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LTE TDD PRACH Planning and

Configuration Guide

Issue

3.0

Date

2012-03-28

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About This Document

About This Document


Author
Prepared by

Liang Hualin (employee ID:


00133500)

Date

Reviewed by

Date

Reviewed by

Date

Approved by

Date

2011-12-15

Change History
Date

Issue

Description

Author

2011-12-15

V1.0

Completed the draft.

Liang Hualin

2012-01-29

V1.1

Revised this document according to review comments.

Liang Hualin

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LTE TDD PRACH Planning and Configuration Guide

Contents

Contents
About This Document.......................................................................ii
1 PRACH Parameter Planning...........................................................1
1.1 Restrictions on Ncs Selection............................................................................................................................1
1.2 ZC Sequence Planning Principles......................................................................................................................3
1.3 Root Sequence Planning for High-Speed Cells.................................................................................................6
1.4 Root Sequence Planning for Medium- and Low-Speed Cells...........................................................................7
1.5 PRACH Planning Using the U-Net...................................................................................................................7
1.5.1 Creating a Project.....................................................................................................................................7
1.5.2 Starting PRACH Planning........................................................................................................................8
1.5.3 Setting Parameters....................................................................................................................................9
1.5.4 Checking the PRACH Planning Result..................................................................................................19
1.5.5 Submitting the PRACH Planning Result................................................................................................20
1.6 Manually Modifying PRACH Configurations.................................................................................................21
1.6.1 Modifying PRACH Configurations in the PRACH Parameter Display Tab Page.................................21
1.6.2 Exporting the PRACH Planning Result..................................................................................................21
1.6.3 Checking PRACH Configurations..........................................................................................................23
1.7 Configuring the eNodeB PRACH....................................................................................................................24

2 Summary.................................................................................... 25
3 References.................................................................................26

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LTE TDD PRACH Planning and Configuration Guide

1 PRACH Parameter Planning

PRACH Parameter Planning

In Long Term Evolution (LTE) systems, random access is important for initial UE access,
handover implementation, connection reestablishment, and recovery of uplink time/frequency
synchronization.
Compared with deterministic scheduling in the uplink and downlink, random access has the
following characteristics:

UEs select preambles for network access at a random occasion.

The access result is random. Network access may fail. To resolve this problem, the
random access control algorithm is used to improve the random access success rate.

Preambles with different Zadoff-Chu (ZC) sequences are orthogonal. Therefore, different ZC
sequences configured for neighboring cells help prevent preamble collisions during random
access. During PRACH parameter planning, ZC sequences must be planned to ensure that
preambles with optimal detection performance are allocated to high-speed cells and that
different preambles are allocated to neighboring cells.

1.1 Restrictions on Ncs Selection


Ncs must be selected based on the following principles:

Preambles can be identified correctly.

eNodeB resources are used efficiently.

The relationship between Ncs, cell radius, and maximum delay spread is as follows:

N CS .T preamble _ S TRTD TMD

(1)

Tpreamble_s indicates the sampling length of the ZC sequence. For preamble formats 0 to 3,
Tpreamble_s equals to 800/839 milliseconds. For preamble format 4, Tpreamble_s equals to 133 /
139 milliseconds.
TMD indicates the maximum multi-path delay spread. For Huawei LTE products, TMD

equals to 5 milliseconds.

TMD
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= 5 milliseconds is determined based on proposals and simulation tests.

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TRTD is the maximum return delay (RTD). The relationship between TRTD and the cell
radius is as follows:

TRTD = 6.67 r milliseconds


where r indicates the cell radius in the unit of km.
If formula 1 is divided by Tpreamble_s on both sides, the following formula is obtained:
(2)

Ncs > 1.04875 x (6.67 r + TMD) for preamble format 0 to 3


Ncs > 1.0425 x (6.67 r + TMD) for preamble format 4
Ncs can be calculated if r and TMD is known.

If AdSch is added on the right side of formula 2 (


obtained:

N CS 1.04875 (6.67 r TMD 2)

T AdSch = 2 milliseconds), formula 3 is

(3)

For low-speed cells, r equals to 10 km and TMD equals to 5 milliseconds. In this case,
N CS 1.04875 (6.67 * 10 5 2) 77.03

. According to Table 1.1,

N CS

configuration equals

to 11. Therefore, Ncs equals to 93.


