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ENGLISH

ASU,
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purchaser

agiJ

BOOK

VI.

THE ASHTADHYAYl OF PANINI


TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH

BY

SRISA

CHANDRA VASU,

Provincial Civil Service, N,

B. A.,

IV.

P.

Published by Sindhu Charan Bose


at the Panini
1897-

Office,

5"

17

V3

TO
ifltt'ble

gir John (Mje, JK. <f

CHIEF JUSTICE OF THE NORTH-WESTERN PROVINCES,

THIS

WORK
is,

WITH HIS LORDSHIP'S PERMISSION,


AND

IN

RESPECTFUL APPRECIATION OF HIS LORDSHIP'S

SERVICES TO THE CAUSE OF ADMINISTRATION OF


JUSTICE

AND OF EDUCATION
IN

THESE PROVINCES,

BY HlS LORDSHIP'S HUMBLE SERVANT

THE TRANSLATOR.

BOOK SIXTH.
Chapter

^r*

it

******

<*3tfa

A i n

ti

First,

*%

In the room of the

1.

sm:,

first

It,

stoj^t, n

portion,

containing a

single vowel, there are two*

Upto Sutra VI,

i.

12 inclusive

it is

to be understood that for the

syllable

to be reduplicated.

first

This

two are to be made, I. e, the first


are to be
an adhikara sutra: ail the three words viz $3>n*:, and * and **&&
Samprasarana
of
rule
read in the subsequent sutfas upto VI. I. 12, before the

unreduplicated verbal
begins. Thus Sutra VI. 1. 8 says when fee follows, of an
supply the three
root". The sense of this sutra is incomplete, unless we

syllable

is

is

words of

this sutra,

when

it

fe* follows, there are two


an unredupliportion, containing a single vowel of
will

read thus

when

room of the first


= +
+ 3?cated verbal root". Thus from^:WHTTC C*f +<**lV' 3- 82
from
TO
TTT^,
also
fTO
So
=
4*59
awoke"),
"he
^rmR
* + *nn + T VII.
the
force of the
through
place
takes
the roots T^r, * and H The reduplication
Tense (fefj, the Desideraaffix that follows. Thus the affixes of the Perfect
Aorist in <** all cause
the
vikarana,
the
the Intensive
tive
in

the

(*n0,

(*f),

reduplication.

means that which consists of one* vowel (srw) H When


more than one vowel (is a dissyllabic or polysyllabic
a stem
be titej/lrst syllable: as in w*l the portion *rr is
will
xr^\^
snr*
root), then the

The word

f&tf 3*

or root consists of

the JPTS

i&n%

'

the

first

portion consisting of one vowel

of a single vowel, as?


any portion which may be called
sists

'.

When

a root con-

'to go', then strictly speaking there cannot be


first

(JPT*) or ekach consisting of a single

Reduplication.

io38

Bk. VI. Cii

I.

. 2.

Here, however, will this rule be applied and % will be reduplicated,

vowel).

^q^f^^^TRrni/' "An operation which affects


something on account of some special designation which for certain reasons

maxim

according to the

"

attaches to the latter, affects likewise that which stands alone and to which
therefore, just because the reasons for

So

does not attach".

also in

cpsr

it

there

do not exist, that special designation


is no first syllable strictly speaking,

maxim. In making Reduplications


Thus q^T + sr (nr?* of f^Q
the Rule I. 1. 59 should always be borne in mind.
TH* TTir + 3? = 7 THf + ST (VII. 4. 59 and 60) = TTT^T
The word f$ in the sutra indicates that the very word-form is to be
doubled or pronounccd-twicc, and not that another word of similar meaning is
but

the rule will apply under the above

still

II

In fact this

substituted.

room of one; but of the


^r%:

sreTrtTERrcw

ii

Of

2.

is

not a rule ordaining substitution of two, in the

repetition

s*ra.i

of the one. Compare VIII.

whose

first

room

vowel, there are two in the

I.

M^^T^aKt sr^snM^

sT^r%1nV^1?^r^T

that

I.

w$t~

begins with

syllable

portion con-

of the second

taining a single vowel.


This debars the reduplication of the first syllable.

In a verbal root

beginning with a vowel, and consisting of more than one syllable, the second
syllable
(st^

is

be reduplicated and not the

to

+ *r^= ST? + f^-f

VII.

2.

and the 3rd per. sing is 3TT?


changed to q- by VIII. 3. 59.
51).

*R?cT root srf^T,

RsrfrT,

So

the

^ being

elided

by VII.

syllable jzv

also STHnf^if^, srnrc^nt H

4.

The

60

last

and
form

*f

is

(VII. 2. 74) = st* + ? + ST (VII. 3. 84, and VI.


^^=^t + f? +
Here now we have to make reduplication, and if I. 1. 59 be applied,

thus evolved, 3E +
I.

Thus the

first.

35=3Tf^r)> reduplicates the second

then since a vowel affix f follows, the reduplication of st* should take place
sthani should be reduplicated.
i. e. the 3 the
But we have explained the
sutra ff^hr%sf*T

I.

1.

by the phrase f$^^HPTTfsr%,


e. the vowel-affix
Here the vowel-affix f? does not cause reduplication,

59,

causing reduplication.

but the consonant-affix

i.

that

does

so.

Therefore rule

I.

1.

59 does

not

apply, for f? itself is a ^r^T, and the maxim applies ^tsRtIW^ 3>Psif nfaTTrRrT
^fT**^ "surely that which undergoes an operation can, so for as it undergoes

not be made the cause of the application of a grammatical


Thus from the root sftf is formed ^rear here the root ^fr is gunated
the augment f*.
Rule I. I. 5 declaring the prohibition of gunation

that operation,
rule

".

before

With regard

to f%f

or

an indicatory y, yet as

f|^ words does not apply

undergoes an operation
of the application of another rule.
it

here.

itself, it

For though

^frs;

has

cannot be the cause

Bk

VI. Cn.

I.

Some

Reduplication.

word

persons explain the

not Genitive Singular) of

as tne Ablative singular (and

they consider the word

and

BT3flf?'

3T"3Tr?

1039

as a

Karma-

dharaya compound and not a Bahuvrlhi compound. According to them the


word means: " The syllable following the initial vozvel is reduplicated *\
According to this interpretation,
(BTWr^rerf^^nrrf?:, araf^tTOl^nTr * *TW)

ll

the word f$#q^J

*
%

*rrfen*

*r

11

11

11

^stwitcjto

i^^cffa %
srpr^rr^rf

II

T^n^

II

II

*, ? T :

>

h^tt^t:

fl^^Nt s^re^cn": ^mr^r * fe^s^r


*f?iw *FfW-

*r?rcr ?f?r

The

*r^<r

*rr* n

srfHhf f^ra^r% % t^t f fa to***


jrqt fPTOnjr*ra' to***
*rr<>

?i% tossto.

letters

II

11

sfrsspi. n

$<foi&*rNt s

3.

merely explanatory.

?$r. ^pft^r^r:

^^nrr^ro^r

^rro

is

11

11

f and t being the

compound consonant and being

11

11

first

letter of

part of the second syllable,

are not reduplicated.

The word dvitlyasya " of the second syllable ", is understood here.
This sutra debars the doubling of the consonants n, d, and r when forming
parts of the second syllable, provided these letters occur in the

conjunct (sanyoga)

Thus the Desiderative root of 3*9


The second syllable here is f?^ which

letter.

by adding ^and ??ll


cated by the last rule.

But

in

doing

so,

will

beginning of a

formed

is

ST^q",

is

to be redupli-

not be doubled.

Thus we get

the form ^fSfftqf^r; so also from 3T^ and sr^r we have axfj r^RT, and 3Tf%N-qfrT h

Why do we say "when ij, 3; and r are the letters"? Observe ff-qr%5fyr
from f$Mn which ss is the initial letter and h?s been reduplicated in to ^r
Why do we say " being the first letter in a conjunct consonant"? Observe
sjn%WT!% from the root 3?^ 'to breathe', the q; being changed into nr by VIII.
11

4.

The phrase

19 and 21.

