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EE/MAR2012/ECM241

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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA


FINAL EXAMINATION

COURSE

BASIC COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

COURSE CODE

ECM241

EXAMINATION

MARCH 2012

TIME

3 HOURS

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
1.

This question paper consists of five (5) questions.

2.

Answer ALL questions in the Answer Booklet. Start each answer on a new page.

3.

Do not bring any material into the examination room unless permission is given by the invigilator.

4.

Please check to make sure that this examination pack consists of:
i)
ii)
iii)

the Question Paper


t w o - page Appendix
an Answer Booklet - provided by the Faculty

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO


This examination paper consists of 6 printed pages
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EE/MAR2012/ECM241

QUESTION 1
a)

List the basic elements of an electronic communication system and State the functions
of each component.
(5 marks)

b)

Limiters and repeaters are used in Frequency Modulation (FM) system and Pulse Code
Modulation (PCM) system respectively. Explain how these devices are able to allow
efficient transmission. Hence, discuss the Statement "Modulation is important to allow
efficient transmission".
(4 marks)

c)

Define the following transmission modes which are commonly applied in communication
system.
i) Simplex,
ii) Half-duplex.
iii) Full-duplex.
(3 marks)

d)

State the Shannon-Hartley theorem in relation to the information capacity and write its
mathematical equation.
If the signal to noise ratio (SNR) for a communication Channel required is 25 dB,
determine the information capacity of the system for the following bandwidth:
i) 8 kHz
ii) 30 kHz
Comment on the effect of bandwidth to the information capacity of the system in relation
to the theorem.
(8 marks)

QUESTION 2
a)

Define Amplitude Modulation (AM) in a communication system.


With the aid of a mathematical expression, identify two (2) Signals that are present in
the AM modulated signal.
(5 marks)

b)

A broadcast AM transmitter radiates 4.8 kW of carrier power. Determine the radiated


Output power at 80% modulation.
(2 marks)

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c)

EE/MAR2012/ECM241

Maximum and minimum amplitude of the conventional AM envelope are given as 15 V


and 5 V respectively. Determine:
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)

the modulation index


the peak amplitude of the carrier
the peak amplitude of the upper and lower sidebands
the transmitted power if the signal is transmitted through a 50 Q antenna.
the percentage of power saving if Double-Sideband Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) is
applied.

Hence sketch and label the frequency spectrum.


(8 marks)
d)

Explain the function of a diode detector circuit as shown in Figure Q2d. Sketch the
Output signal that is produced at point A and B according to the following conditions:
i) Point A, when the capacitor C3 is not connected,
ii) Point B, when C3 is connected.
A
AM Signal

Output
Signal

R1

C3

Figure Q2d
(5 marks)

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EE/MAR2012/ECM241

QUESTION 3
a)

State two (2) advantages and two (2) disadvantages of an FM technique as compared
toAM.
(4 marks)

b)

A 12 V sinusoidal carrier is modulated by the modulating signal as shown in Figure


Q3b. Sketch and label the following Signals:
i) the modulated Signal by using an FM modulator and
ii) the modulated signal by using a Phase Modulation (PM) modulator

Amplitude (V)
i

2.0

10

2.0

3 .0

40

5.0

6 .0

7.0

8.0

9.0

10.0

Figure Q3b
(4 marks)
c)

An audio signal is given by:

v FM (0 = 25cos(200^xl0 6 r + 2sin(15.7xl0 3 )OV


With the aid of a Bessel Function Table, determine:
i) whether the signal is narrowband or wideband,
ii) the bandwidth by using Bessel Function Table and
iii) the frequencies of all the significant sideband.
Hence, sketch and label the frequency spectrum showing the relative amplitudes and
side frequencies.
(7 marks)
d)

With the aid of mathematical equations, differentiate FM and PM in terms of modulation


index. Sketch the graph of modulating index versus modulating signal frequency, fm for
FM and PM. Hence comment the effect of increasing the modulating signal frequency.
(5 marks)

