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Conlangs Monthly© is a publication dedicated

to publishing articles concerning Linguistics,
Literature, and guidance on Conlanging as well
as Conworlding.

CONTENTS
Song of Songs - Chapter 1 - Translation

p.1

-Jonathan Fleury-

Language of the Month - Crimean / Crimean Tatar
-Naoki Watanabe-

p.3

Blueberry Yum Yum - Recipe p.7
Exclusive: An Interview with D. R. Merrill
-Conlangs Monthly Team-

p.8

p.11

-Giannhs Kenanidhs (Dama Diwan)-

p.13

-Jeremy Graves (Paiodd)-

I’m a Linguist - Now What?
What To Do With a Degree in Linguistics
-Gabe Witmonger-

United Front Song- Translation
-Owen Fish (Femmish)-

Are You an Attriter?
-Sabrina Palis-

p.22

p.25

Editorial Team
Editor in Chief:
Jonathan Fleury

p.26

Tolk de Chakobsa
Phrases in <<DUNE>>
-Olivier Simon (Sambahsa)-

Layout Design & Graphics
Gabe Witmonger
Senior Editor
Rolf Weimar

p.28

Bibliography and Acknowledgements
This publication, Conlangs Monthly – its name and content are the
exclusive property of J. Fleury and G. Witmonger. The publication may be
non-commercially shared, copied and distributed so long as the name of the
creators and attribution parties, a copyright notice, a license notice, a
disclaimer notice, and a link to the material are provided. Altering the
content of the publication in any way is prohibited.
© J Fleury and G Witmonger 2014 All Rights Reserved

Senior Editor
Sabrina Palis
Proof reading
Micah Wilger
Christian Evans
Ellis Montes
Founders
Gabe Witmonger
Jonathan Fleury

Song of Songs
Chapter 1

1

1 The song of songs, which is Solomon’s.
2 Let him kiss me with the kisses of his mouth--for thy love is better than
wine.
3 Thine ointments have a goodly fragrance; thy name is as ointment poured
forth; therefore do the maidens love thee.

4 Draw me, we will run after thee; the king hath brought me into his
chambers; we will be glad and rejoice in thee, we will find thy love more
fragrant than wine! sincerely do they love thee.
5 ‘I am black, but comely, O ye daughters of Jerusalem, as the tents of Kedar,
as the curtains of Solomon.
6 Look not upon me, that I am swarthy, that the sun hath tanned me;
my mother’s sons were incensed against me, they made me keeper of the
vineyards; but mine own vineyard have I not kept.’

7 Tell me, O thou whom my soul loveth, where thou feedest, where thou
makest thy flock to rest at noon; for why should I be as one that veileth herself
beside the flocks of thy companions?
8 If thou know not, O thou fairest among women, go thy way forth by the
footsteps of the flock and feed thy kids, beside the shepherds’ tents.
9 I have compared thee, O my love, to a steed in Pharaoh’s chariots.
10 Thy cheeks are comely with circlets, thy neck with beads.
11 We will make thee circlets of gold with studs of silver.
12 While the king sat at his table, my spikenard sent forth its fragrance.
13 My beloved is unto me as a bag of myrrh, that lieth betwixt my breasts.
14 My beloved is unto me as a cluster of henna in the vineyards of En-gedi.
15 Behold, thou art fair, my love; behold, thou art fair; thine eyes are as doves.
16 Behold, thou art fair, my beloved, yea, pleasant; also our couch is leafy.
17 The beams of our houses are cedars, and our panels are cypresses.

2

Language of the Month:
Crimean/Crimean Tatar

Ever since the early modern era, Eastern Europe has
always been a bigger hotbed of tension than the rest
of the continent and this has led to more territorial,
ethnic, religious, linguistic, and ideological conflicts in
the region; such conflicts in the region continue even
today. We’ve all seen the news on
the current situation in Ukraine.
The Euromaidan protests of late
2013 led to a crisis in February of
last year known as the Crimean
Crisis. This, in turn, culminated
in the annexation of Crimea
by the Russian Federation.
While the peninsula is de jure
Ukrainian territory, its largely
Russophone population was
used as a justification by the
Russian government to annex it,
leading to icy relations between Russia and Ukraine.
However, while the media and much of the world tends
to view the conflict as an issue only between Russians
and Ukrainians, one important detail is forgotten: the
indigenous Crimean Tatars.
Crimean Tatars (whom shall be referred to as “Crimeans”
in this article to avoid confusion with the Tatar people
of Tatarstan) are a Sunni Muslim and Turkic ethnicity
indigenous to Crimea and are actively trying to reassert
their culture there. The people are often called “Tatar”
and this leads to confusion with
the actual ethnic group known
as the Tatars (or Volga Tatars),
who live in Tatarstan. While
related to Crimeans (as they’re
both Sunni Muslim and Turkic),
they are different, as Tatars speak
a language from the UraloCaspian branch of the Kypchak
group of Turkic languages, while
Crimeans speak a language
from the Ponto-Caspian group.
Additionally, Crimeans have had more influence from
Turks and Ukrainians, while Tatars have had more from
the peoples of the Volga like the Udmurts, Mari, and

Mordvins (the term “Tatar” or “Tartar” has also been
used to denote several other ethnic groups incorrectly
such as the Kalmyks and Manchus; Crimeans and their
language have also been erroneously referred to as
“Crimean Turkish”).
Although Crimea has been
controlled by numerous powers
throughout its long history, the
Crimeans were the ones who
succeeded in giving the region
its current common name
(“Crimea” comes from the word
Qırım) and have influenced
many topographic names (e.g. the
name of Crimea’s most famous
city, Yalta, is taken directly
from Crimean). They have been
influenced by several groups
in different ways, which has led to variations in both
their language and culture, which can be seen in the
three sub-ethnicities: the Tats, (who make up 55% of
Crimeans and whose dialect is the language’s standard),
the Yalıboyu (who make up 30% of the population and
speak a heavily Turkish-influenced dialect), and the
Noğay (who make up 15% of the population and speak
a more explicitly Kypchak language). The Crimean
language has about 450,000 speakers and is considered
endangered.
Crimea was the center of the
Crimean
Khanate
(Qırım
Hanlığı in Crimean) which
was a powerful Turkic Khanate
created in 1449 as the result of
the Golden Horde deteriorating.
In 1478, the Ottoman Empire
forced the Khan of Crimea to
declare Crimea a vassal state of
the Ottoman Empire. In practice,
however, the Ottomans treated
the Crimeans as allies, rather
than vassals. The Crimean Khanate terrorised Eastern
Europe under the aegis of the Ottoman Empire and
served as an essential ally in the Empire’s wars in Europe
3

(such as the OttomanHungarian wars), where
they served as elite
troops. The Khanate was
also known for being
a center of the Middle
Eastern slave trade, as
more than a million East
Slavs and others were
captured for the slave
market by the Crimeans.
The Khanate also became
a renowned center of
culture, due to its famous
libraries and its capital
having the reputation of
being an extremely clean
and green city.

Although they at first
prospered due to the
Korenizatsiya policy,
which supported the
cultivation of minority
languages,
this
changed in the 1930s
when Joseph Stalin
consolidated his power
in the USSR and decided
to promote the Russian
language more overtly.
This culminated in the
liquidation of many
Crimeans who were
seen as nationalists and
therefore “enemies of the people” as well as a reduction
in schooling in Crimean and the closing of many
libraries and mosques in Crimea.

The fall of Crimea was a result of the Ottoman Empire
weakening over time, making Crimea more susceptible
to attacks from Russia. In 1774, after the Treaty of
Küçük Kaynarca ended a war between the Russian
and Ottoman Empires, Crimea was no longer under
Ottoman protection and this led to increased pressure
from Russia and culminated in the Russian annexation
of the Khanate in 1783. Many Crimeans, including the
last Khan, Şahin Geray, fled to the Ottoman Empire
and this is why there are Crimean communities today
in Romania, Bulgaria, and Turkey.

Many Crimeans also died in the 1930s as a result of
famine, which wiped out about half the population.
This led to anti-Soviet sentiments arising amongst
them and is the reason why many chose to support the
Wehrmacht in 1941, after Germany invaded the Soviet
Union. However, the vast majority of Crimeans stayed
loyal to the Soviets and several distinguished themselves
in combat and earned the Hero of the Soviet Union
award (the USSR’s highest military honor) such as
Ahmet-Han Sultan (a Crimean who became a notable
Soviet pilot).

The Crimean War also had a devastating effect as
indigenous Crimeans were seen as a fifth column by
the Russian government, because one of their enemies
was the Ottoman Empire, resulting in many fleeing to
Turkey and Crimeans becoming a minority in Crimea
(subsequent mass immigration from Russia worsened
this). When the Russian Revolution and the consequent
Russian Civil War occurred in 1917, the Crimeans were
able to establish the Crimean People’s Republic (the
first secular state in the Muslim world) under Noman
Çelebicihan. However, it was crushed by Bolshevik
forces and many Crimeans fled to other parts of Europe.