SFSfiT of the last

sutra

is

understood in this sutra

Thus ^rffcrarra" " Some explain the word gr^rf?: understood in this sutra
in the same way as in the last, namely as a karmadharaya compound in the
Ablative singular. They do so, in order to explain the form f%?fTO, which
Then fS^mg^SJt^
is thus evolvedf??ffi 5ftfSf -{-va^III. 1. 8 = s??faii
also.

V$fa + <S^
is

"

rejected in

Here though the second syllable consists of n, d and r, yet ^ alone


reduplication and not ^ and * also, as $ and * are not immediately

after the initial vowel (snnft) % in this case.

Vdrt:
also.

As

330T

This prohibition

TfnTHT^T

should be stated with regard to the letter

This prohibition applies when the word

primarily as having a penultimate

II

But when

it is

is

taught

taught as primarily

Reduplication.

i04o

having a penultmate

then the rule does not apply: the

q,

ordained as a substitute of ^

Vart

Thus STO3W

H^

(III.

I.

There

This

22.

Vart) = 3T^+3 (VII.

however rejected
:

4.

The second

I.

should then be

3-

20.

no prohibition of the

is

the rules of this sutra.

Vfirt

See Tudadi root

when

the Intensive form of the verb

is

Bk. VI. Ch.

sr,

followed by

it is

and

3P) = 9t4, then follows reduplication

g has an

syllable

it

thus evolved: 55 +

is

initial

x.

which

is

by
not

in reduplication.

In the case of the verb fdfe the third should


Some

-Third of what"?

be reduplicated,

say the third of the consonants, and according to

Some say the third syllable, therefore of the root


them the form is ff^rSfanT
the
third
syllable qr is reduplicated: Thus ff^T*, ff&jrq^
+
( f^
^+^l),
(VII. 4. 79) the 3T of q- is changed jnto short f by VII. 4, 79. = ffsatfsp^
II

ffcuq-

II

Vart: The third syllable of the verbs 3T*fT3T &c. is to be reduplicated.


Thus ^f?i + ^+^=^ffa^^ffaf3<srm; so also srgrwrrW &c
The third syllable of verbs derived from nouns is optionally
Vart:
Thus
reduplicated.
artftfgfasrfa or 3rf^TTW?r
Vart:Others say, any syllable of a TFT^mj (verbs derived from nouns)
may be reduplicated, Thus from the noun gsr is derived the root $sfra, the

desiderative root of which

may

syllable

5^fn%^5r^r
as.

II

Or

<*f?*n*r: n
II

^fr^q-, which requires reduplication.

be reduplicated:

^m>fitW^^frT

ff%-

is

may

there
II

v^\*

II

f T% JnTTTJrf

^3^4r%

The

4.

the Reduplicate.
The word f in
purposes of this sutra

srerrcr. n

first

W^%

of the two

taken

in

is

?f3r

H^W^l feMJcKiq % * rer^f

oalled the

is

the nominative case

it is

Abhy&sa or

understood here, but for the

the Genitive case u

e.

The word Abhyasa occurs

$3^:
in

t^: "the first

sutras JJI,

1.

6,

7 &c.

ff%:

^:,

<T?*Af?? *V&H*Z

of the two*' ordained above.

VI.

Here any

^Wf^,

g^^ffi^r, 2. gfMt^WRf, 34be double and treble reduplication simultaneously


as. 1.

11

?Rt

*#n*t

&m* m*wsmm*^w%
The both

* s

fms % t* sift ^5^

wrer*

are collectively called Abhyasta.


% was understood in the sutra, the use of the word
<hoth' indicates that the word Abhyasta applies to the two taken together
and not to any one of them separately. The word abhyasta occurs in sutras
IU, 4- I0 9, VI. 1. 32 &c, Thus sutra VL 1, 189 declares "the first vowel of
5.

Though

&

the word

Bk. VI. Ch.

I.

Reduplication.

The Abhyasta

an Abhyasta gets the udatta accent".

name

of the both, the accent will


accent

in f^ttt dadatf, the

the place of

TO

(VI.
sif g

fi%*.

ii

on the

fall

on the

is

first 3?

ll

an Abhyasta, therefore,

$r after

104 i

first

So also by VII. 1.43^ takes


So also
f? + fa = ?f + 3TT% = f^T 3"
II

4. 112).

kmqq:

*sr

aro^rtfrw

ll

^t

These are

it

f^mr^r:,

^s^^r^r
11

vrrrrfr

*nf^T

to

stht-

also the six roots beginning with jakshi are

called abhyasta.
The word abhyasta
verbs that follow

*r$T,

II

w$ f&tti m<iR<uw*T$* t*

So

6.

q^rft

II

being the collective

and not on the second, as

in the

Dhatupatha,

in all

w, 5THJ, fftSTi ^37^, ?irw, ^ft,

and mentions only the

The

understood here.

is

By

first six,

and

verb jakshi and the six

seven verbs, get this designation.

%#

ll

Panini has overlooked %^f


of Abhyasta

getting the designation

these verbs get acute accent on the first syllable when followed by a sarvadhatuka Tense-affix not having the intermediate f? and beginning with a
vowel. Thus *fhrm ja-grati, :#ST^ jakshati, |fi?fa daridrati, 4*1 *ntr chakasati,W^TRT sas*ati, %ffiT dldhyate, and ^^TFT vevyate. The present participle ^r^rf;
is irregularly formed by adding the affix
(?v) and when so formed it does

not take the augment

afMi

^tm

5^ by VII.

ssarrer^r

\9

ll

1,

78.

11

q^TR

llrpr, srrfnn*?;,

sfm:,

^^r^m

11

In the room of a short vowel of the Reduplicate


of the roots rpr &e, a long is substituted.
There is no list of <^ R verbs given any where. The word snft in
So that wherever we
jprrf? therefore should be construed as "verbs like tuj".
may find a word having a long vowel in the Reduplicate, we should consider
7.

it

Thus

a valid form,

^TT^TT*

^RfT^^TK, W*T

the Vedas before

As

g^rsr

^i*wt

(<T^+ stfPH* HI.

<pfure

*ft*TO, ST IrTH"

some special

affixes,

II

II

^f%^^ rlfr^sre^ s^fRT %r1t


11

8.
is

io6 =

crg:5jPT:

Rig.

I.

3. 6).

f*fa(. H

fefe vn^fcz'fzm^f

there

2,

This lengthening only takes place in


and not every where or in secular literature.
II

When

^T^^nj;

11

II

fefe, w<ft:,

*rr

11

sr^q-ra^T

II

f^ff^^ ^ft^^ ^trszr;

ii

the tense-affixes of the Perfect follow,

reduplication

reduplicated.

T^rf^r

of the

root,

which

is

not already

Reduplication.

1042

The

reduplication

is

either of the

first

Bk. VI. Ch.

:i

syllable or of the second syllable

Thus

according as the root begins with a consonant or a vowel.


In the case of
qr^ q- 3r + on$ = <r?r TII So also qqT*, ^F^re
s

I.

^,

II

T^+t3K$=--

Rule

III.

1.

36

does not apply, so the Perfect of this word is not formed by adding 3TTO. and the
auxiliary verbs >, >r and sr?=r; but regularly. In fact 3^3 is regarded as if it was j
11

See sutra

III.

Why

I.

crp^ ^*fr#fl

36 Vart.

do we say when
Observe

r?

say "of a Dhatu"?


arises

follows?

Observe

&*&*&,

*Tfnrr*fr

3^,

Why

?tT? "

The

tfptf^F?TCR|fM* U

fact that the root (dhatu) always'directly

from the

RRWqKfa-

*TF?r 33; JTRff^ SRT*Ff, 3TPTJ

do we

question

precedes the affixes

of the Perfect, no vikarana intervenes as in the case of other tenses. So there


was no necessity of using the word dhatu in the sutra. To this it is replied
that

by

base

is

and we have

Why

do we say

5*U ^SR'ffan",

i.

treated as sarvadhatuka,

W\V*R TOP

'of

and then

takes

it

and other

nrern* or <^rm

fa^rm

Vart:

3^

The word
Locative dual.

and

arsr

II

^^?T

sfprci,

So

*Tff-

and
also

optionally reduplication of the root

is

arrffSTP*.

or ^t^,

^<fr

3rHTqT*r% or

$fc%%

w^ or

R^rr%q-Rf \^rr%
<^rg u
;

Su"%

optionally reduplicated in the Perfect. As,

is

*rr*r

q^TT%

fitorf 'fn'pr

Intensive verb

11

*=r;

^#r:,

II

Of a non-reduplicate root ending

9.

derative) or

As

tenses.

