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ABSTRACT

As we know India is an agrarian country & 70% of population of our country


lives in villages & their main occupation is agriculture. Similarly moe than 40% of
these areas do not get regular electricity supply. Most of the farmer use motor
operated spray pump or electrically chargeable spray pumps, whose running cost
comparatively high.
The prominent aim of our project is to fulfill the tasks like hand spraying using
non-conventional energy sources. Thus solar operated spray pump will help the
farmer of those remotes areas of country where electricity and fuel like diesel or
petrol in not regularly available .They can perform their regular work as well as
saves electricity and fuel up to large extent.
In this project we operated spray using pump which run on solar energy.
Solar energy is exhaustible, replinishable& clean source of energy. It releases
about 380 billion kilowatts of energy through fusion reaction every second. From
which about 173 million KW is intercepted by earth. About 1/3 of this energy is
bounced back as a short wave radiation.
As we know 70% of population of our country lives in village & their main
occupation is agriculture. Similarly more than 40% of these areas do not get
regular electricity supply. Our project is working on solar energy which is the
cheapest &conventional source of energy. Our project reduce the waste of pesticide
do it is reduce the cost of spraying the pesticide. It saves 30% pesticide as
compared to other spraying system. Solar spray provide automatic spray system
which reduce the human effort that is more in hand operated spray

INTRODUCTION
Duster is equipment which is used for spraying insecticides, pesticides, and
fungicides. An agriculture duster is a duster that has been built or converted for
agricultural use usually for aerial application of pesticides (crop dusting) or
fertilizers (aerial to dressing). Dusters (sprayer) have become an indispensible for
high productivity and have contributed to the worldwide crop production
revolution. Dusters cover a wide variety of agricultural jobs and pest applications,
including control of competing weeds and unwanted bushes and trees, control of
diseases and insects, application of plant nutrients, and broadcasting of many
crops.
A pesticide may be a chemical substance, biological agent (such as a virus or
bacterium), antimicrobial, disinfectant or

device used against any pest. Pests

include insects, plant pathogens, weeds, mollusks, birds, mammals, fish,


nematodes (roundworms), and microbes that destroy property, spread disease or are
a vector for disease or cause a nuisance. Conservation of non-renewable resources
with an objective of attaining sustainable developments has lead to an incredible
advancement in both understanding and employing suns vast energy to benefit
mankind. The advent of photovoltaic modules and arrays or simply solar panel
corroborates this progress. The photovoltaic (PV) or solar cells crafted from silicon
semiconductor are configured to trap and convert the suns energy into useful
energy, which is then used to perform work. Hence, the optimum exploitation of
suns energy is used here to drive out a duster. The duster eliminates the
conventional style of hand spraying powder pesticide, thereby reducing hazard of
diseases and saves time.

Solar spray are the ultimate cost effective solution at the locations where
spraying is required. This solar-powered spray pump system uses solar energy as
source. Solar energy is first used to charge a storage battery. The solar energy
stored in the battery is utilized to operate motor which functions as pump. As the
name of the paper suggests, it deals with the constant discharge of pesticide,
compress air control system, solar power, battery charging, monitoring as well as
timer and non-conventional power controlling techniques. As far as controlling is
concerned, it include the parameters such as pressure, pesticide level, battery
voltage, current, solar cell and discharge condition.
In this paper we are trying to make unique equipment for cultivation users.
Mostly in the forming process pesticide spray is taking a critical role due to poison
properties of chemical. So, in this paper we have committed to do something
unique and useful equipment with non-conventional source technique. Also reduce
the weight of unique solar spray jet as compare to diesel spray jet.

