

400

410

620

BNF1

BNF11

BNF12

CMD: Cross Machine Direction of the roll

BNF9

BNF10

BNF13

into account and at the end of September 2004 (six

months later), construction started on the pavement

structure.

observations

Inclinometer

BNF15

BNF14

EP2, & EP3, and Inclinometers located on the Dry zone

embankments.

zone.

during and after construction, pore water pressures,

lateral displacements and settlements were monitored.

Some instrumentation used for these purposes was:

A. Surveying: to monitor settlements (Bench marks

identified hereto as BNF and BNF-RP) for dry and

saturated locations respectively.

B. Piezometers

C. Inclinometers

A. Bench marks (BNF) surveying

Some of the BNFs were removed/destroyed during

construction and their readings were taken for only

a short period of time. Therefore, the readings considered in this case study are:

during 7.4 months.

BNF-RP4, BNF-RP6, and BNF-RP9 for the Saturated zone readings taken during 5.5 months.

The above-mentioned information will be presented

by zones, beginning with the information and results

Dry zone

in the dry zone, their location (by stations), Bench

Mark (BNF) numbers, and type of reinforcement if

any. The BNFs reported in this case study are shown

in bold print.

Figure 7 shows the bench marks identified as

BNF, from BNF1 to BNF19 installed on the

embankment located on the dry zone, between

KM146 + 060 & KM146 + 260. The readings were

taken for a different number of days (e.g. BNF1-BNF6:

221 days; BNFs 7,8,10,13 & 15: 155 days; BNFs 9,

11, 12, 14, 16, 17, 18 & 19: 141 days) from December

2003 to July 2004.

Figures 8 and 9 show the results of the survey readings done on Embankments 1, 2, and 3 from BNF1

through BNF6 at the locations shown on Table 4 previously. A summary of this data is presented in Table 5.

Saturated zone

(by stations) in the saturated zone. The bench marks

133

BNF7

BNF8

BNF6

2.5

2229.40

2229.30

2229.20

ELEVATION (m)

2229.10

2229.00

BNF2

2228.90

2228.80

2228.70

2228.60

Open Piezo.

Pneumatic Piezo.

2228.50

2228.40

BNF1

2228.30

2228.20

1-Dec-03 1-Jan-04 1-Feb-04 1-Mar-04 1-Apr-04 1-May-04 1-Jun-04 1-Jul-04 1-Aug-04 1-Sep-04

Inclinometer

DATE

EP5, and Inclinometers located on the Saturated zone

embankments.

2229.40

2229.30

2229.20

2229.10

BNF3

ELEVATION (m)

2229.00

2229.00

2228.90

BNF4

2228.90

2228.80

2228.80

2228.70

BNF5

2228.60

2228.70

BNFRP6

2228.50

2228.60

2228.30

ELEVATION (m)

2228.40

BNF6

2228.20

2228.10

2228.00

1-Dec-03

1-Jan-04

1-Feb-04 1-Mar-04

1-Apr-04 1-May-04

1-Jun-04

1-Jul-04

1-Aug-04

2228.50

BNFRP4

2228.40

2228.30

2228.20

1-Sep-04

DATE

2228.10

BNFRP9

2228.00

BNF6.

Table 5.

2227.90

2227.80

1-Dec-03

EMBK KM

1-Feb-04 1-Mar-04

1-Apr-04 1-May-04

DATE

1-Jun-04

1-Jul-04

1-Aug-04

1-Sep-04

Figure 11. Survey readings for BNF-RP4, BNF-RP6 &

BNF-RP9.

BENCH MARKS

(BNF-RP N )

1-Jan-04

REINFORC.

TYPE

Center

Geotextile

600 + 227 Unreinforced

600 + 288

Shoulder

Right

Left

6, 7, 8,

9 & 10

1, 2 & 3

previous Table 6:

4&5

11 &

12

bold print.

Figure 10 shows the bench marks identified as

BNF-RP, from BNF-RP1 to BNF-RP12 installed

on the embankment located on the saturated (flooded)

zone, between KM600 + 117 & KM600 + 317, (Rama

600).

The following Figure 11, shows the results of the

survey readings taken on Embankments 5 and 6 from

BNF-RP4, BNF-RP6, and BNF-RP9 at the locations

shown on Table 5. A summary of these curves are presented in Table 6 with an interpretation of the results

as well.

All of the above presented settlements from the surveying point readings are summarized and compared

between the theoretical, maximum average, and cumulative average values in Table 6 (embankment #4 was

not taken into account).

(between 12/02/03 and 7/09/04) that occurred at the

middle of the embankments are less on Embankment 2 (reinforced with BX grid and geotextile-as

a filter, than Embankment 1 (reinforced with BX

grid), and Embankment 3 (unreinforced). The difference is about 27% between the lower (10.7cm)

and the cumulative average settlements are slightly

less than the Maximum Average settlements.

b. On the Saturated (flooded) zone, the maximum

settlements (between 1/23/04 and 7/09/04) that

occurred at the middle of the embankments are

less for Embankment 5 (reinforced with BX grid

and geotextile-as a filter, than for Embankment 6

(unreinforced). The difference is about 4% between

the lower (14.6 cm) and the higher (15.2 cm) settlement. It is also noted that the cumulative average

settlements are slightly less than the maximum

average settlements.

c. The embankments located in the dry zone settled

less than those on the saturated zone even under a

shorter survey-reading period of time, as expected.

d. As this paper is being written, there is a good performance in Embankments 2 and 5 (reinforced with

134

Table 6.

ZONE

EMBK

DRY

1

2

3

5

6

FLOODED

FROM

THEORET.

(%)

CUMULATIVE

AVG3 (cm)

FROM

THEORET.

(%)

11.4

10.7

14.7

14.6

15.2

27

25

34

34

35

10.1

10.5

14.7

13.5

15.2

23

24

34

31

35

Settlement calculated from standard consolidation theories. The effect of reinforcement is not considered.

Maximum average value from different survey readings (BNFs) of a certain embankment.

Average of settlement readings of an embankment, from data between the initial and final reading reported.

43

MAX.

AVERAGE2

(cm)

60.00

60

50.00

50

Pore Pressure (Kg/cm2)

THEORETICAL1

(cm)

40.00

30.00

20.00

40

30

20

10

10.00

0

0

0.00

0

50

100

150

200

Depth:14.55m

Time(days)

Depth:14.5m

Depth:38.5m

Depth:54.5m

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

50

100

150

200

250

Time (Days)

Depth:14.5m

Depth:27m

Depth:38.5m

Depth:54.5m

zone.

Therefore, this type of reinforcement was chosen

as a standard to be used in this project.

B. Piezometers (EP)

There were five piezometric stations (open and pneumatic type) monitored (see locations in Figures 7 and

10). Three were in the dry zone (EP1, EP2, and EP3

Figures 12, 13 and 14), and two were in the saturated

zone (EP4 and EP5). Figures 15a & 15b show the pore

131

82

13

26

Time (Days)

Depth:22.65m

08

8 160 222

Depth:38.5m

Depth:53.45m

curves mean that no readings were taken on those days.

On January 12, 2004, the open piezometer stations

were cleaned (injecting pressured water through the

piezometer from the surface) ; this is the reason for

the change on the curve shape after the 66th day of

readings.

After June 8, 2004 (day 188), the pore pressure readings from EP2 to EP5 show an increase and then tend

to level off. It is also noted that this increase in the

pore pressure occurs as deep as 30.0 meters. Below

this depth, the pore pressure diminishes, probably due

to the presence of deep water pumps in the area.

Data is not available on site filling advance/progress.

It is known that the total embankment fill height plus

40 cm was placed (as a preload) with the intention of

leaving that section to settle for six months in order

to accelerate the initial consolidation. However, due to

time concerns the roadway embankment and pavement

structure was completed.

C. Inclinometers

Six Inclinometers were installed at the locations shown

in Figures 7 & 10, four on embankments located on dry

zone and two located on embankments on saturated

135

zone.

zone.

250

60.00

50.00

40.00

30.00

20.00

10.00

0.00

0

50

100

150

Time (Days)

(a)

Depth:14.5m

Depth:22.7m

200

Depth:36.7m

250

Depth:54.5m

60.00

50.00

40.00

grid on top of the existing subgrade.

30.00

20.00

10.00

0.00

50

100

150

Time (Days)

200

250

(b)

Depth:14.8m

Depth:29.75m

Depth:37.2m

Depth:54.5m

EP5 Saturated zone.

Table 7.

MAXIMUM

MAXIMUM

RATE OF

DISPLACEMENT MOVEMENT

(mm)

(mm/month)

EMBK #

D

S

D

S

1

2

3

5

6

STAT.

AXIS A AXIS B

AXIS A AXIS B

146 + 085

146 + 135

146 + 210

600 + 174

600 + 261

11.66 10.44

9.57 4.72

37.55 28.42

102.40 15.14

83.29 45.42

18.43

5.51

149.03

50.43

79.47

(note the two-type of fill materials).

14.15

9.55

142.08

30.70

51.77

Embankments on Saturated zone

January 7, 2004 to June 16, 2004.

The Inclinometers were used to check for the

magnitude, direction, and rate (velocity) of displacements developed at different depths. The following

table reports the cumulative average displacements by

Axis (or Center Line), zone, embankment number,

date, and rate of movement.

From Table 7 it is noted that the embankments

located on the dry zone such as #2 (reinforced with

BX geogrid and geotextile-as a filter, had the lowest magnitude and rate of displacement, followed

by embankment #1 (reinforced with BX geogrid),

and embankment #3 (unreinforced) which had

displacements 4 to 6 times more than the other two. All

named Canal del Dren General del Valle as expected.

Embankments #5 and #6 located on the saturated

zone, showed greater magnitude of displacements

compared to the embankments from the dry zone, but

they do not show any potential problem that might

affect the stability of the embankments in terms of

lateral displacements.

2.6 Installation

The installation of the geogrid reinforcements had

a very important role in the construction process

since they supplied a stable working platform. Adequate overlaps, medium size equipment, appropriate

fill material, and closed supervision are crucial when

building these types of structures on soft soils. Pore

water pressure must be observed and controlled to

avoid dangerous situations and critical failures.

Photos 1 4 illustrate part of the installation process

under saturated conditions.

136

experienced an intermediate level of behavior and

performance.

4. The embankment settlements compared with the

theoretical values are 25%34% less for the

embankments in the dry zone, and 34%35% less

for the embankments in the saturated zone.

5. The initial pore pressure was increased to a depth

of 30.0 m due to the stresses induced by the application of the embankment fill and construction

equipment. It was noted that beyond 30.0 m this

pressure decreased, mainly because of the presence

of deep well water pumps in the area.

6. The unreinforced embankment had horizontal displacements that were four to six times greater than

those in the embankment reinforced with two layers

of BX geogrid and geotextile (the later as a filter).

7. The embankments located in the saturated zone

experienced greater displacements compared to

those located in dry zones, however their behavior

and performance are within limits.

8. Monitoring the test sections and other sections

located in zones with similar conditions should

continue to fully determine long term performance secondary consolidation will influence the

behavior of the embankments.

9. The inclusion of the BX geogrid and geotextileas a filter), placed on the original subgrade, made

possible the access to the saturated (flooded) zones

and the construction of the embankments.

10. At the time this paper is written (April, 2006), the

performance and behavior of the reinforced section

is satisfactory even though the actual TPDA (Average Annual Daily Traffic) is three times higher than

the estimated in the design:

conditions.

2.7

Cost effectiveness

This section of the project consisted on 15 KM of roadway embankments on weak soils, was constructed in

70% of the allotted time, (3 months ahead of schedule).

Consequently considerable monetary savings were

realized.

CONCLUSIONS

1. Based on the results from the instrumented sections, the maximum settlement occurred at the

center of the embankment.

2. The reinforced section where Geogrid Type I and

geotextile (the later as a filter) and Geogrid Type II

(second layer of reinforcement at higher elevation)

were used, performed best in terms of settlement

and stability; this condition allowed to create a

working reinforced platform, improving the poor

bearing capacity of the existing foundation soil.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Special acknowledgement to Geoproductos Mexicanos S.A. de C.V. (Mexico) for their contribution

in the geogrid/geotextile installation process and site

assistance during the first phase of the project that was

critical on the performance of the reinforced embankments; to the owners consultants Escopo, S.A. de C.V.

(Mexico), for taking the instrumentation readings and

for their efforts and help in providing all the data; and

to the contractor, Obrascn Huarte Lain (OHL), for

giving permission for the use of their proprietary information that helped in the preparation of this paper.

REFERENCES

Bonaparte, R., Christopher, B.R. (1987). Design and Construction of Reinforced Embankments Over Weak Foundations. Transportation Research Record 1153.

137

TPDA(design) = 18,000/day

TPDA(actual) = 60,000/day

Strengthened/reinforced Soils and Other Fills. Document

No. 94/105986, UK.

Koerner, R.M. Designing with Geosynthetics. PrenticeHall Inc., Third edition, 1994.

Koerner, R.M. , Hwu, B.L., and Wayne, M.H., :Soft Soil

Stabilization Designs Using Geosynthetics, Jour. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 6, No. 13, 1987,

pp. 3352.

Milligan, V., La Rochelle, P. (1985). Design Methods for

Embankments over Soft Soils. Polymer grid reinforcement. Thomas Telford Ltd., London, 1985.

Milligan, V., Busbridge, J.R. (1983). Guidelines for the use

of Tensar in Reinforcement of Fills over Weak Foundations. Golder Associates, December, 1983.

Lockett, L., Mattox, R.M. (1987). Difficult Soil Problems on Cochrane Bridge Finessed with Geosynthetics.

Geosynthetic 87 Conference, New Orleans, USA.

Oliver, T.L.H., Younger, J.S. (1988). Embankment Construction over Soft Ground using Geogrid Reinforcement

Hong Kong, 2830 September, 1988.

Olson, R.E. (1998). Settlement of Embankments on Soft

Clays. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental

Engineering, August 1998.

Rico, A., Moreno, G., Garca, G. (1969). Test Embankments

on Texcoco Lake. XI International Conference of Soil

Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Mexico, 1969.

Rowe, R.K., Li, A.L. (2002). Geosynthetic-reinforced

Embankments over Soft Foundations. Geosynthetics

7th ICG Delmas, Gourc & Girard (2002).

Rowe, R.K., Li, A.L. (2002). Behaviour of Reinforcement

Embankments on Soft rate-sensitive Soils. Gotechnique

52, No. 1, 2940, 2002.

Williams, D., Sanders, R.L. (1985). Design of Reinforced

Embankments for Great Yarmouth By-pass. 11th Conference of the International Society for Soil Mechanics

and Foundation Engineering, San Francisco, CA (USA),

1115 August, 1985.

138

2007 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN13 978-0-415-42280-2

W.F. Van Impe & R.D. Verstegui Flores

Laboratory of Geotechnics, Ghent University, Belgium

Ministry of Flanders, Belgium

P. Meng

Dredging International, DEME Group, Belgium

ABSTRACT: The present paper illustrates the outcome of the monitoring of the consolidation behavior of a soft

foundation soil under a large partially submerged sand embankment. Measurements of settlements and excess

pore water pressures showed a good agreement with predictions evaluated using the large strain consolidation

theory. The more conventional small strain theory was shown to overestimate the dissipation of pore water

pressure and underestimate settlements.

INTRODUCTION

As in many harbor areas all around the world, the harbor of Antwerp is experiencing an increasing need

of room for storing excavated soil or dredged material resulting from internal construction projects and

maintenance of its waterways.

Such need has encouraged the design and currently ongoing construction of a partially submerged

embankment, with an approximate height of 27 m,

to divide an existing dock (Doel) and to use the

available space behind the embankment to deposit

dredged material (Fig. 1). The challenge of this

project was the fact that the embankment had to

be built on a very soft soil deposit (not removable

because of geoenvironmental considerations) which

is the result of years of sedimentation and self-weight

consolidation.

of an optimization in which numerous preliminary

design option were worked out. Given the soft consistency and very low bearing capacity of the foundation

soil, it became clear that some kind of foundation

layer reinforcement was required. Therefore ground

improvement by a novel deep mixing technology, SSI

(Soft Soil Improvement), was proposed. A detailed

description of this technology and properties of the

treated soil were studied in detail by Van Impe &

Verstegui (2006).

As illustrated in the figure, only foundation soil at

the toes of the embankment was improved by installing

SSI deep mixing columns. These improved zones were

meant not only to provide extra safety but also to

confine the soft soil under the embankment.

A slope stability analysis showed, as expected, that

short-term stability (that is the construction phase)

139

Table 1.

taken to avoid early instability problems. Unavoidably,

a staged construction was implemented.

Since staged construction relies on the strength

increase of a foundation soil due to consolidation, an

accurate evaluation of the consolidation degree had to

be achieved. However, initial estimations of consolidation degree (at the design stage) showed a considerable

difference between the consolidation behavior of the

soft soil when implementing small strain consolidation

theories (e.g. Terzaghi) and large strain consolidation

(e.g. Gibson et al., 1967).

Before the initiation of construction works, instrumentation was mounted in the foundation layer to

allow the monitoring of excess pore water pressure

(PWP) and settlements due to the embankment load.

The outcome of these measurements during construction showed a good agreement with large strain

consolidation predictions.

The sand used for the construction of the embankment was mainly obtained from excavation works and

residues of the simultaneous construction of a dock

nearby. The sand was selected on the basis of its

grain size distribution and fines content so that optimum results of density and strength are obtained after

hydraulic placement. Up to now, about 70% of the total

height of the embankment has been reached and regular quality control by means of CPT has confirmed

the suitability of this material.

Index

Value

Plastic limit (%)

Natural water content (%)

Organic matter (%)

Carbonate content (%)

Sand (%)

Wet density (g/cm3 )

pH of pore water

124.4

46.7

115.0

6.0

13.9

10.4

1.31.4

7.2

1.E-04

permeability

tests

1.E-05

1.E-06

1.E-07

CRS

1.E-08

Oedometer

tests

1.E-09

K = 6x10-12 e5.5174

R2 = 0.8812

1.E-10

1.E-11

SOIL PROPERTIES

10

15

Void ratio

(a)

1.E-07

1.E-08

Hydraulic conductivity (m/s)

8m layer of soft dredged material overlying a thin layer

of sand and a deep layer of Tertiary Boom clay (highly

overconsolidated).The foundation soil is located under

water at a depth of about 19 m.

The soft soil studied here is a soft deposit of

fine grained material, result of a prolonged sedimentation and self-weight consolidation process of

dregs removed from waterways within the harbor of

Antwerp. The consistency of the soil remained quite

soft even after attempts of accelerating its consolidation by means of vacuum. The natural water content of

the soil was of the order of 115%, the plasticity index

of the order of 77 and the organic content of about

6%. Table 1 summarizes more approximate physical

properties of this soil.

The initial in-situ undrained shear strength (cu ) of

this deposit of soft dredged material was estimated

by means of extensive laboratory and field testing. In

general, the average cu ranges from about 2 to 4 kPa

and it was observed to increase linearly with depth

suggesting that the deposit is mainly in a normally

consolidated state.

The consolidation behavior of the soft dredged

material was assessed by means of Constant Rate of

1.E-10

K = 6x10-8'v-1.1773

R2 = 0.7572

1.E-11

0

50

100

(b)

140

1.E-09

150

oedometer tests. Figure 2 summarizes the results of

all tests performed. Out of a fitting procedure, two

constitutive equations relating hydraulic conductivity

(K), void ratio (e) and effective stress (v ) could be

obtained (Eq. 1 & 2).

k = 6 108 v 1.18

(1)

k = 6 1012 e5.52

(2)

the high void ratio zone), both equations attempt to

describe the consolidation behavior of the soil for

the full range of void ratio, starting from the freshly

sedimented situation.

0

10

IMPROVEMENT OF THE

FOUNDATION SOIL

was improved by implementing a novel deep mixing technique, the SSI (soft soil improvement). The

SSI technique could be classified as a wet deep mixing technique as it injects cement slurry. Moreover, it

makes use of pressurized mixing by means of a mixing tool provided with 2 sets of nozzles distributed all

along the full diameter of the column (Fig. 3). The mixing tool is fixed to a main drilling rod and each set of

nozzles is connected to independent injection systems.

A high-pressure injection system (of the order of 20

to 30 MPa) cuts the soil and allows for intense mixing

while the low pressure injection system (up to 5 MPa)

just adds the remaining amount of cement slurry to

fulfil the required dosage.

A quite important issue in the design of deep mixing

columns is the choice of cement. In order to do that an

extensive laboratory research was carried out aiming

at evaluating the improvement level of mixes with e.g.

Portland cements, Blast furnace cements and others

(Van Impe & Verstegui, 2006). Out of that research,

blast furnace cements were chosen as the most suitable for the improvement of the soft sludge. In fact,

portland cements were observed to quickly improve

the soil during the first month only. On the other hand,

blast furnace cement showed a slow but continuous

improvement that did not end even after about 2 years

reaching in the end a higher strength than Portland

cements. Blast furnace cements are also known to have

a better performance in marine environments.

The chosen cement was transformed into a slurry

(w/c ratio = 0.8) and injected during downwards and

upwards operation of the drilling rod to accomplish a

binder dosage of about 275 kg/m3 approximately.

The actual level of improvement in the site was

checked by testing of core specimens in the laboratory. The cores were sampled 56 days after installation

3

4

Dredged

material

5

6

7

8

Sand

9

core specimens (56 days after installation).

unconfined compression tests.

The actual improvement level proved quite satisfactory. The unconfined compressive strength in the

dredged material layer ranged from 1 to 5 MPa. Not

only the design strength was (by far) exceeded, but also

the strength out of laboratory tests which showed the

good performance of the implemented improvement

technique.

4

CONSTRUCTION OF EMBANKMENT

The underwater embankment is still under construction. Today, about 70% of the embankment height was

reached by staged construction. The embankment sand

was put in place in layers of about 2 m, allowing a

period of time in between (1 to 2 months). Currently,

a longer waiting period is being allocated to allow for

consolidation of the foundation soil.

The sand used for the filling operations was mainly

obtained from excavation works for the construction

141

Depth (m)

(P: Pizometers; Z: Settlement profiles).

200

Construction

works

(Phase 1)

180

in the soft soil deposit under

the embankment

160

140

Excess PWP (kPa)

on basis of its grain size distribution and fines content. The selection of sand for the hydraulic filling

operations was very important to guarantee the shear

strength characteristics required for the stability of

the embankment. Tests and experience showed that

the execution procedure implemented here with the

selected sand would yield shear angles higher than 32

(cv

= 32 ).

As showed in figure 1, the embankment consists of

a geotextile reinforced sand. Moreover, the geotextiles

are anchored in geocontainers (3 m wide, 2 m high and

30 m long). The geocontainers were manufactured on

land nearby the dock with a sand-cement mixture.They

were transported and installed by means of a floating

crane. The geotextiles were fixed to the geocontainers

with steel reinforcement bars and then unrolled.

The hydraulic filling operations were carried out

with a fallpipe vessel provided with a 12 m-wide horizontal spreader beam. Sand mixed with water was

pumped from and on-land stock to the vessel. With this

system, depending on pumping flow rate and dynamic

positioning of the vessel, a sand layer with 1 m or 2 m

thickness can be uniformly applied.

The construction of the embankment was designed

in two main phases. Phase 1 (currently achieved) goes

up to the water level approximately (Fig. 1). Moreover,

Phase 2 goes up to 7 m above the water level approximately. Phase 2 can only be started as soon as an

adequate consolidation degree has taken place in the

foundation soil. Without any additional measures to

accelerate the consolidation rate of the foundation soil,

the waiting period for that may take a couple of years.

120

100

Consolidation

80

zone (between SSI columns) at

the toes of the embankment

60

40

20

instrumentation was placed in the foundation layer to

allow the monitoring of excess pore water pressures

and vertical displacements under the embankment

load. This continuous monitoring was meant to provide

a means of following up the behavior of the foundation

soil at all times during the construction.

Piezometers (P) were installed mostly at 3 different

levels within the foundation layer at several locations

as illustrated by the plan view sketch in figure 5.

Piezometers in the SSI improved zones were installed

between SSI columns. Similarly, flexible tubes (Z1,

Z2, Z3 and Z4) filled with water were placed at 4

locations (on top of the foundation layer) across the

dock to monitor vertical displacements by measuring

hydraulic head changes with respect to a reference

level by means of a water pressure probe that is pulled

inside the tube along its full length.

Measurements of pore water pressure have been

automatically and continuously recorded, while

200

300

400

500

600

700

Time (days)

various locations under the embankment.

every 2 months approximately.

5.1 Excess pore water pressure measurements

Figure 6 summarizes the measurements of excess PWP

in the foundation soil during construction up to now.

As expected, there is a significant difference between

excess PWP measured in the soft soil deposit and

those measured in the SSI improved zone (between

stabilized columns). Such difference shows indeed

that columns in the improved zones are carrying a

significant portion of the load.

Looking at the measurements in the soft soil deposit

(Fig. 6) it is possible to clearly identify the loading

stages during the construction of Phase 1 that took

142

100

Time (days)

100

200

300

400

45

500

600

700

Average consolidation degree(%)

0

0

-0.5

Z4

Settlement (m)

-1

Z2

-1.5

Z2:Settlementofthesoft

soildepositunderthe

embankment

-2

Z4SettlementoftheSSIimprovedzoneunderthe

embankment

From Finite strain theories (PWP)

From Infinitesimal strain theories

40

35

(settlement)

30

25

Infinitesimal strain

solutions

20

15

10

Finite strain solution

(pore water pressure)

5

0

0

0.5

1

Time (year)

1.5

(infinitesimal) strain consolidation solutions.

-2.5

Estimated final settlement under the current load

-3

PWP was not that significant. Later, when all construction activities were stopped to allow for consolidation

of the foundation soil a more pronounced dissipation

was observed but still at a low level in the order of 10

to 15% only.

5.2

Settlements

tubes Z2 and Z4 (Fig. 5) on the soft soil deposit and

on the SSI improved zone respectively.

As expected, the largest settlements were observed

in the non-improved area where up to now settlements

in the order of 1.2 m to 1.3 m were measured. That is

already between 40 to 50% of the estimated final settlement under the current load. On the other hand, the

maximum measured settlements in the SSI improved

zone were in the order of 0.5 m.

5.3

the dissipation of pore water pressures and the progress

of settlements were not coupled.Almost two years after

the initiation of construction works, the observed dissipation level (consolidation degree) of PWP was in

the range of 10 to 15%, while in terms of settlements

40 to 50% of the final settlement occurred.

Such deviation of consolidation degrees evaluated

out of PWP and settlement do show that the consolidation behavior of this soft foundation layer cannot

be properly described by the simplified conventional

consolidation theory (e.g. Terzaghis theory).

