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Example: Fire resistance of a composite slab to EN 1994-1-2

CALCULATION SHEET

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SX037a-EN-EU

Title

Example: Fire resistance of a composite slab to EN 1994-1-2

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Made by

P Schaumann & T Trautmann

Date

Feb 2005

Checked by

J Chica, LABEIN

Date

Nov 2005

Example: Fire resistance of a composite slab to


EN 1994-1-2

Created on Wednesday, August 18, 2010


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This worked example covers the fire design of a composite slab. The slab is
part of a shopping centre and the span between supports is 4,8 m. The slab
isdesigned as a series of simply supported beams. The required standard fire
resistance class for the slab is R 90. This example illustrates the use of the
method in EN1994-1-2, Annex D

Figure 1.1

Static system

Figure 1.2

Steel sheet

Basic data
Material properties:

Steel sheet:
As a conservative assumption, the contribution of the steel decking to the
bending resistance of the composite slab can be ignored. In this example the
deck resistance is included in the calculation.
Yield stress:

f yp = 350 N/mm 2

Cross-sectional area:

Ap = 1562 mm 2 / m

Concrete:
Strength category:
Compression strength:

C 25/30
f c = 25 N/mm 2

Height:

ht = 140 mm

Cross-sectional area:

Ac = 131600 mm 2 /mm

EN1994-1-2
D.3(1)

Example: Fire resistance of a composite slab to EN 1994-1-2

CALCULATION SHEET

Document Ref:

SX037a-EN-EU

Title

Example: Fire resistance of a composite slab to EN 1994-1-2

Sheet

of

Eurocode Ref
Made by

P Schaumann & T Trautmann

Date

Feb 2005

Checked by

J Chica, LABEIN

Date

Nov 2005

Loads:
Permanent loads:
Steel sheet

g p, k = 0,13 kN/m 2

Concrete:

g c, k = 3,29 kN/mm 2

Finishes:

g f, k = 1,2 kN/m 2

Variable loads:
pk = 5,0 kN/m 2

Live load:
Design sagging moment

M s, d = 39,56 kNm/m

at ambient temperatures:

Created on Wednesday, August 18, 2010


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Mechanical actions during fire exposure


The load is determined by the combination rule for accidental situations.

EN1991-1-2
4.3

According to EN 1994-1-2, the load Ed may be reduced by the reduction


factor fi. It is calculated to:

EN1994-1-2
2.4.2

EdA = E ( Gk + Ad + 2, i Qk, i )

fi =

Gk + 2,1 Qk,1

G Gk + Q,1 Qk,1

(0,13 + 3,29 + 1,2) + 0,6 5,0 = 0,55


1,35 (0,13 + 3,29 + 1,2) + 1,5 5,0

With fi, the design bending moment Mfi,d can be calculated:


M fi, d = fi M sd = 0,55 39,56 = 21,94 kNm/m

Fire resistance of a composite slab

The performance of the composite slab should be assessed in terms of the load
bearing, insulation and integrity criteria. The integrity criteria can not be
evaluated by calculation, but the code permits the assumption that composite
construction will fulfil the integrity criteria. The load bearing criteria is
satisfied on the basis of the moment resistance of the composite slab, which
may be calculated using the general principles given in EN1994-1-2, Section
4.3. The effect of thermal actions for standard fire resistance periods may be
calculated using Annex D. The performance of the slab against the insulation
criteria may also be assessed by calculation using Annex D.1.

Example: Fire resistance of a composite slab to EN 1994-1-2

CALCULATION SHEET

Document Ref:

SX037a-EN-EU

Title

Example: Fire resistance of a composite slab to EN 1994-1-2

Sheet

of

Eurocode Ref
Made by

P Schaumann & T Trautmann

Date

Feb 2005

Checked by

J Chica, LABEIN

Date

Nov 2005

Geometrical parameters and scope of application

The calculation procedures given in Annex D have a limited field of


application. Therefore before proceeding with the calculations a check must
be made to ensure that applying the Annex to this problem is valid.

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Figure 1.3

Geometry of cross-section

h1 = 89 mm

h2 = 51 mm

l1 = 115 mm

l2 = 140 mm

l3 = 38 mm

Table 1.1
Scope of application for slabs made of normal concrete and reentrant steel sheets
Scope of application for re-entrant profiles
[mm]

Existing geometrical parameters


[mm]

77,0 l1 135,0

l1 = 115,0

110,0 l2 150,0

l2 = 140,0

38,5 l3 97,5

l3 = 38,0

50,0 h1 130,0

h1 = 89,0

30,0 h2 60,0

h2 = 51,0

This composite slab is within the scope of application defined for Annex D.