LITRATURE REVIEW
A. Spraying Methods
One of the more common forms of pesticide application, especially in conventional
agriculture, is the use of mechanical sprayers.
1. Backpack (knapsack) sprayer
One type of backpack sprayer is a compressed air sprayer with a harness that
allows it to be carried on the operator's back.
Another type of backpack sprayer has a hand-operated hydraulic pump that
forces liquid pesticide through a hose and one or more nozzles. The pump is
usually activated by moving a lever. A mechanical agitator plate may be attached to
the pump plunger. Some of these sprayers can generate pressures of 100 pounds
per square inch (psi) or more. Capacity of both these types of backpack sprayers is
usually 5 gallons or less.
Hydraulic sprayers consist of a tank, a pump, a lance (for single nozzles) or
boom, and a nozzle (or multiple nozzles). Sprayers convert a pesticide formulation,
often containing a mixture of water (or another liquid chemical carrier, such as
fertilizer) and chemical, into droplets, which can be large rain-type drops or tiny
almost-invisible particles. This conversion is accomplished by forcing the spray
mixture through a spray nozzle under pressure. The size of droplets can be altered
through the use of different nozzle sizes, or by altering the pressure under which it
is forced, or a combination of both.
Large droplets have the advantage of being less susceptible to spray drift,
but require more water per unit of land covered. Due to static electricity, small
droplets are able to maximize contact with a target organism, but very still wind
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conditions are required. But, in this type of spraying, the labor has to carry all the
weight of the pesticides filled tank which causes fatigue to labor and hence reduces
the human capacity.
2. Lite-Trac
Lite-Trac is a trading name of Holme Farm Supplies Ltd, a manufacturer of
agricultural machinery registered in England and based in Peterborough.The LiteTrac name comes from "lite tractor", due to the patented chassis design enabling
the inherently very heavy machines manufactured by the company to have a light
footprint for minimum soil compaction.
3. Motorcycle driven multi-purpose farming device (Bullet Santi)
In 1994, Mansukhbhai Jagani, developed an attachment for a motorbike to
get a multi-purpose tool bar. It which addresses the twin problems of farmers in
Saurashtra namely paucity of laborers and shortage of bullocks. This motor cycle
driven plough (Bullet Santi) can be used to carry out various farming operations
like

furrow

opening,

sowing,

inter-culturing

and

spraying

operations.

Mansukhbhais intermediate-technology contraption proved efficient and costeffective for small-sized farms.
It could plough one acre (0.4 ha) of land in less than half an hour on just two
liters of diesel oil. Using motorbike-santi, the cost of weeding a typical field was
found to be just Rs 8/ha because as much as 10 ha land could be covered in a
single day. But, this spraying equipment needs fuel for its running and proper
operation which increases its operating cost.

B. Weeding or Weed control


Weed control is the botanical component of pest control, using physical and
chemical methods to stop weeds from reaching a mature stage of growth when they
could be harmful to domesticated plants and livestock. In order to reduce weed
growth, many "weed control" strategies have been developed in order to contain
the growth and spread of weeds.
The most basic is ploughing which cuts the roots of annual weeds. Today, chemical
weed killers known as herbicides are widely used.
1. Exact definition
There is no universal definition for what qualifies as an obnoxious plant. However,
a plant is often termed weed when it has one or more of the following
characteristics:
Little or no value (as in medicinal, nutritional, or energy)
Very high growth rate and/or ease of germination
Exhibits competition to crops, for space, light, water and nutrients.
2. Effects on other plants
Weeds can compete with productive crops or pasture, or convert productive land
into unusable scrub. Weeds are also often poisonous, distasteful, produce burrs,
thorns or other damaging body parts or otherwise interfere with the use and
management of desirable plants by contaminating harvests or excluding livestock.
Weeds tend to thrive at the expense of the more refined edible or ornamental crops.
They provide competition for space, nutrients, water and light, although how
seriously they will affect a crop depends on a number of factors. Some crops have
greater resistance than others- smaller, slower growing seedlings are more likely to
be overwhelmed than those that are larger and more vigorous. Onions are one of
the crops most susceptible to competition, for they are slow to germinate and
produce slender, upright stems. Quick growing, broad leafed weeds therefore have
a distinct advantage, and if not removed, the crop is likely to be lost. Broad beans
however produce large seedlings, and will suffer far less profound effects of weed
competition other than during periods of water shortage at the crucial time when
the pods are filling out. Transplanted crops raised in sterile seed or potting compost
will have a head start over germinating weed seeds.
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Weeds also differ in their competitive abilities, and can vary according to
conditions and the time of year. Tall growing vigorous weeds such as fat hen
(Chenopodium album) can have the most pronounced effects on adjacent crops,
although seedlings of fat hen that appear in late summer will only produce small
plants. Chickweed (Stellaria media), a low growing plant, can happily co-exist
with a tall crop during the summer, but plants that have overwintered will grow
rapidly in early spring and may swamp crops such as onions or spring greens.
The presence of weeds does not necessarily mean that they are competing
with a crop, especially during the early stages of growth when each plant can find
the resources it requires without interfering with the others. However, as the
seedlings size increases, their root systems will spread as they each begin to
require greater amounts of water and nutrients. Estimates suggest that weed and
crop can co-exist harmoniously for around three weeks, therefore it is important
that weeds be removed early on in order to prevent competition occurring. Weed
competition can have quite dramatic effects on crop growth. Harold A Roberts cites
research carried out with onions wherein "Weeds were carefully removed from
separate plots at different times during the growth of the crop and the plots were
then kept clean. It was found that after competition had started, the final yield of
bulbs was being reduced at a rate equivalent to almost 4% per day. So that by
delaying weeding for another fortnight, the yield was cut to less than half that
produced on ground kept clean all the time." (The Complete Know And Grow
Vegetables, Bleasdale, Salter and others, OUP 1991). He goes on to record that "by
early June, the weight of weeds per unit area was twenty times that of the crop, and
the weeds had already taken from the soil about half of the nitrogen and a third of
the potash which had been applied".