However, when comparing the current measured consolidation degrees with those predicted

introducing the large strain theory (Gibson et al.,

The large strain consolidation theory is a more general

theory of one-dimensional consolidation.This analysis

overcomes the limitations that the conventional, small

strain, theory entails; but at the same time the problem becomes so complex that only numerical solutions

can be obtained for practical problems. The process of

large strain (finite strain) one-dimensional consolidation of a saturated porous medium is governed by:

e

e

e

=0

g(e)

b(e) +

z

z

z

t

where

k(e) d

w (1 + e) de

k(e)

Gs d

b(e) =

w de 1 + e

g(e) =

solid and fluid phase weights per unit of their own

volume, respectively, and z is a reduced coordinate

encompassing a volume of solids (Gibson et al., 1967).

The function g(e) plays the role of consolidation

coefficient and b(e) introduces the effect of gravity.

If the gravity effect is neglected [i.e. b(e) = 0] and

g(e) is assumed to remain constant during the process,

then equation 3 simplifies into the classical theory

(i.e. Terzaghis). Equation 3, can be numerically solved

with appropriate boundary and initial conditions and

making use of the constitutive equations (Eq. 1&2) of

the soft soil.

To that end a finite difference based program (Van

Impe P.O., 1999) was used to perform calculations.

Results of large strain consolidation and small strain

consolidation evaluation are compared in figure 8.

In this simulation, a single load increment (equal

to the current load) was applied to the homogeneous

143

qc (MPa)

0

10

CSR, CRR

0

0.2

0.4

0

-2

-4

-4

-4

-6

-6

-6

-6

-6

-10

-8

-10

-8

-10

10

-2

TAW level

-10

-8

TAW level

-2

-4

TAW level

-2

-4

-8

0

CSR

CRR

-2

TAW level

TAW level

Shear angle p ()

20 25 30 35 40

0

15

-8

-10

-12

-12

-12

-12

-12

-14

-14

-14

-14

-14

-16

-16

-16

-16

-16

-18

-18

-18

-18

-18

-20

-20

-20

-20

-20

strain analysis is showed as a range because there is a

range of consolidation coefficients that can be chosen

out of the constitutive equations of the soft soil for the

full range of stress levels it will be subjected to.

The outcome of the monitoring of the consolidation

behavior of the soft soil matches closely the estimations evaluated using the large strain consolidation

theory. In fact, figure 8 shows that the estimated consolidation degree out of settlements after 2 years of

loading is about 40% (close to 40 to 50% measured).

On the other hand, the consolidation degree out of

PWP dissipation is about 15% (close to 10 to 15%).

Moreover, it can be concluded that small strain consolidation predictions could give unsafe results when

designing a staged construction on soft soil since it

overestimates the consolidation degree out of pore

water pressures which could lead to overestimation of

strength gain due to consolidation.

6

HYDRAULIC FILL

Quality control of the embankment sand was performed regularly at several stages during the construction by means of CPT tests. Moreover, parameters such

as shear angle () and relative density could be estimated to confirm the design requirements.An example

of typical CPT profile above the soft soil deposit is

given in figure 9. It can be observed that the cone pressure qc increases linearly with depth and an almost

uniform shear angle ranging from 32 to 35 was

evaluated.

Furthermore, the risk of liquefaction of this

hydraulic fill was assessed using the method proposed

by Robertson and Wride (1998). For characterizing the

local seismicity in the area, an earthquake magnitude

of M = 5.5 was assumed and a Peak Ground Acceler-

zonation map of Belgium. Making use of those data

a factor of safety (FoS) was evaluated (Fig. 9). In all

cases FoS against liquefaction did exceed 1, in fact

most factors ranged from FoS = 2.5 to 6. It can be concluded that liquefaction, for an earthquake magnitude

of 5.5, will not occur.

7

soft foundation soil under a large partially submerged

sand embankment has shown that the large strain consolidation theory was successful to describe more

adequately such behavior. Measurements of settlements and excess pore water pressures showed a good

agreement with predictions evaluated using the large

strain consolidation theory. On the other hand, the

more conventional small strain theory was shown to

overestimate the dissipation of pore water pressure and

underestimate settlements.This could lead to an unsafe

design of staged construction.

REFERENCES

Gibson et al. 1967. The theory of 1D consolidation of

saturated clay: finite non-linear consolidation of thin

homogeneous layers. Geotechnique, Vol. 17, No. 3,

pp. 261273.

Robertson P.K., & Wride C.E. 1998. Evaluating cyclic liquefaction potential using the cone penetration test. Canadian

Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 35. pp.: 442459.

Van Impe W.F., Verastegui Flores R.D. 2006. Deep mixing

in underwater conditions: a laboratory and field study.

Ground Improvement , Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 1522.

Van Impe P.O. 1999. Consolidation of saturated, highly

compressible porous media. MsC thesis, Faculty of engineering, UGent (in dutch).

144

CONCLUSIONS

2007 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN13 978-0-415-42280-2

Yanpeng Zhu & Yong Zhou

School of Civil Engineering, Lanzhou Univ. of Tech., Lanzhou, China

ABSTRACT: The grillage supporting structure with pre-stressed anchors is a new type of supporting structure

in stabilizing loess slopes, which overcomes the disadvantages of traditional slope supporting structures, such

as restricted slope height, high cost and massive retaining structures. In this paper, the authors propose a new

design method for the optimal design for such supporting structures. The factors dealing with the characteristics

of the anchor bars include the horizontal and vertical spacings, the diameter and the inclination in the design

and these factors have been analysed. The results of analysis show that the construction cost of the anchors is the

most significant component of the total cost of the project. The analysis is consisted of the following steps. 1)

Assume an initial set of values for the spacing and diameter of the anchor bars, and the dimension of the beam

and plates. 2) Based on the contact pressure between the soil and the beams along with the plates, calculate the

internal forces in the beams and the tensile forces on the anchor bars. These forces permit the calculations for

a new set of values required for the dimensions of the beams and the diameter of the anchor bars. 3) Based on

the strengths of the beams and the anchor bars, and the prescribed safety factor for the slope, an optimization

procedure is conducted to obtain a design with the lowest cost. 4) Steps 2 through 3 are repeated until the

difference in cost between two successive calculations is within an acceptably small margin. This method of

design has been compared to the conventional design and it is concluded the spacing of the anchors are the most

important cost factor and that the new design produces a saving of 10 to 20% with the same factor of safety.

INTRODUCTION

anchors is a new and rapid development in recent years.

This structure consists of grillage beams, thin retaining

plate, anchors and soil mass. It is considered a flexible

supporting structure, whose vertical plane is shown in

Figure 1. In this kind of supporting structure, the grillage beams and the anchors form a spatial structure

working with the reinforced concrete retaining plate

to bear the soil pressure. The anchors are embedded

in the resistance zone and bear the soil pressure on

the concrete plate produced by soil mass in the active

zone. It improves the working properties of soil mass

and changes the passive support of traditional supporting structures to the active supporting fully using the

self stability of soil mass. Therefore, this supporting

structure can effectively control the displacements of

the supporting structure and soil mass.

This type of supporting structure is particularly

suited to retaining loess deposit, frequently found in

the Northwestern part of China and stratified soft soil.

Loess is a wind-blown deposit of uniform grainsize in

the silt size range. In the natural state, loess possesses

cohesion derived from the bond between soil grains.

The bond is due mostly to a calcareous binder, which

susceptible to erosion and becomes quick when excessively wetted. A grillage supporting structure prevents

water from entering into the retained soil, and reduces

the potential for the loess slope to collapse.

For the current design of grillage supporting structure with pre-stressed anchors, the traditional design

method is to assume the vertical plane layout of

with pre-stressed anchor bars.

145

check the local and overall stability of the supporting structure and design the grillage members. In

most cases, this kind of design focuses on the structural safety and ignores economy, thus giving rise

to great material waste for some large-scale slopes.

The structural optimization design is a kind of design

method to apply the optimization theory of mathematics to structural design. This design method not

only satisfies the need for providing adequate bearing capacity, but also reaches the target for optimum

economy. At present, many in civil engineering are

actively advocating the optimum design, but in designing slope-supporting structures, little research work

has been done, especially there is no optimum design

about grillage supporting structure with pre-stressed

anchors. The basic design utilizing the optimal design

approach for this type of structures has been proposed

and conducted by the authors, whose work has now

been referred to in engineering practice (Zhu and Zhou

2004).

with anchor bars.

GRILLAGE SUPPORTING STRUCTURE

WITH PRE-STRESSED ANCHORS

plate. Because of the existence of anchors in the soil

behind the plate, the soil pressure distribution is relatively complicated and an effective solution is not

available up to now. In the proposed design, the Rankines soil pressure theory is commonly adopted to

approximate the soil pressure, but the calculation of

the soil pressure recommended by the Technical Code

for Building Slope Engineering (GB330-2002, China

national code) is more suitable for loess slopes. In this

case, the lateral soil pressure of earth-retaining wall

with a single anchor may be represented by the triangular distribution approximated by Rankines theory.

However, for slopes composed of hard soil, hard clay,

or dense or medium-dense sand, and if the retaining

wall involving multi-layer anchors is constructed by

using the top-to-down construction method, the soil

pressure distribution is determined approximately as

shown in Fig. 2. The lateral soil pressure, ehk , can be

calculated as:

ehk =

Ehk

0.875H

(1)

the base, Ehk the resultant force of the Rankines soil

pressure and H the wall height.

In the analysis and design of grillage supporting

structures with pre-stressed anchors in multi soil layers, considering the relative uniformity of soil in loess

simplify the soil profiles.

2.1 Bearing capacity

(1) Analysis of retaining plate

Under general conditions, the soil pressure acting

on retaining plate will be transferred to the boundary

supports of grillage beams along two directions. The

retaining plate is similar to the floor slabs of buildings

and the internal forces may be calculated accordingly.

(2) Analysis of grillage beams

The finite element method can be used to analyse the grillage supporting structure (Fig. 3), with the

retaining plate and the grillage beams being regarded

as the reinforced concrete floor slab, the soil pressure

as the load, and the pre-stressed anchors as the supports

(Zhu & Zhou, 2004).

(3) Design of pre-stressed anchors

The anchors are generally either driven into the

ground or installed by placement in drilled boreholes

and grouted along their effective length in the resistance zone. When the anchor is embedded in soil

146

length.

the grout and the soil is generally less than the bond

strength between the grout and the anchor bar. Therefore, the pullout resistance of an anchor depends on

the frictional resistance of the interface between the

grout and is given by:

Tu = DLn qsk

(2)

allowable unit shear resistance at the interface, determined by the field pullout tests; and Le the effective

length of the anchor in the resistance zone.

The shear strength qsk depends not only on the characteristics of soil layers, but also on such factors as

construction method, grouting quantity and so on. It is

better to carry out field pullout tests to determine the

ultimate resistance of the anchor. For loess slope, the

value, qsk is about 4060 kPa.

The tensile force of the anchor is the support reaction of the grillage beams at the position of the anchor.

The effective anchored length can be calculated from:

Lnj =

Fb T

Dj qsjk

(3)

the anchor head, usually taken as 1.3, Lnj the effective anchored length of the jth anchor in the resistance

zone, Dj the diameter of grouted anchor bar, and

qsjk the allowable unit shear resistance at the grouted

anchor interface for the jth soil layer.

In Fig.4, OE is taken as the slip surface and Lfj

represents the length of the anchor in the active zone

given by Eq. (4).

using Eq. (5):

Lj = Lnj + Lfj

(5)

The cross section area of thej th anchor can be

calculated by Eq. (6):

Ajs =

Fb Tj

fy

(6)

where Ajs is the cross section area of the jth anchor and

fy the tensile strength of anchor.

2.2

structure with pre-stressed anchors

slices with a circular slip surface is used to determine

the factor of safety of the overall stability of the wall

and the retained soil (Fig. 5). The overall stability of

each stage of excavation has been examined by Zhu

et al. (2005). A computer program is developed that

includes an optimization routine for the most efficient

design of the anchors and grillage beams. The details

of this approach are described in details as follows.

The factor of safety for overall stability, Fs is

given by:

n

n

cik Li s + s (wi + q0 bi ) cos i tgik R

i=1

i=1

Fs =

n

s0 (wi + q0 bi ) sin i R

i=1

Lfj =

sin (1350 /2 j )

(4)

j=1

from the jth anchor to the top of the slope, the internal

friction angle and j the inclination of the jth anchor

from the horizontal.

147

m

R + F(Y + H )

n

s0 (wi + q0 bi ) sin i R

i=1

(7)

the number of rows of anchors in the sliding mass; 0

the importance coefficient of the slope retaining wall,

and for the present case, 0 = 1;wi the weight of the

ith slice per unit run of wall; bi the width of the ith

slice; cik the cohesion of the soil at the base of the ith

slice; ik the internal friction angle of the soil at the

base of the ith slice; i the inclination of the base of

the ith slice from the horizontal; j the angle between

the jth anchor and the horizontal; Li the base length of

the ith slice; R the radius of the circular slip surface;

F the resistance force of the grillage footing; H the

height of the excavation; Y the vertical distance from

the ground to the center of the circular slip surface;

and Tnj the tensile resistance per unit run of the wall

of the jth row of anchors in the resistance zone.

Tnj can be given by

x'

O'

xj

xj

z'

O

where lni is the length of the jth row of anchors in the ith

soil layer in the resistance zone. Again the summation

is taken over all the soil layers in which the jth row of

anchors has a presence.

This section describes the searching of the critical surface taking into consideration of the dynamic

relationship between the length and diameter of the

anchors and the location of the critical slip surface.

Two assumptions are used based on some observations of actual failures (Zhu 2005):

a) The tangent to any point on the slip surface inclines

from the horizontal within the range of 0 to 90

degrees. Consequently, the centre of the circular

slip surface is located in a certain zone.

b) The slip surface passes through the toe of the

slope. Therefore, one centre location is associated

with only one slip surface for a given depth of

excavation.

After a large number of computations, it is found

that the centre of the critical slip surface lies in rectangle OCDE (Fig. 6). This rectangle has a height of h and

width of 2h, where h is the current depth of excavation.

Normally this rectangle is sufficient for locating the

critical centre. The software, however, automatically

expands the rectangle if the critical centre happens to

fall on any side of it. The right lower corner of the original rectangle is the intersection of the vertical erected

from the toe and the horizontal line extended from the

crest. This corner also serves as the origin (O) of the

co-ordinate system. Fig. 7 shows a typical slip surface

during the computation. The centre of the slip surface

is at O at (-x, -z). In the searching process, several

variables can be obtained as follows.

The radius of the slip surface, R, is given by:

R = (x )2 + (h + z )2

(9)

lfj

Cl n j

z

A

structure with anchors.

horizontal (Fig.7), i , is given by:

sin i =

x + xi

R

(10)

denoted by lnj , and the total length of the anchor, lj

is:

lj = lfj + lnj

(11)

can be defined from the position of the anchor and the

location of the slip surface.

3

The traditional aim of optimal structural design is that

the cost is optimal, and the design is safe and reliable during construction and utilization. To do so, the

project cost is considered an objective function and

a mathematical model is established that includes the

objective function and constraint conditions that are

related to the performance indexes of safety and reliability of the structure expressed mathematically. The

148

B

zj

(8)

zj

qsik lni

Tnj = dnj

scheme with the minimum project cost that meets all

the constraint conditions.

In the optimal design of grillage supporting structure with pre-stressed anchors, the minimum project

cost per unit run of wall is taken as the objective (including the costs of concrete, steel bars, and

anchors) that includes the global and local optimisation. Firstly, based on the calculated grillage internal

forces and stability of the supporting structure, the

anchors and the grillage beams are optimized locally.

Then, the geometric dimensions of grillage beams and

anchors with the meaning of optimal design can be

modified, and now the grillage beams and anchors

with current dimensions are taken as a new grillage

supporting structure with pre-stressed anchors. At the

second step, the bearing capacity and the stability of

the supporting structure are analyzed again, and then

the same optimal process is repeated. Finally, this is

repeated successively for the second step until the calculated results of two successive optimal results are

sufficiently close. The results from the final step can

be taken for the global optimization design results.

3.2

Because of the important effects of anchors on the

bearing capacity and the stability of the supporting

structure, the factors affecting the total cost of the grillage supporting structure with pre-stressed anchors are

mainly the layout of anchors, the dimensions of the

grillage beams and the reinforcements. Therefore for

the cost per unit run of the supporting structure, the

following design variables are considered:

X = [x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5 , x6 , x7 , x8 , x9 , x10 , x11 ]T

where x1 , x2 , x3 are the distance of the first row of

anchors from the top of the slope, the horizontal and

vertical spacings of anchors, respectively; x4 , x5 , x6 , x7

are width, height, cross section area of reinforcing steel

bars and area of stirrups of horizontal grillage beam,

respectively; x8 , x9 , x10 , x11 are the width, height, area

of reinforcing bars and area of stirrups of the vertical

grillage beam, respectively.

Therefore, the objective function of the total cost per

unit run can be expressed as:

f0 (X ) = f1 (X ) + f2 (X ) + f3 (X )

where

f1 (X ) =

n

Lj Cm /x2

(x4 + x5 2as )s Cg

(14)

(x8 + x9 2as )/x2

(15)

where f1 (X ), f2 (X ), f3 (X ) are the costs of anchors, horizontal and vertical grillage beams, respectively; Lj the

total length of the jth row of anchor; Cm the unit length

cost of anchor; Cc is the unit volume cost of concrete;

As1 the area of reinforcement of beam in one side; s

the density of reinforcement; Cg the unit cost of reinforcement; As2 the area of stirrups of horizontal beam

per unit length; as the thickness of concrete cover layer;

H the height of slope; Hd is the foundation depth of

structure; As3 is the area of reinforcement in the vertical beam in one side; and As4 the area of stirrups of

the vertical beam per unit length.

The constraint conditions of the grillage supporting

structure with pre-stressed anchors are divided into

four parts.

a. Strength constraints. The tensile force on the

anchor due to the earth pressure should be less than

the ultimate pullout capacity expressed as:

Tnj DLnj qsjk 0 (j = 1, 2, . . . , n)

(16)

D the diameter of borehole of anchor; Lnj the effective

length of the jth row of anchor bar; and qsjk the average shear strength at the interface between the grouted

anchor and the soil. The maximum moment on the

horizontal beam should satisfy Eq. (17) (CNC, 2001):

Mb fy x6 (x5 as )

1 (fy x6 )2

2 1 f c x 4

(17)

satisfy Eq. (18) (CNC, 2001):

Vb 0.7ft x4 (x5 as ) + 1.25fyv x7 (x5 as )

(18)

where Mb is the maximum moment on the horizontal beam; fy the tensile strength of reinforcement; 1

149

(13)

j=1

Because the cross-sectional dimensions of the

beams are unknown at this stage, the height and the

width of the horizontal beam are taken as y1 and y1 ,

respectively, and the height and the width of the vertical beam are taken as y2 and y2 , respectively. In which

and are assumed as constants. The values of y1 and

y2 are determined by solving equations related to the

bending and the shear strength of the beams. Grillage

supporting structures with pre-stressed anchors are a

(12)

less than C50, 1 = 1.0 (CNC, 2001);fc the axial compressive strength of concrete; Vb the maximum shear

on the horizontal beam; and ft the axial tensile strength

of concrete.

Similarly, the constraint conditions of the vertical

beam can be given as follows:

Mz fy x10 (x9 as )

1 (fy x10 )2

2 1 f c x 8

(19)

(20)

maximum shear on the beam, respectively.

b. Stability constraint. The overall stability of the

grillage supporting structure with pre-stressed anchor

bars is closely related to the characteristics of the

anchor bars. Hence, the corresponding constraint condition is taken as:

n

n

cik Li s + s (wi + q0 bi ) cos i tgik R

i=1

i=1

Fs

+

n

s0 (wi + q0 bi ) sin i R

i=1

m

j=1

R + F(Y + H )

n

s0 (wi + q0 bi ) sin i R

i=1

(21)

c. Limit constraints. According to Technical code for

building slope engineering (CNC 2002), the constraint conditions about the layout of anchors are

given by:

1.5 x1 H

(22)

2.0 x2 4.0

(23)

2.0 x3 H 1.5

(24)

min x8 (x9 as ) x11 max x8 (x9 as )

(25)

(26)

minimum reinforcement ratio, respectively, and

min max (0.2, 45ft /fy ), max 5%.

4

structures, which can be divided into indirect methods and direct methods. The indirect methods usually

function and constraint functions, so they are not convenient for designing appropriate software. The mesh

method, the random experiment method and the complex method belong to the direct methods, in which

the complex method is more effective when the constraint conditions are nonlinear and there are many

numbers of design variables. In view of the nonlinear characteristic the objective function and constraint

conditions, the complex method was adopted in this

study. Here the number of complex points k is more

than m+1, in which m is the number of design variables. In this paper, k is taken as m+2. The software

of optimal design of grillage supporting structure with

pre-stressed anchors is developed and its flow diagram

is shown in Figure 8.

The analysis consists of the following steps. 1)

Assume an initial set of values for the spacing and

diameter of the anchor bars, and the dimension of

the beam and plates. 2) Based on the contact pressure

between the soil and the beams along with the plates,

calculate the internal forces in the grillage beams and

the tensile forces on the anchors. These forces will

permit the calculations of a new set of values required

for the dimensions of the beams and the diameter of

the anchor bars. 3) Based on the strengths of the grillage beams and the anchors, and the prescribed safety

factor for the slope, an optimization procedure is conducted to obtain a design with the lowest cost. 4) Steps

2 through 3 will be repeated until the difference in

cost between two successive calculations are within

an acceptably small margin.

5

An 11 m height of slope was made for a highway in Lanzhou, China. The soil consists of a loess

deposit. The detailed profile is given by a unit weight

= 16.5 kN/m3 , the internal friction angle = 24 ,

and the cohesion c = 18kPa. The slope was stabilized by means of a grillage supporting structure with

prestressed anchors designed using the conventional

method and optimal method proposed here, respectively. The inclination of the wall was 80 from the horizontal and the anchor inclination was at 15 from the

horizontal. There was a uniform surcharge of 10 kPa

on the top of the slope behind the supporting structure.

According to the optimal design method proposed

in this paper, the design results are shown in Table 1.

Compared with the optimal design method and the

original design scheme, the proposal method saved

11.4% of total cost of the project.

This method of design has been compared to the

conventional design and it can be concluded the spacing of the anchors are the most important cost factor

and that the new design produces a saving of 10 to

20% with the same factor of safety.

150

Start

Finite element analysis and stability

analysis

program to generate the other points to form

a complex

Calculate the function value of each point

No

Got rid of the worst point and replace it with a new point

No

No

Times of iterationm

Yes

Yes

Yes

Output results

End

Table 1.

Design

variables

x1

(m)

x2

(m)

x3

(m)

x4

(mm)

x5

(mm)

x6

(mm2)

x7

(mm)

x8

(mm)

x9

(mm)

x10

(mm2)

x11

(mm)

Total cost

(yuan/m)

Original

design

Optimal

design

2.5

3.0

3.0

300

400

980.5

1.227

400

400

1106.8

1.131

5500

2.1

2.8

3.2

250

400

711.2

1.065

300

400

841.2

1.089

4875

A new method for the optimal design for the grillage supporting structure with pre-stressed anchors

is proposed in this paper. The factors dealing with

the characteristics of the anchor bars include the horizontal and vertical spacings, the diameter and the

analyzed. The analysis is consisted of the following

steps. 1) Assume an initial set of values for the spacing and diameter of the anchor bars, and the dimension

of the beam and plates. 2) Based on the contact pressure between the soil and the beams along with the

plates, calculate the internal forces in the beams and

151

the tensile forces on the anchor bars. These forces permit the calculations for a new set of values required

for the dimensions of the beams and the diameter of

the anchor bars. 3) Based on the strengths of the beams

and the anchor bars, and the prescribed safety factor for

the slope, an optimization procedure is conducted to

obtain a design with the lowest cost. 4) Steps 2 through

3 are repeated until the difference in cost between two

successive calculations is within an acceptably small

margin. This method of design has been applied to an

actual slope in the loess deposit and the results are

compared with those from a traditional method. The

comparison shows that the spacing of the anchors are

the most important cost factor and that the new design

produces a saving of 10 to 20% with the same factor

of safety.

REFERENCES

China National Standard (2002). Technical code for building

slope engineering, Beijing: ChinaArchitecture & Building

Press.

China National Standard (1999). China technical specification for retaining and protection of building foundation excavations. Beijing: China Architecture & Building

Press.

Guo Y.H., Bai J.Y., and Gou L. (2003). Local optimal design

for a frame shear wall structure. Henan Science, 21(4),

471474.

Li S.P. (2002). The theory and application of optimal technology for grouting bolting in slope. Building Science

Research of Sichuan, 28(4), 4749.

Qin S.Q. (2000). Optimum design of soil nailing supporting

structure. Geological Exploration for Non-ferrous Metals,

1, 4144.

method for soil nailed wall analysis, J. of Geotech. and

Geoenvirn. Eng., ASCE, 129(2), 117124.

Shi, L.H., He, W.M., and Sun. Y.F. (2002). Stability analysis

of deep excavation by lattice method of equidistant arc

and its viewdata program, Chinese J. of Rock Mech. and

Eng., 21(9): 15681572.

Turner, J.P. and Jensen, W.G. (2005). Landslide stabilization

using soil nail and mechanically stabilized earth walls:

Case study, J. of Geotech. and Geoenvirn. Eng., ASCE,

131(2), 141150.

Zhang, M.J., Song, E.X., and Chen, Z.Y. (1998). Method of

stability analysis in deep excavation and its application, J.

of Eng. Mech. (China), 15(3), 3643.

Zhu, Y.P., Wang, X.L., Zhang, G.W., and Song, Y. (2002).

Design, construction and experimental monitoring of

lengthy deep foundation in Zhongguanghigh rise building

of Lanzhou, J. of Eng. Mech. (China), 19(sup.), 336341,

2002.

Zhu, Y.P., and Li, Z. (2005), Improvement on stability analysis of soil nail in foundation excavations and its software

development design, Chinese J. of Geotech. Eng., 26(5),

8996

ZhuY.P., and ZhouY. (2004). Design and calculation of frame

supporting structure with pre-stressed anchor bar on loess

slope. J. of Eng. Mech. (China), 21(sup.), 393398.

Zhu Y.P., and Li Z. (2005). Improvement on stability analysis of soil nailing in foundation excavations and its

software development. Chinese Journal of Geotechnical

Engineering, 27(8), 939943.

Zhu Y.P., Yu J., and Wang X.L. (2000). Optimum design of

cantilever supporting piles. Journal of Gansu University

of Technology, 26(1), 9095.