Unfortunately, the participation of some Crimeans on
the Axis side was used by Joseph Stalin to justify the
deportation of them from their homelands (several
other minorities, such as Chechens, Volga Germans,
and Kalmyks, also suffered a similar fate on the grounds
of alleged mass collaboration with Germany). The
deportation of the Crimeans is known as the Sürgün
(Crimean for exile).

In the Soviet Union, Crimeans suffered tremendously.

The Sürgün occurred on May 18th 1944 and involved
Soviet soldiers marching into settlements in Crimea
and announcing the immediate removal of Crimeans
to Central Asia and other parts of Russia. Crimeans
were given little time to prepare and stuffed into trains
4

bound to other parts of the USSR and as a result of the
unsanitary conditions as well as overcrowding on the
trains, more than 100,000 (over 40% of the population)
perished. Furthermore, the people were stigmatised as
they were branded as traitors by the Soviet government.
Crimeans were dispersed but the vast majority was
deported to Central Asia (mainly Uzbekistan, which is
why there are still many Crimean speakers there).
Many Crimeans suffered in Uzbekistan, where they
contracted Malaria, which they had no resistance to,
and also suffered discrimination from local Uzbeks. The
Crimeans were not allowed to return to Crimea en masse
until 1989 and therefore had to develop their culture
while in exile (this led to the creation of a Crimean
newspaper in Tashkent, Uzbekistan). Russians made up
the majority of Crimea’s population when they started
to return and as a result, the Crimeans only make up
12.7% of Crimea’s population despite there being more
than 250,000 of them in Crimea. Moreover, their efforts
to reestablish dominance in their homeland is heavily
opposed by the Russian population of Crimea.
After the fall of the USSR, Crimea became an autonomous
region of newly independent Ukraine with Russian,
Ukrainian, and Crimean as official languages. The use
of Crimean has increased due to the higher birthrate
of the returning Crimeans and an increase in schools
that teach the language (a notable example being the
Simferopol International School, opened in 2003).

Crimean is unique amongst the Turkic languages because
it’s been seen as both a member of the Kypchak group
of Turkic languages (which includes Kazakh, Tatar, and
Bashkir), and the Oghuz group (which includes Turkish,
Gagauz, and Turkmen). Although Crimean is nowadays
usually seen as a Kypchak language, it has had heavy
influences from Oghuz languages (especially Turkish),
which are most prominent in the Yalıboyu dialect. An
example of this is in the words for “goodbye” which
are “Sağlıqnen qalıñız” (said by person leaving) and
“Sağlıqnen barıñız” (said by person staying) in the Tat
dialect, but are “Oşçakal” (said by the person leaving)
and “Küle küle” (said by the person staying) in the
Yalıboyu dialect (in Turkish, the words for “goodbye” are
“Hoşçakal” and “Güle güle”). There are three alphabets
for the language: an Arabic one that is no longer in use,

a Latin one almost identical to that of Turkish (with the
addition of the letters “Qq” and “Ññ”), and a Cyrillic
one preferred by the Russian government currently
controlling Crimea. The language’s grammar is almost
identical to that of Turkish and shares features like a
flexible word order (an example being in the sentence
“Menim vaqtım yoq”—”I don’t have time” which can
also be rendered as “Yoq vaqtım”, although this is
slightly rude) and using the word “bar” (equivalent to
Turkish “var”) to indicate possession. This can be seen
in the sentences “Deñizde adalar bar.” (Crimean) and
“Denizde adalar var.” (Turkish) which mean “There
are islands in the sea.” (“Deñizde” means “at sea” and
“adalar” means “islands or archipelago”).
Resources for learning Crimean are incredibly difficult
to find in English. Phrasebooks and other resources
exist only for Russian (and possibly Ukrainian and
Turkish) speakers. However, the language is becoming
more widespread amongst younger Crimeans and it has
a significant media presence. This has led to two notable
films that use Crimean: the 1999 Polish historical
drama film Ogniem i Mieczem (which focuses on the
Khmelnytsky Uprising, which the Crimean Khanate
had participated in), and the 2013 Ukrainian historical
drama film Haytarma (which is about the Sürgün). The
Crimean anthem, Ant Etkemen, is also easy to find
online, and groups dedicated to the revival of Crimean
culture and language have also been increasing (one
of these groups being the International Committee for
Crimea, based in Washington DC).
Crimea is currently in a serious situation. After the
annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014,
Crimeans have reported mass persecution against them
by Russian authorities in ways such as kidnappings,
murders, and the closing of Crimean libraries. The
Russian Federation has officially declared the Crimeans
as a group to be protected and that everyone in Crimea
has equal rights but many Crimeans see these as empty
words. Moreover, the people are somewhat divided in
opinion; while the majority support the Mejlis of the
Crimean Tatars (an organization representing them)
and the Kurultai (the Crimean Tatar parliament), some
support the militant pro-Russian group Milliy Fırqa.
Because of this situation, the situation of the Crimean
language and people is precarious. Nevertheless, if more
people learn Crimean, the Crimean people will have a
much better likelihood of surviving their current crisis.

5

6

Mjrtillo Mm’mm - Blueberry Yum Yum

7

An Interview with

D. R. Merrill

D. R. Merrill is the author of “Lamikorda” and creator of the
Kiitra language, his book was named a Book of the Year on
SciFi365! On a more personal level, Merrill has continued to
work on Kiitra (the main conlang featured in the novel) and
has expanded its vocabulary to over 3600 entries. -LCSConlangs Monthly : Where did you get the inspiration for
your story?
D.R. Merrill .- Well, I grew up in a family that loved science
fiction. My father’s background was in physics and computer
science, and my mother studied English literature. “Star Trek”
was big in our house, not to mention all sorts of classic films
like “Day the Earth Stood Still” and “When Worlds Collide”.
My own interest was in history and social sciences–how
cultures and civilizations emerge and develop. And I had this
particular fascination with war; both how it shaped history and
technological development, and the wider destructive effect of
militarism.
From all this, I focused on a question: “What if you had a world
where the people abandoned warfare early in their history?”
From there, I constructed the planet of Alplaa, its ethnic
groups, history and so on. This was in high school, mind you,
and originally I had them sending their first interstellar vessel
to Earth. Then I shelved the idea for a good long while, until
two more things revived my interest in it. One was visiting the
Nordic countries–very peace-loving and happy people, much
as I imagined the Alplai to be. The other was the television
series “Alien Nation”, where extraterrestrials settled on Earth
and had to deal with discrimination and pressures to assimilate.
That inspired another question: “What if human were the
aliens, having to settle on another world, learn the language
and customs of another species, and perhaps face prejudice
and xenophobia?” And I began to work on the idea again, and,
especially, to create its main language Kiitra, which began to
take a life of its own.
CM: Do you have a specific writing style?
D.R. Merrill .- I try to be straightforward in my descriptions, so
the reader has a genuine feel for the setting and the characters.
When writing dialogue, I try to give each character their own
voice and style. But I do like to add some flourishes now and
again to keep things interesting. I’d written a great deal of poetry
when I was younger, and that helped me add some colour and
texture to my prose.

CM: In your book, you talk about social implications. Can
you expand on these?
D.R. Merrill.- Remember, the first question that got me
started on this project was imagining a world where warfare
between nation-states had been abandoned very early on; in
the case of the Alplai, when they first discovered gunpowder, its
destructive power was one of the motivations for finding nonviolent ways to resolve conflicts. That would have implications
in their language, for example, with few metaphors or idioms
related to war or the military and nothing related to firearms
because the Alplai never got around to inventing them. The
Kiitra are also a nation of traders, so one result is that their
verb for “to have or possess” is a major copula verb; where we
would say “she is happy” a Kiitra speaker would say “she has
happiness”, for example. There are also assumptions based on
cultural standards, such as the Alplai’s attitudes about keeping
instrumental and vocal music separate; then they hear our
music, where we mix the two, and it must be cacophonous to
them!
CM: How much of the book is realistic?
D.R. Merrill.- Wow, how does one make another planet
inhabited by bird-people “realistic”! Well, what I did was try to
draw on science and other precedents. I thought: “How would
you have humanoid creatures with beaks and feathers and
other avian features?” Turns out the “proto-avian” ancestors of
birds had a body shape much like our early primate ancestors,
so I imagined such creatures facing similar evolutionary
pressures as those primates. Now, how to encourage a world
that abandons warfare? I drew on lots of social science, and
even geography and geopolitics, to craft that, by giving Alplaa
only one continent, about the size of North America, and this
simplified the level of interaction. Of course, they’d eventually
run out of living space so … build floating cities on their seas
and oceans, and those cities would be populated by a mix of
different ethnicities and religions, so that accelerates the drive
for minority rights and pluralism.
CM: Alplai politics have some interesting similarities and
differences from what we have on Earth. Could you explain
how you imagined that?
D.R. Merrill .- I basically took a page from Europe’s eighteenth
century, where the first division was between liberals and
radicals seeking democracy, and conservatives who wanted to
preserve monarchies and oligarchies. Same thing on Alplaa,
between the gajanaat or “Conversionists” who wanted to
“convert” government into something more representative,
8