^t^- 3?pw%

11

Observe

of the Perfect.

in the 3*t

*rw ^5

The root

(or *rsrrTrc)
11

11

III. 4. 117.

having already caused reduplication.

In the Chhandas there

in the Perfect

*rT#t:

See

II

a non-reduplicate'?

3^

ending

^rrefasj:

Vart

sit *rrTTC

?jfcrc

the Perfect Tense of the

e. it is

not reduplicated again,

^l

is

taking the vikarana 33 becomes *j.g; (III. 1. 74 ) this whole


not a dhatu, therefore when the affixes of Perfect are added there is no

As ^

reduplication,

is

sometimes f<^

III. 4. 117,

vikarana.

(Intensive) affixes, there

is

in

(Desi-

reduplication.

^j-#r: should be construed as genitive dual and not as

In the latter case, the

follow,

meaning would be "when the

a non-reduplicate root

is

The

reduplicated".

affixes

difficulty

would be that while *che root alone would be reduplicated, the augment f?
would not, as in srfcfs^RT, BTraftT<srt% "
e

The phrase
of the
vowel.

first

^WTCT^rcTC*!

ls

understood here

also.

The

reduplication

is

or second syllable, according as the root has an initial consonant or

Thus t^+ST* (HI.

7) TST

reduplicate

ft<rcrr%

(VII.

4. 79).

So

Tjjr

Bk. VI. Ch.

Reduplication.

n]

se avrcraffri 3*?-^*R*Rtm
W^TS^, SHTCRTj W^IF*^

rrq-f^qt^.

83),

I.

no reduplication

is

^fjc^f

(already formed by svarthika


s|)

^r
ff%r:

See

II

ii

III.

(VII.

4.

already a reduplicated one,

Q%

III.

1.

and of

5;,

(the

Intensive

22.

1.

11

*^r T^fr s^r*rei viraresRifw imro^rrfr

11

f$cfcre?? ^r

Of a non-reduplicate root

10.

tion

n <r^7ft n

is

as ^gc^-q-%, ^rwfaTFr being the Desiderative forms of

there

form of

If a root

qrq^

also of arg^r: as,

So

11

3T*T?*Kt,

1043

when the vikarana

lu

(^)

?rown *

there

*W

11

reduplica-

is

follows.

The >^ is the characteristic sign of the roots of the third class, and causes
*jcr
The reduplication is of the first or second
syllable, according as the root has an initial consonant or a vowel.
Thus

the elision of the vikarana

^frfa-

from g

^T%
ffrr

II

),

fa^fa/ fVsf?r
II

T^TR

II

11

11

^T%

II

*rf> T^rfr s^^rer^r srrafts'arera

11

Of a non-rcduplicate root

11.

tion

when
The

^^stptt firft*^ ^rr ^r^T^PT f >r^rr:

reduplication

So

94).

reduplica-

is

the affix ^r^ of the Aorist follows.


is

of the

or second syllable according as the

first

root begins with a consonant or a vowel.

and

there

11

Thusaspfbr^fj;, srqfnrar^, (VII. 4. 93

These are

also 3m%?r, srrRPff^, STTff^J, U

aorists of the causative

roots ojf^- &c.

When
is

the Reduplicated Aorist of the Causative (^rf) verbs cp*

to be formed, as here,

we should

first

elide the causative sign

the penultimate vowel, and then reduplicate.

Then by VII.

for,

4.

&c

then shorten

93 the effect

had followed, and this would not be prohibited by the


short vowel being consdered sthanivat. For rule VI 1. 4.93 says "Let the effect be
as if
had followed, on the reduplicate, if followed by a light vowel, of an in-

would be

like as if ^pj

flective

base to which

sion of

any

for

letter in the

^^

followed by

is

affixed; provided there

of the conditions for the application of this rule

be followed by a light vowel.


is

is

pratyahara bt^ occasioned by the affixing of

We

is

not the
for 11"

that the reduplicate

eli-

One
must

have said above that the long penultimate

^^11 Now arises the difficulty. Should this light vowel


room of a heavy vowel be considered like the heavy

to be shortened before

coming

in

the

vowel by the rule of sthanivat adesa

(I.

1.

56), or

not

It

should not be con-

was established there that


57.
the sthanivadbhava will arise then only when some operation is to be done to
Here no operation
e. original vowel.
a thing anterior to the non-substituted
sidered so, for the reasons given in

I.

For

T.

it

i.

is

to be applied to

something anterior to such original

(BTTlf^S')

vowel, but to

Reduplication.

ID44

a form consisting of such substituted


is

vowel.

(fcrrf??)

Bk. VI. Cm.

I.

12

Therefore, the light vowel

of^q^rell If this order of


incongruities.
The order must be

not considered non-existent for the purposes

operation

not followed, there would arise

is

of r^r

this: ist the elision

VI.

51

4.

2nd the shortening of the penultimate

(VII 4. 4) 3rd the reduplication. If the reduplication take place first and the
vowel be shortened, then the reduplication having taken place before the subsvowel had taken place, such substitute will

titution of the

as sthanivad: the light vowel being considered as

^^^T^

application of

the short

be

in

If this

be

the-

II

considered

prevent the

the form of srnrffaPKl

difficulty will
far

now be

heavy, will

where

order of operations, there

not be the reduplication of the second syllable f? in the word 3if7??j? This

will
is,

The

II

ordained after the

is

still

howwer, done by

I.

;?T^rp* ^nira: tfrfter


ff%:

11

%fri

11

II

fr*^rc; tfriH. *ftf rf^Srar

11

4im*hl
^r>

which

59.

I.

% X *t3rt %

3>snifai

<w<mi u

*rr*

The

12.

^rf^ ^r^rtc, rK, tfffrac,


\\
^t^tai^ki *Trqror ^Tr^rW^ Hm<M%
ll

II

II

11

^-rh^H.

frt

&ikzk

11

see.

^ro

11

u ^r*

11

participles

11

^R^faMf^far ff^^s^rr^s^j

<rr?i%^

%^ ^ #Nr>3ra^

cl&gv&n,

11

11

s&hv&n and mtdhvstn

are irregularly formed without reduplication.

The word

^htpj.

is

from the root ^pj

'to give'

^j (III. 2. 1 07),

with the affix

As q nafcTr
root m^ 'to

here the reduplication and the augment ?? are prohibited irregularly.

The word
3,7).
W%' QWl
endure', by adding the affix spj (III.
(Rig

STr^T^

I-

2.

is

derived from the

being in leng-

107), the irregularity

thening the penultimate, not allowing the augment f^ and the reduplication.
Thus ^rrgT^ ansr?^:
So also jfrf^p^ comes from f*r to sprinkle with the
'

ll

affix

ffs-r

(III. 2. 107)

application of

9 into 5
should be

far

As

ll

the lenthening of the penultimate vowel, and the change of

ft$443iM4 rFRTTO

^T

ll

It

is

not necessary that these words

in the singular always, in their plural

forms also they do not redu-

plicate.

Reduplication

Vdrt\
affix

<%

comes

after ^>r

Vdit:

in

3TT3?

takes ,place

Thus feR 3FCT = $ +

11

ed by the

ment

'

the irregularity consisting in non-reduplication, non-

and

f^

The roots
The

ll

with the force of the affix


"q\, sfps,

T^, and

^t>i

11

^ take reduplication when follow-

134) and the reduplicate (abhyasa) takes the augfinal consonants of the Abhyasa (reduplicate) are not elided

affix 3T** (III.


II

= ?9P,
i

gfi

when ^s^ &c, are followed by the


The affix eR
f$T + ^ = W|jT*

1.

these verbs, in order to give scope to the augment, for

nants be elided

unnecessary

as

py

VII.
there

4. 60,
is

no

if

the final conso-

then the addition of the augment becomes


difference

between

adesa (shortening of the vowel) taught in VII.

4. 59.

augment and the


Thus M<|-^<:, "^Hra,

the

Bk. VI.

Ciii

Vdrt

W,

^r%

*ft

13,

Vocalisation*

The above vartika

n^m

optional, so

we have

the forms *qv 5^:,

&c.