3. Methods of Weed Control


In domestic gardens, methods of weed control include covering an area of ground
with several layers of wet newspaper or one black plastic sheet for several weeks.
In the case of using wet newspaper, the multiple layers prevent light from reaching
all plants beneath, which kills them. Saturating the newspaper with water daily
speeds the decomposition of the dead plants. Any weed seeds that start to sprout
because of the water will also be deprived of sunlight, be killed, and decompose.
After several weeks, all germinating weed seeds present in the ground should be
dead. Then the newspaper can be removed and the ground can be planted. The
decomposed plants will help fertilize the plants or seeds planted later.
Typically a combination of methods is used in organic situations

EXISTING SPRAYERS
A. Hand Driven Sprayer
Hand driven pumps consist of a flexible diaphragm made of synthetic rubber
connected to the pump handle by a crankshaft mechanism, a rigid diaphragm
chamber and either flat or ball-type inlet and outlet valves. The outlet valve is
connected to a pressure chamber, which in many hand driven pump sprayers has a
variable pressure setting valve. These pumps typically operate between pressures
of 1 and 3 bar (15-44 psi) and it is suitable for herbicide application where large
droplets are required to minimize spray-drift.

B. Fuel Operated Sprayer


The power sprayer consists of an integrated or external spray tank; a high
pressure piston pump usually powered by a petrol engine a pressure regulating
valve and a hose of up to 50 m of length. Spray tanks are too big to be carried as a
knapsack. The power sprayer is produced in a number of versions. Most simple
and common is an engine driven pump mounted on a frame without wheels, a 200 l
drum and hose and lance. Flow regulation is to be done via a pressure regulating
valve and/or by restrictors (basic power sprayer) and the size of the nozzle. At the
other end of sprayers mounted on wheels, equipped with pressure regulators.
Technically, the power sprayer has a lot in common with the motorized knapsacksprayer. The unit is generally set for high volume spraying, transporting the
droplets with high pressure. Hallow cone nozzles are the preferred type of nozzles.

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CONSTRUCTION
The project consist of following components
Solar Panel
Tank
Metal rod
Pressure Pump
Lever
Nozzle
Battery
Three way switch
wire
The tank is fitted with base (iron sheet) with bolt and nut & this base is attached to
the one metal rod. The solar panel is mounted on this metal rod. This rod is fully
rotated which we are able to give any direction to the solar panel
The solar panel is connected to pressure pump by using wire through which the
pesticide from tank is spread through the lever. The nozzle is attached at the end of
lever, which increase the spraying distance of pesticide.

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WORKING
As mentioned above in construction of our project, the solar panel is heart of our
project, which generates power by using sun energy to run the pressure pump. The
ions in the solar panel get attracted from the heat energy receive from the sun rays.
This would charge the ions to generate 12v & 12w D.C current.
The solar panel tank this power of sunrays to run pressure pump automatically, it
will receive pesticide from tank which is used in agriculture or for general purpose.
The pesticide from tank is spraying through the lever connected to the outlet port
of pump. The lever is connected with nozzle & orifice, which increases or decrease
the spray, by using the different type of nozzle.
In cloudy season the sun rays from the sun is not received properly to earth by
which our solar panel will not work properly and it is unable to generate the
constant power. As well as the starting torque is not generated properly for which
the two batteries of 6 volts is provides for giving torque to run the pressure pump.
This current from the battery is given to pump through a bell switch.
After getting the starting torque the battery supply is removed and pressure pump
is run on the solar panel.