and the diirdeznaat or “Traditionalists” fighting to stop or slow
down change. Eventually, as the original Conversionist agenda
is achieved, the two parties shift priorities, and new parties
emerge addressing issues like expanding the franchise or
decentralizing power, and then moderates from the two major
parties joining with independents and calling themselves the
beluugaat or “Pragmatist” party, striking a balance between the
two. But, unlike Earth, I imagined that these parties didn’t really
split over economic questions, but endorsed a form of mixed
economy like the Nordic system. People forget that, before the
issue of government intervention in the economy became a
“right-left” issue, many conservatives actually supported things
like nationalised industry and welfare programs, because they
provided stability and growth and were indicative of a sense of
noblesse oblige.
In one chapter, an Alplai character explains that the
Traditionalists were part of the coalition that supported the
first major welfare program, because they believed that good
leaders need to take responsibility for their people. I had the
Alplai regard it a “settled question” that assuring a decent
standard of living for everyone was better in the long run, while
still debating whether the balance of power should be with the
legislature or the executive, and tinkering with various policy
details. That’s much the reverse of what we see here in the States,
and closer to much of Europe these days.

CM: What languages did you use as inspiration for Kiitra
and the other languages of Alplaa?
D.R. Merrill.- Well, I wanted something that seemed “alien”
enough while still easy for people to learn. The grammar is
very much based on most Indo-European languages, but with
elements drawn from various sources. Grammatical gender is
simplified, like in English; the pronunciation and syntax are
very regular, like in Norwegian; and morphology is primarily
agglutinative, like with German and Hindi-Urdu. But I strived
to make it sound different, and even created different linguistic
rules.
CM: Can you describe any special features of Kiitra?
D.R. Merrill.- A major factor is that nouns, adjectives and
adverbs fall into a superclass of “descriptor” words or feshniijna,
with specific sub-groups, and word order determining the role
of a general descriptor in a given sentence. Another is that the
“yes-no” system is multiform with different levels of certainty.
There’s a non-binary gender form in third-person singular
pronouns, as well as the descriptor aza which helps create
words like azazokh for an individual who identifies as neither
male nor female, and azarja as a gender-neutral form of “sir” or
“madam”. I made an interrogative particle f ’taa, which you put
in front of a simple sentence to make it a polar question; but it
can also stand alone, like saying “Huh?” in English.
CM: For how long have you worked on Kiitra and the other
Alplai languages? Did you get extra from someone to create
it?
D.R. Merrill.- It took me about two years to write the book
while also developing Kiitra’s structure and much of its lexicon,
plus bits and pieces of other Alplai languages. I even sketched
out some basics of a global sign language for Alplai’s deaf
community, including a historical outline of its development
and influence. I’m still creating new words for Kiitra and
occasionally for the other spoken languages as well. So
while other people doodle or play video games, I expand the
vocabulary of an alien language!
CM: What books have influenced your life most?

CM: Are there experiences or events in your own life which
influenced you?
D.R. Merrill.- Living in Norway for months at a time, I had to
get used to a new language and a new way of looking at things.
Yes, the vast majority speak English, especially in places like
Oslo, but I took it upon myself to learn and practice Norwegian.
Not just the language, but the mindset is quite different in
many ways, such as attitudes towards government and how
to deal with conflict. In a way, my time in Norway gave me
the perspective of an immigrant and a better understanding of
adapting to a new social and cultural environment.
CM: Does that relate to how the Kiitra language is important
to the development of the plot?
D.R. Merrill.- Yes, very much so. It makes that “immigrant
experience” universal for readers, puts them in the role of
having to learn a new language, understand another culture,
and struggling with the question of the cultural and linguistic
identity you bring into that setting.

D.R. Merrill.- Well, when I’m reading a novel, it’s not to be
“influenced” so much as immersed. I try to put myself into the
setting of the book, observing the characters. The best novels
and stories, in my opinion, draw you into the narrative, so
you actually feel it viscerally. Now, if there was a non-fiction
book that influenced me, it would be “Homo Ludens” by Johan
Huizinga; he pointed out how the drive for play has an effect on
social and cultural systems, including language.
CM: If you had to choose, which writer would you consider a
mentor? Which conlanger?
D.R. Merrill.- If I had to choose, I’d say Tolkien on both fronts.
First off, he didn’t just create a language, but an entire world with
Middle Earth, complete with history and mythology. Secondly,
he did it as much for his own personal joy as anything else. I
think if you’re going to create something, even if you think it’s
going to convey some groundbreaking message, it has to come
from your passion and bring you pleasure in the doing.

9

CM: If you had to do it all over again, would you change anything in your conlang?
D.R. Merrill.- Well, my desire wasn’t to create a “perfect” language, and I really don’t think there is one. I rather
enjoy the fact that it’s an ongoing project.
CM: Are you writing a sequel or another novel currently?
D.R. Merrill.- I’ve begun some preliminary notes on a book called “The House Jiiraan”, which blends elements
of a sequel and a prequel. The frame story is that Ganak, now retired, is being interviewed by a human student
about the role of his ancestors in Alplai history.
CM: Did you learn anything from writing your book and from conlanging?
D.R. Merrill.- I think the experience has given many ideas about politics, culture, and language a more definite
shape. There’s the idea that language shapes our thinking and, while there’s truth to that, it’s also true that we have
a role in shaping language by creating new words or ways of using them. And that, in turn, affects our culture,
our social and political systems, the whole spectrum of human interaction. One might say that conlanging
represents a radical expression of our desire to reshape the world into something better. Let’s hope it catches on.
Thank you very much for your words,
I wish you all the best.

10

The Monkey and the Turtle
at the Banana Tree.

Glossed and translated from dama diwan by Jerry Muelver,
working from text in dama diwan by Giannhs Kenanidhs
A note on glossing: -o / –on =nominal, -e / -en =verbal, -a / -an
=adverbial words.
-on marks the object which is to followed by its verb or verbfunction word;
-an is mostly for prepositions and conjunctions, and –a marks
the same as postpositions;
-en verbs are to be followed by their objects. For more information
on Dama: http://linguifex.com/wiki/Dama_Diwan

Kako mino taro kuka to sejo taro sina
shell crawling animal also human class animal together
Turtle and Monkey
mejen kibo mito nuto miwo tiko,
reaching long sweet fruit big plant
meeting at a banana tree,
ren kejen nuto, i ma rune.
want take truit, that to conflict.
both want bananas, which causes an argument.
to sejo taro kiwen: i tiko o wiso! i nuto o wiso sejo bamo!
human class animal says: that plant I own. that fruit I own class
eating!
Monkey says: That’s my tree! That fruit is my food!

un jen mejen sina simo man biko kejen i nuto tiko,
no possible reaching together opinion to one taking that fruit
plant,
They could not reach agreement on which one should get the
banana tree,
mejen man miren tikon ben momo muko,
reaching to cutting plant doing (momo=mumo) two slice.
and decided to cut it into two pieces.
rita rama miren tiko, to sejo taro ren kejen kuto muko,
standing inside cutting plant, human class animal want taking
on slice,
Cutting the tree in the middle, Monkey wanted the top piece
i sen nuto, mino kako taro naben kejen tiko buno muko.
that have fruit, crawling shell animal love taking plant down
slice.
with the bananas, and Turtle was happy to take the bottom stub.
to sejo taro (to rano taro) jujen nuton se tiko miwo mukon tuje
in wiso subo,
human class animal (human impression (human-like) animal)
pulling fruit-having big part of plant
Monkey hauled the big piece with the bananas to his dwelling,
bamen ja ja kibo mito nuto,
eating possible-possible long sweet fruit,
and ate as many bananas as possible,

mino kako taro naja kiwen:
shell crawling animal opposite says:
Turtle says in disagreement:

kajon babe in tiwo ruwo rama, i ruwon nawe.
leaving hiding at land (ruwo-rowo) hole inside, that hole
digging.
and dug a hole in the ground to hide the rest.

kuka o nabe bamen i nuto! kuka o wiso i!
also I love eating that fruit! also I own it!
I also love eating that fruit! It’s mine, too!

suja suja bamen ja ja kibo mito nuko, naja,
sun sun eating possible long sweet fruit, opposite,
Day after day he ate as many bananas as possible, however,

- a sube miwo wiwo mara, un i tiko bira!
- you house big flowing short, not that plant space
Monkey says, “You live in the seashore, not among these plants.”

wa sano sujo jama, nuto in tiwo rama an juwa nano.
many little sun behind, fruit at land inside becomes filthy
damage.
after a few days, the fruit in the ground spoiled.