The number of preambles that can be generated is calculated as follows:

839

N CS

Num

, where

indicates round-down of Num.

If 64 preambles need to be generated per cell, the number of ZC sequences is calculated as


follows:

64

Num

, where

indicates round-up of m.

Table 1.1 Ncs for preamble formats 0 to 3


N CS

N CS

Configuration

Value

Unrestricted Set for


Low-Speed Cells

Restricted Set for


High-Speed Cells

15

13

18

15

22

18

26

22

32

26

38

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LTE TDD PRACH Planning and Configuration Guide

N CS

N CS

Configuration

1 PRACH Parameter Planning

Value

Unrestricted Set for


Low-Speed Cells

Restricted Set for


High-Speed Cells

32

46

38

55

46

68

59

82

10

76

100

11

93

128

12

119

158

13

167

202

14

279

237

15

419

In high-speed cells, UEs move at a speed greater than 120 km/h. In most cases, coverage cells along
expressway roads and high-speed railways are high-speed cells. In other scenarios, medium- and lowspeed cells prevail.

In actual applications, an eNodeB delivers PRACH parameters, such as NcsConfig,


HighSpeedFlag, and rootSequenceIndex, to UEs.

1.2 ZC Sequence Planning Principles


ZC sequences must be allocated according to the following principles:
1.

ZC sequence indexes must be allocated for high-speed cells in priority.

2.

ZC sequence indexes can be reused when ZC sequence indexes are used up in an area to
be planned. If the distance between two cells is greater than the associated threshold,
both cells can use the same ZC sequence index. For details, see LTE eRAN3.1
FDD&TDD Root Sequence Index Automatic Planning Algorithm Specification.

Figure 2.1 illustrates the mapping between logical root sequence numbers and physical root
sequence numbers.
Figure 2.1 Mapping between logical root sequence numbers and physical root sequence numbers
Logical Root
Sequence
Number

Physical Root Sequence Number u

023

129, 710, 140, 699, 120, 719, 210, 629, 168, 671, 84, 755, 105, 734,
93, 746, 70, 769, 60, 779, 2, 837, 1, 838

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Logical Root
Sequence
Number

Physical Root Sequence Number u

2429

56, 783, 112, 727, 148, 691

3035

80, 759, 42, 797, 40, 799

3641

35, 804, 73, 766, 146, 693

4251

31, 808, 28, 811, 30, 809, 27, 812, 29, 810

5263

24, 815, 48, 791, 68, 771, 74, 765, 178, 661, 136, 703

6475

86, 753, 78, 761, 43, 796, 39, 800, 20, 819, 21, 818

7689

95, 744, 202, 637, 190, 649, 181, 658, 137, 702, 125, 714, 151, 688

90115

217, 622, 128, 711, 142, 697, 122, 717, 203, 636, 118, 721, 110, 729,
89, 750, 103, 736, 61, 778, 55, 784, 15, 824, 14, 825

116135

12, 827, 23, 816, 34, 805, 37, 802, 46, 793, 207, 632, 179, 660, 145,
694, 130, 709, 223, 616

136167

228, 611, 227, 612, 132, 707, 133, 706, 143, 696, 135, 704, 161, 678,
201, 638, 173, 666, 106, 733, 83, 756, 91, 748, 66, 773, 53, 786, 10,
829, 9, 830

168203

7, 832, 8, 831, 16, 823, 47, 792, 64, 775, 57, 782, 104, 735, 101, 738,
108, 731, 208, 631, 184, 655, 197, 642, 191, 648, 121, 718, 141, 698,
149, 690, 216, 623, 218, 621

204263

152, 687, 144, 695, 134, 705, 138, 701, 199, 640, 162, 677, 176, 663,
119, 720, 158, 681, 164, 675, 174, 665, 171, 668, 170, 669, 87, 752,
169, 670, 88, 751, 107, 732, 81, 758, 82, 757, 100, 739, 98, 741, 71,
768, 59, 780, 65, 774, 50, 789, 49, 790, 26, 813, 17, 822, 13, 826, 6,
833