Photovoltaic power generation


One way o utilizing solar energy is to generate electric directly from sun light by
photovoltaic process. The generation of an electromotive force as a result of the
absorption of ionizing radiation is used in our project. The energy conversion
device which are use to convert sunlight to electricity by the use of photovoltaic
effect are called as solar cell.
Semi conductors are use for photovoltaic effect. When photons from the sun are
absorbed in a semiconductor; they create free electron with high energies then the
electrons which provide the bonding with base crystals.
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Once these free electrons are created there occurs an electric field which induces
this high energy electron to flow out of the semiconductors to do useful work.

Component of the solar spray system

Solar Panel
Storage Batteries
Pressure Pump
Tank
Nozzle Assembly
Handle(lever)
Filte

Solar panel

13

________________
Solar energy the energy of photons which has an unlimited life can be utilized for
various source of application. Photo voltaic system is one of the most important
systems of solar energy. The first silicon semiconductor used P-V module was
discovered in USA in 1954.

PHOTOVOLTAIC CONVERSION SYSTEM


Direct conversion of solar energy as is achieved by using solar cells. This device
directly converts the energy of sunlight into the power. These are relatively very
simple in construction easy in maintenance. But these are relatively expensive.
Also these require large surface area for light exposure. Semiconductor material is
used in these cells for photovoltaic effect. When photons from sunlight are incident
on this semiconductor material it creates free electrons with high energy. This free
electron flows and produces electric field.

Block Diagram
14

15

Circuit diagram

16

Circuit function
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Built-in digital voltmeter (0V-20V range)


Parallel- or shunt-type regulation
Overcharge protection
System status display on LCD
Deep-discharge protection
Low battery lock
Charging current changes to pulsed at full charge
Low current consumption
Highly efficient design based on microcontroller

The solar charge controller is comprises microcontroller AT89C2051, serial


analogue-to-digital converter ADC0831, optocoupler MCT2E, regulator 7805,
MOSFETs BS170 and IRF540N, transistor BC547, LCD and a few discrete
components. Component description is given below.
Microcontroller.
Microcontroller AT89C2051 is the heart of the circuit. It is a low-voltage,
high-performance, 8-bit microcontroller that features 2 kB of Flash, 128 bytes of
RAM, 15 input/output (I/O) lines, two 16-bit timers/counters, a five-vector twolevel interrupt architecture, a full-duplex serial port, a precision analogue
comparator, on-chip oscillator and clock circuitry. A 12MHz crystal is used for
providing the basic clock frequency. All I/O pins are reset to 1 as soon as RST pin
goes high. Holding RST pin high for two machine cycles, while the oscillator is
running, resets the device. Power-on reset is derived from resistor R1 and capacitor
C4. Switch S2 is used for manual reset.
Serial ADC.
The microcontroller monitors the battery voltage with the help of an
analogue-to-digital converter. The ADC0831 is an 8-bit successive approximation
analogue-to-digital converter with a serial I/O and very low conversion time of
typically 32 s. The differential analogue voltage input allows increase of the
common-mode rejection and offsetting of the analogue zero input voltage. In
addition, the voltage reference input can be adjusted to allow encoding of any
smaller analogue voltage span to the full eight bits of resolution. It is available in
an 8-pin PDIP package and can be interfaced to the microcontroller with only three
wires.
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LCD module.
The system status and battery voltage are displayed on an LCD based on
HD44780 controller. The backlight feature of the LCD makes it readable even in
low light conditions. The LCD is used here in 4-bit mode to save the
microcontrollers port pins. Usually the 8-bit mode of interfacing with a
microcontroller requires eleven pins, but in 4-bit mode the LCD can be interfaced
to the microcontroller using only seven pins.
Solar panel.
The solar panel used here is meant to charge a 12V battery and the wattage can
range from 10 to 40 watts. The peak unloaded voltage output of the solar panel will
be around 19 volts. Higher-wattage panels can be used with some modifications to
the controller unit.
Rechargeable battery.
The solar energy is converted into electrical energy and stored in a 12V lead-acid
battery. The ampere-hour capacity ranges from 5 Ah to 100 Ah.
Charge control.
Relay RL1 connects the solar panel to the battery through diode D1. Under
normal conditions, it allows the charging current from the panel to flow into the
battery. When the battery is at full charge (14.0V), the charging current becomes
pulsed. To keep the overall current consumption of the solar controller low,
normally-closed (N/C) contacts of the relay are used and the relay is normally in
de-energised state.
Load control.
One terminal of the load is connected to the battery through fuse F1 and
another terminal of the load to an n-channel power MOSFET T3. MOFETs are
voltage-driven devices that require virtually no drive current. The load current
should be limited to 10A. One additional MOSFET is connected in parallel for
more than 10A load current.