- kuba suwo mata o sube miwo wiwo mara,
- only (suwo = sowo) warm time I house big flowing short,
(Turtle says), “only in the summer I live near the sea,
tamo wiwo mata o sube i bira!
sky water time I live this space!
in the rainy season I live here!

woma, mine kako taro sen tiko buno sen suso,
different, crawling shell animal have plant all have root,
On the other hand, Turtle’s plants lower part had roots,
kisa wara muwen bako kuka tiwon rasa jeko bubo tiko bako,
speed repetition (muwen=mowen) offspring body also wild
11

with much new plant body,
and sprouted again with new trunks,
tuto, nuto, un tuma nute nute, i nuton mine kako taro se.
sheet, fruit, not extremity fruiting fruiting, that fruit crawling shell animal having.
leaves, and bananas, endlessly ripening for Turtle to have.
miren tiko man muko un kiro jejo; to rano taron kawen juko,
cutting plant to slice not self worth; human impression animal seeing stupid,
They chopped the tree into pieces of different value; Monkey appeared foolish,
mine kako taro kejen miwo numo.
crawling shell animal taking big good.
and Turtle got the bigger benefit.

For background information, I am a retired technical writer in my very-late 50’s (72)
who became enchanted by conlangs 60 years ago when I found a copy of Crosswell and
Hartley’s “Teach Yourself Esperanto” in the school library. I have been involved with 5
natural languages and a dozen constructed languages ever since then, one after another,
in a hopeful search to escape from the weirdness of English. I live in eastern Tennessee in
the USA with my two dogs and one wife, who considers my conlanging a harmless hobby
only because she does not know I am on the path to world domination. (Jerry Muelver).

12

The Tale of the Ancient Mariner
-Samuel Taylor Coleridge-

13

14

15

16

şudd åssotia cuşielia
samuel teilor colrij
geprum
sem åssodd cuSielia
o sem armec rum cecir iaji.
ianir soria şelia ce o ianir rimia avuia
ei, meligia gue nir armec?
dullotia lun paiatsenia
o gue arussodd ovrulia
cíZaxiar ueq, þiubb tusolia,
zobet nir alia Ataiss.
sem sem fit curia totcetia,
cane piadab, ut sem
fean. gue scenir, nir heluir sulia ce.
ai iasem cuil sem luot
iasem rImia avuia fit sem sem
Zouşiupia ;axiar aqul ;ibui
o sem Sap cidia şidd ciserişia yi,
åssotia vess cenia.
piadabb alexesia, aiciel Ague tico
alia Ague luot
Arineqq afolir, agoss afolir
afolir onsubb poulruApia.
abb os biltcurir,
hanir åcedia sem os.
o Apoloria sem vu o rescurir
ayo sem åcedir.
visimia o Asenia visimia cisir;e,
oxizen ofolir Osfidia suitsir;e,
xizen Sep Zaxiar ;ousþiupia iasem vav
igia ;obot sem ataisşiudd Atiasia.
widir aro dul,
cetia wolqum sem,
o hedir iasem bultia iaria,
ea SavulloQ alia.

o Sep ;axiar ;ousqiupia iasem vav,
tim sem vekui van zobatia.
ai otia eo lodd cuSielia,
sem Ossodd rinia vuia.
o xizan eus Sibb musia,
sem cipivesenia o Qisia
emticaia fivia sem Sep
o aspEm wesidir.
Osfidia siman agazea o togia siman Sec,
o cetia siman aspim weqsenia o Sipsenia
tim simen opeN cetxizen xibb sålia
o simen dowl haidir iol,
ciden piadabb hed;epia, o vustaiss ou
o ei, wesidir Ague ca.
o xizan eus am o aQan
o Cus sem taima ealss
o ulorir Son hadd paisenia cetia OsfiQ
o elos cetia Ocattor.
o ticalir be;uirsimia aQania seQ
Qoes cuhupia poloraliss
o ozui Ague toy loqia u dalia,
hadd o hadd Ague Arumir o sem.
folen hadd o folan hadd
o hadd cifolir iague.
sem pois o wigut, sem ou o exas
cetSedia taiS qilhuile
media ewo Ocaqpeadd,
ticalir qidia sem eus.
cetshatia sem atuse xristialia
sem Ague fazbouh alia.
zome sem qudd siman onui zwomui sem
o ca sem ciguigur.
pois hadd tezia hotqinia,
ticerir Ague slomales.

17

Ozarir os faser bisia wesetir
Ocaqpeadd wal,
o cisirze, zamia u eosia
sem eus exese Ossodd.

‘Piadabb aléchesía, aiciel aegué tico
alía aegué luot
aerinengg afolir, agoss afolir,
afolir onsubb poulruaepía.

emir’’, Sulabir, OsfiQir, u oZir
hes sem QoZe hu
o cisenia cere u ticalir qidia
bezia sippolur vu.

‘Abb os biltcwrir,
hanir aucedía sem os!
Ó aepoloría sem vu ó rescwrir
ajo sem aucedir.

cuSielia Ossodd, nir al ieco.
liZia siman sicoralis ciden nir.
melecia cetan ianir? ewandoria
Ocaqpeadd gue fais.

Paisimía ó aesenía paisimía císen-sirzé
óchizan ófolir ausfidía suitsirzé -’
Chizen shep zhachíar zhousthiupía
íasem vav
ígía zobot sem ataisshiudd aetaisía.

Shudd Aussotía Cushielía
- Samuel Teilor Colridzh
Geprum
Sem aussodd cushielía
ó armec sem rum cecir íají
‘ Íanir soría shelía cé ó íanir rimía avuía,
Éi! Melígía gué nir armec?
Dullotía lun paiatsenía
ó gué arussodd óvrulía,
zhachíar uenc, thiubb tusolía;
zobet nir alía aetaiss.’
Curía totcetía fit sem sem,
‘Cané piadabb’ ut sem
‘Fean! Gué scenir, nir heluír sulía cé!’
Ai cuil íasem sem luot.
Avuía rimía fit sem sem.
Zhousthiupía zhachíar ancul zhibuí
ó sem shap cidía sidd císershía jí;
Aussotía vess cenía.
Zhousthiupía zhachíar som mondir.
Sem vencuí van zobatía.
Ai otía eó lodd cushielía,
Sem aussodd rínía vuía.

Widir aro dul,
cetía wolthum sem,
ó hédir íasem, bultía iaría,
éa shavullodh alía.
Ó shep zhachíar zhousthiupía íasem
vav,
tim sem vencuí van zobatía.
Ai otía eó lodd cushielía,
Sem aussodd rínía vuía.
‘Ó chizan éus shibb musía,
sem cípivesenía ó dhisía.
Emticaía fivía sem shep
ó aspem wesidir.
‘Ausfidía siman agazéa ó togía siman
shec,
ó cetía siman aspimhía wethsenía ó
shipsenía
tim simen ópeng cetchizen chibb solía
ó simen doul haidir iol,
ciden piadabb hédzhepía, ó vustaiss ou
ó ei! wesidir aegué tsha.
‘Ó chizan éus am ó adhan
ó dzhus sem taimhía ealss
ó ulorir shon hadd paisenía cetía ausfidh

ó elos cetía aucattor.
‘Ó ticalir bezhuírsimía adhanía sedh
dhoes cuhupía poloraliss
ó ozuí aegué togh lothía u dalía hadd ó hadd aegué aerumir ó sem.
‘Folen hadd ó folan hadd
ó hadd cífolir íagué.
Sem pois ó wigut, sem ou ó échas
Cetshedía taish thilhuílé.
‘Medía ewo aucathpeadd;
ticalir thidía sem eus.
Cetshatía sem atusé Christíalía
sem aegué fazbouh Alía.
‘Zom sem thudd siman onuí zuomuí
sem
ó tsha sem cíguígir.
Pois hadd tézía hotthinía;
Ticerir aegué slómales!
‘Auzarir os faser bisía wesetir
Aucathpeadd wal,
Ó císirzé, zamía u eosía
Sem eus échesé aussodd.
Emir, shulabir, ausfidhir, u ózhir
hés sem dhozhé hú
ó císenía céré u ticalir thidía
bezía síppolur vu.
“Cushielía aussodd, nir Al ieco!
Lizhía siman sicoralis ciden nir! Melígía cetan íanir? - ‘Ewandóría
aucathpeadd gué fais!’
Sem aussodd cushielía
ó armec sem rum cecir íají
‘ Íanir soría shelía cé ó íanir rimía
avuía,
Éi! Melígía gué nir armec?