264327

5, 834, 33, 806, 51, 788, 75, 764, 99, 740, 96, 743, 97, 742, 166, 673,
172, 667, 175, 664, 187, 652, 163, 676, 185, 654, 200, 639, 114, 725,
189, 650, 115, 724, 194, 645, 195, 644, 192, 647, 182, 657, 157, 682,
156, 683, 211, 628, 154, 685, 123, 716, 139, 700, 212, 627, 153, 686,
213, 626, 215, 624, 150, 689

328383

225, 614, 224, 615, 221, 618, 220, 619, 127, 712, 147, 692, 124, 715,
193, 646, 205, 634, 206, 633, 116, 723, 160, 679, 186, 653, 167, 672,
79, 760, 85, 754, 77, 762, 92, 747, 58, 781, 62, 777, 69, 770, 54, 785,
36, 803, 32, 807, 25, 814, 18, 821, 11, 828, 4, 835

384455

3, 836, 19, 820, 22, 817, 41, 798, 38, 801, 44, 795, 52, 787, 45, 794,
63, 776, 67, 772, 72

(in Increasing Order of the Corresponding Logical


Sequence Number)

767, 76, 763, 94, 745, 102, 737, 90, 749, 109, 730, 165, 674, 111, 728,
209, 630, 204, 635, 117, 722, 188, 651, 159, 680, 198, 641, 113, 726,
183, 656, 180, 659, 177, 662, 196, 643, 155, 684, 214, 625, 126, 713,
131, 708, 219, 620, 222, 617, 226, 613

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Logical Root
Sequence
Number

Physical Root Sequence Number u

456513

230, 609, 232, 607, 262, 577, 252, 587, 418, 421, 416, 423, 413, 426,
411, 428, 376, 463, 395, 444, 283, 556, 285, 554, 379, 460, 390, 449,
363, 476, 384, 455, 388, 451, 386, 453, 361, 478, 387, 452, 360, 479,
310, 529, 354, 485, 328, 511, 315, 524, 337, 502, 349, 490, 335, 504,
324, 515

514561

323, 516, 320, 519, 334, 505, 359, 480, 295, 544, 385, 454, 292, 547,
291, 548, 381, 458, 399, 440, 380, 459, 397, 442, 369, 470, 377, 462,
410, 429, 407, 432, 281, 558, 414, 425, 247, 592, 277, 562, 271, 568,
272, 567, 264, 575, 259, 580

562629

237, 602, 239, 600, 244, 595, 243, 596, 275, 564, 278, 561, 250, 589,
246, 593, 417, 422, 248, 591, 394, 445, 393, 446, 370, 469, 365, 474,
300, 539, 299, 540, 364, 475, 362, 477, 298, 541, 312, 527, 313, 526,
314, 525, 353, 486, 352, 487, 343, 496, 327, 512, 350, 489, 326, 513,
319, 520, 332, 507, 333, 506, 348, 491, 347, 492, 322, 517

630659

330, 509, 338, 501, 341, 498, 340, 499, 342, 497, 301, 538, 366, 473,
401, 438, 371, 468, 408, 431, 375, 464, 249, 590, 269, 570, 238, 601,
234, 605

660707

257, 582, 273, 566, 255, 584, 254, 585, 245, 594, 251, 588, 412, 427,
372, 467, 282, 557, 403, 436, 396, 443, 392, 447, 391, 448, 382, 457,
389, 450, 294, 545, 297, 542, 311, 528, 344, 495, 345, 494, 318, 521,
331, 508, 325, 514, 321, 518

708729

346, 493, 339, 500, 351, 488, 306, 533, 289, 550, 400, 439, 378, 461,
374, 465, 415, 424, 270, 569, 241, 598

730751

231, 608, 260, 579, 268, 571, 276, 563, 409, 430, 398, 441, 290, 549,
304, 535, 308, 531, 358, 481, 316, 523

752765

293, 546, 288, 551, 284, 555, 368, 471, 253, 586, 256, 583, 263, 576

766777

242, 597, 274, 565, 402, 437, 383, 456, 357, 482, 329, 510

778789

317, 522, 307, 532, 286, 553, 287, 552, 266, 573, 261, 578

790795

236, 603, 303, 536, 356, 483

796803

355, 484, 405, 434, 404, 435, 406, 433

804809

235, 604, 267, 572, 302, 537

810815

309, 530, 265, 574, 233, 606

816819

367, 472, 296, 543

820837

336, 503, 305, 534, 373, 466, 280, 559, 279, 560, 419, 420, 240, 599,
258, 581, 229, 610