The root 5^

Vdrt

is

1045

s reduplicated before the affix sr^, and the augcomes after the Abhyasa, and M is the substitute of f of the
Abhyasa. Thus f^+ 3r*t:= *n*+ srr^ + f^+ sr^r = MH MH (The second 9 is changed into ^ by VI L 3. 55), as in the phrase srhr: ^PT^T ^M JfiHIH,

ment

BTT5R

'

Vdrt:
there

The causative root

elision of

is

Abhyasa, and

it is

*Tc%:, ^TrJ^"

It

^riTHT*

WT?*

II

qrnr is reduplicated before

pr (sign of the causative), and


lengthened.

Thus

There

II

II

vocalisation of the

is

the affix *r? t

augment of the

the

is

qrf^ + ST^. 3 TTfq?:

4f*M4lftU| i!taiTlHf4l: HfdNf^:

13.

3^

semivowel

of

T^ (IV. 1. 78) when followed in a Tatpurusha compound, by the words 3^" and *rfcT
When the words gsr and rra are the second members^ forming a Tat-

the affix

II

purusha compound, there


affix

is

r^ of the preceding.

samprasarana (vocalising the semi-vowels) of the


That is 3 is changed intof
Thus ^f(W^ T5\frII

s*?r=3JfW*TR^ (a Bahuvrihi compound taking the samasanta


substitute f

The

by V.

4.

chON^reT*^=^^rf^ +

137)

(IV.

feminine of this will be formed by adding **^ (IV.

I.

affix or rather

92) = ^rfPTrr^:

II

Thus we have
Now in forming the Tatpurusha compound of this
**>l<N<H*ff (see IV. 1. 78).
word with ^r or qf^r, the final will be changed into f and we have gnfr^T^ft5^ q lfr r i-fcfl q ffo The srr of ^ becomes merged into % (VI. 1. 108), and
the short * is lengthened (VI. 3. 139). So also ^S^n-tftg^: O li1 %<*?%:
:

1.

78).

?l

>

II

Why do we say
Why do we say

^% ^r5^T^<Hl^.ri^

" ?

Observe f^gr^, ^T^JT^:

"

of the affix T

"

when followed by *&

or TfW "

Observe

II

^jrcfanTOir-

II

Why

do we^ay "when forming a Tatpurusha compound" ? Observe


It is a Bahuvrihi compound.
^f<m^*rqf?lT^ *TT^3 = 37rtta*^*lTCfrH3 ^R
:

The
IV.

I.

77 and

A
It is

affix szr^

ll

feminine affix 3 followed by srr*

in

maxim

is " an affix denotes whenever


begins with that to which
which
Grammar, a word-form

f^rr^rr^f^rr^rT^ *TfP*." H

feminine affixes, where

(see

relating to all affixes

has been added, and ends with the affix

that affix

(btt)

74).

general

employed

is

here the

itself

sjcMfqqgdr

This maxim, however, does not apply

we have

this rule " a

qtHTrl ST

in case

of

feminine affix denotes whenever

Vocalisation

1046

Bk. VI. Cn.

I.

14.

employed in a rule, a word-form which ends with that affix, but which
need not necessarily begin with that to which the affix has been added, but
Thus we have
where the word form is subordinate ^r$rerar ^HTT^^R T "
it is

II

irc^rOsrn^raT: <pr = *H?nirftaTfts** and so also R5^ifr<sFT^t Tf?r u Not so


when the word is an upasarjana or subordinate in a compound. As arf^*l**n
T

This vocalisation takes place when g^r and qr?t alone, not compounded
with any other word, stand at the end not so when a word beginning or
:

Thus cffrtfaM^l^^,

ending with these words follows.

Though a word ending


vocalisation

"

Rff^aFTTTOlf^ir vr^RT

enunciated

*q& may have may semi-vowels, yet the

(J^) only, according to the

take the place of that

substitutes

which

maxim
actually

is

".

The word

The

in

place of the affix

takes

efitftar*.gmT<nr : &c.

^ preu im

rules of vocalisation

has regulating influence upto VI.

(change of semi-vowels into vowels)

I.

is

44

inclusive.

contained in

these sutras.
VArt:
IfrcfiR^

\ frr:

11

As

Prohibition must be stated when

1|chUK"3%T:,

**&: *wiM<v\\h*q&rk%

11

There

14.

word

*r?^ follows in

q H rV.qrqr
sutra,
*&'<,

is

vocalisation of the affix

*W when

the

a Bahuvrihi compound.

is

So

\\

is

also s|r3^T?*ft*?$:

a Bahuvrihi"?

a Tatpurusha compound.

There

or cftf<fa*r?^r*Trf^

:
,

Observe

3fir(t-

Like the

last

II

the word s^^FT

TTrT

II

also <TCrerrfta*rwrfaF5:, but arf^rcta^^TSRj:, efitfr'sfiwir*^-

is

exhibited in the sutra in the neuter gender,

masculine word.

HT^T and

word

do we say "when the compound

fact a

follow the

Awn?* H*rf*t

^^ = ^r^TT^^rar^;;, which

we have here

5"5f

arfsfrfr *rer% ^^r^:

Why

Vdrt\
,

ar^s^rrw

^rtta^^^^ = ^qrr;tft^:

Though

*TRT*

and

q-fa

instead of U*ImT^^i &c.

Thus

ERrfton^lTWWS!

it is in

^TT^Rm:

is

vocalisation of ssr^ in

Bahuvrihi compound with

optionally: as 3rrfW*T?vffar^: or SKrwr^3r*Tn?:, ^r&5PTlfarf3&:

^vr^q^T?^frrrTr,

^TT^qrr?^r^r^r

makes the word take the udatta on the

ll

The

indicatory

last syllable (VI.

1.

of f\\^^

163), thus debarr-

ing the especial accent of the Bahuvrihi<VI. 2. 1). All Bahuvrihi compounds
ending in *t tak the samasanta affix ^t so *tff would have become *TTfs?r by
,

force of V. 4. 153, so the separate enumeration of


^;q is also optional.

m*

and TT^f here shows that

Kk. VI. Cn.

I.

15

Vocalisation.

^r^rfonrrfRf !%!%
fsf^rqr

?T5TIW, ZC3

frri f^r% *rero

<re<r:

\\

11

q^rf^r

11

11

\*%*W^*W%ftf*t^W

STireR"*

h^tW

1047

fcfo u

srf%, ^rrr, *nrrfrant,

*Xl

T^I-mfl

Z*ti

?fa&Wmi'

11

verbs are

The semivowels of the roots *% ^tr and *nm%


vocalised when followed by an affix having an

indicatory

3F>

15.

The

anuvritti of

cludes the t*T


(II. 4. 53)

II

<Tft*TFT%

^r

cq^does not run

the root fsjssrrsraof the

is

Adadi

are the last nine roots of the Bhvadi class

and f^

The semivowels

11

responding vowel, when an

^T**ff,

S^TP*, (VIII.

viz.

The

this sutra.
)

and the

^^

The qmr?

class (II 59).


aiar,

3"t,

^<y,

root ^q- in-

substitute of

^st, Ifsj, s*jfT, jgst,

having an indicatory

affix

2.

30).

and
2

Tfi^cj

^ is added

we have

***g*:,

gi^TR; 3

the

to them.

Thus

following forms:

***, *OT*.

(VIII.

WV%

4^<TSff:,
5 *? W*i 37**P*(VIII. 2. 31, 40, VIII. 3. 13 and VI. 3.
6 w*tg^rrp sn^rf^, (VII. 2. 56 VIII. 3. 60) 7 qr^-^:, ^^ r ^, 8 sasr
36)

verbs

of these eleven verbs are changed into the cor-

with the Past Participle affixes


I.

into

of the Adadi class (II. 54

2.

Ill)

^^

^^m?^r rT^n^^ m% f^rrasn When

in a Grammatical rule, an operation


taught with regard to a root (dhatu) by mentioning
particular verbs (dhatu) specifically,and not by using the word "dhatu",generallv
^TrTT

(dependant on an

affix)

is

then the operation takes place only when the root

is

followed by such an affix as

can be added to roots by emunciating the word tihfc

maxim

inferred in the

is

Therefore, there

is

formation of the word

no vocalisation of T^r

in

it

afp*r?t2ra. in

the following

The
VI.

existence of this

4. 174,

which

^r^qfft, ^rN"3f:

il

see.