Dullotía lun paiatsenía
ó gué arussodd óvrulía,
Zhachíar uenc, thiubb tusolía;
zobet nir alía aetaiss.’
Sem sem fit cwría totcetía,
‘Cané piadabb’ ut sem
‘Fean! Gué scenir, nir heluír sulía cé!’
Ai cuil íasem sem luot.
Íasem avuía rimía fit sem sem.
Zhousthiupía zhachíar ancul zhibuí
ó sem shap cidía sidd císershía jí;
Aussotía vess cenía.
Zhousthiupía zhachíar som mondir.
Sem vencuí van zobatía.
Ai otía eó lodd cushielía,
Sem aussodd rínía vuía.
‘Piadabb aléchesía, aiciel aegué tico
alía aegué luot
aerinengg afolir, agoss afolir,
afolir onsubb poulruaepía.
‘Abb os biltcwrir,
hanir aucedía sem os!
Ó aepoloría sem vu ó rescwrir
ajo sem aucedir.
Paisimía ó aesenía paisimía císen-sirzé
óchizan ófolir ausfidía suitsirzé -’
Chizen shep zhachíar zhousthiupía íasem
vav
ígía zobot sem ataisshiudd aetaisía.

Widir aro dul,
cetía wolthum sem,
ó hédir íasem, bultía iaría,
éa shavullodh alía.

18

Ticerir aegué slómales!

Ó shep zhachíar zhousthiupía íasem
vav,
tim sem vencuí van zobatía.
Ai otía eó lodd cushielía,
Sem aussodd rínía vuía.

‘Auzarir os faser bisía wesetir
Aucathpeadd wal,
Ó císirzé, zamía u eosía
Sem eus échesé aussodd.

‘Ó chizan éus shibb musía,
sem cípivesenía ó dhisía.
Emticaía fivía sem shep
ó aspem wesidir.

Emir, shulabir, ausfidhir, u ózhir
hés sem dhozhé hú
ó císenía céré u ticalir thidía
bezía scippolur vu.

‘Ausfidía agazéoía ó togía shecía,
ó cetía siman aspimhía wethsenía ó
shipsenía
tim simen ópeng cetchizen chibb solía
ó simen doul haidir iol,
ciden piadabb hédzhepía, ó vustaiss ou
ó ei! wesidir aegué tsha.

“Cushielía aussodd, nir Al ieco!
Lizhía siman sicoralis ciden nir! Melecía cetan íanir? - ‘Ewandóría
aucathpeadd gué fais!’

‘Ó chizan éus am ó adhan
ó dzhus sem taimhía ealss
ó ulorir shon hadd paisenía cetía ausfidh
ó elos cetía aucattor.
‘Ó ticalir bezhuírsimía adhanía sedh
dhoes cuhupía poloraliss
ó ozuí aegué togh lothía u dalía hadd ó hadd aegué aerumir ó sem.
‘Folen hadd ó folan hadd
ó hadd cífolir íagué.
Sem pois ó wigut, sem ou ó échas
Cetshedía taish thilhuílé.
‘Medía ewo aucathpeadd;
ticalir thidía sem eus.
Cetshatía sem atusé Christíalía
sem aegué fazbouh Alía.
‘Zom sem thudd siman onuí zuomuí sem
ó tsha sem cíguígir.
Pois hadd tézía hotthinía;
19

First Part
It is a Mariner of no youth,
And he stops one in a group of three.
`By your beard long and grey and eye
that glitters,
Now with what cause do you stop me?
The bridegroom’s doors are well-open,
And I am a close relative;
The guests have gathered, the feast is
prepared:
The joyful noise you can hear.’
With parchment-like hand he holds him,
“In the past, a ship,” said he.
`Wiat! release me, you fool with beard
grey’
Then his hand he dropped.
With glittering eye he holds him The Wedding-Feast Guest stands
motionless,
And listens like a child of three years:
The Mariner’s will is done.

Higher and still higher every day,
Till above the mast at mid-day -”
Now struck the Guest of the WeddingFeast his breast,
For he heard the loud low-windpipe.
Into the hall walked the bride,
Red as a rose is she;
and before her, nodding their heads
goes the joyful music-troop.
And struck the Guest of the WeddingFeast his breast,
But he is powerless other than to hear;
So continued to speak the man of no
youth,
The shining-eyed Mariner.
“And then came the strike of a storm
And he was all-ruling and mighty:
With overtaking wings he struck ,
And pursued us to the south.

The Wedding-Feast-Guest on a stone
sat:
He is powerless other than to hear;
So to speak continued the man of no
youth,
The shining-eyed Mariner.

With masts that slope and prow that
dipped,
As who pursued by shout and strike
But this one treads still the shadow of the
enemy,
And this one bends forward the head,
Like this the ship drove forward, and the
blast roared,
And oh! to the south we flew.

“The ship was cheered, we passed the
harbour,
Joyfully we dropped
Below the assembly, below the hill,
Below the top of the lighthouse.

And then came mist and snow,
And it became amazingly cold:
And beside floated ice as high as the
masts,
And green as emerald.

The sun rose on the shield-hand,
Out of the sea he rose!
And bright he shone, and on the sword-hand
descended he into the sea.

And through the drifts the snowy cliffs
sent an most unpleasant shining:
And saw not we shapes of men nor beasts Ice and ice between us and them.
20

Here ice, and there ice,
and ice in every place of ours:
It cracked and growled, it roared and called out,
Like noises when one swoons!
Finally crossed an sea-bird,
Through the fog it came;
As if it were the soul of a Christian,
It we greeted by God.
It ate the food which it never had eaten,
And it flew all around.
Split the ice with the sound of thunder;
and through we steered!
Behind rose a wind good in the south;
The sea-bird followed,
And every day, to eat or to play,
It came when the mariner called.
In mist or cloud, on mast or sails,
It landed for evenings nine;
And all the night, and through the fog,
gently the moonlight shone.”
`No-youth Mariner, God save you!
From the demons who trouble you like this! For what reason that likeness of yours?’ -”With a crossbow
The sea-bird I shot.”

21

I’m a Linguist - Now What?
What To Do With a Degree in Linguistics

Many people believe linguists are
“word weirdos”, who spend hours
learning foreign languages, or
language teachers who go on in their
lives correcting everyone’s speech. Of
course there are many linguists who
work as language teachers, and it is
not uncommon to find linguists who
speak more than one, or several foreign
languages; yet, this is not what being
a linguist is at its core.
Linguistics as a science is a vast a
field of work that includes several
sub-disciplines with thousands of
professionals working in those multiple
areas. At its core, linguistics studies
and does research on the structures,
patterns and oddities that make up
language; in other words, linguists
enjoy fathoming the complexities
of human communication, always
pushing the boundaries of knowledge
in their sub-area of research.
The main aspects of human language
all linguists become familiar with
early in their careers are phonetics,
phonology, orthography, morphology,
syntax,
semantics,
semiotics,
pragmatics,
discourse
analysis,
historical developments of language

branches, dialectology, etc. These are
the basic building blocks that enable
linguists to provide professional
services in many different areas in
which people did not used to think
linguists were required. Moreover,
there are also several branches or subdisciplines a Linguist may pursue to
make scientific research as:
* General Linguistics
* Descriptive Linguistics
* Diachronic Linguistics
* Synchronic Linguistics
* Psycholinguistics
* Experimental Linguistics
* Sociolinguistics
* Applied Linguistics
* Neurolinguistics
* Computational Linguistics
* Forensic Linguistics
* Legal Linguistics
* Ethnolinguistics
* Linguistic Anthropology
* Cognitive Linguistics
* Graphology
* Language Acquisition
* Paralinguistics
* Contact Linguistics
22

All the scientific and interdisciplinary knowledge we possess on language
derives from the work of researches in the above mentioned sub-disciplines.
They have furthered our concept of human language and have helped us evolve
and develop better ways for understanding, learning and teaching languages, as
well as comprehending the role of language in society and
in the cognitive processes of the brain.

I’m a linguist, now what?
Due to the fact that our modern
and globalised world demands from
people to adapt to the ever-changing
market and its opportunities many
linguists end up doing languagerelated activities and less scientific
research as they wished they could do.
Nonetheless, their contributions are
no less important to our society and
its development; many linguists can be
found in the following lines of work:
• Work for the Government: Public
office holds many opportunities for
linguists in the Ministry of Education
revising teaching methodologies; The

Ministry of Defence also makes use of
Linguists as well as the department of
Foreign Affairs and Foreign Service.
• Computer and Digital Industry:
Many linguists are hired around the
world to work in the field of speech
recognition and developing digital
dictionaries for text prediction and
software modules for grammar & style
correction.
• Speech / Language trainer: There
are many actors who pay for the services
of professional linguists specialised as
language therapists in order to master
proper pronunciation; children with
speech / language production problems
23

also benefit from such services greatly.
• Foreign Language Teachers:
Some linguists who love learning
and teaching languages become
tutors at schools, high schools and
universities, many of them discover
and develop novelty ways to master
foreign languages easier and faster.
Eventually a large number of them
become directors and coordinators of
their departments.
• Entrepreneurs: There are several
linguists who have opened their own
language institutes and offer the
services of their businesses online
and in situ. Others run their own
professional translation company
providing interpreters and bilingual
speakers for events, etc.
• University Professors: Some
linguists go for a Masters’ or PhD, and
become researchers and teachers at
Universities in different departments.
After some years a few end up as
Faculty Deans or Career Directors.
• Publishing Industry:
Many
linguists run their own magazines
or work for one as Editors in Chief,
senior/junior editors, proofreaders,
article writers, journalists, technical
writers, etc.
• Lexicography: Several linguists
are hired by companies who develop
dictionaries, some do research work for
language organizations that prescribe
and preserve the national language.