Zhu Y.P., Wang L., & Wang X.L. (2004). Analysis and

design for grillage foundation with rigid area, Advances

in Mechanics of Structures and Materials, Proceeding of

18th ACMSM, Australia.

152

2007 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN13 978-0-415-42280-2

Pavel vanut & Mojca Ravnikar Turk

ZAG Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Janko Logar

Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

ABSTRACT: A detailed study has been performed of the settlements which occurred in the subsoil beneath a

high motorway embankment (the Srmin high embankment), which was built in Slovenia over a two-year period,

between September 2002 and August 2004. This embankment, which had to be built on very compressible

subsoil of low bearing capacity and low permeability, is about 600 m long, and its height varies between 8.5 and

11.5 m. Two measurement methods, using conventional settlement plates and a hydrostatic profile gauge (HPG)

which could be placed in specially installed measuring tubes, were used to obtain settlement profiles at several

locations along the embankment. The results showed that the development of subsoil settlements at two selected

locations was very different, due to the heterogeneity and varying compressibility of the subsoil. The settlements

obtained by measurements using the HPG were very similar to those obtained using settlement plates, which

were located very close to the measuring tubes.

INTRODUCTION

Since the start of Slovenias National Motorway Construction Programme, a large number of high embankments, founded on soft soil, have been built. One of

them, the Srmin high embankment, is located on the

motorway section Klanec Srmin, close to the coastal

town of Koper (see Figure 1).

The Srmin embankment is situated in between the

new Bivje viaduct and an overpass which carries the

of the embankment is approximately 600 m, and its

height varies between 8.5 and 11.5 m. The embankment had to be built on very compressible subsoil,

with a low bearing capacity and low permeability, so

it was necessary to provide, in the design, adequate

measures to increase the stability and the consolidation rate of this subsoil. After several geotechnical

studies of the predicted performance of the embankment had been performed, stone columns were chosen

to reinforce the soft subsoil. A system for geotechnical monitoring of the embankment and the subsoil

beneath it (particularly settlements during and after

Figure 1. The planned motorway network in Slovenia.

153

HOR1

33

12

13

I-2

8

I-6

14

11

69.60

1

99.30

BIVJE

VIADUCT 2

79.50

4a

10

I- 4

79.50

2

HOR

7

I- 3

3a

I-1

1

HOR1

- SETTLEMENT PLATE

- MEASURING TUBE

- STONE COLUMNS

Figure 3. The situation of the discussed section of the Srmin high embankment, showing the system for monitoring its

settlements.

predicted and actual behaviour of the embankment.

2

GEOTECHNICAL CONDITIONS

planned embankment consisted of alluvial deposits

of the Riana river. The following subsoil layers, described from the top downwards, were

distinguished:

plasticity,

a 4 to 5.5 m thick layer of soft grey to black organic

silty clay (this is the critical soil layer with regard to

bearing capacity and deformability),

a 2 to 4 m thick layer of dense silty gravel,

marl bedrock.

The total thickness of the two top layers of compressible cohesive subsoil was about 9.5 to 11 m.

3

SETTLEMENT MEASUREMENTS

measure the settlements by means of a hydrostatic profile gauge (HPG). The locations of measuring tubes

HOR-1 and HOR-2 are shown in Figure 3 (measuring tube HOR-3 unfortunately became inaccessible

during the construction works). The measuring tubes

HOR-1 and HOR-2 passed very close to the corresponding settlement plates SP-4 and SP-11, although

they were about 0.5 m higher than these two plates (for

their location, see Figure 3).

The first measuring tube HOR-1 was installed at

the cross-section where the largest settlements were

expected, whereas the second measuring tube HOR-2

was located at the widest cross-section of the embankment. Since the mouth of each of the measuring tubes

was accessible on both sides of the embankment,

the settlement probe was pulled, with a draw-cord,

through the tubes (this was the first time that such

measurements had been performed in Slovenia). The

measurement step was 1 m. The lengths of the two

measuring tubes were 75 m (HOR-1) and 68 m (HOR2). The tubes were installed in a 60 cm deep trench,

which was excavated when the embankment was 1.5

to 2 m high.

3.2 Operation of the hydrostatic profile gauge

measuring tubes

As part of the system for geotechnical monitoring of

the embankment, measurements of settlements were

performed, using two methods, in order to obtain settlement profiles at various locations along the embankment. Not only were conventional settlement plates

installed at numerous transverse profiles along the

embankment, but also three measuring tubes (designated HOR-1, HOR-2 and HOR-3) were installed at

three of the embankment cross-sections in order to

used to measure the vertical displacement of structures such as road embankments and earth dams across

the entire width of the structure. It consists of a control unit, a readout unit, and a length of triple tubing

which is connected to a settlement probe that can be

pushed (with aluminium rods) or pulled (with a drawcord) through the measuring tube beneath the structure

(see Figures 4 and 5). Two of the three small tubes are

filled with water and are constantly back-pressurized

154

EMBANKMENT

SP- 4

HOR 1

DISTANCE ( m )

0

SETTLEMENT (cm)

10

10

30

40

50

60

70

80

(REFERENCE MEASUREMENT)

0

10

20

20

H EMBANKMENT ~

= 7,0 m

30

30

40

40

50

H EMBANKMENT ~

= 10,0 m

50

60

60

70

70

gauge being used beneath an embankment.

20

~ 2,0 m

H EMBANKMENT =

H EMBANKMENT ~

= 11,5 m

80

80

embankment construction, along the measuring tube HOR-1

(L = 75 m).

EMBANKMENT

SP- 11

HOR 2

DISTANCE (m)

SETTLEMENT (cm)

a hydrostatic profile gauge (the probe is being pushed into

the measuring tube).

prevent the formation of bubbles. Measurements of

elevation are taken at regular intervals along the measuring tube, which is laid in a sand-filled trench before

the start of embankment construction. The hydrostatic

head H is measured by means of a differential pressure transducer. The readings are related to a reference

pin outside the tube, and in this manner a complete

elevation profile of the tube can be established. By

comparing profiles taken at different times, the vertical displacement of the tube between any two readings

can be determined to an accuracy of 1.0 cm, which

is excellent for such applications.

4

4.1

RESULTS

Comparison of settlement development at two

different locations

using the HPG, at points 1 m apart, along the measuring tubes HOR-1 and HOR-2, are shown, for different

heights of the embankment construction, in Figures 6

and 7. The reference measurement (settlement = 0)

was performed in the middle of October 2002. The

20

30

40

50

60

(REFERENCE MEASUREMENT)

~ 1,5 m

H EMBANKMENT =

~ 7,0 m

H EMBANKMENT =

~ 9,0 m

H EMBANKMENT =

H EMBANKMENT ~

= 10,0 m

70

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

embankment construction, along the measuring tube HOR-2

(L = 68 m).

these two figures. At the time of the installation of

the measuring tubes (and the reference measurement)

the height of the embankment was about 2.0 m (HOR1) and 1.5 m (HOR-2), so that some subsoil settlement

had already occurred.

In the case of profile HOR-1, embankment construction from a height of 2.0 to 11.5 m caused a 10 cm

settlement of the subsoil on the southeast side of the

embankment (geodetic measurements) and a 70 cm

subsoil settlement near the centre of the embankment

(HPG measurements) (see Figure 6). It can be seen

from this figure (the two lowest curves) that the gradual

reduction, as construction proceeded, in the width of

the embankment caused additional settlements mainly

in the middle of the measuring cross-section.

In the case of profile HOR-2, embankment construction from a height of 1.5 to 10.0 m caused a 12 cm

settlement of the subsoil on the northwest side of the

embankment (geodetic measurements), and a 41 cm

subsoil settlement near the centre of the embankment (HPG measurements) (see Figure 7). It can be

155

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

10

sep.04

mar.05

Settlement (cm)

sep.05

18

16

14

Measuring tube HOR1

Construction of the embankment

30

40

12

10

50

60

70

80

Date

mar.04

20

of HOR-1, using two different methods, compared with the

progress of embankment construction.

sep.02

0

mar.03

sep.03

Date

mar.04

sep.04

mar.05

sep.05

18

10

16

20

14

30

12

40

10

8

50

60

70

Measuring tube HOR2

Construction of the embankment

80

6

4

2

of HOR-2, using two different methods, compared with the

progress of embankment construction.

base of the embankment (i.e. directly on the foundation

subsoil), but somewhat later on the first (SP-11) and

second (SP-4) layers of the embankment, so that the

geodetic measurements of the vertical displacements

of the settlement plates were somewhat less than the

actual settlements of the foundation soil (measured

from the start of the construction works). It was estimated that the so-called missed settlement was 4 to

6 cm. Regarding the influence of the stone columns,

the expected time of 95% of consolidation of the subsoil is 1.5 years. Consolidation is still in progress, so

that this evaluation could not yet be confirmed.

CONCLUSIONS

interfere with the construction works, has proved to be

an excellent practical solution. The results consist of

not just a single settlement (like those obtained when

a settlement plate is used), but of complete settlement

profiles along the measuring tube. Because of the relative values of vertical displacements measured by the

156

sep.03

10

two different methods

development measured in the measuring tubes HOR-1

and HOR-2 with the settlements observed on plates

SP-4 and SP-11, which were located very close to

these two measuring tubes, and the progress of the

embankment construction at both profiles. The reference measurement of the vertical displacements of

the settlement plates was performed in the middle of

September 2002 (the reference measurement in the

tubes was performed one month later). For comparison

of the results of these two methods, the soil settlement

measured by optical levelling of the settlement plates

up until October 2002 (4 and 5 cm, respectively) was

taken into account. Because of construction reasons,

the last measurement of the vertical displacements of

the settlement plates was made before the pavement

was completed, so the increase in settlements up to the

finished surfacing layer was estimated on the basis of

measurements using the HPG (see the hatched lines

in Figures 8 and 9). After that a new system of optical

levelling was established, which enabled continuity of

the observation of the settlements.

It was shown that the values of the settlements, as

well as the settlement development measured by the

HPG, are very similar to those observed on the settlement plates, which were located very close to the

measuring tubes. At the time of the last measurements,

in July 2005, the difference between the settlements

obtained by the two different methods was 3 and 4 cm

respectively; the settlements measured using the HPG

were 68 and 46 cm, whereas the settlements measured using the settlement plates were 71 and 50 cm,

respectively.

mar.03

4.2

sep.02

0

Settlement (cm)

seen from this figure (the two lowest curves) that the

construction of the connecting embankment caused

relatively larger settlements on the southeast side of

the embankment (i.e. on the right hand side of the

measuring cross-section). It can be also seen from this

figure that, similarly to the case of HOR-1, the gradual

reduction in the width of the embankment, as construction proceeded, caused additional settlements mainly

in the middle of the measuring cross-section.

It can be seen that the development of settlements at the two selected profiles was very different,

which is the consequence of the heterogeneity and

different compressibility of the subsoil beneath the

embankment at these two locations.

The last measurements using the HPG were performed in July 2005 (i.e. one year after the embankment had been completed). However, consolidation of

the subsoil has not yet finished, so that the presented

values of the settlements should not be assumed to be

equal to the ultimate values for the stated heights of

the embankment.

mouth of the tube should be determined by geodetic

measurements. When analyzing settlements and determining absolute values of settlements, the progress of

embankment construction before the reference measurement is made should be taken into consideration.

When the mouth of the measuring tube is accessible on both sides of the embankment the settlement

probe can be pulled through the tube with a draw-cord,

which was successfully performed for the first time in

Slovenia in the case of the settlement measurements of

the Srmin high embankment. This work is much less

time-consuming than when the probe has to be pushed

through the tube with aluminium rods.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

REFERENCES

Logar, J. 2002. Geotechnical analysis of the performance of

the Srmin high embankment, founded on the soft soil

reinforced by the stone columns. University of Ljubljana,

Slovenia (in Slovenian) unpublished report, 22 pages.

Ravnikar Turk, M., vanut, P. and iberna, S. 2002. The use

of a hydrostatic profile gauge for settlement measurements

of the Drtijcica dam. Proc. of the 4th SLOCOLD Expert

Meeting, Fala, Slovenia (in Slovenian), pp. 18.

vanut, P. 2003. Settlements of an embankment founded on

a soft soil. Proc. of the 11th International Symposium on

Deformation Measurements, Santorini, Greece, pp. 335

340.

vanut, P., Ravnikar Turk, M. and iberna, S. 2004. Settlements of the Srmin high embankment. Proc. of the

4th Conference of the Slovenian Geotechnical Society,

Rogaka Slatina, Slovenia (in Slovenian), pp. 283288.

Sheppard in the editing of this paper.

157

2007 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN13 978-0-415-42280-2

structure in view of creep

Shmidt Aitalyev & Nicholas Ter-Emmanuilyan

National Academy of Science, Institute of the mechanics and mashines, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan

Tatyana Ter-Emmanuilyan

Ministry of Education and Science, Kazakhstan Academy of Architecture and Construction, Almaty, Republic of

Kazakhstan

Timur Shmanov

Ministry of Defense, Military Engineering Institute of Radio-electronics and Communication, Almaty, Republic of

Kazakhstan

ABSTRACT: The paper consist of basis and practical application of the method of full discretization. This

method is a special modification of finite element method for the solving of problems of elastic creep. Practical

application of the method is illustrated with modeling and applied tasks. For example joint calculation of the

foundation of a high-altitude television tower near the city of Almaty (Republic of Kazakhstan) and soil in an

assigned time interval is solved. All of components of evolution of all vectors of displacements and stress tensors

of all elements with and without taking into account of technology of building are determined. Comparison of

the received results with the known date of natural supervision is performed.

INTRODUCTION

Method of full discretization (FDM) special modification of the finite element method (FEM) for the solving of various problems of the elastic creep, offered by

N.Ter-Emmanuilyan (Ter-Emmanuilyan N., 1975).

FDM universal, comparatively simple and obvious engineering method being not step-by-step in

time. It gives an opportunity to determine discrete values of displacements, deformations and stresses in

a calculated interval of time. The method is developed both in variant of displacements, and in variant

of forces. It can be combined with other engineering

numerical methods, such as a method of boundary

elements, a method of finite differences and others

(Ter-Emmanuilyan N., Ter-Emmanuilyan T., 2006).

The FDM allows to take into account: a heterogeneous creep and ageing of materials of any

constructions and foundation soils; physical and geometrical nonlinearity; plasticity; anisotropy; different

modular elastic creep; influence of temperature; presence stressed enforcement and normal armatures in

ferro-concrete; discrete diagrams of erection of constructions (increase or reduction of volumes, change

of operational loadings etc.).

The method is applied at the decision of a wide

class of engineering problems of a linear and nonlinear

elastic creep. For example: plane problems; axisymmetric; three-dimensional; single-layered and multilayered plates and envelopes; bar and thin-walled

systems; stability of plates and bars; contact problems; thermoelastic creep problems; a short-time

high-temperature creep of metals, etc.

The mathematical justification of a FDM as a

version of a method of weighted residuals and also

approximation and discretization error in numerical

solutions is considered. The appropriate algorithms

of the solutions of linear and nonlinear problems of

elasticity, elastic creep and plasticity are constructed.

The package of application software for engineers and

researchers is developed.

The wide class of modelling and applied engineering problems are solved: calculation of evolution of

stress-deformation state in the system tunnel lining rock; reinforced concrete pipe - backfilling;

a heterogeneous thick-walled shell with steel facing at loading and unloading; research of evolution

of stress-deformation state of the vertical supported

shaft at drivage with the preset speed; calculation

in time reinforced concrete wall panels with holes;

calculation of multilayered plates in view of a creep

of some layers; buckling of flexible plates; buckling

of a rod and cylindrical bend of a plate with initial

camber; research on model Shenly at conservative

159

and following loadings; calculation of prestressed ferroconcrete rods; combined calculations of growing

buildings and constructions and their bases (Aitaliev

Sh., Ter-Emmanuilyan T., 2003):

an evolution of stress-deformation state of a foundation ferroconcrete plate on a soil base;

a problem about of influence of non-simultaneity

of erection of buildings on evolution of the stressdeformation state in constructions and basis at the

constrained building of city territories;

calculations of the box-shaped substructure and the

basis of high-altitude television tower on mountain

Kok-Tyube near Almaty city in three variants of

statement of a task: plane, quasi-spatial and spatial;

calculation of a road embankment and its basis;

calculation in time four-level a ferro-concrete construction and its basis, etc.

the basis of the equations of a condition for linear

three-dimensional elastocreep the bodies, received by

N.H.Arutjunjan.

For the decision of system of the equations (Eq.1)

the numerical method of the decision based on full,

existential digitization (FDM) was offered.

Digitization of objects in FDM on geometry is carried out as well as in FEM at the decision elastic and

elastoplastic problems.

The limited time piece (day, years) digitize time

points.

For uniaxial the discrete form of the equation of a

condition looks like the intense condition:

tj

i

d()

i = i i1 +

i ()d,

d

j=2 t

j1

(i = 1, 2, 3, . . . , p), (j = 2, 3, . . . , p).

Stress-deformation state (SDS) the elastocreep, homogeneous and isotropic body loaded in the age of = 1

at small deformations in static problems completely is

determined, if all are known 15 components of a vector

f (xi , t, ) = [uT (xi , t, ) T (xi , t, ) T (xi , t, )],

(i = 1, 2, 3),

nT

0

0

J

J

0

0

u

0

Lt + 0 = 0

(1)

superficial forces on S2 . in system (Eq. 1) n (3 6)

a matrix of linear differential operators on coordinates; = [XYZ]T a vector of volumetric forces;

ns a matrix directing cosines an external normal to a

surface, but with replacement of operators of differentiation /xi , . . .. on cosines cos(, xi ), . . .; J a unit

matrix; Lt a matrix of integro-differentual operators

66

which Lt11 has the following kind:

Lt11

1

+ C (t, 1 ) +

=

E (1 )

d ...

= (t, 1 ) +

d

t

1

+ C (t, )

E()

(t, )

1

d...

.

d

11

0

... 0

1

21 22

... 0

22

E =

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.. ...

pp

p1 p2 p2 p3 . . . pp

(5)

module describing elasticity, hereditary creep and

ageing of a material, in which sizes ik are calculated

under the formula

ik =

1

tk tk1

tk

i ()d,

(6)

tk1

Or, is simplified,

ik =

ik + i,k1

,

2

(t, ) =

(2)

(7)

1

+ C(t, ).

E()

(8)

equations of a condition making the second group of

160

(4)

Thus

t

the derivative is replaced differential.

The formula (Eq. 3), after introduction of matrix

restrictions, gets a kind conterminous under the form

with Hookes law:

= E1 ,

point to system of the matrix-vector equations

(3)

the matrix equations (Eq.1) it is received, after sampling, the system of the algebraic equations having the

form of generalized Hookes law:

x = E1 x E1 ( y + z )

,

(9)

1

xy = 2E (J + )xy

where =

1

0

0 0 ...

1

1

0 0 ...

1 0 ...

0 1

=

0 1 1 . . .

0

... ... ... ... ...

0

0

0 0 1

0

0

0

0

...

1

(10)

an auxiliary matrix,

the bottom triangular matrix generated from

sizes ij :

"

ij =

(ti , j ), (i j)

,

0, (i < j)

(t, ) =

(t, )

.

0 ()

(11)

use theories of creep or the data of base experiments.

As a result of generalization of physical parities(ratio)

of the linear theory of creep and matrix Hookes law

[10], the matrix form of the law of a linear elastic creep

is received in a general view:

t = Dt t ,

(12)

creep having in scalars 6 the order, t and t

6-dimensional (3-dimensional in flat problems) on

components tensors and to time points of vectors of

stresses and deformations.

At a conclusion of the formula calculation of the

matrix of rigidity of a final element generalized in time

for quasistatic problems of an elastic creep the principle of possible movings Lagrange is used. In result the

formula is received:

k rt = BT1 Dt B1 dv,

(13)

V

FE:

rt = B1 q tr .

(14)

6p 3np (n number of units in FE).

of expansion of each scalar member k in diagonal

blocks matrixes of the order with constant diagonal

elements k .

The matrix k rt of rigidity generalized in time elastocreep a final element has the order in time the

greater, than the order kr matrixes of rigidity of an

elastic element due to replacement of scalar elastic

constants and bottom triangular matrixes and

the order .The generalized matrix of rigidity t of system elastocreep elements which is square, block, the

order, generally, 3Np (N the general(common) number of units of elements of system) further is resulted.

For uniformity on properties of an elastic creep of a

body, this matrix can be received very simply as well

as k rt by expansion of scalars and in matrixes

and the order.

At calculation of the designs consisting from nonuniform on properties or age of materials, blocks of

matrix t of system are calculated only by summation on the elements containing units i and j of global

numbering of the appropriate members of generalized

matrixes of rigidity of final elements:

K tij =

k rtij .

(15)

rij

Further allowing linear matrix algebraic equation concerning a required vector q t of components of movings

in time of all units of system is submitted:

K t q t = R t ,

(16)

(SMS) in which the kinematics boundary conditions

having an opportunity to change in a settlement interval of time are taken into account; R t a vector of a

variable or a constant in time of central loading.

example ph growing in time. Depending on concrete

conditions, process of escalating of viscoelastic bodies

can occur both discretely, and is continuous.

The account of a time history of development and

loading bodies frequently results in qualitative changes

in their mechanical behaviour.

At designing large ground and underground constructions, it is especial in conditions of city building,

performance of stage-by-stage geotechnical calculation, since process of construction and finishing an

operation phase is expedient. Thus results of calculations can differ from usual on the order, and sometimes

and with change of a mark (Ilyichev V., 2004).

161

authors, however thus it was not taken into account

deformability the most base box.

Lets consider calculation of evolution is intense

deformed conditions of a box and the basis during last

period of operation of a construction due to creep of

concrete of a plate and the earth basis. Calculations are

executed in three variants of statement of a problem:

flat, quasi-spatial and spatial.

The behaviour elastocreep a material of constructions - concrete or ferro-concrete with the smeared

armature is described by the equations of the hereditary theory of ageing with a measure of creep of

S.V.Aleksandrovsky:

1

e A2

(1 e ) + () () t

E0

e A2

+ ()[1 e(1) ],

(17)

(t, ) =

where

() = C1 C3 +

Figure 1.

FDM allows to carry out joint calculations simultaneously and to investigate evolution is intense

deformed conditions in a time piece with the detailed

account of technology of all building and installation works, and also sequence of introduction of a

construction in operation. Thus, it is possible to predict evolution is intense deformed conditions of a

construction on any long term for definition of their

durability and reliability. It, in turn, results in economy

of materials and resources.

3.1

Modelling task

base ferro-concrete box and the earth basis (TerEmmanuilyan T., 2006.).

On the western slope of mountain the Kok-Tube

in 1982 (figure 1), on an absolute mark of 1050 m

construction of a unique construction radiotelevision

transmitting station in height of 372 m and by weight

about 70 thousand tons was completed. The base of

a construction as an open monolithic ferro-concrete

box-shaped plate, the sizes in the plan (66 51) m

and depth location 16,6 m Figure 1.

Directly under a sole of the base of building television tower loams firm, dense, unsubsidence rocks

with the module of deformation of the top layer

(y = 6 m) 1 = 87 MPa, the bottom layer (y > 6 m)

2 = 93 MPa are deposited. Earlier settlement and

experimental estimations deposits of the basis of a

= C3 +

A3

,

a, , , 1 , 2 , 3 , 1 , 3 parameters of creep.

Parameters of creep of a ground with a measure of

creep of Z.S.Erzhanov:

1

(t, ) =

1 + (t ) ,

(18)

E

L(t ) = (t )1 ,

(19)

In work the third variant of statement of a problem

is considered.

Loadings are the body weight of a base box and useful loading. Besides horizontal loading from pressure

of a ground upon retaining walls of a box is taken into

account.

Further, the results of calculations received by this

method are resulted.

For the decision of such class of problems the universal program FDM3D in which, except for the

basic nucleus of the program written in language FORTRAN, special modules are used, visualization the

entrance and target files developed in language Visual

Basic in AutoCAD 2004 environment was developed.

3.2

Spatial task

deformed conditions of a base box and the basis during

construction and operation of a construction in view

of creep of concrete of a plate and the earth basis.

162

A1 A3

,

a plate and a zero circle; b) Concreting 1-st circle of a wall

with the subsequent backfill; c) Concreting 2-nd circle of a

wall and continuation backfill; d) Concreting 3-rd circle of a

wall and the ending backfill.

above the part of a construction non-uniformly allocated on a plate, basically is taken into account, due to

presence of a basic cylinder.

Erection of a base box is carried out in four stages.

1-st stage concreting of a plate and a zero circle of

a wall; 2-nd stage - concreting of the first circle of

a wall with the subsequent 3aspkoa ground from

the external parties(sides); 3-rd stage - concreting of

the second circle of a wall and continuation 3aspkia

ground; 4-th stage - concreting of the third circle of

Figures 2(a,b,c,d).

In calculations the body weight of the ground is

taken into account.

On Figure 3 the design model of a box on the earth

basis with the indication of boundary conditions is submitted. The settlement area has two vertical planes of

symmetry, only 1/4 part of area therefore is considered.

Calculation is carried out with use of the program

FDM-3D. In result the information on components

of central movings for all units, in all time points,

i.e. (n 3 p) is received. Components of vectors

of deformations and stresses for each time point, in

all FE (N 6 = 120 000) are counted up. Thus,

the full picture of evolution of vectors of movings,

deformations and stresses in space and in time is

received.

Further we shall illustrate some characteristic

results of calculation graphically. Thus the program

of construction isoareas and isolines was in addition

developed.

On Figure 4 the deformed scheme of settlement area

(the scale of deformation is increased in 30 times) is

submitted.

163

for times t3 (a), t5 (b), t7 (c), t20 (d).

normal stresses for times t3 (a), t5 (b), t7 (c), t20 (d).

164

normal stresses for t20 : a) x ; b) y

On Figure 5(a,b,c,d) are represented isolines of vertical movings for t3 = 70, t5 = 110, t7 = 160, t20 = 550

day which evidently show evolution of vertical

movings.

Isoareas and isolines components of vertical normal stresses (z ) for four time points are submitted on

Figure 6(a,b,c,d), and on Figure 7(a,b) isoareas and

isolines of components of horizontal normal stresses

(x ,y ) for last time point t20 .

Figure 8(a,b,c) isoareas and isolines of components of tangents of stresses (txy , txz , tzy ) for last time

point t20 .

of stresses for t20 : a) xy ; b) xz ; c) zy .

165

Table 1. Comparison of results of calculations vertical movings v (with the account and without taking into account

technology).