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Circuit Description
Basically, there are two methods of controlling the charging current: series
regulation and parallel (shunt) regulation. A series regulator is inserted between the
solar panel and the battery.
The series type of regulation wastes a lot of energy while charging the battery as
the control circuitry is always active and series regulator requires the input voltage
to be 3-4 volts higher
than the output voltage. The current and voltage output of a solar panel is governed
by the angle of incidence of light, which keeps varying.
Parallel regulation is preferred in solar field. In parallel regulation, the
control circuitry allows the charging current (even in mA) to flow into the battery
and stop charging once the battery is fully charged. At this stage, the charging
current is wasted by converting into heat (current is passed through low-value,
high-wattage resistor); this part of the regulation dissipates a lot of heat.
In this project, we have used parallel regulation technique but instead of
wasting the charging current as heat, we have made it pulsed and applied to the
battery to keep the battery topped-up.
After power-on, the microcontroller reads the battery voltage with the help
of the ADC and displays the values on the LCD. It monitors the input signal from
the dusk-to-dawn sensor and activates the load or charging relay RL1 accordingly.
The digital voltmeter works up to 20V. As Vref of the ADC is connected to VCC
(5V), the input voltage to the ADC cannot exceed +5V. A potential divider is used
at pin 2 of the ADC (IC2) using resistors R5, R6 and R7 to scale down the voltage
from 0V-20V to 0V-05V. The ADC output is multiplied four times and displayed
on the LCD as battery voltage.
When the solar panel voltage is present, the dusk-to-dawn sensor provides a
signal to the microcontroller, which then displays charging message on the LCD.
During charging, the battery voltage is continuously monitored. When the voltage
reaches 14.0V, the microcontroller interrupts the charging current by energising the
relay, which is connected to MOSFET BS170 (T2), and starts a 5-minute timer.
During this stage, the LCD shows battery full.
After five minutes, the relay reconnects the panel to the battery. This way,
the charging current is pulsed at the intervals of five minutes and the cycle repeats
until the panel voltage is present.
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When the panel voltage falls below the zener diode (ZD1) voltage of the
dusk-to-dawn sensor, the microcontroller senses this and activates the load by
switching on MOSFET T3 via optocoupler IC3 and load on message is
displayed.
In this mode, the microcontroller monitors for low battery. When the battery
voltage drops below 10 volts, the microcontroller turns off the load by switching
off MOSFET T3 and battery lowload off message is displayed.
Normally, when the load is switched off, the battery voltage tends to rise
back and the load oscillates between on and off states. To avoid this, the
microcontroller employs a hysteresis control by entering into a lock mode during
low battery state and comes out of the lock mode when the dusk-to-dawn sensor
receives the panel voltage (the next morning). During lock mode, the
microcontroller keeps converting the ADC value and displays the battery voltage
on the LCD.