Here

w*

formed by adding

to ^r^ ( IHff^rfilf ) "


?rr3r is formed by raT
^r, the vowel being lengthened and samprasarana being expressly
prevented by Unadi II. 57. Now, it is a general rule that a root taking the

grssfa

is

added

to

affix f^T<t, fa?, or


is

a root

^3T?r is
III.

1.

*a? to

irrl,

(qTjf),

redoes

and

it

not enunciated to
8) in the rule

come

ordaining

?r* (See Vart. V.

^r,

not lose

its

character of a dhatu.

ought to take vocalisation before the

3.

*rfa, s*rfa, srr%,

Therefore ^pa-

affix c^n*

it

But

dhatu, but after a 5^;^ GjTsmsR:


<fq^
affixing.
So also qrfcr^ formed by adding

after a
its

83).

fe^fo; fsrfe, <j~#t%, ^srcfmro;, r%%,

^n

Vocalisation,

1048

There

16,

3T5;

'to take',

and
By

force of the

Thus

(by

of the

16

*m

become

or

Ho weave',

old', srw

s*ns

'to deceive', r?r 'to cut', jfb^ 'to

co k, to fry\

iBT^r <to

sutra.

having an indicatory

affix
'to

'to strike', ^sr 'to shine*, *^r

ask',

I.

vocalisation of the semi-vowels of the

when an

following verbs,
follows:

is

Bk. VI. Ch.

word

'and', the anuvritti

'^r'

*?*nftrT:,i %$ttT%

(by

of |%r^

read

is

into this

and

^3), fE*FTf% (I. 2. 4), *(t^m%


^pmr^ (VIII. 2. 44 * changed to f),
fcHt Mf (1.2. 4), the short f is lengthened by VI. 4. 2 and is shortened again
is
replaced by 5* when
by VII. 3. 80. srsfRret ($^\ 3- *f*f Tne ro t

1.

Intensive).

2.

^rr

<^j

jtffa:,

r^ follows

This

(II. 4. 41).

f%* terminations, which as

f^

given will be of
tion

we know

of that sutra,

are j%?

in snrrf! class

stir,

for

is

takes only

it, it

The examples,

Now

II

substituted)

is

the last sutra

therefore

this ques-

arises

not >sj;(for which ^nr

of verbs given in

get samprasarana

^faf will

affix after

(I. 2. 5).

Thus 3^:, ^5:

affixes only.

'why do you enumerate

already included

f^

can have no

?rfa

and by force

before fo?| affixes",

The

reply

is

numerated herein order to show that the prohibition of sampra"gfg


sarana with regard to jtsi as taught in VI. 1. 40, does not apply to its substiThus while the Perfect of %37 is ^r, ^| ^*,
tute *rfi? in the Perfect Tense ".
is

the Perfect of

its

substitute

qfsr is 4>*tm, 37*I$J :

and

More over VI.

3yg: U

1.

38

not vocalised in f?^ affixes, which therefore, implies


teaches that the g of qq
(jnapaka) that the other semivowel i. e. ^ of ^1 will be vocalised. 4. s^ fa&
is

VT31F1L,

and with ft^

fe<l affixes

tika under

therefore

3^:,
I.

^trt

it,

^f^ffi"

the final

*r

5- 3TCT

II

3fW

;
,

is

considered

to belong

other than those having an


therefore,

as, fffHTcTX 3fff^J*,

of 5T^ changed into

3,

there

sffnT^TO
for

11

by VIII.

By

to <prf^

indicatory

7-

a Var-

class,
or,

31 or

and
the

be samprasarana

will

2,

and with

5jRRr^Rt,

s?rq- Rhlri:, ftp* <H rat f^THf, ^PP5

considered as r%^, and

before these affixes


is

6.

PP-W,

the word sqxr

2. 1,

all affixes after

affix 3T*r, are

How

affixes

ff &**> ^"np[
36 *f ought to have

been changed into q- before the fr^rff affix =rf? ? To this we reply the affix t
replaced by *{ (VII. 2. 42) and as this ^ is not a fRTf? .affix, Rule VIII. 2.
36 does not apply. This is done on the following maxim " The substitute

is

of the Nishtha should

be considered to be siddha or effective when applying

the rules relating to the change of a letter into q, to accent, to


is to
be changed
the addition of the augment $? ". But when

substitute

is

considered asiddha (not to have taken place).

forms %^J[: &c.


(VIII.
\iave

2.

Before f^q; affixes

affix,

into

and to
|,

the

Thus we have the

we have ?paf?f, *frf;^?r


8. if* <&:
The forms qq^ and **s*r would

36), <$Z?\k> fyl1*en%, qtf^egiq^

11

ll

been evolved by the simple rules of Reduplication even, without the

Bk. VI. Cn.

I.

17

w^ + ^

But

of this rule.

application

1049

Vocalisation.

(III.

3-

Here there

90) = *** M

is

no

in sutra III. 2. 117


vocalisation, because Panini himself uses the word m*r.
irregular.
H*T* *&> (VIII.
though
9.
form
proper
the
is
this
showing that

*JS^, fTfl ^J^^r,

2. 36),

byWFji^TOSref (VIII.
(viii.

*tt

4. S3),

II

4. 40).

f^yqm^ wmi;
(fc4HK<JlR)
*f%-.

The tf of \^T3T is changed first into *


**?**
and then * is changed into if by ^p tj^r ^p

*wri

11

u ?vs

II

**Sift

f^,:>V4i*<^, sir^m*,

II

11

4i*3 <CM r
i

i^Ht

^ fof* <re*r s*mw& mmw w?r

ii

There takes place vocalisation of the semivowel of the reduplicate (abhy&sa) of both vachyadi (VI. 1.
15) and grahatdi (VI. 1. 16) words, when the affixes of
17.

f^

follow.

Thus *^

ttfw

*rrr,

t^to t^t%t,

As

II

regards

*r?rff

**r

rule).

mw

sr^,

To

II

f^nf, f^nnr, gr*

no speciality

it

is

equal whether there existed this present rule or not.

+ or^^ST + a^+ST^ + eP^+ST (?**Tftw VII. 4.


we reply, this form would be evolved no doubt had this
But when this rule is applied, and you make reduplication

this

rule not existed.

then you will have to vocalise ^ by force of this


Hence the necessity of this rule with regard to 5T^ also, for having

without
rule.

changed

Then

^^nt,

^nrr?, *rqi%sr (there is

For they argue thus,


60)

ssrsr
Fjflfwra', ^fa
S^TO, and z?fvm
f^in*, f^rfw, *rfF
s?r^ RsqiM, nr^r%*r, 5P*^5T*r and totot H Some say that

fsrr^r,

with regard to

5=

u4rf,

forms would have been evolved without even this

in case of this verb, as these

tRTfr, ^ftT*r,

**rcr

verbs;

first

?;

vocalising the

into

^t,

*,

we have fpp^ and then change

this st substitute

no vocalisasion of this

becomes sthanivat
^, for rule

VI.

I.

to ^t

37, prevents the vocalisation

standing before one wjiich has already been vocalised.

with regards to

$regr

and ^5f

which are not f^T

will apply.

And

is

no

of a letter
speciality

'

taught with regard to those

is

With regard

as the rule of vocalisation

cation in order, therefore

There

verbs.

This vocalisation of the reduplicate


affixes

by VII. 4. 66.
and therefore there is

sc into 3?

(I. 1. 59),

is

to

f^R-fj

affixes,

the Rule VI.

1.

15

subsequent to that of redupli-

by the maxim of q-^

I.

4. 2,

vocalisation will take

and then reduplication, according to the maxim tpr: vf^j M^H rfal^qt
"occasionally the formation of a particular form is accounted for by the fact
that a preceding rule is allowed to apply again, after it had* previously been
place

first

superseded by a subsequent rule".

Thus f^+srg: (which

is

f^

I. 2.

5)

Vocalisation.

1050

Though

Bk. VI. Ch.

in this sutra is for

all

20

Thus

events.

sutras, its express

the sake of indicating, that the rule of vocalisation

supersedes even the rule of


place at

the phrase ^h^rt'I could have been supplied into this sutra

by the context and the governing scope of the preceding


mention

I.