EN 1994-1-2
Annex D.5

Thermal insulation

The thermal insulation criteria I limits the permitted temperature rise on the
unexposed face of a separating element. In accordance with the insulation
EN 1994-1-2
criteria, the temperature rise on the top surface of the slab should not exceed D.1
an average value of 140 C or a maximum of 180 C.
The verification is carried out in the time domain as follows:
ti = a0 + a1h1 + a2 + a3

A
1
A 1
+ a4 + a5
Lr
l3
Lr l3

Example: Fire resistance of a composite slab to EN 1994-1-2

CALCULATION SHEET

Document Ref:

SX037a-EN-EU

Title

Example: Fire resistance of a composite slab to EN 1994-1-2

Sheet

of

Eurocode Ref
Made by

P Schaumann & T Trautmann

Date

Feb 2005

Checked by

J Chica, LABEIN

Date

Nov 2005

The rib geometry factor A/Lr is equivalent to the section factor Ap/V for
beams. The factor considers that the mass and height have positive effects on
the heating of the slab.

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Key:

1. Area: A
2. Exposed surface: O

Figure 1.4

A
=
Lr

Definition of the rib geometry factor

l +l
h2 1 2
2
l l
l 2 + 2 h2 2 + 1 2
2

115 + 140
52

115 140
140 + 2 512 +

= 27 mm

The view factor considers the shadow effect of the rib on the upper flange
The view factor considers the shadow effect of the rib on the upper flange:
2
2

l1 l 2
2
2 l1 l 2

l3
= h2 + l3 +
h2 +

2
2

115 140

2 115 140
= 512 + 38 +

51
+
38 = 0,119

2
2

The coefficients ai for normal weight concrete is given in Table 2:

Example: Fire resistance of a composite slab to EN 1994-1-2

CALCULATION SHEET

Document Ref:

SX037a-EN-EU

Title

Example: Fire resistance of a composite slab to EN 1994-1-2

Sheet

of

Eurocode Ref
Made by

P Schaumann & T Trautmann

Date

Feb 2005

Checked by

J Chica, LABEIN

Date

Nov 2005

Table 1.2
Coefficients for determination of the fire resistance with respect
to thermal insulation (see EN 1994-1-2, Annex D, Table D.1)
a1

a0
Normal weight
concrete
Light weight
concrete

a2

[min]

[min/mm]

-28.8

1.55

-79.2

2.18

[min]

a3

a4

a5

[min/mm]

[mmmin]

[min]

-12.6

0.33

-735

48.0

-2.44

0.56

-542

52.3

With these parameters, ti is calculated as:

ti =

( 28,8) + 1,55 89 + ( 12,6) 0,119


+0,33 27 + ( 735)

1
1
+ 48 27
38
38

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t i = 131,48 min > 90 min

9 The section is more than adequate

Effect of thermal actions

For standard periods of fire resistance Annex D can be used to determine the
temperature of key elements of the cross-section, such as the sheet decking,
the reinforcement and the concrete.
To get the reduction factors ky, for the upper flange, lower flange and the
web, the temperatures have to be determined. These are calculated to:

a = b0 + b1

1
A
+ b2
+ b3 + b4 2
l3
Lr

EN 1994-1-2
D.2

Example: Fire resistance of a composite slab to EN 1994-1-2

CALCULATION SHEET

Document Ref:

SX037a-EN-EU

Title

Example: Fire resistance of a composite slab to EN 1994-1-2

Sheet

of

Eurocode Ref
Made by

P Schaumann & T Trautmann

Date

Feb 2005

Checked by

J Chica, LABEIN

Date

Nov 2005

The coefficients bi can be obtained from Table 3:


Table 1.3
Coefficients for the determination of the temperatures of the
parts of the steel decking (see EN 1994-1-2, Annex D, Table D.2)
Concrete
Normal
weight
concrete

Fire
resistance
[min]

60

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90

120

Part of
steel
sheet
Lower
flange
Web
Upper
flange
Lower
flange
Web
Upper
flange
Lower
flange
Web
Upper
flange

b0
[C]

b1
[Cmm]

b2
[C/mm]

b3
[C]

b4
[C]

951

-1197

-2,32

86,4

-150,7

661

-833

-2,96

537,7

-351,9

340

-3269

-2,62

1148,4

-679,8

1018

-839

-1,55

65,1

-108,1

816

-959

-2,21

464,9

-340,2

618

-2786

-1,79

767,9

-472,0

1063

-679

-1,13

46,7

-82,8

925

-949

-1,82

344,2

-267,4

770

-2460

-1,67

592,6

-379,0

For the different parts of the steel sheet, the temperatures are:
Lower flange:

a,l = 1018 839

1
1,55 27 + 65,1 0,119 108,1 0,119 2 = 960,29 C
38

Web:

a,w = 816 959

1
2,21 27 + 464,9 0,119 340,2 0,119 2 = 781,60 C
38

Upper flange:

a,l = 618 2786

1
1,79 27 + 767,9 0,119 472,0 0,119 2 = 580,87 C
38

To get the required load carrying-capacity during fire exposure, reinforcing bars
have to be installed which normally are neglected for the ambient temperature
design. For each rib, one reinforcing bar 10 mm is chosen. The position of the
bar can be seen in Figure 5.