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1.3 Root Sequence Planning for High-Speed


Cells
Root sequences for high-speed cells are planned as follows:
Step 1 Calculate the Ncs value range based on the cell radius r and the maximum delay spread.
Step 2 Select Ncs that is closest to the calculated minimum Ncs value according to Figure 2.1. For
example, if Ncs is greater than 217, Ncs equals to 237.
Step 3 Check whether the remaining ZC sequence indexes can generate 64 preambles. If the
remaining ZC sequence indexes are sufficient, go to Step 4. If the indexes are insufficient, go
to Step 5.
Step 4 Allocate the minimum logical root sequence number and the minimum Ncs to the cell.
Step 5 Reuse ZC sequence indexes and Ncs. For details, see LTE eRAN3.1 FDD&TDD Root
Sequence Index Automatic Planning Algorithm Specification.

Calculation of Root Sequences for High-Speed Cells


The variable d u is the cyclic shift corresponding to a Doppler shift of magnitude 1 TSEQ
and is given by

0 p N ZC 2
p
N ZC p otherwise

du

where p is the smallest non-negative integer that fulfills pu mod N ZC 1 . The


parameters for restricted sets of cyclic shifts depend on d u . For N CS d u N ZC 3 , the
parameters are given by
RA
nshift
d u N CS
RA
d start 2d u nshift
N CS
RA
ngroup
N ZC d start

RA
RA
nshift
max ( N ZC 2d u ngroup
d start ) N CS ,0

For N ZC 3 d u ( N ZC N CS ) 2 , the parameters are given by


RA
nshift
( N ZC 2d u ) N CS
RA
d start N ZC 2d u nshift
N CS
RA
ngroup
d u d start

RA
RA
RA
nshift
min max (d u ngroup
d start ) N CS ,0 , nshift

For all other values of d u , there are no cyclic shifts in the restricted set.

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1.4 Root Sequence Planning for Medium- and


Low-Speed Cells
For medium- and low-speed cells, each ZC sequence generates 839/Ncs preambles.
Step 1 Calculate the Ncs value range based on the cell radius r and the maximum delay spread.
Step 2 Select Ncs that is closest to the calculated minimum Ncs value according to Figure 2.1. For
example, for Ncs > 217, Ncs can be 279 or 419.

If

N CS

> 419 for low-speed cells, set Ncs to 0.

Step 3 Check whether the remaining ZC sequence indexes can generate 64 preambles. If the
remaining ZC sequence indexes are sufficient, go to Step 4. If the indexes are insufficient, go
to Step 5.

ZC sequences allocated to a low-speed cell must be consecutive. If consecutive ZC sequences are


insufficient to generate 64 preambles, no ZC sequences are allocated and additional preamble sequences
are obtained from the root sequences until all the 64 sequences are found.

Step 4 Allocate the minimum logical root sequence number and the minimum Ncs to the cell.
Step 5 Reuse ZC sequence indexes and Ncs. For details, see LTE eRAN3.1 FDD&TDD Root
Sequence Index Automatic Planning Algorithm Specification.

1.5 PRACH Planning Using the U-Net


This section describes how to plan PRACH parameters using the U-Net.

1.5.1 Creating a Project


On the U-Net, a project is created in the following steps:
Step 1 On the U-Net, click

at the upper left corner.

The Project Templates dialog box is displayed, as shown in Figure 1.1.


Step 2 In the displayed dialog box, select LTE-TDD, and click OK to start automatic PRACH
planning, as shown in Figure 1.1.

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Figure 1.1 Selecting LTE-TDD

Step 3 Import project data using the engineering parameter table.


Figure 1.1 Importing project data

1.5.2 Starting PRACH Planning


In the Project Explorer navigation tree, right-click PRACH Parameter Planning under
Operation, and select Automatic Allocation from the shortcut menu to start automatic
PRACH planning.

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Figure 1.1 Starting automatic PRACH planning

1.5.3 Setting Parameters


In the LTE PRACH Planning dialog box, set PRACH parameters, as shown in Figure 1.1.

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Figure 1.1 Setting PRACH parameters

The parameters in the LTE PRACH Planning dialog box are described as follows:

Calculate Cell Radius: Specifies how to determine the cell radius. If this check box is
selected, Propagation Radius and Coverage Radius option buttons can be selected.
The cell radius determines the Ncs during PRACH planning.