S^lf?: ^TCP

VII.

60, the vocalisation

4.

5^ + 01^=53 + 5^ + 9?

Here by VII.

11

must take
the

4. 60,

of zq ought to have been elided, and the equation would

second consonant *l
have stood ^ + 5?pj + aT, and there would have been vocalisation of 3" by this
But that is not intended; there is vocalisation of q and we have fasajn* U
rule.
In

fact,

maxim

the universal

operations dependent on

of vocalisation

3HT:

II

\*

frHHHfc

II

^M"4hTO ^ot r^f

Of the

18.
sleep", there

XWXV

errors

".

^^rr%

II

The samprasarana and

"

sr 3RTO* SHTrJ

II

^n-, ^rfe, (ottoptto)

^flF

TOP ^XRTRr *?fa

causative verb

11

II

"to cause one to

^grrft

vocalisation of the semivowel,

is

the

possess greater force than other operations which

it

are simultaneously applicable

*5n^**rr

is

when the

affix

^3F of the Reduplicated Aorist follows.


Thus

the Aorist of pnfq-

is

9T^T^,

BTsr^TrTO,

tion takes place before reduplication, then there

short vowel, then this

again shortened by VII.

is

ST^T^

II

The

vocalisa-

is

guna of the penultimate

4.

1,

then there

is

reduplica-

and then lengthening of the vowel of the reduplicate by VII. 4. 94.


Thus ^TTT +
W* + "^^ = 31 (VI. 4. 51) + -q^ (VII. 3- 86) = %TT + *nF = ?g^+
^(VII. 4. iJ = U + ^ +
VI. 1. ii) = fT5<Tq;( VII. 4. 94) which with the
augment sr becomes 3TH^ni
tion,

^=

^(
II

Why

do we say 'when

q-^ follows'?

anuvritti of fefa has ceased, that of fsT%

^1%:

f^r^n sra *S3

11

tt

h7

*rs?,

There

19.

verbs ^ni

*^

'to sleep',

is

^n*

Observe

however

s^^tfr,

is

ct^,

^tRtT:

The

II

here.

?^<r<*r ^rr^rf arfs7 rc?p

^wc*i

*rer

11

vocalisation of the semivowel of the


'to

shout',

and

sqr

'to

cover',

when

followed by the affix *r^of the Intensive.


Thus ^tl^%, *rflTO%,
do we say 'when
follows'?

5T

ff?p

SRT.
11

II

Ro

(VII.

Observe

4.

25 the short f

^T^

is

lengthened).

formed by ^f^r^III.

2.

Why

172.

||

^re rt%

^rafr^T^f?

20.
of

3?ftarT

^r, when the

There

is

top

srcrtfrcor

*nrr?f

11

not vocalisation of the

affix qn^ follows.

semi-vowel

VI. Cn.

Bit.

I.

Vocalisation.

23.]

105

i.

Why
The word qfr is understood here. As *rr^%, 31^3%, ^r^F^r
See VI. I. 16 to which
do we say "when HT; follows"? Observe *:, **&&
ll

II

this rule

is

an exception.

^nr. *&
ffrr

11

3#tfa

11

*^

<ttfr

11

ll

^nr., r

11

swrtpttoik^to ^mrare qr?r ^wrr?^ *nn%


The verb 3?t is substituted for the verb ^v
7

^rfa

21.

11

'to

worship, to observe', when the Intensive affix *H follows.


The phrase qf& is understood here. Thus *#^n^r, ^T^ftsR, *3T3tT3F%
The exhibition of sift in the sutra with a long f indicates that there is long vowel
II

even

in

tenses where (^

elided, as %^YrT:

is

f% with a short ^ as the substitute of


been

Thus r% +

valid.

still

causing the lengthening of the short

been %f3uT: which

11

?*rtfr

For

if

the sutra had enunciated

forms

ll

^1%

ll

ll

^t, rf^tp*

^kpt:,

II

f^rnr^^ wfasraf q*cP *qffcs3??r^r h^i%


The ^ft is the substitute of^KFT Ho swell',

sTT^nft

11

22.

when the NishtM


Thus

%).

the

wrong.

Rgrcn*

*<*nrcr: *qf?r

^frT*

is

= r% +

II

^r^TPTcT &c would have


+ ^ = % + r%4-^ = % + ^r + g (VII. 4.25
But then the Nishtha would have

"^rr^,

affixes follow.

Why

do we say "when the Nishtha affixes


In the phrase ^rrwr *Rnt, the word p*nfr is
the feminine of the word ^rf^T formed by i%*r
The phrase Rgrar* "when
the Nishtha follows" governs all the subsequent sutras up to VI. 1. 29.
*<*ffrrp,

^TrT^T^

II

follow"?Observe ^^rm; formed by rr*

II

II

R3
q^rfo
^r., sr, ^*r, (^sr^rcnn?;)
RBT^frnt ^%% ^n^K^inTm ^ ^qrr f^rr?* *?*fc *c% **i ^^^^^ 1 ^1

^r. sr^^r
ffrr:

*r^

11

11

11

^-

11

changes

The verb *&T

The

I.

and

*&i)

when preceded by

phrases ''when the nishtha follows", and "there

The

^T both assume
(VI.

(^

semivowel to a vowel, when a NishtM

its

understood here.

+ rT

11

23.
5T

11

the*

vocalisation" are

The roots *c% and


Thus q + *n; + ^ = q- + f^The <r of nishtha affix
much as the root
has

anuvritti of *%t does not run here.

*m

form

108) = softer

is

affix follows.

and are included

VI.

4- 2

)i

and

here.

sreftcprr*

II

would have been changed into ^by VIII. 2. 43 in as


But by the vocalisation of j, the condition
a semivowel and ends in long 3?r
for the application of VIII. 2. 43, no longer existing, the affix <r is not
of
changed to ?r
But rT is optionally changed to t by VIII. 2. 54 as JTCcffa: and
11

^^

II

JT*<fprepT H

Why
*TP3R?P*

ll

do we say "when preceded by


If

it

stf"
Observe *r*c2fH: (VIII. 2 43),
was intended that vocalisation should take place when q

Vocalisation.

ios2

[Bk. VI. Ch.

singly stood before, then the sutra could well have run thus

^^

of the word

upasargas

may

implies that the rule applies

intervene between

it

and the

when

stands

V[

Thus

root.

*r*c?r
first,

II

24.

The

use

I.

though other

sra"*rTR : , JTCftdirHI* H

should be explained as a Bahuvrihi = ir: *^t 3*^ ^is^itt 1 !yr$%


consisting of root and upasarga is preceded by jt is
which
(that
?J5^HTC2I ^r
rule is made applicable to srereffcr: &c
the
Therefore
called T*jf).

The compound

ir^rest

There

24.

of the

vocalisation

is

semivowel of

(vl) 'to go' when the nishthst affixes follow,


when the sense is " coagulation " or " cold to touch '\
The word ff^f% means hardening of a fluid, by coagulation &c.
" a coagulated butter, grease &c ".
The *r of
Thus ^R ^, 5TRr ^rerr, tfR

^n

the root

nishtha

changed

is

to

?r

by VIII.

2.

But when the sense

47.

mm

is

that of cold

',

'

m%
m%', STRI^t
<T is
used both as a noun meaning 'cold weather &c', and an adjective denoting 'cold'.
not changed

the

There

is

no vocalisation when the sense

as res^RT 3f*^n

&c, by VI.

sRra
ffrT'

II

as ^fht ?r^?r>

53

'

the rolled

up scorpion

The word

II

is

not that of

The

'

short %

coagulation
is

is

'

or

lengthened

here

cold

'

in

',

*fR

4. 2.

11

ffit

q^rft

11

^T%

n srt:, **, (

There

25.

^nmmm

MrHsrHPl 33ra^feroT

<T*cT :

II

^^H^T *T^R

vocalisation of

is

^r

II

preceded by the

srf^r? when the nishtha affixes follow.