20

With the help of toggle switch the main blower motor is made ON and OFF
while the pesticide feeder motor is switched ON and OFF using the push button.
The pesticides are blown whenever required, by pressing the push button. This
enables the worm gear into motion which ultimately pushes the pesticide into the
air flow. Duster takes in power from 6 V batteries connected in series thereby
making it rotate on 12V DC, while the pesticide feeder motor runs on 6V DC. Thus
the equipment uses the solar energy by means of solar panel and this energy is
stored in form of chemical energy in the batteries which is then converted to
electrical energy required to run the D.C motors intern running the centrifugal
blower. The rotation of the impeller causes pressure difference at the inlet and
outlet of the blower which is responsible in causing air to rush in through inlet and
discharges at outlet. In the flow of air, pesticides are then dispensed through feeder
mechanism and switches. The outlet of the dispenser unit is then attached with a
flexible hose pipe to enable the operator to spread pesticide according to his/her
own will. The maintenance of the duster is restricted to the cleaning up of its
various components and life of the battery.

Working principle
Number of cell is internally silver soldered on the base crystal plate. The no. of
cell depends upon the amount of energy required.
Actually the cell is a big diode which is construction using a p-n junction. The
N layer of the junction absorbed these photons. This creates a potential difference
in the P-N layer of semiconductor materials.
The output voltage is the result of functioning of radiation to which it is
exposed.
The O/P voltage relationship is as:V=V log (T)
V=O/P voltage
V= calibrating voltage constant
T= solar intensity in W/m2

Design of solar panel


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The design of solar panel is mainly are as follows:


Power for application
Angle of latitude
Average power intensity for locality
Angle of incidence depending on time of day
Angle of collector directly exposed to sun rays
Season of the year i.e. Weather condition
Miscellaneous factors
Let us discuss the design parameter one by one

POWER FOR APPLICATION


The power required for particular application has direct effect upon collector
panel. Larger the area of panel more is the power obtained and more is its resulting
cost. The present panel is designed for max power of 12 watts & 12 volts.

ANGLE OF LATITUDE
The angle of latitude is he angle at which the panel should be kept so as to
absorb maximum solar energy. The angle of latitude for any location is the angle
between the equator plan of earth and line joining a particular point on earths
surface and the equatorial center of earth.
This collector for location in north plane of world should be placed facing
north while that in south plane fit should be kept facing south this makes the
latitude angle of 0degreee i.e. perfect horizontal lever for equatorial location.
For determining angle of latitude following procedure is adopted.
1. Mark all the three points
Earths center point
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Equatorial plane line


Location for which panel is to be designed on world map.
2. Connect the earth point with location point.
3. Calculate the angle included between equatorial plane line and earths center
point.
As shown in the map for Nagpur. It is equal to 20 O therefore collector should be
placed at 20o facing towards south.

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AVERAGE FOR INTENSITY


The average power intensity for any locality is the unit power collecting per
day. Reference to the map shows the global radiation of India.

FOR VIDARBHA
Average global radiation = 6.1 KWH/sq.m. Day
But 1 KWH/sq.m. Day
Avg. global radiation = 6.1*3.6
= 21.96 MJ/sq.
i.e. (21.96*106)/ (24*60) = 15250 J/sq.m.sec
5250/60
But U/sec

= 254J/sq.m.sec
= 1W

Therefore avg. global radiation = 254 W/sq.m.


On the seasonal variation the intensity changes and it is max i.e. 273 W/sq.m.
On 21 June & min, i.e. 152 W/sq.m.On 1st January.

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ANGLE OF INCIDENCE DEPENDING UPON TIME OF


THE DAY
The angle of incidence is the angle which the sunrays makes the horizontal
surface measured w .r .t. same.
It changes time by time of day. As the sun travel, the angular distance of 1800
for 12 hrs. It travel at an angular speed of 1800/12 =150/hr.
The ideal angle of incidence is the angle which makes the sun at angle of
latitude (20 & incidence =900
As angle of latitude =200
Ideal angle of incident = 900-200 =700

SEASON OF THE YEAR


The global radiation varies from season. But as the panel is designed for
average radiation intensity it can work satisfactory all over the year.

MISCELLANEOUS FACTOR
The global radiation such as atmospheric temperature, shadow, and on the
top glass cover may also effect the panel performance to some extend but it
is very negligible.

However the following precaution should be taken


Never keep the panel in shadow
Always keep the panel top cover clean and free from dust.

25

SPECIFICATION OF SOLAR PANEL


Type of solar panel

: - photo-voltaic solar cell.

Cell material

: - silicon semiconductor material.