Time

points

Without taking

into account

With the

account

Divergence,

%

t1

t2

t3

t4

t5

t6

t7

t8

t9

t10

t11

t12

t13

t14

t15

t16

t17

t18

t19

t20

5,22E-02

6,34E-02

6,49E-02

6,60E-02

6,68E-02

6,78E-02

6,86E-02

6,92E-02

6,98E-02

7,03E-02

7,08E-02

7,12E-02

7,16E-02

7,19E-02

7,23E-02

7,26E-02

7,29E-02

7,32E-02

7,34E-02

7,37E-02

3,78E-03

4,79E-03

5,08E-03

5,30E-03

6,56E-03

7,31E-03

2,69E-02

3,22E-02

3,29E-02

4,73E-02

5,07E-02

5,12E-02

6,56E-02

6,90E-02

6,96E-02

7,01E-02

7,06E-02

7,11E-02

7,15E-02

7,18E-02

92,76%

92,44%

92,17%

91,97%

90,18%

89,22%

60,79%

53,47%

52,87%

32,72%

28,39%

28,09%

8,38%

4,03%

3,73%

3,44%

3,16%

2,87%

2,59%

2,58%

deformations for t20 .

w, m

0,00E+00

-1,00E-02

-2,00E-02

-3,00E-02

-4,00E-02

-5,00E-02

-6,00E-02

-7,00E-02

-8,00E-02

30

70

110

160

220

280

340

400

460

520

t, [days]

In view of technology

16

24

32

37

45

0.00E+00

-1.00E-02

unit # 995.

-2.00E-02

-3.00E-02

-4.00E-02

On Figure 9 are shown isolines and isoareas of components of vertical deformations for last moment of

time t20 .

If necessary received results can be presented as

appropriate diagrams on any chosen planes of sections

for any time point.

Except for it, on Figure 10 diagrams of vertical movings for characteristic units of system are submitted,

and in Table 1 are resulted comparison of results of calculation in time of vertical moving of the central unit

of a box (#995) with the account and without taking

into account technology of construction.

Are constructed diagrams vertical movings to

planes of symmetry for two levels on depth (I-st a

level y = 1 m, II-nd a level y = 9 ) and four

time points (t3 , t5 , t7 , t20 ), appropriate to four stages of

erection Figure 11a,b.

-5.00E-02

-6.00E-02

-7.00E-02

-8.00E-02

t3I

t5I

t7I

t20I

t3II

t5II

t7II

t20II

a)

y

16

24

29

37

1.00E-02

0.00E+00

-1.00E-02

-2.00E-02

-3.00E-02

-4.00E-02

-5.00E-02

-6.00E-02

-7.00E-02

-8.00E-02

t3I

CONCLUSIONS

t7I

t20I

t3II

t5II

t7II

t20II

b)

at designing, calculations and operation of ground,

a) In a plane x0y; b) in a plane y0z.

166

t5I

dams, bridges and tunnels etc. objects in view of their

teamwork with the earth and rocky basis, time and spatial heterogeneity due to creep of materials. Besides

the developed packages of applied programs are convenient for users in view of their friendly interface,

optimum automation of input of the initial data and

processing of the received results.

The technique developed in work and the received

results allow to predict change in time of the SDS of

considered building objects with the big accuracy for

the long period of their operation, even in view of

possible reconstruction. This account can result in significant changes of the SDS (on the order and more)

for all period of operation.

In conclusion we shall note, that practically full concurrence of results of calculation of a base box by three

various ways is observed. For example, values of central movings in extreme points of contact of a plate

and a ground of the basis differ among themselves, for

the moment of time t20 , (2004), on 1.7%. Differences

of central movings in the same points from results of

natural supervision (t7 , 2002) make about 6% (Aitaliev Sh., Dostanova S., Isahanov E., Tokpanova K.,

Aldungarov M., 2004). Except for it, in out of contour

areas it is observed small buckling a ground.

REFERENCES

167

Aldungarov M., 2004, Appraisal of settlments of high

television tower on the Kok-Tube mountain near by

Almaty city, Works of the international geotechnical

conference, Almaty, pp.132137.

2. Aitaliev Sh., Ter-Emmanuilyan T., 2003, Method of full

discretization in joint calculations of buildings and the

bases in view of creep, spatial and time heterogeneity,

Questions of applied physics and mathematics, Almaty,

pp.241246.

3. Ilyichev V., 2004, Experience of underground construction in Moscow. Works of the international geotechnical

conference, Almaty, pp.4142.

4. Ter-Emmanuilyan N., 1975, Method of spatially time

discretization for the decision of linear problems of the

theory of creep, On questions of mathematics and the

mechanics, No.7, KazNU. Alma-Ata, pp.1622.

5. Ter-Emmanuilyan N. Ter-Emmanuilyan T., 2006.

Method of full discretization for the decision problems

of an elastic creep, Almaty, p.416.

6. Ter-Emmanuilyan T., 2006., Application of the modified method full discretizations in engineering problems

with the account creep of materials and technology of

construction, Almaty, p.275.

Foundation

2007 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN13 978-0-415-42280-2

young alluvium

Abdul Aziz Hanifah, Mohamad Nor Omar & Nor Fardzilah Abdul Rahman

Public Works Department, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Test Technical Laboratory, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

ABSTRACT: The results of a study of pile resistance variations over time by high strain dynamic pile tests

using Pile Driving Analyzer (PDA) are presented. A total of twenty-eight prestressed concrete test piles were

driven in two sites of similar geological formation and carefully tested using PDA at various elapsed times after

installation. The variations in resistance of these piles over a maximum elapsed time of 29 days are discussed. The

test results from the two sites are combined and compared to produce a general trend of resistance variation over

time. A new term, resistance gain ratio is introduced to describe the ratio of pile resistance obtained at re-strike

to end-of-drive. Well defined trends are observed when plotting resistance gain ratios against logarithmic time

scale. Finally, general equations for total and shaft resistance gain ratios are derived from such plots. These

general equations form the basis for prediction of magnitude and rate of resistance variation over time after

pile installation in young coastal alluvium for moderate to long displacement piles. The findings provide useful

information for engineers in the planning and design of piled foundation works, and in deciding the minimum

waiting time for load testing of piles.

INTRODUCTION

generates pore pressures which may reduce or increase

the strength of soil depending on the initial density of

the soil. Positive excess pore pressures are generated

in normally consolidated soils at the time of driving,

resulting in reduction in soil strength and vice versa for

over-consolidated soils. As a result, the installation of

displacement piles through relatively soft soils would

experience low driving resistance at the time of driving and gain of driving resistance over time, when the

soils recover from the disturbances of piling. Thus, the

long-term performance of displacement piles could be

significantly different from the performance obtained

at end-of-drive (EOD).

This research program was aimed at studying the

pile performance at EOD and various elapsed times

after piling for two selected sites namely KUITTHO

in Batu Pahat, Johor and Route 6 in Bayan Baru,

Penang.The effects of piling and resistance variation of

installed piles over time were anticipated to be dependent on the geological formation, pile type and pile

penetration length. In this research work, the large displacement piles were driven through soft/loose coastal

alluvium deposits with penetration length to diameter

ratios (L/D) of about 50 to 100.

is one of the main interests in any deep foundation

design and construction. Many researchers in the past

had also opted to quantify the change in pile performance by static load tests but often the required costs

and time are prohibitive. Fortunately, advances in the

application and measurement of pile dynamics enable

pile testing to be carried out in an affordable and

reliable manner using Pile Driving Analyzer (PDA).

The pile resistance in this research is determined by

high strain dynamic pile testing (HSDPT) outlined in

ASTM D4945-00 using PDA-W (2000) model PAK

and CAPWAP (1995) program

2

2.1

about 30 meters 40 meters within a construction

site located in Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein

Onn, Batu Pahat, Johor. The test pile group consisted

of ten numbers of 300 mm diameter 60 mm thick

prestressed concrete spun piles installed and tested

using a 5-ton single acting hydraulic drop hammer.

The installation details of the test piles (TP1-TP10)

are described in Table 1, showing some variations in

171

CASE STUDY 1

Batu Pahat.

Pile Installation

Ref. Details

and Observations At

Penetration

End-of-Drive

in Silt (m)

3.5 mm/blow @ 26.4m.

12 + 12 + 9 m.

16 ~ 23 m thick

SOFT CLAY

N = 0 4 blows/ft

3.0

TP2 no shoe,

2.5 mm/blow @ 29.1m. 6.4

12 + 12 + 9 m.

TP3 with shoe,

6.3 mm/blow @ 32.1 m. 8.7

12 + 12 + 9 m. badly damaged at 15 &

21 m at 28day restrike.

12 ~20 m thick

MEDIUM DENSE SILT

N = 10 35 blows/ft

3.6 mm/blow @ 28.2 m. 4.8

12 + 12 + 9 m.

TP5 with shoe,

3.2 mm/blow @ 30.5 m, 7.1

12 + 12 + 9 m. but broken at 15-minute

restrike using 1.2 m drop

at 21.0 and 13.0 m below

pile-top, badly damaged

at 9 m during EOD.

TP6 no shoe,

broken at about 7.0 m

installation.

TP7 with shoe,

12 + 12 + 9 m.

TP8 drive to length.

with shoe,

12 + 12 m.

TP9 drive to length.

with shoe,

12 + 9 + 9 m.

7.0mm/blow @ 30.6 m.

7.2

pile toe in soft layer.

0.0

V. DENSE SILT

N > 50 blows/ft

made to mobilize the ultimate capacity of the piles

by increasing the hammer drop up to its maximum of

1.2 m if the measured set at pile-top was found to be

less than 2.5 mm/blow. Subsequent to field data collection, CAPWAP analyses were performed to determine

the mobilized pile resistance and the computed shaft

and toe resistances.

pile toe in stiff layer

3.2mm/blow @ 24.7m.

12 + 12 + 9 m.

7.2

of the piles.

The site is located on a flat coastal alluvium plain

where the geological formation is of Quaternary age.

The subsoil profile shown in Figure 1 is characterized

by a 1623 meter soft clay layer underlain by a medium

dense silt layer which varies in thickness from 12 to

20 meters. This is followed by a very dense silt layer

where the SPT values exceed 50 blows/0.3 m.

Pile driving monitoring (PDM) was carried out for

all the test piles throughout the process of installation

to provide information on the various driving quantities pertinent to piling eg. compressive and tensile

stresses. High strain dynamic pile tests (HSDPT) were

carried out at the end of test pile installation i.e. at

the end of drive (EOD). Re-strike HSDPTs at various elapsed times after EOD were performed on the

test piles to study the variation of pile capacities with

time. A total of seventy-one (71) HSDPTs were carried out on nine test piles over a 29-day period. Test

pile, TP6 was damaged during installation and hence

not included in the following discussions.

HSDPTs plotted versus the elapsed time from EOD for

eight piles driven into the stiff silt stratum. It is evident

that the set of all eight piles that were driven into the

stiff silt had greatly reduced to less than 2.5 mm/blow

after an elapsed time of about 10 days. This indicates

that the 5-ton hammer was not capable of mobilizing

the ultimate capacities of the piles even when the piling

rig operated at the maximum hammer drop of 1.2 m.

CAPWAP analyses were performed to determine

the mobilized pile resistances with separation of shaft

and toe resistances. The results of CAPWAP analyses on seventy-one numbers of HSDPT on nine test

piles are shown in Figures 3 and 4, which plot the

mobilized total resistance and shaft resistance versus

elapsed time from EOD respectively

Both the total and shaft resistances of the test piles

increased significantly with elapsed time from EOD.

The dominant gain in resistance occurred within a

short period of less than 5 days. It should be noted that

the pile resistances from re-strike tests conducted 10

days or later after EOD represent lower bound values

of the ultimate pile capacity as the achieved permanent

set at the pile head were all significantly less than

172

GL

0m

12

250

11

225

10

200

Set (mm)

8

7

6

5

4

175

150

125

100

75

3

50

2

25

1

0

0

0

12

16

20

24

28

32

TP2

TP7

TP3

TP9

TP4

TP10

from EOD.

12

16

20

24

28

32

TP1

TP2

TP3

TP4

TP5

TP7

TP9

TP10

for KUITTHO.

increase in total resistance from the 4th. to 28th. day

was only about 20%.

A review of the quake and pile displacement profiles estimated by the CAPWAP analyses suggests that

the shaft resistance was practically fully mobilized in

nearly all of the test piles. The trend of increase in shaft

resistance is broadly similar to the total resistance. The

increase in total and shaft resistances at any time can

be expressed as a ratio by normalizing with respect to

the resistance at EOD. A term, Resistance Gain Ratio

(RGR), is introduced as

250

225

200

TP1

TP5

175

150

125

100

RGR =

75

25

0

4

12

16

20

24

28

32

TP1

TP2

TP3

TP4

TP5

TP7

TP9

TP10

KUITTHO.

(2)

(3)

173

(1)

twice the resistance at end of drive. The gain ratios for

total and shaft resistances of the test piles are computed and plotted with elapsed time from EOD on

a logarithmic scale in Figure 5 and Figure 6 respectively. The data show an increasing trend in a narrow

band and are generally bounded within 35% of the

best-fit trend line.

The equations of the trend line for both total and

shaft resistance gain ratios are as follows:-

50

Resistance at Restrike

Resistance at EOD

CASE STUDY II

4

+35%

+35%

-35%

1

-35%

0

0.0001

0.001

0.01

0.1

10

100

Figure 5. Total Resistance Gain Ratio vs Elapsed Time from

EOD for KUITTHO.

viaduct along Route 6, Bayan Baru, Penang Island.

The site is located on a flat coastal alluvium plain

consisting of Quaternary deposits overlying granite

bedrock. The subsoil at the test section is made up

of 3 to 9 meters of soft clay/loose silt followed by 45

to 50 meters of layered medium dense silt and sand

overlying highly weathered to fresh granite. The soil

profile is shown in Figure 7

The proposed foundations of the bridge were

600 mm diameter x 100 mm thick open-ended prestressed concrete spun piles. The design specifications

required a 25-pile group at each pier location and an

ultimate pile capacity of 430 tons (working load of

215 tons). An extensive testing and monitoring program was carried out on two 9-pile groups totalling

18 test piles. Test piles, TP1 to TP9 was in one group

while the other group consisted of test piles, TP10 to

TP18. Due to space constraints at the site and equipment availability, the largest piling rig obtainable was

a Twinwood 10-ton single acting hydraulic drop hammer with a maximum hammer drop height of about 1.1

meter. It was initially anticipated that to achieve the

required capacities, the pile would have to be driven

to the very dense layer at a depth exceeding 50 m.

The details of the test pile installation are summarized in Table 2, showing some variations in the depth

of pre-bore, splice length, pile shoe and set condition

of the piles. Again, HSDPT were carried out on the test

piles at EOD and at various elapsed times after driving

to study the variation of pile resistance over time.

+35%

GL

0m

3 ~ 9 m thick

SOFT CLAY/LOOSE SILT

N = 0 10 blow s/ft

3

45 ~ 50 m thick

MEDIUM DENSE SILT/SAND

N = 10 30 blow s/ft

-35%

+35%

-35%

0

0.0001

0.001

0.01

0.1

10

HIGHLY WEATHERED TO

FRESH GRANITE

100

Figure 6. Shaft Resistance Gain Ratio vs Elapsed Time from

EOD for KUITTHO.

174

SPT-N

Value

Prebore at/near

(m)

toe

Total

Blow

Count

(no.)

Pile

Ref.

Final Set Measurements

TP1

pipe shoe,

12 + 15 + 15 + 15 m

2.1 mm/blow @ 53.2 m.

30

2755

TP2

pipe shoe,

12 + 15 + 15 + 15 m

1.0 mm/blow @ 52.8 m.

pipe shoe,

12 + 12 + 15 + 15 m

0.9 mm/blow @ 52.3 m.

30

2572

30

2861

pipe shoe,

2

12 + 12 + 12 + 12 m

12.0 mm/blow @ 46.5 m.

pipe shoe,

2

12 + 12 + 12 + 12 m

final length @ 46.5 m.

pipe shoe,

2

12 + 12 + 12 + 12 m

final length @ 46.5 m.

25

1362

25

1654

25

2321

no shoe, 15 + 15 + 15 m

final length @ 43.8 m.

no shoe, 15 + 15 + 15 m

final length @ 44.3 m.

25

2263

25

2091

25

2018

15

1055

TP3

TP4

TP5

TP6

TP7

TP8

TP9

no shoe, 15 + 15 + 15 m

final length @ 43.5 m.

12 + 15 + 15 m

final length @ 39.0 m.

During testing, efforts were made to mobilize the ultimate capacity of the piles by increasing the hammer

drop to its maximum height of 1.1 m if the measured

set at pile head was found to be less than 2.5 mm/blow.

Figure 8 shows the measured set of the pile head during

HSDPTs plotted against the elapsed time from EOD

for the two pile groups.

At EOD, the four piles that were driven into the

dense to very dense completely weathered granite (i.e.

TP1, TP2, TP3 and TP18; shown in solid markings)

achieved a much lower set than the fourteen floating piles (i.e. TP4 to TP17). However, the measured

set of all the piles reduced substantially over time

and were generally lower than 2.5 mm/blow after an

elapsed time of about 10 days. This suggests the significant increases in driving resistance over time and

that the ultimate capacities of the piles were not fully

mobilized by the testing performed at later days even

at the maximum hammer drop of 1.1 m of the 10-ton

hydraulic hammer.

The mobilized total and shaft resistances from

CAPWAP analyses are plotted versus elapsed time

from EOD in Figures 9 and 10 respectively. Generally all the piles showed an increasing trend in total

and shaft resistances over time with dominant variations occurring within a duration of 10 days. For

some piles however, significant increases were still

recorded between re-strikes that were performed later

than 10 days after EOD. It is also observed that the

30

TP11 no shoe, 12 + 12 + 12 m 2

16.2 mm/blow @ 34.5 m.

15

948

12 + 12 + 15 + 15 m

8.0 mm/blow @ 53.0 m.

0.6

25

2420

12 + 15 + 15 m

9.7 mm/blow @ 40.8 m.

12 + 12 + 12 + 15 m

7.2 mm/blow @ 50.0 m.

12 + 12 + 15 + 15 m

8.7 mm/blow @ 52.5 m.

25

20

18

25

Set (mm)

Table 2.

Baru.

1755

2282

10

23

2223

5

TP16 no shoe, 15 + 15 + 15 m 2

12.8 mm/blow @ 43.8 m.

18

1450

12 + 12 + 12 + 12 m

8.0 mm/blow @ 46.8 m.

22

2196

12 + 15 + 15 + 15 m

2.0 mm/blow at 54.3 m.

0

0

12

16

20

30

>50

TP1

2260

TP2

TP3

EOD.

175

15

800

800

700

700

600

500

400

300

600

500

400

300

200

200

100

100

0

0

12

16

12

16

20

20

TP1

TP2

TP3

TP4

TP5

TP6

TP7

TP8

TP9

TP10

TP11

TP12

TP13

TP14

TP15

TP16

TP17

TP18

TP2

TP3

TP4

TP5

TP6

TP7

TP8

TP9

TP10

TP11

TP12

TP13

TP14

TP15

TP16

TP17

TP18

piles driven into the very dense completely weathered granite generally showed a temporary decrease

in resistance during the course of the re-strike program. Such a decrease may be related to relaxation of

the over-consolidated soils at/near the pile toe.

Figures 11 and 12 show the gain ratios versus

elapsed time from EOD on a logarithmic scale for

total and shaft resistances respectively. The gain ratios

obtained at final re-strikes for total resistance ranged

from 1.4 to 3.7 and for shaft resistance, ranged from

2.3 to 5.9. The gain ratios for total resistance are lower

due to under mobilization of resistance or probable

soil relaxation at the pile toe. Similar to case study I,

the data are narrowly banded in an increasing trend and

bounded within 35% of the trend lines.The equations

of the best-fit trend lines for total and shaft resistance

gain ratios are:

Total RGR = 0.13 Ln(day) + 1.79

(4)

(5)

from Case Study 1.

DISCUSSIONS

in Figures 13 and 14 to compare the trends of the

4

+35%

+35%

-35%

1

-35%

0

0.0001

0.001

0.01

0.1

10

100

from EOD for Route 6.

a logarithmic scale.

The plots clearly show that the data in both cases

exhibit a similar trend, i.e. increasing linearly in a

176

TP1

Route 6.

Route 6.

+35%

-35%

+3 5%

4

+35%

+35%

-35%

-35%

0

0.0001

0.001

-35%

0.01

0.1

10

0

0.0001

100

0.01

0.1

10

100

from EOD for Route 6.

from EOD for Both Case Studies.

The data points generally fall within a band of 35%

from the best-fit trend line. This order of variation

is considered reasonably small in view of the spatial

and temporal variability of the factors affecting the

resistance.

In both case studies, the piles were driven through

similar geological formations, i.e. soft alluvial soils

into dense bearing strata with L/D ratios ranged from

50 to 100. The equations for the best-fit trend lines

derived from the combined data plotted in Figure 13

and Figure 14 are derived as follows:(6)

(7)

and shaft resistance gain ratios increased appreciably

within 10 days from EOD. Based on the best-fit trend

lines, the gain ratios for total and shaft resistances at

10 days from EOD are 2.0 and 3.0 respectively while

the gain ratios for total and shaft resistances at 28 days

after EOD are 2.1 and 3.3 respectively. This implies

that the pile resistance did not change appreciably

after 10 days subsequent to pile installation, keeping in

view that the toe resistance may not be fully mobilised

in cases after 10 days. Hence, load testing of piles

installed to the similar conditions of these studies may

be considered after an elapsed time of about 10 days.

+35%

4

-35%

+35%

-35%

0

0.0001

0.001

0.01

0.1

10

100

Figure 14. Shaft Resistance Gain Ratio vs Elapsed Time

from EOD for Both Case Studies.

177

0.001

of resistance gain ratio for other geological formations,

pile types and longer elapsed time.

load testing a pile.

In general, the following guidelines may be considered for displacement piles driven through soft

alluvium into dense strata with L/D ratios of 50 to 100:-

CONCLUSIONS

prestressed concrete piles of moderate to long penetration driven through thick coastal alluvium overlying

very dense strata are studied. High Strain Dynamic

Pile Tests (HSDPT) were carried out at end of drive

(EOD) and over a maximum elapsed time of 29

days. The results are analyzed using CAPWAP which

computes the pile shaft and toe resistances using a

signal-matching algorithm.

A new term, Resistance Gain Ratio (RGR) is

proposed which is expressed as a ratio of pile resistance obtained at restrike to pile resistance at EOD.

The Resistance Gain Ratio plotted against elapsed

time from end of drive on a logarithmic scale showed

distinct and similar trends in both case studies. The

equations for the best-fit tend lines for the Resistance

Gain Ratio for total and shaft resistances are derived

as follows:Total RGR = 0.12 Ln(day) + 1.75

(8)

(9)

above may be applied to predict the magnitude and rate

of pile resistance variation over time. The information

can be used to predict the long term resistance of piles

based on the driving resistance observed at the time of

after pile installation are 2.0 and 3.0 respectively

with a variation of 35%.

The total and shaft resistance gain ratios at 28 days

after pile installation are 2.1 and 3.3 respectively

with a variation of 35%.

The waiting period before carrying out pile load testing should be 10 days after installation of the pile.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors would like to thank the Director General,

Public Works Department Malaysia for permission to

publish the paper.

REFERENCES

ASTM D4945-00 (2000), Standard Test Method for High

Strain Testing of Piles.

CAPWAP Manual, (1995) Goble, Rausche, Likins and Associates Inc., Cleaveland, Ohio, U.S.A.

Hanifah, A.A., Omar, M.N., Rahman, N.F.A. and Ong,

T.K. (2004). Dynamic Pile Testing Using Pile Driving

Analyzer (PDA) and Pile Integrity Test (PIT) Phase II,

Research Report, JKR 20601-LK-0086-GT-05, Public

Works Department Malaysia.

PDA-W Manual of Operation, (2000). Pile Dynamics Inc.,

U.S.A.

178

2007 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN13 978-0-415-42280-2

Alain Le Kouby

Department for Soil and Rock Mechanics and Engineering Geology, LCPC, Paris

Soil Mechanics laboratory, CERMES, Paris

ABSTRACT: We present in this paper the results of a parametric study carried out in a calibration chamber on

instrumented model piles. The aim is to point out group effect on piles within a group through their resulting shaft

friction and tip resistance. The methodology relies on the study of the influence of adjacent piles on a reference

pile. The soil used is a silica sand (Fontainebleau sand). The influence of parameters like pile spacing, number

of piles, and direction of loading are evaluated. The results show a positive effect on shaft friction of the group

effect and a negative effect on tip resistance. Efficiency factors are defined in order to have a better view on the

parameters influencing the response of the pile within a group.

INTRODUCTION

commonly used in civil engineering. It consists in

transferring the load to the substratum through shaft

friction and tip resistance, both parameters controlling

the bearing capacity of the pile.

Besides micropiles are generally used in great number and close to each other showing a significant group

effect.

Therefore, it is important to study and try to quantify

the interaction between the piles on each inclusions

response which is called group effect. An experimental set-up has been developed at CERMES-LCPC,

a calibration chamber to study the vertical response of

single pile and groups through the head load, the shaft

friction and the tip resistance.

Within this context, a specific approach was chosen

to clarify these aspects (Francis, 1997). The objective

of the proposed paper is to present the results of an

experimental work aimed at studying the influence of

parameters like pile spacing, the number of piles and

the direction of loading on the response of piles.

2

2.1

PROCEDURE

Experimental set-up

prepare a 700 mm high and 520 mm in diameter sample, with a controlled density ratio, using the pluviation

procedure. It is possible to apply independent vertical

and horizontal consolidation stresses (K0 state). The

design of the upper part of the cell allows the installation and subsequent loading of the model pile. A

picture of the general view of the experimental set-up

is shown on Figure 1, with on the right the data acquisition system and on the left the loading test of a model

pile with the loading system

The latter is a servo-controlled hydraulic actuator

and can apply various types of loading (monotonic or

cyclic).

As far as the installation process is concerned, a

method by jacking has been chosen. The jacked piles

179

are installed with the help of the long jack (at the top)

after the soil mass preparation.

The model pile is a metallic inclusion with a diameter of 20 mm, controlled shaft roughness and equipped

with a miniature force transducer for tip resistance

and instrumented shaft element for elementary shaft

friction measurement.

The tip is conical, the measurement shaft is 200 mm

long. After the installation process, the pile is centered

on the middle of the soil mass for the loading test i.e.

at equal distance from both end plates (250 mm) and

in order to minimize end plates effects.