Propagation Radius: Indicates that the propagation radius functions as the radius when
the Ncs is calculated.

Propagation Radius Factor: When the Propagation Radius option button is selected,
the cell radius used to calculate the Ncs is equal to this factor multiplied by the main
calculation radius.

Coverage Radius: Indicates that the coverage cell is used as the cell radius in Ncs
calculation.

Min Signal Level(dBm): The minimum RSRP threshold at the cell edge is considered
when the coverage radius is used to calculate the cell radius.

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Shadowing taken into account: Specifies whether shadow fading is considered during
PRACH planning.

Cell Edge Coverage Probability: Specifies the expected cell edge coverage ratio when
shadow fading is considered. The default value is 75%.

Indoor Coverage: Specifies whether indoor coverage is considered during PRACH


planning.

Area: Enables you to select the areas to be planned. By default, all cells in a network are
to be planned. It is commonly used when there are multiple polygons on the GUI of the
simulation platform.

Cell Filter: Filters out the cells that do not need to be planned when the areas or the
entire network to be planned are selected. After this button is clicked, a Cell Select
dialog box is displayed, as shown in Figure 1.2. In this dialog box, you can deselect the
corresponding item of a cell that you want to filter out during PRACH planning.

Figure 1.2 Cell Select dialog box

There are three methods to determine the cell radius:

Method 1: using the propagation model

When the Propagation Radius option box is selected, the U-Net uses the main calculation
radius as the cell radius. By default, the main calculation radius is 4000 m. It can be changed
in the NE parameter table, for example, to 40000 m or 98000 m, as shown in Figure 1.4.
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Figure 1.3 Selecting the Propagation Radius option box

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Figure 1.4 Changing the main calculation radius

Method 2: using the predicted coverage radius

1.

The U-Net calculates the coverage radius of each sector based on the imported map and
engineering parameters.

2.

The U-Net calculates the Ncs.

If Min Signal Level(dBm) is specified, the U-Net calculates the coverage radius of each
sector based on this parameter setting, as shown in Figure 2.1.

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Figure 2.1 Selecting the Coverage Radius option button

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Figure 2.2 Performing PRACH planning

Method 3: User-defined cell radius

The cell radius can be manually specified in the following methods:

Obtain the cell radius from the simulation test result. The U-Net will automatically use
this cell radius during automatic PRACH planning.

Manually input the radius of each sector.

1.

In the Project Explorer navigation tree, click


Cells > Open Table from the shortcut menu.

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, right-click Transceiver, and choose

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Figure 1.1 Choosing Cells > Open Table

2.

In the displayed table, change the radius of each sector in the Radius(m) column.
The radius in the Radius column is in the unit of meters, and the default radius is 0 m on the U-Net.

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Figure 2.1 Changing the cell radius

3.

In the Project Explorer navigation tree, click , right-click LTE PRACH Planning,
and choose Automatic Allocation from the shortcut menu, as shown in Figure 3.1.
The LTE PRACH Planning dialog box is displayed, as shown in Figure 4.1.

Figure 3.1 Choosing Automatic Allocation

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4.

1 PRACH Parameter Planning

In the displayed dialog box, perform the following operations:


In the Root Sequence Index area, specify the range of the root sequence index for high-,
medium-, and low-speed cells.

Deselect the Calculate Cell Radius check box.

Figure 4.1 Deselecting the Calculate Cell Radius check box

5.

Click Run.

The planning result is shown in Figure 5.1.

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Figure 5.1 PRACH planning result

1.5.4 Checking the PRACH Planning Result


If automatic PRACH planning is complete, the planning result is displayed in the PRACH
Parameter Display tab page at the lower part of the U-Net, as shown in Figure 1.1.
Figure 1.1 PRACH Parameter Display

Figure 1.2 describes the meanings of each column in the planning result.