Example: Fire resistance of a composite slab to EN 1994-1-2

CALCULATION SHEET

Document Ref:

SX037a-EN-EU

Title

Example: Fire resistance of a composite slab to EN 1994-1-2

Sheet

of

Eurocode Ref
Made by

P Schaumann & T Trautmann

Date

Feb 2005

Checked by

J Chica, LABEIN

Date

Nov 2005

Figure 1.5

Arrangement of the reinforcing bar

The temperature of the reinforcing bar is calculated to:

5 = c0 + c1

u3
A
1
+ c 2 z + c3
+ c 4 + c5
h2
Lr
l3

where:

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1
1
1
1
=
+
+
z
u1
u2
u3
1
1
=
+
z
l2 2

1
l2 2

1
h2 + 10

(approximate)

1
1
1
1
=
+
+
z
70
70
61
1
= 0,367
z

Therefore:

z = 2,72

Key:

1. Concrete
2. Reinforcing bar
3. Steel sheet

Figure 1.6

Definition of the distances u1, u2, u3 and the angle

Example: Fire resistance of a composite slab to EN 1994-1-2

CALCULATION SHEET

Document Ref:

SX037a-EN-EU

Title

Example: Fire resistance of a composite slab to EN 1994-1-2

Sheet

of

Eurocode Ref
Made by

P Schaumann & T Trautmann

Date

Feb 2005

Checked by

J Chica, LABEIN

Date

Nov 2005

The coefficients ci for normal weight concrete are given in Table 4:


Table 1.4
Coefficients for the determination of the temperatures of the
reinforcement bars in rib (see EN 1994-1-2, Annex D, Table D.3)
Concrete

Normal
weight
concrete

Fire
resistance
[min]

c0
[C]

c1
[C]

c2
[C/mm0.5]

c3
[C/mm]

c4
[C/]

c5
[C]

60

1191

-250

-240

-5,01

1,04

-925

90

1342

-256

-235

-5,30

1,39

-1267

120

1387

-238

-227

-4,79

1,68

-1326

With these parameters, the temperature of the reinforcing bar is:

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5 = 1342 + ( 256 )

61
1
+ ( 235) 2,72 + ( 5,30 ) 27 + 1,39 104 + (1267 )
51
38

5 = 364,19 C
EN1994-1-2
4.3.1

Verification of the load carrying-capacity

The plastic moment design resistance is calculated as follows:


f y,i
f

+ slab A j z j k c,, j c, j
M fi,t,Rd = Ai z i k y,,i

M,fi
M,fi,c

For the steel sheet, the reduction factors ky,,i are given in EN1993-1-2.For
the reinforcement the reduction factor is given in EN1994-1-2 Table 3.4,
because the reinforcement bars are cold worked.

EN1993-1-2
Table E.1

The carrying-capacity for each part of the steel sheet and the reinforcing bars
can now be calculated.
Table 1.5

EN1993-1-2

Reduction factors and carrying-capacities (3)


Temperature

Reduction factor

Partial area

fy,I
[N/mm]

Zi
[kN]

Table E.1

i [C]

ky,,i [-]

Ai [mm]

Lower flange

960

0,038

120,4

350

1,60

EN1994-1-2

Web

782

0,081

90,4

350

2,56

Table 3.4

Upper flange

581

0,344

32,7

350

3,94

Reinforcement

364

0,930

79,0

500

36,72

The plastic neutral axis is calculated as equilibrium of the horizontal forces.


The equilibrium is set up for one rib (b = l1 + l2).

Example: Fire resistance of a composite slab to EN 1994-1-2

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Example: Fire resistance of a composite slab to EN 1994-1-2

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z pl =

Zi

slab (l1 + l3 ) f c

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1,60 + 2,56 + 3,94 + 36,72


0,85 (115 + 38) 25 10 3

= 13,79 mm

The plastic moment resistance for one rib is determined to:

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Table 1.6

Calculation of the moment resistance of one rib


Zi [kN]

zi [m]

Mi [kNm]

Lower flange

1,60

0,140

0,22

Web

2,56

0,14 0,051 / 2 = 0,1145

0,29

Upper flange

3,94

0,14-0,051=0,089

0,35

Reinforcement

36,72

0,14-0,051-0,010=0,079

2,90

Concrete

-50,17

0,01379/2=0,0069

-0,35
3,42

With the plastic moment of Mpl,rib = 3,42 kNm and the width wrib = 0,152 m of
one rib, the plastic moment resistance of the composite slab is:
M fi,Rd = 3,42 / 0,152 = 22,51 kNm/m

Verification:
21,94
= 0,97 < 1
22,51

The member satisfies the load bearing criteria (R) for 90 minutes fire
resistance

Example: Fire resistance of a composite slab to EN 1994-1-2

Example: Fire resistance of a composite slab to EN 1994-1-2


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Example: Fire resistance of a composite slab to EN 1994-1-2

Reference(s)
ORIGINAL DOCUMENT
Name

Company

Created by

P Schaumann & T
Trautmann

University of Hannover
Institute for Steel
Construction

Technical content checked by

J Chica, LABEIN

Date

Editorial content checked by

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