In addition, Puech (1975) stated that it is necessary to allow a distance of about 5d between the tip

of the model and the bottom end plate to minimize its

influence on tip resistance mobilization. In our device,

the distance between the tip and the bottom plate is

200 mm (i.e. 10d) and the measurement shaft is at a

distance of 20 mm from the tip so that the tip will not

influence the shaft mobilization (Been et al., 1986 ;

Mokrani, 1991).

The ratio between the diameter of the cell and the

model pile diameter is 26, which is acceptable to minimize the effects of the sample size for the tested

inclusions in loose to medium sand (Been et al., 1986;

Foray, 1991).

2.2 Testing procedure

For the jacked pile, after preparation of the soil mass at

a given density and consolidation stresses (anisotropic

(K0 condition)), the pile models are installed using a

jacking rig; the soil around the pile is remoulded.

After the pile installation, the pile is embedded by

500 mm within the sand mass so that the 200 mm skin

friction gauge is not influenced by the top plate and

the tip is at a distance of 10 diameters from the bottom

plate. The behaviour of the model pile in this study

can be assimilated to the behaviour of a pile at those

initial soil conditions (relative density and confining

pressures).

Then, in the case of a single pile, the loading phase

is carried out to get the bearing capacity. As far as

the pile groups are concerned, the next phases depend

on the installation order (see paragraph 3). For example, in the case of an installation order C1 (soil mass

M2) (see paragraph 3), the testing procedure is as

follows:

Preparation of the soil mass

Installation by jacking of the center pile

Monotonic loading of the center pile until failure

in order to get the reference bearing capacity of the

single pile in terms of pile head load, shaft friction

and tip resistance. It will be compared to the bearing

capacity of the group

Installation of the 4 adjacent pile

Loading of the 5-pile group (test M2-G5)

Kouby, 2003).

Loading of the 9-pile group (test M2-G9)

During the installation and the loading phases, data

acquisition is recorded for the pile head displacement and force measured as well as the tip and shaft

measurements.

The above testing procedure is valid for the case of

compression tests and the tension tests.

Besides, for the tensions tests an additional frame

has been developed in order to link the loading jack

and the loaded piles in tension (Figure 2).

3.1 Objectives

The scope of this work is to point out group effect

on piles through bearing capacity of a group and in

particular on the shaft friction and tip resistance of a

pile within a group.

180

PROGRAM

C1

within a group; (b) 9-pile group cell and (c) 5-pile group cell

(center pile = generic pile).

(1997) (Figure 3) can be described as follows: at first

we consider a group of piles characterized by a great

number of generic piles (i.e. submitted to the effect

of adjacent piles). In order to point out the effect of

these adjacent piles on the generic pile, it has been

decided to study the group of 9 piles with a central

inclusion submitted to the influence of the 8 adjacent

piles.

In addition, an other hypothesis has been made considering that the 4 closest piles have got the most

influence on the center pile (generic pile).

Elementary cells have been studied to check this

hypothesis. Tests on groups of 5 and 9 piles have been

carried out. An additional parameter has been considered; the direction of loading as the generic pile will

have a different behaviour according to the steps in the

piles installation.

For the 5-pile groups, 2 different cells have been

considered with their own installation order (C1); Figure 4). For C1, the center pile is installed at first and

the adjacent piles afterwards.

In the case of 9 pile group, again, one type of cell

has been considered with its own installation order

(C1) (Figure 4). For C1, the center pile is installed,

followed by the 4 closest adjacent piles and then by

the 4 last piles.

We study the influence of parameters such as pile

spacing, number of piles (1, 5 and 9) and direction

of loading for the case of 5-pile groups on the pile

group response. Besides, we focus on the mechanical

behaviour on the center pile (generic pile) representing the pile within a group through the shaft friction

and the tip resistance measured.

Then, we try to quantify group effect and get an idea

of the additional load taken by a pile within a group ;

through different group efficiency factors:

a group efficiency factor for the total load carried

by the group and two efficiency factor

C1

Figure 4. Elementary cells of 5 and 9 piles studied for an

installation order C1.

and,

the tip resistance of the generic pile.

3.2 Experimental program

The experimental program has been defined to point

out the influence of some parameters on the interaction

effects between piles within a group (table 1).

The tests have been carried out in dry Fontainebleau

sand (reference sand in France). This material has

got the following characteristics (D50 = 200 mm,

emax = 0.94 and emin = 0.54, s = 26.5 kN/m3 ) and is

sub-rounded.

The initial conditions chosen for those tests are: a

density ratio of 0.50 and consolidation stresses with a

K0 type (K0 = 0.40, v0

= 125 kPa and h0

= 50 kPa).

The first two tests are done to get the reference

bearing capacity in compression of the single pile (M1S1 and M2-S1) and in tension (M3-S1 and M4-S1)

(table 1).

Two separate sets of tests have been done: M1-G5,

M6-G5, M3-G5 and M4-G5 for the tests on 5-pile

181

pile in soil mass I; Mi-G5: test on 5-pile group in soil mass i;

Mi-G9: test on 9-pile group in soil mass I; Type: type of test

(T: tension or C: compression; eR : pile spacing ratio (ratio

distance between 2 piles on pile diameter)).

Test

eR

Type

M1

M2

M3

M4

M1-S1

M2-S1

M3-S1

M5-S1

1

1

1

1

C

C

T

T

M1

M6

M3

M4

M2

M11

M1-G5

M6-G5

M3-G5

M5-G5

M2-G9

M11-G9

5

5

5

5

9

9

2.83

4

2.83

4

2,83

2,83

C

C

T

T

C

C

Soil mass

0

Single jacked pile

ID = 0,50 v = 125 kPa h = 50 kPa

-1

(M3-S1)

Tension test

-2

-3

(a)

-1

40

20

-20

-40

-60

-3

-2

-1

(b)

8

the response of a single pile under monotonic loading

through the total load, the tip resistance and the shaft

friction.

The three maximum values obtained can be considered as reference values in comparison with the

response of a pile within a group.

In addition, according to the loading phase, a first

loading is carried out until a maximum load followed

by an unloading phase. Then, a re-loading is done and

the maximum values reached for the pile head load,

tip resistance and the shaft friction are similar to the

values obtained during the first loading phase.

This result shows, for compression, that the main

variations in the soil-pile interface occur during the

installation phase. A loading unloading re-loading

phase has less effect on the response of the pile. This

procedure validates the tests on groups. Indeed, for

instance, the center pile can be installed at first and

then loaded as a single pile in order to have the reference resistance and then the adjacent piles are installed

and the pile group is loaded.

These different phases of loading unloading and

re-loading will not have important effect on the center

pile response (order of installation C1).

In the case of tension test, one can notice that the

skin friction mobilised in the compression test is bigger than the skin friction mobilised in the tension test.

-2

60

the 9-pile groups.

In the case of 5-pile groups, we study the influence

of pile spacing (tests M1-G5 and M6-G5 for 5-pile

groups in compression and M3-G5 and M4-G5 for 5pile groups in tension). For the 9-pile group case, we

carried out 2 tests for repeatability.

0

0

(c)

Influence of the direction of loading on the loading model

jacked pile response on (a) pile head load and (b) shaft friction

and (c) tip resistance for compression test

182

25

20

15

v = 125 kPa h= 50 kPa ID = 0,50

eR = 2,83 Installation order C1

Single pile

(testM1-S1)

Group of 5 piles(testM1-G5)

Group of 9 piles(testM2-G9)

10

eR = 2,83Installationorder C1

Single pile

(test M1-S1)

Group of 5 piles (test M1-G5)

Group of 9 piles (test M2-G9)

-1

0

0

12

16

20

pile, a center pile in the cases respectively of a 5-pile group

and a 9-pile group.

pile, a 5-pile group and a 9-pile group.

jacking phase provokes a remoulding of the zone of

soil around the pile.

Tension tests can be considered as a decompression

phase of the soil around the pile at the tip and on the

shaft. In addition to the changes in radial stresses along

the pile shaft relating to the loading path (compressive

versus tensile loading), this difference in skin friction

may also be attributed to residual loads induced by

driving and generating negative friction stresses along

the pile shaft.

5 TEST RESULTS ON PILE GROUP

5.1 Typical results

For the installation phase of a 5-pile group (case of C1),

as the number of jacked pile increases, the necessary

load to jack a pile within the group increases. Hence,

the pile head load increases from the first pile to the

5th (center pile).

The results of the loading of 1-pile, 5pile group

and 9-pile group through total load show an increasing load to reach the failure as the number of piles

increases (Figure 6). Such is also the case for pile head

load on the center pile, shaft friction and tip resistance

on the center pile (Figures 7 and 8 (a) and (b)).

In addition, in the case of the single pile, failure

is reached at a displacement of about 1mm (0.05d,

with d: diameter of the pile) and its limit resistance is

about 4 kN. In the case of the 5-pile group, the maximum load reaches 18 kN for a displacement of 2,5 mm

(about 12.5% d) and for the 9-pile group 24 kN after a

displacement of 22.5% d (not shown on Figure 6).

load applied on the group for the installation order

C1 (Figure 7). Indeed, the proportion of shaft friction

and tip resistance mobilized is low showing that the

corner pile carries most of the load until a maximum

settlement.

This settlement covers a range: [2.5 mm for a 5-pile

group and 6 mm for a 9-pile group]. The shape of the

shaft friction curve curves underlines this specificity

with a stiff response at the beginning of the loading

and then a small increased of the load carried by the

center pile and then the failure (Figure 8).

The shaft friction and the tip resistance increase as

pile spacing ratio decreases. In addition, the shaft friction of the center pile is bigger than the shaft friction

measured in the case of a single pile although the tip

resistance of the center pile is always smaller than the

tip resistance of the single pile. A first remark is that

the displacement required by the group to reach its

maximum value is much more important than in the

case of the single pile.

5.2 Parametric study on the pile group response

The influence of pile spacing ratio is shown on Figure 9

in the case of 5-pile groups and of the installation order

C1 with the tests M1-G5 and M6-G5.

At first, Figure 9(a) shows an interesting feature

with the pile group head load similar in the two cases

In this paragraph, we focus on the behaviour of the

center pile and especially the unit loads carried by this

pile (shaft friction and tip resistance).

On the center pile, for shaft friction (Figure 9(b)),

we notice similar shapes of the curves for the values

183

100

25

20

80

60

40

20

v= 125 kPah

0

Center pile

h 50 kPa

15

5-pile group

v = 125 kPa

10

ID= 0,50

Single p

(teilest M1-S1)

Group of 5 piles (test M1-G5)

Group of 9 piles (test M2-G9)

eR= 4

(M6-G5)

-20

0

(a)

120

(a)

10

h = 50 kPa

Installation order C1

80

40

5-pile group

Central pile

v = 125 kPa h = 50 kPa

Installation order C1

eR= 2,83 (M1-G5)

(M6-G5)

eR=4

-40

0

0

0

(b)

of the pile spacing ratio (2.83 and 4) and similar maximum values obtained (81 and 85 kPa). For a pile

spacing ratio of 2.83, the displacements necessary to

reach the maximum values are 3 mm and the maximum values obtained are 85 kPa. For the tip resistance,

the differences are more important with a tip resistance which is decreasing as the pile spacing ratio is

increasing.

Therefore, the distribution of load on the adjacent

piles might be different as the pile head loads on

the central pile (shaft friction and tip resistance) are

different for the 2 pile spacing ratio studied in this

paper.

Besides, for the shaft friction, the residual stresses

(Figures 5(b) and 9(b)) measured for the pile group

Figure 8. Typical result of the shaft friction (a) and tip resistance (b) on a single pile, a center pile in the cases respectively

of a 5-pile group and a 9-pile group.

3

5-pile group

Central pile

v = 125 kPa h = 50 kPa

Installation orderC1

eR= 2,83 (M1-G5)

(M6-G5)

eR= 4

1

0

(c)

5-pile group (a) on shaft friction (b) and tip resistance (c).

184

(b)

QT : bearing capacity of single pile

n: number of piles

-6

-4

-2

-40

Central pile

ID = 0,50 v = 125 kPa h = 50kPa

Installation orderC1

eR = 2,83

eR = 4

CE =

QPgroup

QP sin gle

(2)

center pile

QPsingle : bearing capacity of single pile

-80

CEPf =

fsgc

fS,max

(3)

-120

fs,max : maximum shaft friction of single pile

-160

CEPq =

case of tension tests on 5-pile group.

pile.

This is probably due to the tension loading of the

installed pile through the installation process of the

adjacent piles.

For the tip resistance (Figures 5(c) and 9(c)), such

is also the case with residual stresses smaller in the

case of pile groups as if the pile was unloaded.

For tension tests (Figure 10), cells of 5-pile have

been studied. We focus, in this paper, on the response

of the center pile in terms of shaft friction mobilised

in the case of 2 pile spacing. The shapes of the curves

look similar to the compression curves showing the

same type of behaviour as the compression.

Besides, the biggest value of shaft friction is

obtained for the smaller pile spacing. The shaft friction measured are in the same order as the case of

compression with values of 134 kPa for eR = 2.83

and 97 kPa for eR = 4; values bigger than in the case

of compression loads.

6

we are going to quantify the influence of the different

parameters on group effect.

In order to quantify group effects i.e. to compare the

behaviour of a pile within a group and a single pile, we

present 4 efficiency factors; relative to the total load

on the group (CE ), relative to the center pile head load

(CEP ), relative to the shaft friction of the center pile

(CEPf ) and relative to the tip resistance of the center

pile (CEPq ). They are defined as follows:

CE =

QG lim

n Q T

(1)

(4)

qP,max : maximum tip resistance of single pile

In this paper, the study focuses on the efficiency factors relative to shaft friction (CEPf ) and tip resistance

(CEPq ).

Besides, the efficiency factors should be estimated

by comparing the load per pile in pile groups with the

load of a reference single pile at the same settlement.

A reference settlement could be chosen (2 mm: 10%

pile diameter). However, we choose the following definition: the efficiency factors are calculated using the

ratio between the maximum load of the pile within a

group and the maximum load of the single pile in order

to point out group effect in terms of load.

The settlement necessary to reach the maximum

loads is an other issue, we will not consider here.

The results show an efficiency factor relative to

shaft friction, nearly always bigger than 1 which means

a positive group effect. Nevertheless, for the tip resistance, the efficiency factor is smaller than one leading

to a negative group effect.

At first, we consider the influence of pile spacing

ratio on the efficiency factor relative to shaft friction

and tip resistance of the center pile.

Shaft friction : the efficiency factor decreases as pile

spacing ratio increases.

Tip resistance: the efficiency factor decreases as pile

spacing ratio increases.

As far as the 9-pile group is concerned, we analyze

the difference between the behaviour of the center pile

within a 5-pile group and a 9-pile group (Figure 11)

in the case of the installation order C1 for eR = 2.83.

Shaft friction: for the case of 2.83, values tend to

reach. The assumption that the behaviour of 5 and

9-pile groups are similar seems to be validated for

185

qPgc

qP,max

test on single pile in soil mass I; Mi-G5: test on 5-pile group

in soil mass i; Mi-G9: test on 9-pile group in soil mass I; T:

type of test (T: tension or C: compression; eR : pile spacing

ratio (ratio distance between 2 piles on pile diameter)) and

(md: medium dense). T: type.

2.00

1.50

test

eR

ID

CEPf

CEPq

M1

M6

M3

M4

M2

M11

M1-G5

M6-G5

M3-G5

M5-G5

M2-G9

M11-G9

5

5

5

5

9

9

2.83

4

2.83

4

2.83

2.83

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

C

C

T

T

C

C

1.6

1.55

2.27

1.61

1.18

1.22

0.66

0.57

0.50

0.60

Phung (1993)

T1

T1G

T2

T2

T3

T3

5

5

5

4

6

8

0.38

0.67

0.62

C

C

C

2.56

3.19

2.00

2.00

0.85

1.03

Al Douri (1992)

4PDC1 (v = 100)

4PDC2 (v = 200)

4

4

4

4

md

md

T

T

1.66

1.22

1.83

1.00

Center pile

Installation order C1

ID = 0,50

5-pile group v = 125 kPa h = 50 kPa

9-pile group v = 125 kPa h = 50 kPa

0.50

0.00

0

1.00

Soil

mass

0.80

3

0.67

0.60

get the single pile capacity and then the 4 adjacent

piles are driven (order of installation C1)

Al Douri (1992) has done laboratory tension tests

on 4 jacked pile group in medium dense carbonate

sand.

Briaud et al. (1989) carried out in situ tests on a

5-driven pile group in sand.

0.40

0.20

0.00

0

Figure 11. Influence of the number of piles and of pile spacing, on the group efficiency factors relative to shaft friction

CEPf and tip resistance CEPq .

ratio of 2.83 and need to be checked for bigger pile

spacing.

Tip resistance: values are smaller than 1 and the

values obtained for the two values of pile spacing

are close. Again, our hypothesis on the behaviour of

5 and 9-pile groups seems to be validated.

The pile spacing ratio of 2.83 seem to show that the

behaviour of the center pile is close in a 5-pile group

and in a 9-pile group.

We can compare our data (table 2) with the results

of other authors. Their work is described as follows:

Phung (1993) has carried out in situ compression

tests in sand on groups of 5 driven piles, the center

shaft friction, for pile spacing ratios of 3 and 4, show

efficiency factors included in a range of 1.22 to 2.56

similar to our range of values.

In addition, the values relative to tip resistance are

included in a range of 0.67 and 2.00 which is far from

our results as we always get values smaller than 1.

7

on some results. Indeed, based on the methodology

developed by Francis (1997), we focus our study on

the mechanical behaviour of the center pile (pile within

the group) surrounded by adjacent piles.

We then are able to show a positive group effect on

shaft friction and a negative one on tip resistance.

The parametric study shows that group effect is the

most favourable when pile spacing is small.

As far as the number of piles is concerned, we notice

that for a pile spacing ratio of 2.83, the results obtained

are similar in terms of efficiency factor. A specific

186

CONCLUSIONS

bigger pile spacing

Besides, we can notice the range of values for different pile spacing and number of piles is still important.

Complementary research can be defined to achieve the

influence of those parameters.

The hypothesis, considering that we can study the

behaviour of 5-pile group in the same way as a 9-pile

group, needs to be pursued for bigger pile spacing ratio

as it is only checked for one pile spacing ratio : 2.83

and as the pile spacing ratio of 2 is a particular case.

Our values are also compared with other authors

showing a good similarity in the case of shaft friction in terms of efficiency factors. However, for the

tip resistance some differences appear as efficiency

factors are found to be smaller than one.

REFERENCES

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groups in calcareous sediments. Ph.D. Thesis, University

of Sydney. Australia

Been, K., Crooks, J. H. A., Becker, D. E. & Jefferies, M. G.

(1986). The cone penetration test in sands : part I, state

parameter interpretation. Gotechnique, Vol.36, N : 2,

pp. 239249.

Foray, P. (1991). Scale and boundary effects on calibration

chamber pile tests. Proceedings of the 1st International

Symposium on Calibration Chamber Testing/ISOCCT1,

Potsdam, New York, pp. 147160.

Francis, R. (1997). Etude du comportement mcanique de

micropieux modles en chambre dtalonnage. Application aux effets de groupe. Thse de Doctorat de lENPC.

Comportement de pieux modles soumis des chargements cycliques. Comptes rendus du 15me Congrs

International de Mcanique des Sols, Istanbul, Vol. 2,

pp. 898900.

Le Kouby, A. (2003) Contribution ltude des pieux et

micropieux sous chargement monotone et cyclique. Thse

de doctorat de lENPC.

Lizzi F. & Carneval, G. (1979). Les rseaux de pieux racines

pour la consolidation des sols. Aspects thoriques et essais

sur modles. Comptes-rendus du Colloque International

sur le renforcement des sols, Vol. 2, pp. 317324.

Mokrani, L. (1991). Simulation physique du comportement

des pieux grande profondeur en chambre dtalonnage.

Thse de Doctorat de linstitut National Polytechnique de

Grenoble.

ONeill, M. W., Hawkins, R.A. and Mahar, L.J. (1982). Load

transfer mechanisms in piles and pile groups. Journal Of

Geotechnical Engineering Division, Proceedings Of The

American Society Of Civil Engineers, ASCE, Vol. 108,

No. GT12.

ONeill, M. W., Hawkins, R.A. and Audibert, M. E. (1982).

Installation of pile group in overconsolidated clay. Journal

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The American Society Of Civil Engineers, ASCE, Vol.

108, No. GT11, pp. 13691386.

Phung, D. L. (1993). Footings with settlement-reducing piles

in non-cohesive soil. Ph.D. Thesis, Chalmers University

of Technology.

Puech, A., Foray, P., Boulon, M. & Desrues, J. (1975). Calcul

des pieux larrachement partir dun modle numrique

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187

2007 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN13 978-0-415-42280-2

railway embankment in soft soils

Jian-Dong Niu, Lin-Rong Xu, Bao-Chen Liu & Da-Wei L

School of Civil & Architecture, Central South Univ., Changsha, China

ABSTRACT: Sand columns have been commonly used to support embankments over soft soil. The inclusion

of geosynthetics reinforcement over sand columns is intended to enhance load transfer from soil to columns,

reduce total and differential settlements, and increase slope stability. Therefore, it creates a more economical

alternative. A constructed geosynthetics-reinforced embankment over sand columns at certain high-speed railway

trial embankment, Huaqiao, Kunshan, Jiangsu Province, China was selected for the numerical modeling and

analysis. This embankment was constructed to support railway over very soft soil. The sand columns were

installed in triangular arrangement and column types. A high strength woven geotextile was used above the sand

columns over the soft soil between columns. Instrumentation was installed to monitor the settlements of the

embankment and the strains in the geotextile over time. The computed settlements of the embankment and the

strains in geotextile reinforcement compared reasonably well with the measured results.

INTRODUCTION

decades, due to economical and social development

of the populations, has led to the necessity of using

soils with bad geotechnical characteristics as foundation of multiple engineering works. Particularly, the

construction of embankments on soft soils, characterized by their low strength, high deformability and low

permeability, has become nowadays an increasing reality, despite the difficulties associated to these works,

generally related to overall stability deficiency and to

high settlements that develop slowly.

In recent years geotechnical engineers have developed several alternatives to solve these problems,

including preloading or stage construction, using lightweight fill, over excavation and replacement, geosynthetics reinforcement, soil improvement techniques,

and composite foundation.

Composite foundations have been used with or

without geosynthetics reinforcements. A system without geosynthetics reinforcements is referred to herein

as the conventional composite foundation while the

system with geosynthetics reinforcements is referred

as the pile-net composite foundation. Conventional

and pile-net composite foundations have been used

columnar systems, such as: vibro-concrete columns,

soil-cement columns by mixing or grouting, stone

columns or sand columns.

The pile net composite foundations have been used

for several applications. Reid and Buchanan (1984)

differential settlement between an approach embankment constructed over soft soil and a bridge abutment

supported by long piles. A similar project was completed by using soil-cement mixing columns instead

of concrete piles, which were presented by Lin and

Wong (1999). Rao Wei-guo and Zhao Cheng-gang

(2002) have made some initial researches in the analysis of stress ratio of pile net composite foundation and

explained residue settlement by sheet plate theory.

Sand columns have been commonly used to support

embankments over soft soil. The inclusion of geosynthetics reinforcement over sand columns is intended

to enhance load transfer from soil to columns, reduce

total and differential settlements, and increase slope

stability. As a result, it creates a more economical

alternative. A constructed geosynthetics-reinforced

embankment over sand columns at certain high-speed

railway trial embankment, Huaqiao, Kunshan, Jiangsu

Province, China, was selected for the numerical modeling and analysis. This embankment was constructed

to support railway over very soft soil. The sand

columns were installed in triangular arrangement and

column types. A high strength woven geotextile was

used above the sand columns over the soft soil between

columns.

In order to verify the accuracy of the numerical

model used in this paper, this paper compared numerical and field results of reinforced embankments on soft

soils, The computed settlements of the embankment

189

Depth(m)

Soil Profile

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

Vane Strength

Suv(kPa)

AtterbergLimits(%)

Unit Weight(kN/m3)

0

Clay

PL

Wn

LL

Mucky Clay

Clay

Silt clay

sand and clay

silt sand

0

25

25

5

15

16

17

18

19

25

15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55

20

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

reasonably well with the measured results.

2

Embankment

Geosynthetic

Pile

Soil

2.1

Site condition

Based on bore hole surveying and some in-situ measurements, the roadbed of the railway embankment

section, located from K0+711m mileage to K0+855m

mileage on Huaqiao, Kunshan, Jiangsu Province,

China, consists of artificial earth fill, mucky clay, silty

clay containing some stiff-plasticity clay and dust sand

and the general soil profile and the basic properties

are given in Fig. 1. The roadbed is composed of five

discrete stratigraphic units.

(1) A surface layer of artificial earth fill of brownyellow clay, loose, extending to approximately

3.0 m below ground surface.

(2) A mucky clay, extending approximately from 3.0 m

to 6.5 m below ground surface.

(3) A clay layer of white-grey stiff-plasticity clay,

mixed with brown-yellow clay, extending to

approximately from 6.5 to 12.0 m, and this may

divide into five sub-levels.

(4) The silt mixture of sand and clay layer, extending

approximately from 12.0 to 16.5 m.

(5) The silt clay layer of white-grey, center dense and

saturated, extending approximately from 16.5 to

23.5 m.

soft soil

Firm soil bedrock

system.

preload ways such as sand column combination, which

is of 15 m length, 2 m spacing gap, 0.4 m diameter and

triangular arrangement. Sand column was constructed

by vibration way (repeated to pull and vibration) with

DZJ90 and DZJ175 construction equipments. The filling of Soft embankment includes sand cushion stage

and granular soil stage. Sand column and sand cushion

used middle rough sand and 0.6 m thickness of sand

cushion with a layer of geogrid in it.

Construction of the embankment started from May

25, 2003 to October 17, 2003; totally 145 days, and

the height of the embankment was 6.3 meter. The fill

thickness/time curve is also indicated in Fig. 3.

widen in both sides, 4.5 m field height,1.8 m over loading, 6.3 m total fill height, staged construction and

The instrumentation comprised magnetic settlement gauges (the deepest gauge is approximately

30 m below ground level), hydraulic profile gauges,

190

Load (kPa)

160

120

80

40

0

03-5-18

03-7-17

03-9-15

03-11-14

04-1-13

04-3-13

04-5-12

Date

Figure 3. The fill thickness/time curve.

(1)

(2)

piezometer

magnetic settlement gauges

(3) 3

inclinometers

Side pile

hydraulic settlement profile gauge

(3) 4

settlement plate

flexible displacement sensor

(3) 5

(4) 1

inclinometers, settlement plate, piezometer, soil pressure sell, deep pressure cell, flexible displacement

sensor.