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EE/MAR2012/ECM241

QUESTION 4
a)

Describe the Steps to produce digital signal from sinusoidal analog Signal in a Pulse
Code Modulation (PCM) technique.
(6 marks)

b)

The mathematical equation for Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) is given as:
A

v(a,*)(0 = [l + v B (0] yCOS(>cf) V


where:
VasM) = amplitude-shift keying wave
vm(t) = digital Information (modulating) signal (volts)
_
2
coc

= unmodulated carrier amplitude (volts)


= analogue carrier radian frequency (radians per second)

From the mathematical equation above, show that the carrier is either 'on' or 'off'
according to the modulating binary Information.
If 111001 input is applied into ASK modulator, sketch and label the following signal:
i) Modulating signal
ii) Expected Output.
(4 marks)
c)

An audio signal vm(t) = ( 1 0 C O S 8 T T X 1 0 3 t) V is to be transmitted through a PCM System,


using minimum Nyquist sampling frequency and 8-bit code number. Determine:
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

the sampling frequency,


the number of quantization level,
the quantization step and
the transmission bit rate.

Four (4) Signals of the same equation as above are multiplexed using PCM-TDM.
Determine the new bit rate if a new sampling frequency used is 15% higher than the
minimum sampling Nyquist frequency.
(10 marks)

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EE/MAR2012/ECM241

QUESTION 5
a)

Name two (2) types of light source and State the function of this light source in a typical
optical fiber communication system.
(3 marks)

b)

State three (3) possible causes of Signal loss in a typical optical fiber communication
link.
(3 marks)

c)

With the aid of appropriate sketch, explain the concept of 'cell', 'dster', 'Channel' and
frequency-reuse in a mobile communication System.
There are 735 Channels in a Service area. If the Service area consists of 7 Clusters with
7 cells/cluster, determine the number of Channel per cell.
(8 marks)

d)

Identify the types of orbit from the given explanation. Hence sketch the orbits on the
same axis.
i)

Its angular speed is equal to the rotational speed of the earth. So, it appears
stationary or motionless over a fixed point on the earth's surface. The satellite is
visible from 1/3 of the earth's surface.

ii) It is a north-south orbit, normally used for navigation, weather satellites,


meteorological and land resource satellite Systems. It is not used for
telecommunication purposes.
iii) It is used for Russian domestic Systems, with inclination of 63 degrees and a 12hour orbit period, but visible for 8 hours only. So, 3 satellites are needed for
continuous coverage.
(3 marks)
e)

The Effective Isotropie Radiated Power (EIRP) of the earth transmitter Station is 60 dBW
with High Power Amplifier (HPA) Output power of 10 kW. If the feeder loss is 5 dB,
determine the transmitting antenna gain.
(3 marks)

END OF QUESTION PAPER

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APPENDIX 1

EE/MAR 2012/ECM241

=charge of electron
=1.602 x 10"19 C
=Boltzman's Constant
=1.380 x 10~23J/K
=Standard noise temperature
=290 K
=velocity of light in vacuum
=2.99792 x 108 m/s
=electric permittivity of free space
=8.854 x 10"12 F/m
=permeability of free space
=1.257 x 10"7H/m

Trigonometrie Identities
e'JX = cosx y'sinx

(Euler's theorem)

cos(x y) = cos x cos y + sin x sin y


sin(x y) = sin x cos y cos x sin y
cos x

=+sinx

( x
+*) = cosx
+
sin

2)

cos2x = cos2 x - s i n 2 x
sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x
2 cos x cos y = cos(x - y) + cos(x + y)
2 sin x sin y = cos(x - y) - cos(x + y)
2 sin x cos y = sin(x -y) + sin(x + y)
2cos 2 x = l + cos2x
2sin 2 x = l - c o s 2 x

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EE/MAR2012/ECM241

APPENDIX 2

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