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Figure 1.2 Meanings of each column in the planning result


Column Name

Description

Cell Name

Name of a cell

High Speed

Identifier of a high-speed cell

Ncs

Parameter determining zero correlation between ZC


sequences

Cell Radius

Radius of a cell

Start Root Sequence Index

Start index to a ZC sequence

End Root Sequence Index

End index to a ZC sequence

Reuse Tier

Reuse tier of the same preamble

Reuse Distance

Reuse distance of the same preamble

1.5.5 Submitting the PRACH Planning Result


In the PRACH Parameter Display tab page, right-click any area and choose Commit from
the shortcut menu to submit the planning result, as shown in Figure 1.1.
Figure 1.1 Submitting the PRACH planning result

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1.6 Manually Modifying PRACH Configurations


1.6.1 Modifying PRACH Configurations in the PRACH
Parameter Display Tab Page
1.

In the Project Explorer navigation tree, click , right-click PRACH Parameter


Planning, and choose Open PRACH Parameter from the shortcut menu to open the
PRACH Parameter Display tab page, as shown in Figure 1.1.

Figure 1.1 Opening the PRACH Parameter Display tab page

2.

In the displayed tab page, adjust the PRACH planning result as required.

1.6.2 Exporting the PRACH Planning Result


1.

In the PRACH Parameter Display tab page, right-click any area and choose Export
from the shortcut menu, as shown in Figure 1.1.
The Data Export dialog box is displayed, as shown in Figure 1.1.

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Figure 1.1 Choosing Export from the shortcut menu

2.

In the displayed dialog box, select the fields to be exported and click Export.

Figure 2.1 Exporting the planning result

The elements in the Data Export dialog box are described as follows:

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Configuration File: Used to load and save an export template. You can save the
current export configurations as an export template, and then you can load the saved
template in the subsequent operations.

Save: Used to save the current export configurations as an export template.

Load: Used to load a user-defined export template.

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Header: Specifies whether the exported planning result contains the name of each
field.

Field Separator: Specifies the separator between fields.

Available Fields and Exported Fields: Specify the valid fields to be exported and
the exported fields

: Used to add a valid field to the Exported Fields area.


: Used to remove a field from the Exported Fields area.

and

: Used to adjust the sequence of fields in the Exported Fields area.

Preview: Used to preview the exported fields and export format.

Export: Used to export the planning result by clicking this button.

Cancel: Used to cancel the export of the planning result.

1.6.3 Checking PRACH Configurations


In the Project Explorer navigation tree, click , right-click PRACH Parameter Planning,
and choose Open PRACH Parameter from the shortcut menu, as shown in Figure 1.1 and
Figure 1.2.
Figure 1.1 Checking PRACH configurations

In the PRACH Parameter Display dialog box, view the reuse distance and reuse tiers of the
same preamble.

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Figure 1.2 Checking the PRACH planning result

1.7 Configuring the eNodeB PRACH


You can run the MOD CELL command to configure the PRACH.
Example:
MOD CELL: LocalCellId=0, CellName="eNB2-cell0", SectorId=0,
CsgInd=BOOLEAN_FALSE, UlCyclicPrefix=NORMAL_CP,
DlCyclicPrefix=NORMAL_CP, FreqBand=40, UlEarfcnCfgInd=NOT_CFG,
UlEarfcn=56800, DlEarfcn=38800, UlBandWidth=CELL_BW_N100,
DlBandWidth=CELL_BW_N100, CellId=0, PhyCellId=46, AdditionalSpectrumEmission=1,
FddTddInd=CELL_TDD, SubframeAssignment=SA2, SpecialSubframePatterns=SSP7,
CellSpecificOffset=dB0, QoffsetFreq=dB0, RootSequenceIdx=46,
HighSpeedFlag=LOW_SPEED, PreambleFmt=0, CellRadius=10000,
CustomizedBandWidthCfgInd=NOT_CFG, CustomizedULBandWidth=98,
CustomizedDLBandWidth=98;
You can check whether the PRACH planning result is correct based on the reuse distance and
reuse tier. If the number of reuse tiers is small, the reuse tier is marked in red in the planning
result.

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Summary

This document provides PRACH planning principles, notes, RACH parameter planning for
frontline engineers.
This document provides the following contents:

Ncs restrictions

ZC sequence planning principles

Root sequence planning for high- and low-speed cells

PRACH planning using the U-Net

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References

3GPP TS 36.211 V9.1.0 (2010-03)

3GPP TS 36.331 V9.3.0 (2010-06)

LTE eRAN3.1 FDD&TDD Root Sequence Index Automatic Planning Algorithm


Specification

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