3

3.1

CONSIDERED

Numerical model

to model this embankment. The geometry of the test

embankment was assumed symmetric so that half

of embankment was selected for calculation. Sand

columns were modeled as 2-D continuous walls. The

water table was assumed to be 1m below ground level

and the initial pore pressures prior to embankment

construction were taken to be hydrostatic. The centerline of the embankment (a line of symmetry) and

the far field lateral boundary were taken to be smooth

and rigid with the lateral boundary located 50 m from

was assumed to be rough and rigid. The mesh consists of approximately 1667 6-noded elements, which

is refined in areas where high stress gradients can be

expected. The mesh was deliberately chosen to be relatively fine in order to minimize the discretisation error

(Figure 5.).

Increase and dissipate of excess pore press should

be considered in calculation because the effective

stress remains low during the construction of embankment. The excess pore pressure will dissipate because

the settlement will start to consolidate due to drain

behavior and very low permeability causes long time

consolidation after construction. The left will not drain

water because it is a line of symmetry. The right vertical boundary should also be closed because there is

no free outflow at the boundary. The upper foundation

surface and the bottom are drainage boundary. Model

was analyzed and simulated as real construction shown

in Fig. 2 in order to simulate real construction steps.

191

problem

Strictly speaking, discrete sand piles should be considered as a 3-D analysis, whereas, most embankments

are modeled for plane strain conditions. To avoid the

necessity for a full 3-D analysis, some approximations are required to consider the sand columns in a

plane strains analysis. The equivalent sand columns in

a plane strain problem include stiffness matching and

permeability matching.

composition foundation system.

3.2

system: 5 layers of foundation soil, mat, embankment fill, sand columns, and geosynthetic. Due to

the complexity of the problem itself, some simplified constitutive models have been adopted in this

analysis within reasonable accuracy. Embankment fill,

soft soils, and sand columns were modeled as elastic perfectly plastic materials. Mohr-Coulomb failure

envelop was used as the failure criterion. The properties of all the materials in the case are summarized

in Table 1. The elastic module of soils were determined based on a common correlation of E = 100 qu

(qu = unconfined compression strength of soil) (for

example, Probaha, 2000; Bruce, 2001).

The geosynthetics was modeled by Geotextile elements, which can only sustaining axial tension but no

bending. Geosynthetics stiffness is 1000 kN/m. Interface can be placed at both sides of geosynthetics,

and this enables a full interaction between geosynthetics and sand mat. The stress-strain behavior at

soil-interface is simulated by elastic-perfectly-plastic

model. The model parameters at soil interface can be

generated from the soil using the interaction coefficient Rinter , defined as the ratio of shear strength of soil

structure interface to corresponding shear strength of

soil(Brinkgreve and Vermeer,1998).This calculation

Rinter = 0.8.

The elastic moduli of the Sand columns used CPT

data

E = 1ps

(1)

Average value from the above CPT data,

Ps = 3.08 Mpa.

Therefore, E = 2 ps = 6.16 MPa.

Most embankments are modeled for plane strain conditions and sand columns are ranged triangularly. Sand

column should be computed from 3D to 2D. Area

matching was assumed because sand column have

drainage consolidation and composite foundation two

functions (XU Lin-rong and L Da-wei 2004). Sand

columns were modeled as 2-D continuous walls at the

same replacement ratio and stiffness (Fig. 6).

Triangular arranged sand columns,. Replacement

ratio of sand column

1 2

3 2

m = Ap /Ae = D /

l = 3D2 /(6l 2 )

4

2

= 0.0363

w 3l = m 3l 2

w = ml

3D2

3D2

w=

= 0.0725

l

=

2

6l

6l

(3)

area equivalent, D = pile diameter, l = pile spacing,

w = wall width.

3.3.2 Permeability matching

Hird, C.C. (1992) developed an equivalent plane strain

analysis considering a unit cell of the vertical drain

based on Hansbos theory.

The degree of consolidation in plane strain condition can be expressed as follows

U hp = 1

Thp

=

1

exp

8

p

u0

(4)

u0 the initial pore pressure,

Thp the time factor in plane strain,

pl the parameter including the factor of smear and

well resistance

Uhpl = Uhax

Thpl

Thax

=

pl

ax

192

(2)

(5)

Or

Chpl t

Chax t

= 2

B2 pl

R ax

(6)

Table 1.

Soil stratigraphy

Project

Sand

column

18.7

19

21.25

20

0.99

14

23.6

1

35

1

35

5

35

31.9

44.4

24.5

35.5

36.4

unit weight

kN/m3

19.2

17.8

20.3

18.7

kPa

0.89

14

15.5

1.23

3.7

18.9

21.6

0.98

3

23.2

kPa

92.9

34.3

248.7

Youngs modulus Es

Poissons ratio

MPa

9.29

0.31

Permeability

105 m/d

3.5

105 m/d

4.5

Table 2.

Horizontal

kh100200

Vertical

kv100200

0.69

3.43

0.33

24.9

0.3

12.4

9.67

5.87

5.44

34

Embankments

fill

void ratio e

Consolidated Cohesion C

quick

Friction angle

direct shear

unconfined compression

strength qu

33

Mat

Unit

54

35

119.7

5.4

0.3

11.97

0.30

9

0.30

30

0.31

6.616

0.31

20.0

14.5

14.7

10.7

Pile Number

Depth(m)

6415

6109

6111

0409

0909

1311

5716

5715

6315

5902

3.0

6.0

11.0

15.0

4.29

2.76

2.51

3.28

1.16

2.49

2.55

3.38

0.92

1.90

2.57

4.12

3.18

3.14

2.89

3.83

2.32

1.27

2.89

3.55

7.88

3.40

2.82

2.99

4.22

2.70

2.96

4.00

2.33

4.54

2.39

3.17

1.22

0.87

2.47

3.50

1.22

0.75

10.97

3.78

be changed while keeping the spacing between the

drains the same. Permeability matching when B = R.

kpl =

2kax

n

3 ln S + kkaxs ln(S) 34

(7)

diameter D = 0.4 m, spacing l = 2.0 m, the ratio S = 2,

kax /ks = 5, the calculated ratio of kpl /kax is equal to

0.164.

Figure 6. Stiffness matching.

COMPARISON WITH FIELD DATA

4.1 Settlement

The presentation of finite element results and the comparison with the field data are made in this section. The

data included vertical settlements, subsoil lateral displacements, excess pore pressures, and tension strain

in the reinforcements.

column and soil has been compared with calculations

and the results are as follows.

Computed settlement curve are close to observed

curve, which shows parameters in model are accurate.

193

Time (d)

80

0.1

Excess pore

essure(kPa)Load(kPa)

0.2

0

0.1

100

200

300

400

500

0.2

0.3

0.4

Load(d)

Observed TP

Observed MP

Calculated

Load

60

40

20 0

100

200

300

40

60

FEM Calculated

10

20

30

40

Observered 2.6m

Load

pore pressure curves.

0

500

20

settlement curves.

10

400

50

60

70

0.025

Observed

Calculated

0.020

Strain

Depth (m)

0.015

10

15

20

0.010

0.005

0.000

FEM Calculated

Left day 383 q=136kPa

20

40

60

lateral displacement curves.

4.2

100

120

140

matching is reasonable.

Lateral displacement

Figure 8 shows comparison between observed lateral displacement curves with calculated curve, which

small observed lateral displacement in the left side

embankment was affected by construction shortcut.

Figure 8 shows calculated curve in the top of subsoil

are closed to the observed curve but calculated curve in

the bottom of subsoil are bigger than the two observed

curve. The first reason is that PVC inclined tube is

stiff, which can not reflect real lateral displacement,

especially in the bottom. Secondly, the inclined tube

has so small size (70 mm) and the soil is so soft that

soft soil can not work on the tube.

4.3

80

Load (kPa)

25

Figure 10 shows FEM calculated strain-load curve

is smaller than the real curve but have the same

change law.

The above comparison reflected the accuracy of

the model and the correction of parameters, which

can reflect the performance of pile-net composite

foundation.

PERFORMANCES OF PILE-NET

COMPOSITE FOUNDATION

Pore pressure

similar with 2.6 m depth observed curve in the center line. Pore pressure dissipates while the effective

stress increases and consolidation settlement develops.

The FEM calculation is the same as real excess pore

5.1.1 Settlement

Pile can reduce settlement of composite foundation

effectively and the settlements in the center of embankment reduced with increased pile module.

194

12

E=26464kPa

E=13232kPa

E=6616kPa

10

Time (d)

Observed

Load

E=4466kPa

E=6616kPa

E=13232kPa

E=26464kPa

Axial Forces(kN/m)

0.15

0.1

0.05

0

0.05 0

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

Lateral displacement(mm)

10

10

30

10

12

14

16

50

70

forces.

Settlement (m)

0.1

5

10

0

0.1

10

20

30

40

50

0.2

Depth (m)

0.3

Distance from Center of Embankment (m)

J=100kN/m

J=2000kN/m

J=500kN/m

J=10000kN/m

J=1000kN/m

15

settlement.

Right day 383 q=136kPa

20

E=6616kPa

Bigger reinforcement stiffness is, smaller different

settlement is, especially with high stiffness reinforcement, which shows high strength reinforcement is

useful to reduce different settlement.

E=13232kPa

E=26464kPa

25

Pile module effect lateral displacement very much.

Bigger module is, smaller lateral displacement is. Figure 12 shows pile effect on lateral displacement along

the whole pile length.

5.1.3 Reinforcement axial forces

The above figure shows pile module has different

effect on top of piles and the middle of piles. Bigger pile module is, bigger reinforcement axial forces

on the top of piles is. Oppositely, bigger pile module

is, smaller reinforcement axial forces in the middle

of piles is. Bigger pile module is, bigger Distribution

curve of axial forces waves. Smaller pile module is,

flatter Distribution curve of axial forces waves.

Bigger reinforcement stiffness is, bigger lateral displacement is, but the slope of the curve is reduce

slowly, which shows reinforcement stiffness can work

in certain lateral displacement and high stiffness reinforcement is effective. Reinforcement stiffness has

bigger effect on lateral displacement than settlement.

5.2.3 Reinforcement axial forces

Reinforcement stiffness is in direct ratio with reinforcement axial forces. Bigger reinforcement is, bigger

reinforcement axial forces are. At the same time, load

on the top of reinforcement can affect axial forces;

bigger load is, bigger axial forces are.

5.2.4 Pile soil stress ratio

Bigger reinforcement stiffness is, smaller pile soil

stress ratio is, which shows reinforcement in pile-net

195

1.45

E=13232kPa

E=6616kPa

63

1.40

62

64

61

60

59

58

57

1.30

1.25

1.20

1.15

56

J=10000kN/m

J=1000kN/m

1.10

55

1.05

54

0

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

displacement.

80

20

0

20

40

60

80

100

60

80

100

120

140

(2) Pile can reduce settlement of composite foundation effectively and the center settlements reduced

with increased pile module. Pile module effect lateral displacement very much. Bigger module is,

smaller lateral displacement is.

(3) Pile module has different effect on top of piles

and the middle of piles. Bigger pile module

is, bigger reinforcement axial forces on the top

of piles is. Oppositely, bigger pile module is,

smaller reinforcement axial forces in the middle

of piles is.

(4) Bigger reinforcement stiffness is, smaller different settlement is, especially with high stiffness

reinforcement, which shows high strength reinforcement is useful to reduce different settlement.

Bigger reinforcement stiffness is, bigger lateral

displacement is, but the slope of the curve is

reduce slowly, which shows reinforcement stiffness can work in certain lateral displacement

(5) Reinforcement stiffness is in direct ratio with reinforcement axial forces. Bigger reinforcement is,

bigger reinforcement axial forces are.

(6) Bigger reinforcement stiffness is, smaller pile soil

stress ratio is, which shows reinforcement in pilenet composite foundation can adjust stress on the

piles and soils.

40

40

stress ratio.

Observed

Calculated J=1000kN/m

Calculated J=2000kN/m

Calculated J=10000kN/m

60

20

Load(kPa)

Reinforcement stiffness(kN/m)

Axial forces(kN/m)

1.35

120

140

Load (kPa)

axial forces.

soils. Reinforcement can mobilize bearing capacity on

the soils, therefore pile, reinforced mat and soils work

together to bear above load.

Composite foundation can perform effectively by

the above factors. Pile spacing should be increased in

pile net composite foundation, which can reduce piles

and cut the cost of soft soil improvement in practice.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

6

CONCLUSIONS

In this paper, the structural behavior and a parametric study of a reinforced embankment on soft

soil are presented, allowing formulating the following

conclusions.

(1) In this study, FEM calculated results are close to

observed results, which prove the accuracy of the

model and the correction of parameters.

to sincerely acknowledge Professor XU Lin-rong for

his instructions in the past. We also acknowledge

experts and technical personnel from the Fourth Survey and Design Institute of China Railway, China

Tiesiju Civil Engineering Group CO.LTD, Tongji University and Southwest Jiaotong University. They provided precious advice and assistance in field tests and

observations.

196

REFERENCES

Allen Lunzhu Li. 2000. Time dependent behavior of reinforced embankments on soft foundations. Ph.D. Thesis.

University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada.

Bergado D.T., Long P.V. and Murthy B.R.S. 2002. A

case study of geotextile-reinforced embankment on

soft ground. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 20,

pp. 343365.

Brinkgreve R B J, Vermeer P A. 1998. Plaxis-Finite Element

Code for Soil and Rock Analyses. Netherlands: Material

Models Manual.

British Standard BS 8006, 1995. Code of Practice for

Strengthened/Reinforced Soil and other Fills.

Bruce, D.A. 2001. An Introduction to the Deep Mixing

Methods as Used in Geotechnical Applications Volume

III: The Verification and Properties of Treated Ground.

FHWA-RD-99-167, pp. 405455.

Gong Xiao-nan. 2002. The Theory and Application of

Composite Foundation. Beijing: China Architecture &

Building Press.

Hird C.C., Pyrah I.C. and Russell D. 1992. Finite element

modelling of wick drains beneath the embankments on

soft ground. Gotechnique, Vol.42, pp. 499511.

Jie, Han, M. A. Gabr. 2002. Numerical Analysis of

Geosynthetic-Reinforced and Pile-Supported Earth Platforms over Soft Soil. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol.128, pp. 4453.

Lin, K.Q. and Wong, I.H. 1999. Use of deep cement mixing to reduce settlements at bridge approaches. Journal of

Vol.125, pp. 309320.

Rao Weiguo, Zhao Chenggang. 2002. The Behavior of

Pile-net Composite Foundation. China Civil Engineering

Journal, Vol.35, pp. 7480.

Porbaha, A., Shibuya, S., and Kishida, T. 2000. State of

the art in deep mixing technology: part III. Geomaterial Characterization. Ground Improvement, Vol.3, pp.

91110.

Reid, W M, Buchanan, N W. 1984. Bridge approach support piling. Piling and ground treatment. London: Thomas

Telford Ltd. pp. 267274.

Terzaghi K. 1943.Theoretical soil mechanics, NewYork: John

Wiley & Sons.

The fourth survey and design institute of china railway. 2003.

China National Railway Ministry (The Design Parameters

for Railway and Bridge on Soft Ground Project), Kunshan

trial site soft soil engineering properties research report.

Wuhan.

Yan Li. Yang, J.S., Han, Jie. 2002. Geosynthetic-reinforced

and pile-supported earth platform composite foundation. Yantu Lixue/Rock and Soil Mechanics, Vol. 26,

pp. 821826

Xu Lin-rong, Niu Jian-dong. L Da-wei. 2004. Settlement

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sand pile reinforcement soft soil project of China Ministry

of Railways. Changsha: Central South University.

197

2007 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN13 978-0-415-42280-2

Yunjun Zhang, Jinmin Zai & Kejun Qi

Geotechnical Engineering Institute, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing, China

ABSTRACT: Based on the tunnel excavation engineering practice in Nanjing, finite element method is selected

to analysis the influence of building pile foundation induced by adjacent tunnel excavation according to the

different depths. The settlement of soil and building is studied. The bending moment, axial force, shear force and

displacement of the pile and subfloor are also analyzed. Then it draws some significant conclusions to practical

engineering.

INSTRUCTION

the exploitation of urban underground space. There

are also lots of new problems in the tunnel construction. There is a subway project in Nanjing. There are

many buildings near the subway line, whose structural styles are brick or frame and whose foundation

styles are mostly pile foundations. It is the researching

emphasis in this paper about how to study the influence

of pile foundation induced by adjacent tunnel excavation. Based on the tunnel excavation engineering

practice in Nanjing, finite element method is selected

to analysis the influence of building pile foundation

induced by adjacent tunnel excavation according to

the different depths. The settlement of soil and building is studied. The bending moment, axial force, shear

force and displacement of the pile and subfloor are also

analyzed.

OF NUMERICAL SIMULATION

by Delft Technical University, is selected in this paper.

This software is an finite element software package

which is special applied to deformation and stability

two-dimension analysis. Because it is convenient to

Table 1.

applied to basic analysis as to pit excavation, tunnel

excavation and so on.

Supposing tunnel excavation is a plain stress problem, so two dimension model is built. The rectangle

district (60 m 80 m) is selected as soil strata physical zone in which soil body is even clay blanket.

The parameters are listed in Table 1. The diameter of

the tunnel is 4 m, the distance next to the building is

5 m and the tunnel depth is 530 m. This building is

a four-layers-and-two-spans frame construction. The

span length is 10 m and the layer altitude is 3 m. The

upper load of the building focuses on the floor and

the upright column and it is set as 20 KN/m. There are

three piles. Every piles length is 15 m and its diameter

is 1 m. The volume loss prescribed in all analyses is

approximately 2%.

Mohr-coulomb model is used in soil. Elastic model

are used in structure, pile and lining. Related parameters are listed in Table 1 and Table 2. The meshes are

divided into 1273 elements. When calculation, firstly

set the settlement produced by building to zero, then

calculate the stress and settlement produced by tunnel

excavation.

Fig. 1 shows the model of FEM. There are three

piles in the model and two observation points (A,B) of

settlement. Point A is upper the tunnel and Point B is

the building corner, shown in Fig. 1.

Table 3 shows the numbering and feature of numerical simulation.

Soil parameters.

dry

kN/m3

wet

kN/m3

kx

m/day

ky

m/day

Eref

kN/m2

cref

kN/m2

Parameters

Clay

17

19

106

106

20000

0.33

8.0

26

199

3.1

excavation

with the depth of tunnel when there is no adjacent foundation. When the tunnel depth is in the extent of 15 m.,

the rate of settlement decrement is great, the most settlement is the vertical settlement and the horizontal

settlement is almost zero. Fig. 3 shows that when there

is adjacent foundation, the most settlement is also the

vertical settlement, but when in the depth of 10 m, there

is apparent horizontal displacement.

Table 2.

Structure parameters.

Material EA

Parameters type

kN/m

Structure

Pile

Tunnel

is adjacent foundation, the settlement is smaller than

that of no adjacent if the tunnel depth is in the extent

of pile length (15 m). If the tunnel depth is out of the

extent of pile length (15 m), the settlement of point A

(there is adjacent foundation) is greater than that of

no adjacent foundation. The detailed data is listed in

Table 4.

It can be analysed that if the tunnel depth is in the

extent of pile length, the settlement is smaller because

of the retaining effect of pile and if the tunnel depth is

Depth of tunnel excavation(m)

EI

kNm2 /m

d

m

2.0 106 1.7 105 1.00 0.15

1.41 107 1.43 105 0.35 0.15

elastic

elastic

elastic

5

10

Total displacement

X-displacement

Y-displacement

15

20

25

30

0

10

15

20

25

depth excavation depth (without adjacent foundation).

5

10

Total displacement

X-displacement

Y-displacement

15

20

25

30

0

10

15

20

Figure 3. Settlement variation of pointA with (with adjacent

foundation).

Table 3.

Numbering

Depth of tunnel

excavation (m)

Diameter of

tunnel (m)

structure

Distance to

building (m)

Type of foundation

TEST1

TEST2

TEST3

TEST4

TEST5

TEST6

TEST7

5

10

15

20

25

30

530

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

exist

exist

exist

exist

exist

exist

no

5

5

5

5

5

5

Pile foundation

Pile foundation

Pile foundation

Pile foundation

Pile foundation

Pile foundation

200

because of the stress diffusion from pile tip.

When there is adjacent foundation, the settlement

of Point B is decreasing with the depth of excavation

and the rate of decreasing is even. The horizontal displacement of Point B is also decreasing with the depth

of excavation, but it is apparent in the extent of pile

increasing with the depth of excavation when the tunnel depth is in the extent of pile length (15 m), but

the vertical displacement of Point B is decreasing with

the depth of excavation when the tunnel depth is out

of the extent of pile length (>15 m). The detailed data

is listed in Table 5.

after tunnel excavation

5

10

zero, it means that the flexural moment reduces, otherwise it means that the flexural moment increases.

Fig. 6 shows that if the tunnel depth is in the extent of

pile length (15 m), the moment of Pile A reduces above

the tunnel depth and the moment of pile A increases

below the tunnel depth. If the tunnel depth is out of

the extent of pile length (15 m), the moment of Pile A

almost increases, but recruitment is very small.

Fig. 7 shows that the flexural moment of Pile B

changes apparently when the tunnel depth is about 5

meters. While Fig. 8 shows that the flexural moment of

Pile C changes differently comparing with that of Pile

B. When the tunnel depth is about 10m, the moment

of Pile C reduces on the upper part of pile and the

change-zero of moment shifts up apparently.

Fig. 9 shows that the flexural moment of subfloor

changes antisymmetrically. The antisymmetric midpoint is the center of subfloor. The antisymmetric form

transits from left-high-and-right-low to left-low-andright-high by the tunnel depth of 10 m.

15

20

Settlement of Point A(without adjacent foundation)

25

30

0

10

15

20

25

excavation depth.

5

10

15

Total displacement

X-displacement

Y-displacement

20

25

30

0

tunnel excavation

extent of pile length (15 m), the axial force of Pile A

changes apparently and almost reduces, the position of

foundation).

Table 4.

10

15

20

25

30

(without adjacent foundation)

Total displacement (mm)

(with adjacent foundation)

23.000

9.110

4.936

3.190

2.500

2.319

20.000

7.813

4.409

3.343

2.643

2.396

Table 5.

10

15

20

25

30

X-displacement (mm)

Y-displacement (mm)

6.42

5.939

2.438

5.202

3.325

4.001

4.638

1.991

4.189

3.986

1.314

3.763

3.058

0.8767

2.929

2.622

0.6163

2.548

201

60

58

56

tunnel depth-5m

tunnel depth-10m

tunnel depth-15m

tunnel depth-20m

tunnel depth-25m

tunnel depth-30m

62

54

52

50

48

46

44

-60

-40

-20

20

40

60

tunnel depth-5m

tunnel depth-10m

tunnel depth-15m

tunnel depth-20m

tunnel depth-25m

tunnel depth-30m

25

20

15

10

5

0

-5

-10

-15

-20

40

45

62

56

54

62

52

60

50

58

55

60

depth.

tunnel depth-5m

tunnel depth-10m

tunnel depth-15m

tunnel depth-20m

tunnel depth-25m

tunnel depth-30m

60

50

Site of subfloor(m)

48

46

44

-60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

58

tunnel depth-5m

tunnel depth-10m

tunnel depth-15m

tunnel depth-20m

tunnel depth-25m

tunnel depth-30m

56

54

52

50

48

46

44

60

58

56

62

52

60

50

48

46

44

10 20 30 40 50 60

Figure 8. Moment variation of pile C with excavation depth.

-40

-20

20

58

56

tunnel depth-5m

tunnel depth-10m

tunnel depth-15m

tunnel depth-20m

tunnel depth-25m

tunnel depth-30m

54

52

50

48

46

44

-140 -120 -100 -80

When the tunnel depth is out of the extent of pile length

(15 m), the axial force of Pile A doesnt changes apparently and almostly increases, the increment reduces

with the tunnel depth.

Fig. 11 shows that the axial force of Pile B doesnt

changes apparently and almostly reduces, the position

of maximal variation is about in the depth of 10 m

to 15 m. Fig. 12 shows that the axial force of Pile B

-60

-40

-20

20

Figure 11. Axial force variation of pile B with depth.

the increment is very small.

Fig. 13 shows that the axial force of subfloor also

changes antisymmetrically. The antisymmetric midpoint is the center of subfloor. The antisymmetric form

202

-60

54

-80

tunnel depth-5m

tunnel depth-10m

tunnel depth-15m

tunnel depth-20m

tunnel depth-25m

tunnel depth-30m

62

tunnel depth-5m

tunnel depth-10m

tunnel depth-15m

tunnel depth-20m

tunnel depth-25m

tunnel depth-30m

60

58

60

56

54

52

50

48

46

44

-140 -120 -100 -80

-60

tunnel depth-5m

tunnel depth-10m

tunnel depth-15m

tunnel depth-20m

tunnel depth-25m

tunnel depth-30m

62

62

-40

-20

58

56

54

52

50

48

46

44

20

-100

-80

-60

-40

-20

20

40

Figure 12. Axial force variation of pile C with depth.

tunnel depth-5m

tunnel depth-10m

tunnel depth-15m

tunnel depth-20m

tunnel depth-25m

tunnel depth-30m

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

-10

tunnel depth-5m

tunnel depth-10m

tunnel depth-15m

tunnel depth-20m

tunnel depth-25m

tunnel depth-30m

62

60

58

56

54

52

50

48

46

44

40

45

50

55

60

-10

Site of subfloor(m)

-80

-60

-40

-20

20

40

transits from left-high-and-right-low to left-low-andright-high by the tunnel depth of 10 m. When the tunnel

depth is in the extent of pile length (15 m), the axial

force changes greatly. When the tunnel depth is out

of the extent of pile length (15 m), the axial force of

subfloor doesnt changes greatly, the moment on the

left of symmetry reduces little and the moment on the

right of symmetry increases little.

tunnel depth-5m

tunnel depth-10m

tunnel depth-15m

tunnel depth-20m

tunnel depth-25m

tunnel depth-30m

62

60

58

56

54

52

50

48

46

3.4

tunnel excavation

44

-100

of pile length (15 m), the shear force of Pile A changes

apparently. When the tunnel depth is about 5 m, the

shear force of the pile top reduces most and the value

of reduced is 83.8 kN/m.

Fig. 15 shows that when the tunnel depth is about

5 m, the shear force of Pile B increases greatly. Fig. 16

shows that when the tunnel depth is in the extent of

pile length (15 m), the shear force of Pile C increases

greatly above 10 m, when the tunnel depth is out of the

extent of pile length (15 m), the change of the shear

force of Pile C is very small.

-60

-40

-20

20

40

force of subfloor is antisymmetric. The antisymmetric

mid-point is the center of subfloor. The antisymmetric

form transits from left-high-and-right-low to left-lowand-right-high by the tunnel depth of 7.5 m. When the

tunnel depth is in the extent of pile length (15m), the

shear force of subfloor changes apparently.