Almost
every
• Advertising:
respectable advertisement company
hires at least one creative writer for
ads and for spot production.
• TV
Consultant:
Numerous
broadcasters hire the services of
linguists for script writing, staff
training in language production and
text edition in news, soap operas,
sitcoms, etc.
• Conlanger: More than one linguist
has been hired to create fictional
languages / scripts for TV shows and
fantasy stories in books.
• Interdisciplinary
Language
Consultant:
Lawyers,
doctors,
engineers, etc usually hire the
services of linguists for the creation of
professional manuals, encyclopaedias,
user guides, school books, etc.
• Book writer: Among linguists
there are many who pursue the path
of research and writing and publish
works concerning sub-categories of
Linguistics; some become professional
story writers and eventually run their
own publishing agencies.
As we can see there are several subcategories where linguists can put
into practice their knowledge and
experience in language matters. From
the highly academic to the pragmatic

24

25

polyglots. Changes in the linguistic
environment and termination of an
instructional program may lead to
attrition, but other processes are at play
too.
Why do we forget parts or totality of
our language(s)?
Several hypotheses and theories have
been discussed by researchers to
account for the forgetting of (verbal as
well as and non-verbal) information:
Repression and suppression:
Some words are deliberately repressed
and even suppressed because they are
related to an unpleasant or traumatic
memory.
Distortion:
Memories are highly permeable and
can be unconsciously restructured by
I have it on the tip of my tongue
experiences, knowledge, beliefs, values,
You have certainly experienced this and attitudes.
strange feeling, when, as you are
talking, a word that you know, and that Interference:
you wish to say keeps on eluding you... Prior and posterior learning of
And cannot be recalled. At times, the information compete with each other
recalcitrant word will come back with and lead to the forgetting of target
a bit of help from your interlocutor, information.
but often it is only hours after your
first attempts at remembering it that Decay:
it resurfaces from the depths of your According to the decay approach,
information gradually declines in
memory.
memory through lack of use.
This phenomenon, called TOT, for
tip-of-the-tongue, is well known of
linguistics and psychology researchers,
as one of the characteristic phenomena
of language attrition, i.e. the natural
loss of a language in bilinguals and

Retrieval slowdown and failure:
Access to the target information
may become difficult because of the
weakening of the connections between
neurons and nodes.
26

Cue dependency
Cues in memory search are similar to
the labels of a file cabinet. Depending
on the feelings, the mood, and on the
external environment, the availability
of those cues may be reduced, making
the information more difficult to
retrieve.

“Attrition is the
natural loss of a
language
in bilinguals and
polyglots”

Interaction and dynamic systems
According to the Dynamic Model of
Multilingualism, the acquisition of
a new language comes at a cost: the
decline of the previously acquired
The Boulogne Ferry Effect
system.
Counteracting attrition:
language retention & reactivation
Researchers
who
investigated
the process of language retention
highlighted that linguistic knowledge
was still present in an individual
after a long period of time. However,
they pointed out that the best way to
reactivate it was not clear. Language
skills are both dynamic and transient,
and maintaining a high level of
proficiency requires daily strategies
that foster your engagement with the
language you don’t want to forget.
However, this may not be as daunting
as it seems.

What about
Conlangers?
Does attrition of your

A study reported the interesting
‘Boulogne Ferry Effect’ experienced
by British people crossing the channel
on the Boulogne Ferry. As soon as
they started hearing a bit of French,
they would remember many of their
knowledge of this language. A short
exposure to the language which seems
to be lost triggers the remembrance of
a large amount of forgotten language.
Therefore, before studying grammar
and vocabulary books of a language you
feel that you are losing, you may wish
to simply create an artificial immersion
environment.
Some ideas include changing the
language settings of your computer,
navigation system, listening to songs,
and watching movies. Wishing you
a pleasant language retention and
reactivation!

languages occur during a
period of language
construction?

27

Tolk de Chakobsa
Phrases in <<DUNE>>

Dank ad J.Quijada ob eys remarkes .
Abstract: The sci-fi novel “Dune”, by
F.Herbert, contains six excerpts written
in Chaboksa. F.Herbert took these
phrases from an old book concerning
Gipsy rituals. The present author has
identified this book and could thus
find the true meaning of these excerpts,
which had remained hitherto unknown.
Résumé: Le roman de science-fiction
“Dune”, par F.Herbert, contient six
extraits rédigés en Chakobsa. F.Herbert
avait tiré ces phrases d’un livre ancien
portant sur les rituels gitans. Le présent
auteur a identifié ce livre et a pu ainsi
trouver la signification véritable de
ces extraits, qui était restée inconnue
jusqu’à présent.
Id classic roman os science-fiction ios
US autorios Frank Herbert descript
un desertic mund ep alyo planete. Pos
id assassinat siens pater, is heroy, Paul
Atreides, dehlct fuges con sienu mater
ed endergwehmt bim Fremens, un
rebell teut mayster iom sandversteps,
sagvend survive in un talg wakhschat.

I Fremens qui preime i fugitives bahnt
yando Chakobsa. In id « Imperium
Lexicon », in appendix tei roman,
F.Herbert daht id sehkwndo definition
tos bahsa:
“Chakobsa : id “magnetic lingua” derivet
in part ex id awo Bhotani (Bhotani-jib
, jib maynend dialect). Formen ex plur
dialects pro ia naudhs ios secret, ed
hassa ex id saydbahsa im Bhotanen, im
mercenars ios prest Assassinen Weir” .
Ia ghi mutiple mustras os Chakobsa
prehpend in id roman deike un raym
bahsa, evoquend divers ghomen
linguas.
Idswo nam Chakobsa est druve-ye
ghomen ; id eet un Cavcase « saydbahsa
».
Pro id public, id meist kweitu influence
ep Chakobsa, tem quem ep id hol roman,
est arab-muslim. Multa chakobsa lexis
sont okwivid-ye arabs origin, esdi sei
ir maynen hat ops esto changet. Pleist
exempels sont daftaren ep tod website :
http://baheyeldin.com/literature/
arabic-and-islamic-themes-in-frankherberts-dune.html
28

Mathalan, « umma » est id nam uns
propheten keiwitat in « Dune »,
menxu tod lexis kyeust daydey in arab
id communitat im muslim dyindars.
Sam-ye, “gom jabbar” est id nam uns
poisonsnadh, ed “jabbar” est un arab
werd (quodschi exist in SambahsaMundialect). Bad, “kitab al ibar” est un
religieus ed practic handbuk in “Dune”.
“Kitab” maynt “buk” in Arab, menxu
“ibar” kyeust un siratstoria in id sam
bahsa.

“Ima trava okolo !
I korenka okolo !”
Ia tarj: “En id kenis ! Ed en ia raudhs !”

5to mustra: p.178. (2t volume)
“Jamis bohr trigim tri liters, septa
drachmes ed tri secundes trigim ios
teutwed, ia iey. Id blagho nun in presence
ias Sayyadina. Ekkeriakairi, en id wed,
fillissin-follasy, os Paul Muad’Dib ! Kivi
a-kavi, naiwo meis, nakalas ! nakelas !
quem quo dehlct ses midt ed lohgen,
Lakin, longer Chakobsa mustras in ukair-an ! ab ia kerdbats jan-jan-jan os
id romano nel-ye swehne arab. Itak nies prient... Jamis.”
behdmos kamuse ta nuntos.
6t mustra: p.90. (1st volume)
“Ma me lever tei comedia ?” dieum
Jessica. Bet ia Bene Gesserit vias eent
1st mustra: p.105, (2t volume)
“Cignoro hrobosa sukares hin mange diswohrten ed khiek ses abvict ud ia.
la pchagavas doi me kamavas na beslas “Gnohm ia Deuska Jects ed ia missals ias
Megil Mater”, ia bahsit. In id apparence
lele pal hrobas !”
ias gwen, ia aunstohg revelator, evident
Eet is dexter. Is cricit kyid boengi.
Ia werds, pro Paul, hieb neid maynen, signes. Ia nabahsit: “Miseces prejia.
bet Jessicas Bene Gesserit education Andral t’re pera ! Trada cik buscakri
hieb iam recognihes id bahsa. Chakobsa. miseces perakri !” Ia hiebit bahn in
Eet oino iom awen saydbahsas ed is wir, Chakobsa lingua, ed Mapes stiup retro
uper i, hieb just-ye sayct od, maghses, kamsei ia se prepariet ad fuges.
ter eent i tarniens ies pieursk.
Prest kehnsen :
2ndo mustra: p.121 (2t volume)
“Ste un difficil gwen. (Is liv sien levter Id quart mustra est okwivid-ye in un
hand ed clieck med sien finghers.) bahsa different ud tod altern. Certain
werds swehne kam in sambahsa: trava
Kushti bakka te.”
evoquet “trav” au “travos”, menxu okolo
Dar chakobsa, mohn Jessica.
est samlik ad “ocolo”. Ta werds (edghi
id reste ios chante) sont os slav origin.
3t mustra: p.139. (2t volume)
“Duy yakha hin mange, dar murmurit Id neud ios Google tilmachware mi
Chani. Duy punra hin mange. Ho dwo permitt identifie ta ka serbhorvat.
Korenka kwehct ses un diminutive os
okwi. Ho dwo peds.”
koren = « raudh » ; maynt sigwra « lytil
raudh ». Schowi, id tilmachen daht :
4t mustra: p.168. (2t volume)
« Hat trav ambh !
Dalg in id balma, un voc entonier:
Ed lytil raudh ambh ! »
29