Thus str^r: qfcKftw*.
This sutra applies to cases where the words
need not have the meaning of " coagulation " or " cold ".

upasarga

II

^m

sv4d4i^T IR^II
finrrsrr, srfa, st^t, ^j^t, (frmaKmn
>3 ?r ^ra% arnr snr s^pj^i >3Tnmf%r*i f^TRT srsmn:^ H^m

firvrr^T
ffrT:

11

11

26.

followed by the

II

11

There

is

NishtM

optionally the
affixes,

vocalisation

when the upasargas

of

^n

3*f*T

and

3T^ precede it.


This
Thus 3Tf>THftaq; or srfa^lR^ frf, 3T^R1 or ar^R* %f*&Fr
option applies even when the word means "coagulation'' and "cold". As
^T^^ttrfr or BT^CTiTt m%-y &c. 3T^fa or BT^IRWff
bt^TH or bt^^TR *pT, %*F
The 1$ in this sutra serves the same purpose as in VI. I. 23. Thus
stpt^jr or 3TfH^^?R, ST^^R, 3TW33RJI According to the author of SidII

II

dhanta Kaumudi, the word

shows that it is a vyavasthita vibhasha, hence


no option allowed when btPt and are are in the middle, as, *Rfa**lR,
Here we cannot have the alternative forms *Rf*rafhi &c
IPMVIM
there

is

11

'&

VI. Cii.

*Icf <TT#?

29.

jj.

R^

II

<F?Tft

II

*ZZK,

II

Optionally

27.
1

Vocalisation.

<TT*,

*<r is

1053

II

formed

cooked \ by the vocalisation of the semivowel of

the nishtM affix


The word Rr^TTT

sense of

the

in

before

srr

II

The

understood here.

is

roots

'to cook

*sr

'

of the

Bhvadi class, and jr to cook of the Adadi class> and *srr to cook of the
Bhvadi sub-class Ghatadi, are meant here. In all these, j replaces %jt, whether
causative or not Thus &pf ^ft, spj ?1%
This is a vyavasthita vivhasha
'

'

'

so that

Jjsrr

changed to

invariably

is

II

when

*j

'

referring

to tfft

and

but not

^fa,

anywhere else. Thus 'STfarr *m*g J*f<TrTf ^n (VII. 3. 36 and VI. 4. 92). This
word does not take double causative though the sense may require it. As
}

*frf?tT ffit

^frH

The

Devadatta through Yajfiadatta has caused the milk

"

qfl^rH

to be cooked".

srr

Causative, there the form


<*tpt:

<ft

R*

II

28.
*

to increase

The
that die

#T

W,

cT

3/JTf

belongs to Bhvadi

The

vasthita-vibhash&).

ll

The

option here

The

11

substitution,

the root, and

BTPfcfr^:, BTriiR^J

feg^sj

II

II

f^R,
red

is

II

is

II

drawn
li

reduplication

8rr<j:

The

class.

*r

and

is

H^

Indicatory

(VIII.

also a regulated

and

3^ are

in

q^:,

5T,

(qT)

2.

err

45).

shows

Thus

option (vya*

composition

as

substitution of

11

for <an*r

<ft

by

when the

and the Intensive (*ra) follow.


rprm ceases. The phrase c?jnr:

of the word

into this

The

fe^,

tft

force *of the

substitution of

which precedes

takes place after the substitution, by

II

preceded by an upasarga.

it is

the words

tR[Tffr

There

anuvritti

^rrf^rf^:

f^R

when the root is


Thus jjcsrR:.
however, must take place when the preposition

affixes of the Perfect (feqQ

last sutra

*jrr *ftt

29.

The

that of Reflexive, or

substitution takes place invariably

without upasarga, and never when


^fssire^fHT:

is

*wre,

II

and rHr are changed into

5Tr^ <rfa*fc

srr^ precedes

mt

optionally the substitute of the root *mi

*fj is

root 3TRir#

<TRr

cqt^:, it

*jri

before the Nishtha affixes*

'

affixes

11

the sense

As

to be used*

*|rT is

qsrrfr

II

When

intransitive.

is

it

*fa

in

word

q-

'

and

';

of the

thus STlf^r,

3TT-

a subsequent rule, would have debar-

The reduplication, however,


the maxim of 3^: i^fjf & c men-

order.

force of

Bk. VI. Ch.

Vocalisation.

1054

I 31. ]

tioned in VI. I. 17. Thus fr + fo?;=ft + <ft + sr = fa + e3l + ? (VI. 4. 82 the *


being substituted) = sn?TO with the affix srr. So also in the Intensive, as *rfa<fta%,

fk^m
tf%:

ii

11

^n%

11

form,

foauJWrt *3% sjrarcn^ ^1

There

30.

0*f?

*t:

arflF

11

^ ^WRTffrrer *nrcnr>r *reft

optionally the

is

semivowel of fe before the

vocalisation of the

of the Perfect and the In-

affixes

tensive.

The ph rases* f3? 3F?P and

^mmv

*T

So

Thus

are to be read into this sutra.

#|R?%
by any previous rule, this sutra teaches optional vocalisation. The root would have
taken vocalisation before f?$*, which is a f^affix, invariably by VI. I. 15, this
In the alternative,
sutra modifies that by making the substitution optional.
when the root does become vocalised, the reduplicate is also not vocalised in
This explains the form ftrara, which by VI. I. 17 would
spite of VI. 1. 17.
VI. 1. 3o) = 3J+ors (VI. I. 108) = ^y
have been ^pjR
+ ^=(U^f +
+ 3J + 3T(VI. 1. 8)=3JTOU
3J5n% or f^rera, QUld,- or rerf*rag: H
Vffi

The

II

root

{% would not have taken vocalisation before

II

on
Si%:

11

^ *rsF#i:

3?

11

f^wrr ^itffi ^tt%

The

11

<rrrr*
sr*re

^r,

11

f%*rrqT

is

( fr

Aorist

Thus

^j^rnT^Hfrr

as 3jf 5Pf?l or

q-^,

H^frT (see sutra

VI.

I.

11

>t^

11

when followed by the Desi-

f**,

*gr^ affix.

understood here.
or f^TOfarefa

arfaWKl

17),

the vocalisation of the

In forming the Desiderative

and the Reduplicated Aorist forms of the Causative of


vocalisation.

mnKum

qrrr *racr*fr%ft*rsrr snrerrcor

optionally

is

^^h,

^r, *rac,

<rc *^r *Tr

and the Aorist

phrase

2T3F

semivowel, in the causative of


<FP*

or *ret-

TJ

There

31.

derative

also in the Intensive as

By

tne

II

So

maxim

also

fsj,

there

optional

is

Reduplicated

in the

srsraTor *rsmR?TP5R

the antaranga substitution of Viiddhi

&c

is

^ *3ref
supers-

eded by the samprasarana and the subsidiary operation? relating to it here.


The vriddhi and the substitution of 3TTC take place after the samprasarana has
taken place.

The sutra VII. 4. 80 teaching the substitution off


when ^\ follows, shows by implication that the

for

the reduplicate,

caused by

for is

stharfivat

though

it

itself

Thus re + foT = %+^ = **rsr + $ = **Tra


*3T*3TO,

does not cause reduplication

In reduplicating ^jrfa

the

S of

substitution
(I. 1. 59).

we cannot form

but must consider the substitute equal to the original 5 of fix and must
it.
We thus get ftr^raf^qf^
In the case of vocalisation, the

reduplicate

rules of Vriddhi

II

&c

are postponed.

*1 = <8t + * + *P* = TO* +* + ** +

^=

Thus f^ + rot + sr^ ( VI.


srr% +
+ *p*= sireft +

I.

) = 3j + for +
Here we requ-

108

Ik.

Pire

VI. Ch.

Vocalisation.

34. ]

Here the substitute

reduplication.

treated sthanivat under

I.

59 to

I.

7,

1055

srr* in

which

is

w*

though not caused by

^,

is

carried in reduplication. Similarly

^ + S + ^=3J + ^T

r** + fa + ^=3J + * + ^=E + ^ + f + ^= ^ +


Aorist;
+
+
+ I it=3 *i*Ht* (VII. 4- 1 )=5 + ^tot3T l VI.
(VII. 4. 94)

the

There

32.

the causative of

live

is'

50=8T^5i^

4-

the vocalisation of the semivowel of

(f) before the Desiderative

and the Redu-

plicated Aorist affixes.

The whole
and

fa*rf*r

of the last sutra

^nfiW H:, ^prf^FST;

is

to be read Into this sutra.