203

-80

the vertical displacement of Point B is decreasing with the depth of excavation when the tunnel

depth is out of the extent of pile length.

(3) Tunnel excavation imports more influence on Pile

A than on Pile B and Pile C. When the tunnel

depth is in the extent of pile length, the flexural

moment, axial force and shear force of pile and

subfloor changes apparently. While when the tunnel depth is out of the extent of pile length, the

flexural moment, axial force and shear force of

pile and subfloor changes little. Accordingly, the

depth of pile length is a typical dividing boundary. So if the tunnel depth is in the extent of pile

length, it is necessary to protect the adjacent pile

foundation.

(4) The change form of the moment, axial force and

shear force of subfloor are antisymmetric and the

forms change with the depth of tunnel excavation

depth.

tunnel depth-5m

tunnel depth-10m

tunnel depth-15m

tunnel depth-20m

tunnel depth-25m

tunnel depth-30m

6

4

2

0

-2

-4

-6

-8

-10

40

45

50

55

60

Site of subfloor(m)

CONCLUSION

of ground surface is smaller than that of no adjacent if the tunnel depth is in the extent of pile

length. If the tunnel depth is out of the extent of

pile length, the settlement of ground surface (there

is adjacent foundation) is greater than that of no

adjacent foundation.

(2) When there is adjacent foundation, the settlement

of Point B(the corner point of building) is decreasing with the depth of excavation and the rate of

decreasing is even. The horizontal displacement

of Point B is also decreasing with the depth of

excavation, but it is apparent in the extent of pile

length. The vertical displacement of Point B is

increasing with the depth of excavation when the

tunnel depth is in the extent of pile length, but

REFERENCES

1. Chew, S. H., Yong, K. Y., and Lim, A. Y. K. (1997).

Three-dimensional finite element analysis of astrutted

excavation, Procc. 9th Int. Conf. on Computer Methods

and Advances in Geomechanics, Wuhan, China.

2. F.C. Schroeder, D.M. Potts and T.I. Addenbrooke (1994).

The influence of pile group loading on existing tunnels.

Geotechnique 54, No. 6, 351362

3. Liu K.X., Yong K.Y., Lee F.H (1996). A numerical study

on 3-D behavior of excavation-support system, Proc. 2nd

Int. Conf. on Soft Soil Engineering, Nanjing: 137145

4. H.G. Poulos, L.T. Chen (1996). Pile Response Due to

unsupported Excavation-Induced Lateral Soil Movement

[J]. Can. Geotech., 33: 670677.

5. Ou C.Y., Hsieh P.G., Chiou D.C (1993). Characteristics

of ground surface settlement during excavation [J]. Can.

Geotech. J., Ottawa, Canada, 30: 758767.

204

2007 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN13 978-0-415-42280-2

in soft soil

Hong-Bo Zhou

Shanghai Jianke project management Co., Ltd., Shanghai, China

Zhu-Chang Chen

Department of geotechnical engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China

Nan-Fu Hong

Department of city and county planning, QuanZhou, Fujian, China

ABSTRACT: Based on the comparison of settlement measurement data of high-rise buildings supported by

driven pile foundation, the effects of composition of compressible strata underlying pile tip and soil situation

surrounding pile on long-term settlement behavior of driven pile foundation are studied. The results show:

that the effects of existence of thick sand layers surrounding pile on settlement behaviors of pile foundation are

significantly dependent on the condition of compressible strata; when compressible strata are mainly composed of

quasi-sand layers (i.e. quasi-sand ratio > 75%), the function of existence of thick sand layer will lead to decrease

pile foundation settlements and improve settlement behaviors remarkably; when quasi-sand ratio is less than

50%,the function of that is disappeared. Therefore, it is a concept with widespeed significance that compositions

of compressible strata always play a leading role for basic characteristics of pile foundation settlement.

INTRODUCTION

The effects of condition of soil layers and construction factor on settlement of pile group of building

are difficult to be precisely simulated and calculated

(Prakoso et al. 2001, castelli et al. 2002). The investigation into the properties and regulations of pile group

settlement need to be combined in plenty of prototype

measured settlement data. Shanghai is typical soft soil

region, driven pile groups are widely used to support

high-rise buildings. Nowadays, the settlement control

is getting more and more strict in the city. To research

the long-term settlement behaviour is more important

according to the existing buildings supported by driven

pile group.

Considering the action of pile driving, people begin

to concern the influence of type of ground on settlement of driven pile group, as well as the influence of

the properties of soil deposits surrounding pile on settlement of driven pile group (Zhang et al. 1999, Dai

et al. 2000).

During the process of working out the calculated methods of pile group settlement of shanghai

standardFoundation Design Code (DBJ08-11-89), 28

prototype observations of buildings supported on pile

foundation were used to judge the applicability of the

on the comparison between observed and calculated

results it would be showed that for pile group in B

type of ground in which sand deposits were located

in shallow depths, the calculated settlement were significantly larger than the observed results. Since then,

engineer and technicians in shanghai have held a more

popular point of view that the existence of shallow

sand deposits surrounding pile will lead to decrease the

pile group settlement significantly. However, this point

of view seems neglect in determination of the condition in which only sand deposits surrounding pile are

concerned, and also neglect other conditions besides

soil situation surrounding pile. Meanwhile, many

instances which demonstrate that the existence of thick

sand layers surrounding pile will significantly reduces

the pile group settlement can be found, but sometimes

opposite instances also can be found. For example, in

one project, the ratio of the thickness of sand layers

around pile shaft to the pile length even reaches 100%

and the value of cone penetration resistance Ps for

sand layers is in the range of 4.15 MPa4.4 MPa, but

the pile group settlement behavior possesses the following characteristics, i.e. large settlement (119 mm),

low level of completion settlement ratio (18.1%), large

settlement after completion (97.5 mm) and long time

205

These characteristics have outstanding discrepancy in

comparison with those of settlement for pile group

in which compressible strata are mainly composed of

sand layers and the thick sand layers are located in

shallow depths.

As can be seen from mention previously, the effects

of the existence of thick sand layers around pile on

settlement behavior of driven pile group are closely

related to the condition of compressible strata underlying the pile tip. Various evidences show that it is

not completely rational that to discuss the effects of

the existence of thick sand layers around pile on settlement of characteristics of group is separate from

the condition of compressible strata. In fact there

arent independent relations between thick sand layers around pile and the behavior of driven pile group

settlement. Therefore it is more rational that the thick

sand layers in shallow depths surrounding pile are in

conjunction with the condition of compressible strata

to analyze their effect on driven pile group settlement

and its behavior.

25 long-term settlement measurement data of highrise building supported on driven pile group are collected and used to discuss the long-term effect of the

composition of compressible strata and soil condition

around pile on the behavior of pile group settlement in

the paper, especially to discuss the effect of the existence of thick sand layers around pile on the behaviour

of pile group settlement.

2

COMPRESSIBLE STRATA

In order to properly indicate the effect of compressible strata under pile tip on the settlement behavior

for driven pile group, the composition of compressible strata is used as index to reflect the property of

compressibility of compressible strata in the paper.

In the composition of compressible strata, the proportion of plastic clay soil layer to the compressible

strata is expressed as an independent index, because

the plastic state of clay soil behaves the characteristics

of high compressibility and slow deformation speed,

and has quite a different effect on pile group settlement behavior from sand or firm-plastic clay soil in

shanghai region.

In order to further analyze that the influence of existence of thick sand layer surrounding pile on settlement

behavior for driven pile group is related to the composition of compressible strata, the soil layers which

usually appear as compressible strata of pile group in

shanghai region are divided into the following three

classes in the paper (Gao 1992).

(1) Sand soil including fine sand, silty sand, sandy silt,

clayey silt, and clay soil (which is composed of

thickness for the latter to thickness for the former

should be larger than 1/10).

(2) Firm-plastic clay soil including sixth layer and

sometime ninth layer (according to the denomination of foundation design code of shanghai).

(3) Plastic clay soil.

The above described classification of soil type for

compressible strata has been chosen, it is mainly considered that the permeability and consolidation ratio

for various soil types under superstructure static loading or vibration load of pile driving have greatly

difference, then we can investigate the dependence of

the composition of compressible strata and the existence of sand deposits surrounding pile on the driven

pile group settlement behavior. Here clay soil which

has relatively large thickness of sand sublayer in comparison with ordinary clay soil can be classified into

the type of sand soil. In general, to clay soil, when it

has much larger thickness of sand sublayer in comparison with ordinary clay soil, so it has much higher

permeability and drainability, in the circumstance this

specific clay soil is classified into plastic clay soil

rather than into sand soil. Besides, firm-plastic clay

soil need to be distinguished from plastic clay soil,

because deformation rate for the former is more fast

than that for the latter. It should be explained that the

following analysis and comparison are confined to the

building with 18 storeys and to the pile length at a

range of 20 m35 m.

The following indices are used to indicate the

compressible strata in the paper.

The sand ratio of compressible strata, 1 (%), is

given by

1 = thickness of sand layer/thickness of

compressible strata

2 (%), is given by

2 = thickness of firm-plastic clay layer/

thickness of compressible strata

(2)

is given by

3 = thickness of plastic clay layer/

thickness of compressible strata

(3)

given by

= 1 + 2

(4)

+ 3 100%

(5)

tip is taken as 0.5Be, Be is the equivalent effective

width of pile group (Chen et al. 2003).

206

(1)

207

50.2

3.5

88.3

44.3

Average

582

41.8

No.10

608

85.3

3.8

49.0

33.8

78.8

45.0

21.2

0

34.6

100

65.4

51.3

3.2

91.2

46.8

No.4

556

Plastic clay

ratio 3 (%)

Quasi-sand ratio(%)

Sand ratio

Firm-plastic clay

1 (%)

ratio 2 (%)

Settlement at

stabilization

(mm)

Time for

settlement

stabilization (year)

Completion

settlement

ratio (%)

Time of

completion

(day)

Settlement

at completion

time (mm)

No. of

project

settlement and the geological data, the condition of soil

layer surrounding pile are divided into two situations,

one is the existence of thick sand layer and the other

is soft clay and clay layers. Based on the value of of

the compressible strata are divided into two situations,

one is for the value of larger than 75%, the other is

for the value of less than 50%. From above described

classifications, No. 1No. 4 combination of the measured results of driven pile group settlement behavior

are given, as shown in Table 1Table 4.

Table 1 shows the measured results of driven pile

group settlement behavior for No.1 combination where

> 75% is in combination with the existence of thick

sand layer surrounding pile. As can be seen from the

table 1, the settlement at the time of completion is

41.8 mm46.8 mm, the average 44.3 mm; the completion settlement ratio is 85.3%91.2%, the average

88.3%; the time for settlement stabilization is 3.2

years3.8 years, the average 3.5 years; the settlement at stabilization is 49 mm51.3 mm, the average

50.2 mm.

Table 2 shows the measured results of driven pile

group settlement behavior for No.2 combination where

> 75% is in combination with the existence of

soft clay and clay around the pile. As can be seen

from the table 2, the settlement at the time of completion is 37.3 mm71.8 mm, the average 54.0 mm;

the completion settlement ratio is 62.1%86.9%, the

average 74.6%; the time for settlement stabilization

is 2.54 years5.58 years, the average 4.2 years; the

settlement at stabilization is 48.3 mm82.6 mm, the

average 72.6 mm.

Table 3 shows the measured results of driven pile

group settlement behavior for No.3 combination where

3 > 50% is in combination with the existence of

sand layer surrounding pile. As can be seen from the

table 3, the settlement at the time of completion is

32.8 mm40.7 mm, the average 36.7 mm; the completion settlement ratio is 32.5%36.8%, the average

34.7%; the time for settlement stabilization is 8.2

years8.3 years, the average 8.3 years; the settlement

at stabilization is 101 mm110.7 mm, the average

105.9 mm.

Table 4 shows the measured results of driven pile

group settlement behavior for No. 4 combination

where 3 > 50% is in combination with the existence

of soft clay and clay around the pile. As can be seen

from the table 4, the settlement at the time of completion is 29.2 mm67.3 mm, the average 51.3 mm;

Condition of

soil layers

surrounding pile

OF PILE GROUP IN DIFFERENT

COMBINATION OF COMPOSITION OF

COMPRESSIBLE STRATA WITH THE

CONDITION OF SOIL LAYERS

SURROUNDING PILE

Composition of compressible strata

No. of

project

Settlement

at completion

time (mm)

Time of

completion

(day)

Completion

settlement

ratio (%)

Time for

settlement

stabilization (year)

Settlement at

stabilization

(mm)

No.3

71.8

556

86.9

2.54

82.6

Quasi-sand ratio(%)

Sand ratio

Firm-plastic clay

1 (%)

ratio 2 (%)

100

83.6

No.9(1)

56.6

773

72.1

4.75

78.5

50.2

631

62.1

5.58

100

80.8

37.3

584

77.2

4.1

100

48.3

54.0

636

74.6

4.2

Sand Thick 0 m

Sand Thick 0 m

0

75.3

61

Average

0

9.6

100

No. 19

Condition of

soil layers

surrounding pile

16.4

90.4

No.9(2)

Plastic clay

ratio 3 (%)

25.4

Sand Thick 0 m

14.3

72.6

208

Table 3. Pile group settlement behavior under No. 3 combination.

Composition of compressible strata

No. of

project

Settlement

at completion

time (mm)

Time of

completion

(day)

Completion

settlement

ratio (%)

Time for

settlement

stabilization (year)

Settlement at

stabilization

(mm)

No. 18

32.8

333

<32.5

>8.2

>101

Quasi-sand ratio(%)

Sand ratio

Firm-plastic clay

1 (%)

ratio 2 (%)

35.5

35.0

No. 11

40.7

553

36.8

8.3

110.7

Average

36.7

443

<34.7

>8.3

>105.9

Condition of

soil layers

surrounding pile

64.5

85.9

Sand Thick 6 m

0

14.1

14.1

Plastic clay

ratio 3 (%)

Sand Thick 3 m

7.7

58.3

<42.9

>7.4

>117.5

34

126

7.5

45.1

56.8

51.3

No 17

Average

333

29.9

No 16

384

18.7

67.3

No.6

335

29.2

8.1

102.2

18.3

41.7

0.4

81.2

Sand Thick 0 m

58.8

0

41.2

41.2

>124.2

>6.7

<54.2

Settlement

at completion

time (mm)

484

Condition of

soil layers

surrounding pile

Plastic clay

ratio 3 (%)

Quasi-sand ratio(%)

Sand ratio

Firm-plastic clay

1 (%)

ratio 2 (%)

AROUND PILE ON THE PILE GROUP

SETTLEMNT BEHAVIOR AT > 75%

No. of

project

Time of

completion

(day)

Completion

settlement

ratio (%)

Time for

settlement

stabilization (year)

Settlement at

stabilization

(mm)

Table 4. Pile group settlement behavior under No.4 combination.

average 42.9%; the time for settlement stabilization

is 6.7 years8.1 years, the average 7.4 years; the

settlement at stabilization is 102.2 mm126 mm, the

average 117.5 mm.

between No.1 combination and No.2 combination is

given in Table 5. As can be seen from table 5, both

combination possess the same condition of the compressible strata that are mainly composed of quasi-sand

layer (in other words > 75% or 3 <25%). Based on

this condition, the different of type of the soil situations around pile,i.e. the existence of thick sand layer

as well as soft clay and clay layers, on the pile group

settlement behaviour can be judged.

From the table 5 it can be seen that in comparison

with soft clay and clay layers around pile, the existence of thick sand layer around pile will decrease

the pile group settlement by 30.9%, the stabilization

time by 16.7%, the settlement after completion by

68.3% and will increase the completion settlement

ratio by 18.4%; it illustrates the thick sand layer around

pile is beneficial to decreasing pile group settlement,

time for settlement stabilization and settlement after

completion and to increasing completion settlement

ratio. However, in the condition that the compressible strata are mainly composed of quasi-sand layer,

whether thick sand layers or soft clay and clay layers

surrounding pile, the pile group settlement behavior still demonstrates basically close characteristics,

namely on the whole possess high level of completion settlement ratio (88.3% and 74.6%), short time

for settlement stabilization (3.5 years and 4.2 years),

low settlement at stabilization (50.2 mm and 72.6 mm)

and low settlement after completion (5.9 mm and

18.6 mm). From the pile group settlement behavior in

two different situations of soil layer around pile showing the almost close characteristics, it reveals that the

composition of compressible strata play a leading role

for pile group settlement behavior, namely the close

characteristics, as described above, of pile group settlement are considered to be a reflection of inherent

deformation performance for compressible strata with

high quasi-sand ratio. On the other hand, the existence

of thick sand layer surrounding pile can play further

role for decreasing the stabilization time, the settlement of observed stabilization and the settlement after

completion as well as for increasing completion settlement ratio, it is tightly related to the basic condition of

compressible strata with high quasi-sand ratio,i.e. it is

conditioned that the existence of thick sand layer can

209

Table 5.

Comparison of pile group settlement behavior between No.1 combination and No.2 combination.

contrast type

Combination 1

surrounding pile

> 75%

Combination 2

Soft clay and clay

layers surrounding

pile > 75%

Combination 1/Combination 2(%)

Average of

settlement

at completion

time (mm)

Average of

time of

completion

(day)

44.3

582

88.3

3.5

50.2

54.0

636

74.6

4.2

72.6

118.4

83.3

69.1

82.0

91.5

of view, that the existence of shallow sand deposits

surrounding pile can cause significantly decreasing of

settlement, is not comprehensive and may not clarify

the necessary condition of compressible strata.

From previously described comparison, the following analysis can be obtained.

(1) In the condition that the compressible strata are

mainly composed of quasi-sand layer, whether

thick sand layers or soft clay and clay layers surrounding pile, the pile group settlement behavior

still shows basically close characteristic, namely

on the whole possess high level of completion

settlement ratio, short time for settlement stabilization, low settlement at stabilization and low

settlement after completion.

(2) In the condition that the compressible strata are

mainly composed of quasi-sand layer, in comparison with soft clay and clay layers surrounding

pile, the existence of thick sand layers is beneficial

to decreasing the settlement at stabilization, the

time for settlement stabilization and the settlement

after completion and to increasing the completion

settlement ratio.

(3) Engineer and technicians in shanghai have held

a more popular understanding that the existence

of shallow sand deposits surrounding pile will

lead to decrease the pile group settlement significantly. The analysis in the paper indicate the

understanding is rational only on the condition that

the compressible strata mainly consist of quasisand layer. When the condition of compressible

strata is different from it, the understanding may

not reasonable.

5 THE EFFECT OF SOIL CONDITION

AROUND PILE ON THE PILE GROUP

SETTLEMENT BEHAVIOR AT 3 >

A comparison of pile group settlement behavior

between No.3 combination and No.4 combination is

given in Table 6 . As can be seen from the table 6, both

Average of time

for settlement

stabilization (year)

Average of

settlement

stabilization

(mm)

combination possess the same condition of the compressible strata with 3 > 50% (i.e.3 > ), in which

the behavior of pile group settlement for two different type of soil condition (i.e. the existence of thick

sand layer as well as the soft clay and clay layers)

surrounding pile also shows almost close characteristics, namely on the whole possesses low level of

completion settlement ratio (<34.7%and 42.9%, long

time for settlement stabilization (>8.3 years and >7.4

years), large settlement at stabilization (>105 mm and

>117.5 mm) and large settlement after completion

(>69.2 mm and >66.2 mm). However, in the same

condition of soil layer surrounding pile, when the

composition of compressible strata are from > 75%

to < 50% (i.e. 3 > ), it will cause outstanding discrepancy in the behavior of pile group settlement, i.e.

completion settlement ratio is from high to low (from

88.3% and 74.6% to <34.7% and 42.9%), the time

for settlement stabilization is from short to long (from

3.5 years and 4.2 years to >8.3 years and >7.4 years),

settlement at stabilization is from low to high (from

50.2 mm and 72.6 mm to >69.2 mm and >66.2 mm).

The analysis and data described above give a further

proof that the composition of compressible strata play

a leading role for the behavior of pile group settlement, and that the compressible strata with higher

plastic clay ratio is closely related to the characteristics of pile group settlement, such as low level of

completion settlement ratio, long time for settlement

stabilization, high observed settlement at stabilization

and high settlement after completion.

From table 6 it can also be seen that in the condition

of compressible strata with 3 > 50%, in comparison

with the soft clay and clay layers surrounding pile, the

existence of thick sand layers surrounding pile are to

decrease pile group settlement by 9.9% and the completion settlement ratio by 19.1%, and to increases the

time for settlement stabilization by 12.2% and settlement after completion by 4.5%. These data indicate

that, for 3 > 50% the existence of thick sand layer surrounding pile may not always lead the behavior of pile

group settlement to the tendency for improvement. It

should be of note that in the condition of compressible

210

Average of

completion

settlement

ratio (%)

Table 6.

Comparison of pile group settlement behavior between No. 3 combination and No. 4 combination.

contrast type

Combination 3

surrounding pile

3 > 50%

Combination 4 Soft clay and clay

layers surrounding pile

3 > 50%

combination 3/combination 4(%)

Average of

settlement

at completion

time (mm)

Average

of time of

completion

(day)

Average of

completion

settlement

ratio (%)

Average of time

for settlement

stabilization

(year)

Average of

settlement

stabilization

(mm)

36.7

443

<34.7

>8.3

>105.9

51.3

384

<42.9

>7.4

>117.5

71.5

115.4

80.9

112.2

90.1

clay layer surrounding pile can lead all of the behavior

of pile group settlement to improvement. Under these

two conditions of compressible strata, the actual effect

on the behavior of pile group settlement caused by the

thick sand layers around pile has evident distinction.

From previously described discussion, the following analysis can be obtained.

(1) In the condition of compressible strata with

3 > 50%, the advantageous effect of thick sand

layers around pile on the behavior of pile group

settlement has disappeared.

(2) In the condition of compressible strata 3 > 50%,

whether thick sand layers or soft clay and clay layers surrounding pile, the driven pile group settlement behavior shows close characteristics, namely

on the whole possesses low level of completion

settlement ratio, long time for settlement stabilization, high observed settlement at stabilization

and high settlement after completion. However,

the driven pile group settlement behavior for compressible strata with > 75% is in opposition to

that for compressible strata with 3 > 50%.

(3) The distinctions of composition of compressible

strata have significant effect of thick sand layers

around pile on pile group settlement behavior. The

effect of the thick sand layers around pile decrease

as the value of 3 increases of or the value of

decreases; Contrarily, the effect increases as the

value of 3 decreases or the value of increases.

6

CONCLUSIONS

Based on the comparison of the settlement measurement data of high-rise building supported by pile

foundation in Shanghai, conclusions are drawn as

follows:

(1) When the compressive strata are mainly composed of quasi-sand ( > 75% or 3 < 25%), thick

sand layers around pile exert obvious influence

on reducing the settlement of pile group and

accordance with the results of measurement of settlement behavior of elevated road supported by

driven pile foundation. When plastic clay layers

have a relatively large proportion in the compressible strata (3 > 50%), the effect on the settlement

of pile group and its behavior induced by the thick

sand layer around pile will disappear. Therefore, it

reveals that the function of thick sand layer around

pile decrease as the value of 3 increases.

(2) When soil circumstances around pile are both of

the existence of thick sand layer, the behavior

of pile group settlement in two different compositions of compressible strata (i.e. > 75%

or 3 > 50%) appear to be in the opposite tendency. This further proves that it is a concept

with widespeed significance that the compressible strata (i.e. deformation performance and soil

type of compressible strata) always play a leading

role for the basic characteristics of pile group settlement. Even though there are thick sand layers

around pile, the concept is also without exception.

(3) Engineer and technicians in shanghai have held

the more popular point of view that the existence

of shallow sand deposits around pile will lead to

decrease the pile group settlement significantly.

The analysis in this paper, on the one hand, provide

prerequisite condition for the point of view, and on

the other hand, expands to the extent of the basic

characteristics for pile group settlement.

(4) The study results mentioned above, which are

based on the measured settlement data on driven

pile group confined to the pile length at a range of

20 m35 m, can be used to explain the reason why

driven pile group composed of super-long piles

with the tip reaching the layer 2 or layer possess the settlement characteristics similar to that in

which compressible strata are mainly composed of

quasi-sand layers and thick sand layers are located

in shallow depths. In the circumstances, the layers

of 1 or 2 can play a role as the shallow sand

layers around pile.

211

REFERENCES

Castelli, F., Maugeri, M., 2002. Simplified Nonlinear Analysis for Settlement Prediction of Pile Groups, America.

Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 128, pp. 7684.

Chen, R.P., Lin, D.S., Chen, Y.M., 2003. Some problems in

settlement calculation of pile groups, China. Chinese Civil

engineering Journal, Vol. 39, pp. 8994.

Dai, R.L., Chen, H., Yu, Y.Y., 2001. The analysis of soil properties and settlement of pile foundation of shanghai highrise building, China. Chinese Journal of Geotechnical

Engineering, Vol. 23, pp. 627630.

China. China building publisher, Beijing.

Prakoso, W.A., Kulhawy, F.H., 2001. Contribution to piled

raft foundation design, America. Journal of Geotechnical

and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 127, pp. 1724.

Zhang, D., Chen, Z.C., Yao, X.Q., 1999. The effect of pile

construction method on pile foundation settlement,China.

Journal of Tongji University, Vol. 27, pp. 723727.

Zhou, H.B., 2004. Study of effect of pile type and construction

technology on pile behavior, China. Ph.D. thesis, Tongji

university, Shanghai.

212

2007 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN13 978-0-415-42280-2

A. Zh. Zhusupbekov & Y. Ashkey

Geotechnical Institute, L.N. Gumilyev Eurasian National University, Astana, Kazakhstan

V.N. Popov

JSC Karaganda GIIZ and K, Karaganda, Kazakhstan

Corporation Bazis-A, ltd, Almaty, Kazakhstan

ABSTRACT: We carried out the static testing of boring piles, which was performed through geotechnology by

CFA on problematic soil grounds in Astana (the new capital of Kazakhstan). This paper summarizes the results

of static pile tests for compression vertical loads. As well, this article presents a comparison table of traditional

geotechnology and new geotechnology CFA during the performing of boring piles. This is important for the

estimation of geoecological effects of boring piles into difficult soil ground for buildings.

INTRODUCTION

Republic of Kazakhstan has resulted in strong and reliable bases for buildings and constructions. Erections

of large and high-altitude infrastructures are made

through the generosity of foreign investors, who have

been attracted to Astana. During construction, there

have been problems with designing in an economical

way, the device of the bases in difficult ground conditions. The decision to solve this problem should take

into consideration the following: geotechnology, quality and construction. Application of advanced global

technology CFA is duly provided at a given stage.