Ploisko id werdo trava, id chakobsa Tod buk, weidwos in Englisch, est
tarjem est nisbatan prokwem id suppost Gypsy Sorcery and Fortune Telling
auwal maynen.
(Cigan vraj ed ramal) : Illustrated by
Numerous Incantations, Specimens of
Id trit mustra, quayque ne slav, swehnt Medical Incantations, Specimens of
aryo. In mult hindeuropay bahsas, id Medical Magic, Anecdotes and Tales,
verb habe est tayt med un construction ab Charles Godfrey Leland, publiet in
usend id verb ses + un declinen zamihr 1891 bi Charles Scribner’s Sons. Tod
au possessive pronomen. In latin, tod muhim studye os cigan folklore est
chakobsa phrase est tarjen it: Mihi dediet eysims colleghs ios Congrès
sunt duo oculi / Mihi sunt duo pedes. des Traditions Populaires os Paris in
In Sambahsa: Mi sont dwo okwi / Mi jul 1889, ed mathmount quasi vasya
sont dwo peds.
“chakobsa” phrases trohven in “Dune”.
Id hindeuropay adpeurten os “chakobsa”
biht evident sei ia sambahsa werds sont
wohrten katha: (Ch.) Duy yakha hin
mange / Dwo okwi sont mien (SbMd)
(Ch.) Duy punra hin mange / Dwo peds
sont mien (SbMd)

3t mustra:
“Duy yakha hin mange, dar murmurit
Chani. Duy punra hin mange. Ho dwo
okwi. Ho dwo peds.”

Id chakobsa tarjem est exact. Sekwent id
kitab, page 50, leit de un ritual formule
I ghi Fremens bahnt druve-ye un contra erysipel :
kerablingua os Sambahsa !
Id “h” os hin direct mien specto kya Duy yàkhà hin mànge
hindarya bahsas, ob in tod grupp, id Duy punrà hin mànge
hindeuropay *s wehrt do h. Mathalan, Dukh àndràl yàkhà
id sambahsa werd “hevd” (ex parsi) Jà àndre punrà
gwehmt ex *septm.
Jà àndràl punrà
Jà àndre pçuv,
Id Englisch Wikipedia mehldt od Jà àndràl pçuv
F.Herbert hieb nuden un kitab de cigano Andro meriben !
magia kay cree plur Chakobsa phrases.
Tod sigwren biht alnos confirmen ab Ho dwo okwi
mien wi sok, chunke id ciganen bahsa, Ho dwo peds
wa romani chib, bayght effective-ye Gvol ex mien okwi
id hindaryo grupp. Lakin, Wikipedia Idi do mien peds !
ne deict id nam os Herberts kitab. Ho Idi ex mien peds,
yed, med un oku Google-paursken, Idi do id dighom !
ghohden retrehve tod buk.
Idi ex id dighom
Do mohrt !
Id kitab folossiet ab F.Herbert ed ia asli Nies ghi tarken de id hindaryo, yani
plen phrases:
romani, origin ios chakobsa phrase
wehst verifien.
30

4t mustra:
Dalg in id balma, un voc entonier:
“Ima trava okolo !
I korenka okolo !”
Tod passage wehst p.175, in un capitel
dayir yasas in ia sudslav lands. Is autor
tolct de id slavon cred sekwent quod
raudhs qua crohsceer sub oska permiss
prepare
liubhspotions
(Slavonia
correspondt nundiens id nordeust
parto Horvatskas).
En id asli plen texte ed idso sambahsa
tarjem:
Ima trava u okolo Save
I korenja okolo jasenja
Sont andsa ana id Sava
Ed raudhs ambh oskens
Her, F.Herbert hat bragven bo phrases;
ed nun id prest tolk io hieb dahn de tod
mustra biht alnos kweiter. Kad is autor
vighieb id slav aspect tom phrasen ed
itak id end ieters buit suppressen (Id
Sava prisreut Slavonia).
Smad kaue od to ne est id wahid
exempel ios neud os un slav bahsa
pro un fantasia desertic universe.
In id Middle-Earth Role Playing
(rolenleik) systeme ab “Iron Crown
Enterprises” basen ep J.R.R.Tolkiens
Ringenpoti, bulgar eet usen ka bahsa
in id Haradwaith (sandwakhschat in
sudwest Medioghehrd). Mathalan:
“raj”, explicit-ye tarjt per “paradays”.

In id auwal kitab, is autor descript
id cigan cred sekwent quod, sei
semanghen karpt un rose ep un grabh,
el mox mehrsiet. Id ghi romani texte
est larger, leit de un songvo quer un
ciganner ghendt un rose ex uper id
grabh tas quam is liubh, spehnd-ye is
mehrsiet ob to.
Cignoro hrobosa
Hin sukares rosa
Mange la pchagavas
Doi me na kâmavas.
Beš’las piranake,
Hrobas hin joy mange,
Pchgavas, choč žanav
Pal lele avava
Te me ne brinzinav
The me počivinav
In Sambahsa ab id Englisch texte :
Ep ays lytil tumbh ter crehsc’
Swo un khauris rose,
Io mon id rose brehgo
Ed kwehro to ob liubh dia iam
Io sess nieb iam io iey tem dorgv
Nun ays grabh ed mien sont prokwem,
Brehgo id rose ob gnohm
Od ad iam mox dehlgo gwahe
Gomra khact mien spirit srehte
Chunke gnohm io gwahm ad iam !

Her, neter ia brens as Jessica (is wir, uper
i, hieb just-ye sayct od, maghses, ter eent
i tarniens ies pieursk ), ni id situation
ios beghswedios desert corresponde id
1st mustra:
“Cignoro hrobosa sukares hin mange poetic description ios cigan songv ! Iter
la pchagavas doi me kamavas na beslas meis, F.Herbert hat kaurn de suppremes
id pior international werdo rosa, quod
lele pal hrobas !”
habiet ghohden revele id hol fareb...
31

6t mustra:
“Ma me lever tei comedia ?” dieum
Jessica. Bet ia Bene Gesserit vias eent
diswohrten ed khiek ses abvict ud ia.
“Gnohm ia Deuska Jects ed ia missals ias
Megil Mater”, ia bahsit. In id apparence
ias gwen, ia aunstohg revelator, evident
signes. Ia nabahsit: “Miseces prejia.
Andral t’re pera ! Trada cik buscakri
miseces perakri !” Ia hiebit bahn in
Chakobsa lingua, ed Mapes stiup retro
kamsei ia se prepariet ad fuges.

nies prient... Jamis.”
Id asli texte est uno magven quarstiche
sohngven kay kwehre un random
cheus (ex : exclude au include un dust
unte un leik). Is autor (p.232) mehldt
manthus id auwal version ud un pwarn
in Philadelphia (USA) ed, ep id base
multen exempels incontret alyer,
reconstruct id kam sehkwt :