No. of cell

:- 8 rows,8 column

Maximum output voltage

:-12v

Maximum power

:-12w

Type of current

:-D.C

Area of panel

:-30.5cm*30.5cm=93.25cm2

International soldering material

:- silver

Types of frame

:- aluminum

26

ADVANTAGES OF PHOTO VOLTAIC CELLS


These panels require less space
Its features such as light in weight less surface area suit this specification
application of sprayer.
It is highly efficient in energy conversion.
It is very compact

DISADVANTAGES OF PHOTO VOLTAIC


CELLS
These are relatively costly
It does not suit for high power application.

27

SPECIFICATION OF BATTERY USED IN THE


SPRAY PUMP
Max output voltage

:-6v(2)=12v

Max output current

:- 2a

Type of current

:-DC

Charging rte

:-25v@2ah

NOZZLE
Its a small thin cylindrical section in which orifice is placed. The main
function of nozzle is to increase the velocity of flow of liquid.

ORIFICE
It is a circular piece of metal which is centrally drilled with a diameter of 0.5
mm. The main function of the orifice is to control the flow of liquid through the
storage tank of the sprayer. It is placed in nozzle.

FILTER RETAINER/FLOAT
The filter base is provided with outer thread on the front side to that side on
which filter net rests. The external threads of the base fit in the internal threads
provided in the nozzle.

28

SPECIFICATION OF PUMP AND NOZZLE


Capacity of tank

: - 16 lit.

Discharge of unit

:-15 lit/hr.

Average speed of pump

:-1500 R.P.M

Suitable angle of spray

:-15to 45 degree

GASKET
A rubber gasket is provided in the motor cover in which the spray tank is
connected. Its main function is to avoid the leakage of spraying liquid from tank.

TANK
The tank is made of plastic having a capacity of 16 liters. It is fixed on the frame
by means of iron strip. The tank consists of a nipple for connecting the rubber pipe
to supply the solution to the pressure pump. The tank is placed over the pump and
battery assembly. The outlet of the tank is given to the inlet of the pump. A vent is
provided to the tank for maintaining atmospheric pressure over the liquid surface.

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION OF PROJECT


For Spray Pump

Capacity of tank
Discharge of unit
Average speed of Impeller
Suitable angle of spray
D.C. Pump
Diameter of orifice
Diameter of nozzle

: -16lit.
: -15lit/hr.
:-1500rpm
:-150 to 450
:-12v, 1.8 amp
:-0.5mm
:-10mm

For Solar Panel

Type of solar panel


Cell material
No. of cells
Max. power
Max. output voltage
Type of current
Area of panel
Type of frame

:-photo-voltaic solar cell


:-silicon semiconductor
:-9rows, 8column
:-12w
:-12v
:-D.C
:-30.5cm*30.5cm=930.25cm2
:-aluminum

For Battery

Type of battery
Max. output
Max. output current
Type of current
Charging rate

:- dry
:-12v
:-4 am
:-D.C
:-2.5v @ 2 am

For Tank
Capacity of tank
Material used

:-16lit
:-plastic

ADVANTAGES
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Very fine spray by using different nozzles.


Free from pollution.
No manual effort required for operating pump.
Negligible running cost.
Less maintenance required.
Easy to handle.
No wastage of pesticide.
Compact in size.

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LIMITATIONS
High initial cost.
Battery charging rate affected during cloudy weather.
Solar energy is not concentrated source of energy.

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APPLICATIONS
If use for spraying pesticide in our agriculture field.
By using different nozzle we can get different particle range for different
purpose.
Water sprinkle in farms and garden.

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CONCLUSION
Solar energy is the non-conventional source of energy. It is available at free of cost
all over the world. It is non hazardous and lion harmful to human being as well as
for environment.
It is more convenient in tropical region. The solar sprayer is more
economical than other conventional sprayers. There is no noise pollution vibration
and hid consumption. It is very comfortable the maintenance cost is less. There is
no wastage of pesticide.
The model is light in weight as compared to their machines. In this we can vary the
quantity of pesticide as required. It can also be used as water sprinkler on herbs in
gardens.
Due to use of small holes on nozzle and high pressure by pump spraying is uniform
throughout and more are is covered.Solar energy is available abundantly and has
would have no shortage in future.

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REFERENCES
Books
SOLAR ENERGY
By s.p. sukhmate
FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINARIES
BY S.V. BANSAL

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