2

ENGINEERING GEOLOGICAL

CONDITIONS OF THE SITE

the data of skilled field workers that comply with the

results of laboratory researchers, geological elements

in their sequences of bedding are as follows:

EGE-1.

EGE-2.

EGE-3.

Uncovering all holes.

Brown loamy soil, half stiff, with interlayer

of clayey ground.

Yellow alluvium clayey soil, hard, half hard

ground, with interlayer of loamy ground.

results of the laboratory data to research the soils is

structure of a site of researches take part, submitted

by loams and clay grounds. Above these are blocked

fillings of earthwork, with a capacity up to 1,00 m. All

grounds are water saturated that are opened on the site

by researchers.

The technology of testing the grounds by statical pressing in loadings on the boring pile was conducted in

agreement with the demands of GOST 5686-94 and

recommendations that were worked out by KGS,

Ltd. In the beginning of statical testing through boring piles in water-saturated ground bases that were

conducted, the concrete of piles were 80% of design

durability. Loading of piles was done in stages of

200 kN and 100 kN depending on the value of settlement and speed of stabilization of deformation by

hydraulic jack CMJ- 158A with carrying capacity

from 2000 kN, resting on anchor-persistent test bench,

which is shown in Figure 1.

The pressure in the jack was created with the help

of manual oil pump station MNSR-400 with power up

to 800 kg/sm2 , the moving of boring piles was fixed

by caving in-measurers of the type 6-PAO, which were

positioned on both sides of unmovable bearings with

the benchmark system. The first count out, performed

right after putting the loading, then consequently 4

counts out with an interval of 15 minutes, 2 counts out

213

Settlement, mm

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

Load, kN

experimental dates;

the loading for the boring experimental pile with a length of

11 m.

CFA pile; 2 basic beam; 3 auxiliary beam; 4 pipes for

welded seam; 5 jack; 6 - caving in-measurer; 7 - benchmark

system; 8 pump with manometer.

hour until the conditional stabilization of deformation

(by Bartolomey A.A., Omelchak I.M., and Yushkov

B.S.,1994). For the criterion of conditional stabilization of deformation was taken the speed of settlement

of boring piles on the given stage of loading that did

not exceed 0.1 mm during the last 12 hours of observation. The maximum loading on the experimental

piles was 1800 kN according to the recommendation

of KGS, Ltd until reaching the point of settlement at

8 cm. Boring piles required reactive efforts. Reloading

was conducted in stages 400 kN and 300 kN.

PILE TEST

According to the results of the ground tests, by

static pressing in loadings for estimation, the bearing

capacity on ground received the dependences of settlement from loading for experimental piles (Figure 2)

and of length 11 m. The bearing layer for the grounds

under the piles is clay of EGE-3, which physicalmechanical characteristics are shown in table 1. The

experimental boring piles test for maximum loading

half times the loading (according to British standards)

that is taken from the building. The maximum settlement according to the results of experimental piles test

was 15.18 mm (L = 11 m), which reached the maximum value of settlings, equal to 16 mm, defined by the

equation 17 SNiP 2.02.03-85. It should be noted that

the settlement of piles at the given loadings have minimum values and the simple conclusion about the deformations of the base ground is untimely. The mentioned

settlements take place due to the pressing of concrete

or mistakes in the experiment. According to preliminary results, the experimental piles test using a particular value of the maximum resistance was taken at the

maximum experimental loading 1200 kN (L = 11 m).

For the final estimation of the bearing capacity on

the ground, experimental piles tests were held, using a

length of 14 m. Aside from the base which was taken

for the loading, this causes the maximum value of

the settlement for the mentioned type of the building, according to the enclosure 4 SNiP 2.02.01-83

8 cm. On the graph of settlement dependence from

loading the experimental pile, (Figure 2) it follows that

the maximum settlement 8 cm was reached at loading

1800 kN (L = 11 m). According to the results of statical tests, the value of the maximum resistance was

taken during the loading of 1500 kN (L = 11 m), resulting in which the pile settled at 16 mm. The results of the

received dependences of experimental piles show that

the maximum resistance at loading 1500 kN was not

reached. The authors on the basis of the analysis of the

results recommend taking the value of the maximum

resistance of piles, loading 1850 kN (L = 11 m). This

loading will not exceed the value of maximum settlements of 40 mm, regulated by the rules of normative

document. Secondly, only after supposedly through the

authors maximum resistance, the sharp increase of

pile settlement takes place.

214

Table 1.

0.3m

The names of

the grounds

, g/cm3

c, kPa

E, MPa

EGE-1

Loam, EGE-2

Clay, EGE-3

2.02

1.86

33

35

18

21

7

7

11m

characteristics

pile with the length 11 m.

The numerical analysis was provided by FEM for

elasto-plastic conditions. We used the characteristics

of soil ground (Table 1) for numerical calculation of

bearing capacity and settlement. The results show that

experimental and theoretical results are not so different (Figure 2). The numerical analysis are important

for understanding the interaction of CFA pile with soil

grounds.

6

CONCLUSIONS

the absence of building dust). It is important for construction of bridges, civil engineering constructions

and other buildings.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors wish to express their deep appreciation

to Professor Tadatsugu tanaka from Tokyo University,

Japan for his continual encouragement and scientific

discussion about numerical results by FEM.

REFERENCES

CFA in engineering geological conditions of Astana

is rather effective in comparison with driven piles.

Bearing capacity of boring piles in length of 11 m

makes 1500 kN, that is, two times more than the bearing capacity of driven piles. For weak lenses and strong

grounds, it is necessary to apply boring pile technology. The installation of boring piles occurs without

influence on an environment (there is no vibration during the performing of piles using safe technology and

Prognosis of settlement of pile foundations, Moscow,

302p.

GOST 5686-94. (1994). Grounds. Methods of field tests by

piles, 42p.

SNiP 2.02.03-85.(1995) Pile foundations, 52p.

SNiP 2.02.01-83 (1995) Ground basements and Foundation

55p.

AshkeyY, The problems of estimation of bearing capacity of

piles Proc. of 5th Asian Yong Geotechnical Conference,

Taipei, Taiwan, pp. 161164.

215

2007 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN13 978-0-415-42280-2

founded on very soft Bangkok clay

Prapote Boonsinsuk

AMEC Earth & Environmental, Scarborough, Ontario, Canada

ABSTRACT: Due to the large volume of wastewater generated in Samut Prakarn Province located about 20 km

east of Bangkok, Thailand, the Samut Prakarn Wastewater Management Project has been conceived to treat the

wastewater up to 525,000 m3 per day. The wastewater will be treated at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in

Klong Dan which is located about 50 km east of Bangkok and about 0.5 km from the Gulf of Thailand. The WWTP

site is underlain by a 20 m to 25 m thick stratum of very soft to soft Bangkok clay of which the upper 12 m to 15 m of

the clay stratum can not support any earth embankment with more than 2 m in height without ground improvement.

A 4.2 m high dike structure, approximately 7 km in total length, is needed to form eight wastewater/sludge

ponds required for the wastewater treatment plant. The main functions of the dike structure are to contain

wastewater/sludge, to serve as access road, and in some sections, to function as channel for transporting influent or effluent. To serve the three functions required, a combined road-channel-dike structure is preferred for

construction cost saving and economic land use.

Various conceptual designs of the combined road-channel-dike structure had been developed and evaluated

prior to construction. Finally, a piled raft foundation was selected and designed by using a reinforced-concrete

structure supported by 12 m long pre-stressed concrete piles. During the construction from the years 2001 to

2003, slope failures were avoided by implementing the field observation method. Based on the results of 527

days of monitoring, the combined structure underwent the maximum vertical settlement of about 320 mm and

the highest lateral movement of about 100 mm, without slope and/or structural failures. This paper addresses

the different design approaches developed in the early stage, and the design and performance of the structure

selected for construction.

INTRODUCTION

has been developed to treat up to 525,000 m3 per day

of wastewater produced primarily from factories in

Samut Prakarn Province located about 20 km east of

Bangkok, Thailand (Figure 1). The wastewater will be

collected from factories through a system of underground pipes and combined in a tunnel leading to the

wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) located in Klong

Dan, about 50 km east of Bangkok.

The influent will be discharged into three Pretreatment Ponds, each about 150 m by 340 m in plan area

(Figure 2), after which the pretreated influent will be

directed into three Aeration Basins, each about 150 m

by 250 m in plan area. The aerated wastewater will subsequently be pumped through the Mixed Liquor Pump

Thailand)

Station to be treated in the clarifiers. The treated effluent from the clarifiers will then be directed through

a channel and discharged into the Gulf of Thailand

through an ocean Outfall. The sludge will be collected

on site in two Biosolids Storage Ponds.

For all the eight containment ponds needed, the

maximum water depth of the ponds required will be

3.9 m which has to be achieved by constructing a

dike, or an excavation, or the combination of dike and

excavation.

Due to the low bearing capacity of the very soft clay

covering the site and construction difficulty, it would

be beneficial and cost effective to combine the dike,

access road and channel that are needed for containing and transporting the wastewater into one single

structure.

The site for the wastewater treatment plant in Klong

Dan is located in a marshy coastal area, about 0.5 km

from the Gulf of Thailand. The site is covered by a 20 m

to 30 m thick, very soft to hard, clay layer overlying an

8 m to 12 m thick, dense to very dense, sand layer. The

219

This paper describes the design concepts developed and evaluated for a 4.2 m high, combined roadchannel-dike structure at the commencement of the

project prior to selecting the most viable design concept. The final design of the combined road-channeldike structure is based on the piled raft foundation

concept using a reinforced-concrete structure supported by 12 m long pre-stressed piles which are driven

into the very soft clay. The structure will be able to

settle due to the ongoing regional land subsidence and

consolidation of the supporting clay stratum, without

causing any separation between the base of the structure and the supporting subgrade which, if occurred,

will lead to uncontrollable leakage.The design and performance of the combined road-channel-dike structure

are presented in this paper.

2

DESIGN CRITERIA

designed in accordance with the following criteria:

As a dike, the structure will have to contain

the wastewater in the ponds up to the maximum

water elevation of +3.5 m Mean Sea Level (MSL).

The bottom elevation of all containment ponds is

0.4 m MSL, leading to a maximum water depth

of 3.9 m. The existing ground surface elevation is

approximately +0.6 m MSL.

As a channel, the minimum dimension of the watercarrying section of the structure will have to be

3.0 m in order to transport the design wastewater

volume of 525,000 m3 per day.

As a road, the structure will typically have to support a design load of a single unit truck, according

to AASHTO Standard Truck (HS 2044) with a

rear axle load of 143 kN (32,000 pounds). Some

sections of the structure will have to be designed

to support cranes required for lifting heavy equipment. The clear width of the road traffic surface

will have to be a minimum of 4.0 m.

The highest seawater elevation anticipated during

the service life will be +2.75 m MSL plus an

additional allowance of 0.20 m for wave height.

The service life of the combined road-channel-dike

structure will be 80 years.

The maximum land subsidence due to deep well

pumping for the 80-year service life is anticipated

to be 1.5 m. The regional land subsidence rate

typically ranges from 20 mm to 50 mm per year.

Constructability of the structure on the very soft

clay and tight construction time schedule will have

to be considered.

soft Bangkok clay with undrained shear strengths ranging from 5 kPa to 30 kPa. It is common that an earth

embankment built higher than 2 m at the site without any proper ground treatment will likely collapse

because of low bearing capacity or slope instability.

(WWTP) is approximately 320 ha, some portions of

220

which are covered with mangroves. The general average elevation of the site is +0.60 m above the mean

sea level. Due to its coastal location, the site is subject

to daily fluctuation of seawater level and covered with

a thick stratum of very soft to soft marine clay deposit.

The subsurface soil conditions of the WWTP site

were investigated by more than 50 boreholes drilled

to a maximum depth of 40 m and more than 30 insitu vane shear strength tests. Typically, the soil profile

across the WWTP (Figure 3) consists of a 20 m to 25 m

thick layer of very soft to soft Bangkok clay overlying

a 5 m to 10 m thick, firm to hard, clay layer which is

underlain by an 8 m to 12 m thick, dense to very dense,

sand layer.

The soil stratum that causes problems for the design

and construction of the combined road-channel-dike

structure is the top, 12 m to 15 m thick, very soft clay

stratum. The liquid limits of the very soft clay typically

range from 90 to 130 and the plastic limits from 30 to

50, while the natural water contents vary from 100% to

130%. The variations with depth of the average values

of liquid limit, plastic limit and natural water content

are shown on Figure 4.

The in-situ vane shear strengths of the very soft clay

range from 5 kPa near the ground surface to about

30 kPa at 12 m to 15 m depths. The undrained shear

strength profiles shown on Figure 5 provide the average values of the undrained shear strength measured by

in-situ vane shear testing and unconfined compression

testing.

with depth.

221

depth.

Based on one-dimensional consolidation tests carried out on undisturbed soil samples at various depths,

the over-consolidation ratios of the clay at the WWTP

range from about 0.7 to 1.7 as shown on Figure 6. On

the average, the clay should be considered as normally

consolidated. The compression ratios of the clay typically vary from 0.3 to 0.4. The unit weights of the

very soft to soft clay normally range from 14 kN/m3

to 16 kN/m3 .

4

is underlain by a 20 m to 25 m thick stratum of very

soft to soft clay and is subject to the ongoing regional

land subsidence caused by deep well pumping, the

following problems with respect to geotechnical engineering have to be solved in the design of the combined

road-channel-dike structure:

The maximum height of an earth embankment that

can be built on the very soft clay covering the

site is about 2 m without slope stability or bearing capacity failure. This fact has been proven

from many failures of earth embankments and

roads constructed at the site. The combined road-

222

than 2 m, can not be constructed using an earth

structure without a major undertaking of ground

improvement.

The rate of the ongoing regional land subsidence

caused by deep well pumping ranges approximately

from 20 mm to 50 mm per year. As a result, if a

dike structure is founded on long piles that are typically founded within the sand stratum, separation

between the base of the structure and the underlying

soil subgrade will lead to leakage of the wastewater

from the containment pond. For the design service

life of 80 years, the maximum land subsidence is

anticipated to be about 1.5 m, leading to a possible separation of 0.5 m high underneath the base

of the dike structure. The 0.5 m separation is the

difference in land subsidence between the ground

surface and the sand structure. Such a separation

will be very difficult to design against leakage.

The exposed ground surface within the site can

not support heavy construction equipment without

ground improvement (e.g., cement/lime stabilization of the surface layer, placement of thick sand

and gravel layers, etc.). For the total length of about

7 km planned for the combined road-channel-dike

structure, the ground improvement required to support heavy construction equipment will be time

consuming and increase construction cost.

Ground improvement techniques that require heavy

machinery, high preloading embankment, and/or

(Figure 7b). A few alternatives for ground improvement may be feasible, e.g., preloading with prefabricated vertical drains, short piles with enlarged

pile caps or tension layers (i.e., piled embankment),

lime/cement columns, etc.

A reinforced-concrete structure supported by short

piles founded within the very soft clay layer, i.e.,

piled raft foundation (Figure 7c).

very soft ground conditions and construction time

constraints.

5

DESIGN ALTERNATIVES

may be feasible for the design and construction of the

combined road-channel-dike structure. The conceptual design of each approach is illustrated in Figures

7a to 7c while the advantages/disadvantages of each

approach are compared in Table 1. The three design

approaches are as follows:

A reinforced-concrete structure supported by long

piles driven into the sand stratum located at about

30 m to 35 m depth below grade (Figure 7a).

same initial road surface elevation of +4.2 m MSL

and the same initial pond bottom elevation of 0.4 m

MSL for direct comparison. Each conceptual structure

was 3.6 m high above the average ground elevation of

+0.6 m MSL and the water in the pond was at the

same depth of 3.9 m. The elevations of each structure

223

Table 1.

Performance/

Constructability

Long-term

settlement

Potential for

leakage

through

structures

base

Potential for

leakage

through the

structure

Long-term

structural

integrity

Long-term

maintenance

effort

Foundation

construction

preparation

ReinforcedConcrete

Structure

Supported

by Long

Piles

Earth

Embankment

Supported by

Improved

Ground

ReinforcedConcrete

Structure

Supported

by Short

Piles

Small

High

High

Very high

Very low

Low

Very low

High

Low

Very stable

Potential for

local collapse

Very stable

Low

High

Low

Require

ground

surface

improvement

to support

heavy

equipment.

Require

ground

surface

improvement

to support

heavy

equipment

Use light

equipment.

No ground

surface

improvement

required.

2003 are compared with the elevations at the end of the

80 year design life (around the year 2083) as shown

on Figures 7a to 7c. For the 80 year design life, the

ground subsidence was considered to be 1.5 m and

elevation of +2.75 m MSL.

For the structure founded on long piles driven into

the sand layer (Figure 7a), the ground surface would

settle by 1.5 m in 80 years due to regional land subsidence, while the road surface elevation at the top

of the structure would settle by 1.0 m. The difference

of 0.5 m was the consolidation settlement of the clay

layer which would not be experienced by the longpiled structure. Such a difference in settlement would

lead to a 0.5 m gap between the underside of the longpiled structure and the underlying ground, potentially

causing continuous leakage of the retained wastewater.

On the contrary, the other two approaches (Figures 7b

and 7c) which were founded directly on the clay layer

would settle an additional 0.5 m in 80 years due to consolidation of the very soft clay under the applied loads

of the structure. For design purposes, the total settlement of the structure founded on the clay layer was

considered to be 2.0 m in 80 years while the settlement

of the structure founded on long piles was 1.0 m.

At the end of the 80 year design life, the road surface elevation of the structures founded on the clay

layer (Figures 7b and 7c) would be +2.2 m MSL which

would be below the estimated +2.75 m MSL elevation

of seawater. Therefore, these structures would have to

be designed with the road surface elevation of +4.8 m

MSL at the completion of construction in order to stay

above the seawater level during the 80 year design life.

Prior to selecting the most feasible design, the

cost and the constructability of each design approach

had been carefully compared. Finally, the reinforcedconcrete structure supported by short piles (i.e.,

piled raft foundation) had been chosen for design

and construction due to its advantages in functionality, constructability and construction/maintenance

costs.

224

ROAD-CHANNEL-DIKE STRUCTURE

Using the piled raft foundation concept, a reinforcedconcrete structure supported by short piles has been

conceived. The length of the short piles is selected to

be 12 m in order to achieve reasonable pile resistance

while the pile tip is still embedded in the very soft clay

stratum. As a result, the structure is supported by both

the underlying clay and piles, and will settle with the

underlying clay, thereby preventing leakage of retained

wastewater through the underside of the structure.

The final design of the combined road-channel-dike

structure is shown on Figure 8. The basic dimensions

of the structure are 4 m wide road surface, 12 m wide

base at the ground level, and 4.2 m high above ground.

The structure is located 5 m away from a 1:10 (vertical

: horizontal) side slope of a 1 m deep excavation. The

total height of the pond is therefore 5.2 m from the

base of the pond to the top road surface of the structure.

The structure is designed to accommodate a maximum

settlement of 2.0 m in 80 years.

The basic combined road-channel-dike structure is

composed of a reinforced-concrete box supported by

pre-stressed concrete piles. The base of the combined

structure is tied monolithically to a series of 12 m

long pre-stressed I piles. The box of the structure

is formed by two walls, a base and a top floor cover.

The core of the box is hollow to function as channel

of the structure are strengthened by wall/beam stiffeners for channels (hollow box for water flow) and

beam stiffeners for dikes (clay-core installed inside

the box).

Each longitudinal section of the combined structure is typically 10 m in length (on plan) as shown on

Figure 9 and is linked to adjacent sections by keyed

vertical and horizontal expansion joints that are structurally separated from each other. Each section of the

structure can move independently, but the movement

is limited by the keyed joints.

The 12 m long piles are driven into the very soft clay

layer and are therefore subject to settlement. As such,

the combined road-channel-dike structure will behave

like a piled raft foundation that can settle vertically,

move laterally, tilt, and/or combination.

The combined road-channel-dike structure is

designed to sustain a total settlement of 2.0 m during

the design life of 80 years (i.e., 0.5 m consolidation settlement of the underlying clay and 1.5 m regional land

subsidence). The ground elevations of the structure at

the completion of construction in the years 20022003

and the end of the 80-year design life are compared in

Figure 7c.

Each pond/basin is designed to perform individually, without depending on the water level in the

adjacent pond/basins for stability. Lowering wastewater/sludge level in one pond/basin while keeping the

225

permissible, provided that it is conducted gradually

and the difference in the wastewater/sludge levels in

the surrounding pond/basins is maintained within the

allowable limit.

In order to prevent leakage from the channels, each

vertical joint is covered by waterstop, joint fillers

and a clay core installed between two wall stiffeners,

while the horizontal joint is filled with waterstop, joint

fillers and bentonite. The leakage from the pond/basin

through the vertical joints is prevented by the clay

core installed between two wall stiffeners covering the

vertical joints. As for the dikes, leakage through the

vertical expansion joints is prevented by the clay fill

inside the reinforced-concrete box structure and joint

filling materials.

The combined road-channel-dike structure acts as

earth dikes/dams, although it is a reinforced-concrete

structure. As such, some seepage of wastewater from

the pond/basins through the combined structures and

the underlying clay is anticipated, similar to the seepage normally occurred in earth dikes/dams. Seepage

can be identified when the ground adjacent to the combined road-channel-dike is damp to wet without visible

free flowing water.

Unlike earth dikes/dams, the rigidity of the

reinforced-concrete structure makes it easy to locate

the source of leakage which occurs when free water

flowing from the pond/basin is visible on the downstream ground surface. The source of leakage should

structure directly opposite to the location that the

leakage appears. Once the source of leakage is identified, proper remedial measures (e.g., grouting) can be

implemented to mitigate the leakage.

It should be mentioned that the project is a design

build-operate project. As such, the design of the

combined road-channel-dike structure has been evaluated during and after construction. Any design and

construction adjustments required can be carried out

during the maintenance period.

7

The combined road-channel-dike structure was constructed from the years 2001 to 2003. The ground

surface at the base of the structure was prepared by

stripping, grading and compacting (kneading) of the

clay subgrade. The 12 m long piles were installed by

using light-weight, framed, percussion pile driving rigs

typically used in Bangkok. The piles were easily driven

to the required elevation. All equipment used in the

construction was controlled by limiting the ground

pressure not to exceed 20 kPa. The superstructure

was subsequently constructed using the normal construction practice for constructing reinforced-concrete

structure. The details of construction have been presented by Boonsinsuk and Chareonsuphong (2001 in

Thai language).

226

adjacent ground.

movements around Aeration basin No. 1.

stored water.

1 and 2, performs satisfactorily in accordance with

the design criteria. The first pond filled was Aeration Basin 1 as shown on the plan in Figures 2 and

10. The aeration basin was filled with water from the

canal passing through the north of the basin. The water

was primarily seawater and was relatively clear of suspended solids. Subsequently, the three Pretreatment

Ponds and the other two Aeration Basins were filled

with the same water. The vertical and lateral movements of the combined road-channel-dike structure

were surveyed on a regular basis, using the centerline

and the two walls of the structure as reference survey

points for monitoring movements.

The movements of the combined road-channel-dike

structure surrounding Aeration Basin 1 had been regularly monitored for the longest period of almost two

years. One of the highest movements was measured in

Block No. 47 along Line Y3 (Figure 10) as shown on

Figure 11. During the impoundment of Aeration Basin

1, the maximum water level in the basin reached Elevation 3.2 m MSL above the bottom of the basin which

was constructed at Elevation 0.4 m MSL. During

the first 200 days (cumulative days from 2 December

settlement was approximately 240 mm while the maximum lateral movement (away from Aeration Basin 1)

was about 120 mm. The vertical movements of the two

walls of the structure were slightly different, indicating

negligible tilting.

When Aeration Basin 2 was filled with water to

the same water level as Aeration Basin 1, the vertical

settlement of Block No. 47 increased slightly while

the lateral movement was reduced by approximately

20 mm. The combined road-channel-dike structure

was therefore responsive to the water levels in the

ponds/basins located both sides of the structure. The

fact that the lateral movement can be reduced by

increasing water level in the adjacent pond/basin indicates that the soil-structure interaction is still in its

elasto-plastic range.

An example of the vertical settlement profile and the

lateral movement of Line Y3 (Figure 10) is shown on

Figures 12 and 13, respectively, at the cumulative Day

527. It can be noticed that the vertical settlement along

Line Y3, almost 250 m long, was not uniform, possibly due to the variation in soil properties. A few blocks

of the structure underwent the maximum settlement of

227

Figure 11. Variations of pond water level/vertical settlement/lateral movement for Block No.49 Line Y3 with

cumulative days.

the junctions of the structures (e.g., Block No. 58 and

Block No. 33 on Figure 10) which were constructed

with larger piled raft sizes. The lateral movements

along Line Y3 were highest at about 100 mm in the

central portion of Line Y3 and decreased toward the

junctions.

Leakages of the water retained in the pond/basins

occurred only through the expansion joints. There was

no evidence of any leakage through the base of the

structure, indicating a tight contact between the base of

the structure and the supporting ground. Of about 200

expansion joints along the perimeters of the structures

(i.e., the exterior perimeters of the three aeration basins

and the three pretreatment ponds), about 75 joints

showed signs of seepage of the water retained in the

pond/basins to the exterior ground surfaces. The signs

of seepage ranged from damp ground, wet ground,

and flowing water (leakage). About 60 of the 75 joints

showed damp ground and about 10 joints showed wet

ground surface adjacent to the joints. About five (5)

joints located at the junctions of the structures showed

leakages with water flowing through the joints to the

adjacent ground. These leakages were caused by the

excessive opening of the joints due to differential settlement between the junction (e.g., Block No. 58) and

the adjacent blocks. Leakages with flowing water had

been successfully repaired by grouting. Other seepages/leakages that showed signs of increasing flow

rate were grouted. It should be noted that due to the

delay of implementing the project, clear water had

been stored for almost two years in the pond/basins

instead of wastewater as planned. Typically wastewater

Figure 13. Variation of lateral movement along line Y3 at cumulative day 527.

228

will eventually clog the joint filling materials, thereby

reducing/mitigating leakages.

8

a method can be used because the design and construction of the road-channel-dike structure are based

on a design-build-operate contract. The structure had

been constructed without any slope failure and had

performed satisfactorily.

CONCLUSION

required for containment ponds in the wastewater

treatment plant located at Klong Dan, a reinforced concrete structure, instead of traditional earth structures,

has been designed using the piled raft foundation concept. Such a design made it possible to construct a

4.2 m high dike structure on

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