Ek-keri (yekori) akairi, you kair an,
Fillissin, follasy, Nàkelas jân
Id asli texte (p.104) se referit uni cigan Kivi, kàvi – Irishman
protective charm quer tursen aygspyra Stini, stani – buck !
eet dispulvert ep id regv uns ekwes :
Tri werds her sont englisch; “you” =
Miseçes prejià
“tu”, “Irishman” = “Eireanner”, “buck”
Andràl t’re perà !
= “ersen”. Sekwent iom autor, kivi ed
Tràdà čik busčàkri
stini hant neid maynen ed sont present
Miseçes peràkri, - (...)
just pro id rime.
Also:
Khitert gwahtu
Ex tien gventer !
Oin ker, oik ker, tu bikwehrs
Abdreibh id aygspyra
Chateau, potniaguant, ne leics gwah
Khitert ex tien gventer, (…)
Kivi, kattil – Eireanner
Stini-ersen – ersen !
Her, mustathna ia diacritics, id auwal
texte hat esen gwupen intact. Punor, Ia sambahsa werds “ker” ed “kwehr”
tod ritual samt tursen aygspyra est for sont kerab con ira romani equivalents.
piern ud Jessica wehkwnd sien fremen Iter, id auwal songv hat neid sibia con
hajib, iam Shadout Mapes !
id chante ios roman (in tod exempel:
daunos “wedceremonia” im Fremens).
5to mustra:
“Jamis bohr trigim tri liters, septa
drachmes ed tri secundes trigim ios
teutwed, ia iey. Id blagho nun in presence
ias Sayyadina. Ekkeriakairi, en id wed,
fillissin-follasy, os Paul Muad’Dib ! Kivi
a-kavi, naiwo meis, nakalas ! nakelas !
quem quo dehlct ses midt ed lohgen,
ukair-an ! ab ia kerdbats jan-jan-jan os

2ndo mustra:
“Ste un difficil gwen. (Is liv sien levter
hand ed clieck med sien finghers.)
Kushti bakka te.”
Tod mustra ne est trehftu in id 1891
kitab. Lakin, se vidt oku od tod phrase
est raym, id ghi werd bakka gwehmt ex
32

arab ed maynt “planger”. In id sehkwnd page, Jessica eti
pretet tod wehkwos:
El bakka, mohn Jessica. Ia gnohsit tod religieus lexis. El
bakka... Tel quel planct. Nun, ia ghieb id symbolisme
quod unicit i. Bet ma ia dakrus ?
(Unte id ceremonia, is fremen Stilgar hat dahn ritual-ye ad
Paul ed Jessica ein kazquadrat, id “handchirk al Bakka”)
“kushti” est punor un romani werd. Sekwent Wikipedia,
exist in englisch « slang », ed maynt « gohd, dohbro, sell
». “Te”, in romani, est id auxiliar ios subjunctive. Lakin,
tod mustra kwehct mathmoune neid verb. Ghehdt ses
supposen od F.Herbert hat auter launen, au forget tod
werd ed pretit id ka id zamihr “tu”. Schowi, id chakobsa
phrase maght auter mayne:
“Tu es un gohd bakka”
au :
« El bakka est sell dia te »

Conclusion : Chakobsa in id roman « Dune » ne constituet
un coherent linguistic systeme, sontern un kenten ex raym
bahsa elements, aun grammatical structure.

33

Bibliography and Acknowledgements
Language of the Month : Crimean
This is the latest of my “Language of the Month” articles which
I write for my school newspaper (of which I’m the editor).
Research (especially for the phrases) was painstakingly hard so
if I have any mistakes, I’d appreciate them being pointed out.
Special thanks to Yunho Lee and Paulus De Boskabouter for
aiding me with the phrase list.
1 DeLuca, A. E. (n.d.). Speaking with elders and studying the
mother tongue: Crimean Tatar language
education and the return to Crimea. Retrieved from acadamia.
eu:
http://www.academia.edu/6355947/Speaking_with_elders_
and_studying_the_mother_tongue_Crim
ean_Tatar_language_education_and_the_return_to_Crimea
2 Dash, M. (2015, January 15). Blonde cargoes: Finnish children
in the slave markets of medieval
Crimea. Retrieved from A Blast From The Past:
https://allkindsofhistory.wordpress.com/2015/01/15/blondecargoes-finnish-children-in-the-slavemarkets-of-medievalcrimea/
3 Verheul, J.-P. (n.d.). Korenizatsiia (Indigenization). Retrieved
from Russia’s Periphery:
http://russiasperiphery.blogs.wm.edu/central-asia/general/
korenizatsiia/
4 Viikberg, L. a. (n.d.). The Crimean Tatars. Retrieved from The
Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian
Empire:
http://www.eki.ee/books/redbook/crimean_tatars.
shtml
5 CommunistCrimes.org. (n.d.). Kara Gun. Retrieved from
CommunistCrimes.org:
http://www.communistcrimes.org/pt/Banco-de-Dados/
Ucrania/Panorama-Historico/Kara-Gun
6 Simferopol International School. (n.d.) http://www.siscrimea.
com/index.php?module=article&page=show&id=185
7 Ager, S. (n.d.). Crimean Tatar (Qırımtatar tili/Къырымтатар тили /
‫)ىلىت راتات مىرىق‬. Retrieved from
Omniglot: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/crimeantatar.php
8 Ryzhkov, V. (n.d.). ‘Russia’s treatment of Crimean Tatars echoes mistakes
made by Soviets’. Retrieved
from The Guardian: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/nov/25/sp-russia-crimean-tatarssoviet-ukraine
9 World Bulletin. (2014, September 20). Russians move to liquidate
Crimean Tatar library. Retrieved
from World Bulletin: http://www.worldbulletin.net/news/144786/
russians-move-to-liquidatecrimean-tatar-library
10 Kendall, B. (2014 йил 19-March). Crimea crisis: Russian President
Putin’s speech annotated. From
BBC: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-26652058
11 Gilfanov, R. (2014, May 14). Crimean Tatars: Embrace Russia or leave
your homeland. Retrieved
from Al Jazeera: http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2014/05/
crimean-tatars-embracerussia-20145135423720401.html

“I’m a Linguist - Now What?
What To Do With a Degree in Linguistics”
http://linguisticmystic.com/2013/05/19/what-does-a-linguistdo/
http://www.fluentin3months.com/linguists/
http://www.theguardian.com/education/2013/sep/05/
multilingual-speakers-language-learning
http://linguistlist.org/ask-ling/career.cfm
https://linguistics.georgetown.edu/undergraduate/what-can-ido
http://linguistics.arizona.edu/undergraduate-advising-0
http://www.prospects.ac.uk/options_linguistics.htm
http://www.indeed.com/q-Linguistics-jobs.html
http://www.linguisticsociety.org/content/why-majorlinguistics
http://www.utm.utoronto.ca/careers/careers-by-majorlinguistics
https://linguistics.osu.edu/undergrad/careers
http://www.jobs.ac.uk/categories/linguistics

Are you an Atritter?
ECKE, P. (2014). Language attrition and theories of forgetting: A
cross-disciplinary review. International Journal of Bilingualism
, 8, 321-354.
KOPKE, B. (2004). Neurolinguistics aspects of attrition. Journal
of Neurolinguistics, 17, 3-30.
DE BOT, K. and STOESSEL, S. (2000). In Search of Yesterday’s
Words: Reactivating a Long-Forgotten Language. Applied
Linguistics, 21, 333-353.
MEARA, P. (2004). Modelling Vocabulary Loss. Applied
Linguistics, 25, 137-155.
LLEWELLYN-WILLIAMS, J. (2012). Reactivation of lapsed
languages in the context of modern foreign languages teacher
education. London: Routledge Falmer.

TOLK DE IA CHAKOBSA PHRASES IN « DUNE »
(con englisch ed franceois resumens)
1 http://home.inreach.com/sl2120/Ithkuil/
2 Neudo her id franceois edition, Robert Laffont, 1980, in dwo volumes.
3 “jib” maght ses kerab con nies werd “dingv”. Tod est un hindaryo raudh.
4 Un fictional historia os Chakobsa ghehdt ses lisen her: http://webspace.webring.com/
people/uu/um_362/tazhai.htm
5 Sekwent Lesley Blanch, The Sabres of Paradise, 1960, p.21.
6 Okwivid-ye, id englisch rimen tarjem ne est in absolut vafa dia id auwal romani texte. En
id Englisch poem:



On her little tomb there grows
By itself a lovely rose,
All alone the rose I break,
And I do it for her sake.

I sat by her I held so dear,
Now her grave and mine are near,
I break the rose because I know
That to her I soon must go,
Grief cannot my spirit stir,
Since I know I go to her !”

Olivier SIMON
http://sambahsa.pbworks.com/

Images in the magazine
Credit goes to:
http://nicksherman.com/design/Intercut/collage-680.gif
http://c1038.r38.cf3.rackcdn.com/group1/building148/media/012.jpg
http://www.theredherring.co.za/wp-content/uploads/2013/04
http://ukrainetrek.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/khans-palacebakhchisaray-crimea-ukraine-1-small.jpg
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/__fGSrfAxQoA/TUBjn03apSI/AAAAAAAAGDA/
iSuxuRQMo6Y/s1600/blueberry+yum-yum.jpg -The purple door photographyhttp://fiction.michaelatman.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/Viridian-seascape.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e9/BattleOfVirginiaCapes.jpg
https://w w w.parentmap.com/c/533b2f7c/images/stories/i_dont_know_
woman_1209x800.jpg