ST^^r?C, *T*|^rTP*and

not take the augment 3 required by VII.

3.

sr^R

11

Thus s^H"-

The

root ^r does

for,

because the

37 before the affix

Samprasarana rule is stronger. The repetition of the word q H MHm in this


sutra, though its anuvritti was present, indicates that the force of the word f^HRT
has ceased. Though this and the next sutra could well have been made one,
their separation shows that the samprasarana does not take place when another

affix,

not causing reduplication, intervenes.

Desiderative of this verb

srererar

11

133.

11

is

f^ra#nrafrT

*rrrft

There

is

11

As ^r^R^T^^r^ffant;

the

II

wmmm, ^r,

( fr

nm<um

11

vocalisation of the semivowel of fr in

the reduplicated form, in both the syllables.

The abhyasta means the reduplicate and the reduplicated,both the


The vocalisation takes place before reduplication. Thus ^<jH ^tgsnr,

syllables.

This and the last sutra are one, in the original of Panini, they
and *Jfsn%
have been divided into two by the authority of a Vartika.
II

STf**

^T%

II

34.

3*

ll

q^rR

II

*I^Ci 3^fa>

*mm < mH

II

In the Chhandas, the semivowel of this root

is

diversely vocalised.

fpT

$pr

Thus ff^- or
The form g^

II

is

^r-

elided,

renrr*,

invocation'.

^r^cfl"
f^ 'Invoke Indra and Agni\
Atmanepada,* Present tense, 1st Pers. sing, the vikarana
then there is vocalisation and substitution of
So also jg^rf%

^qrft, as ^aHrf r

is

%nm f^FJU^u

3^

So

also

^: as ^>fr?^( Rig

ll

I.

2.

1.

'hear the

Vocalisation,

1056

^rc:

*ft

II

^ttt%

II

For

35.

^t:,

II

^r*r

is

^fr

Bk, VI.

C11.

36.'

II

diversely

substituted

the

in

^fr

Ohhandas.
Thus pnj^r Ftnn^
in the affix

sgrfanHr^:

<rrrfa

^raY.^Treftctf:,
ff%:

II

U?fT%

*rp3

f^^f RT^^n;

Sometimes there

3nn

As

no substitution.

BTfa-

f^^3%,

^rr^f:,

facqrar,

T%<nc,

stt<tt:,

II

9TT?f??TniBTrf^ STrfi: fa-e^

f^^

These are forms ending

I!

is

11

sft^sttc,

11

gr^of the Perfect.

W^:,f^*

f?t?Tr^,

STr^:,q%f^TT?T^r

*TRft:,

II

In the Chhandas, the following irregular forma

36.

met with : ^^sTri*, *$%%h


facr*;, srrefr and srrsfnr.
The word

5"^f*T

understood here.

is

!%^fr

^n^j:,

are

From

smTT:,

Rr<??nr,

the root ^^f

'

to chal-

lenge', is formed stt^^TPIL being the Imperfect (*t$), 2nd Pers. Dual, Atmanepada there is reduplication of the root, vocalisation of ^, and the elision of
:

As,

sr irregularly.

SHT^fni.

II

Some

vocalisation of
in the
*rr

II

k,

53^

Imperfect (VI.

From

f^^ff

^TT^^T^

In secular language the form

II

is

derived from ^Tff with the preposition stt, the


the elision of ST, and the non-prefixing of the augment st?
say,

3T^f

it is

4. 75).

and

'

3Tf

The counter-example

to respect, to worship

^r: in the Perfect before the 3rd per.

^=

of this will be

sTTrFT*?-

are derived 3TP2^[ and


:

btt-

there being vocalisation of * and

pi. 3SJ,

the elision of 3? .irregularly. Then there


sj, then the lengthening of this sr, then

',

reduplication, then

is

changed to

augment ?r, as
66 )-3TT + ^r^ +

the addition of the

+ 5?r^+^ = BT + 5|t^ + ^T ( VII. 4.


The' irregularity consists
(VII. 4. 7o)=3Tr + ^+-3K^' + 3*T (VII. 4. /O^STT^fThus v^m ST^fopJ^:, ?T ^t!^I^I "
\n the saniprasarna with the elision of st
The form f^r^" is the Perfect 2nd
The secular forms will be STPT^, STPTf

f^ + ^-9fi: gr +
:

5(t

II

II

per. sing, of the

root ^31?

II

to go': there

is

vocalisation

of the

and the non-addition of the augment f before the affix %


The form famrsf
The regular form is ^egf^
regularity,
II

cirsT,

is

the vocalisation of the reduplicate

rfc^nf M

From

the root

the irregularity.

is

'to cook',

rr>7

As

is

derived

^m

reduplicate,

This

11

is

the

ir-

is

the Perfect of

The

regular form

before the Nishtha

The form nrcf is


H
the
same
root
by
shortening
from
the vowel with the same affix.
also derived
Some say the srr substitution of *sft takes
A s ^ft **^ srfaf^T*, f^T 'ft
place when the word refers to ?fr?r, in the plural, and p* when it refers to oth^r

affix, ff

changed^ to

*sfr

irregularly.

'

rrarc?T

f*^mr

Bk. VI. Ch.

than

^rPT

37

Vocalisation.

Sometimes the word

II

other than

^f*T

Thus

in the plural in the sutra

is

^SfMK^' HST^TTOT^

5T

ffrT

sfasrn^r

11

Trfrrero.

there

cede

11

is

it

<r*rr:

word

srr?Tr:

The words

arT^f}"*

and

^sfr,

^m ^t

is

\*

II

is

As, 3PintfhT gffcf 8TTWrf STSifa,

irregular.

^TI^

II

*nrcrrcr

*rarrW

^MMIW,

*,

II

qmm<U |H

II

11

11

no vocalisation of the other semivowel that


in the same word.
has two semi-vowels

ssjsr;

^ and

the preceding ^ will not be vocalised into

czr^r

3TTf; and taking the affixes


replaced by sftr, and the non-

with the prefix

^rr
ra*#r %w*l
mr* %^tRt?tn^i m ^"*^%
When a semivowel hase been once vocalised,
37.

Thus
5,

Nishtha

in the

?r

In fact, the exhibition of the

Before these

riband ^respectively.
addition of

II

not absolutely necessary.

from the same root

stR^tT: are

seen in the singular, referring to objects

is

*x\ri:

^TrR

stf? 'flTrfr

1057

f%r%rT

%^hp

s^^t

Though

II

what particular semivowel


that the operation

is

second semivowel

in

Had

3"

s;
II

the above cases

pre-

vocalised into
rf^f:

From

II

the rule of vocalisation does not specify

to be vocalised,

is

to be performed

when a is once
Thus we have

may

on the
is

maxim

yet according to the

letter nearest to the operator, the

vocalised and the

first is not,

by

force

semi-vowel been vocalised, then there would be no


scope for this sutra, because then no semi-vowel will be found preceding a

of this rule.

the

first

This sutra

vocalised letter.

a jnapaka that the vocalisation

is

commences with

the second of the conjunct semi-vowels.


the anuvritti of ^TOU^T was understood here, the repetition of

Though
this

word shows that the prohibition of double vocalisation

applies even

there

is

when the semivowels

are not contiguous.

in the same word


Thus by VI. I. 133

word %3\, the ^ being changed to T, the q is not


might be objected that when the sr of 5, and s the sam-

vocalisation of the

changed as apr

It,

II

prasarana of ^ coalesce into one by sandhi rules, then there being the substitution of one long 37 for the two 3's and this is sthanivat to the original, the v and

^ of g^rc; should
intervening

be considered

letter,

and

The

good; we reply.

There

and there

is

4- 74-

Why

is

58).

Even though

it

for

two vowels,

is

not

be considered as sthanivat,

II

when followed by
Metres.
As f%$[
samasanta affix sr by

vocalisation of the semivowel of nr

elision of the

W$\ 3reH^= f=er |TtK


V.

I. I.

a separating letter.

Vart:

^^r

contiguous and not separated by an

the explanation given above does not hold

substitution of one long vowel

considered sthanivat (See


it is still

in fact as

therefore,

^T mH

ll

of sjt^,

The word

do we say when referring

when
?r?T

it

refers

takes the

to a metre?

to

Observe

&t*%

11

Vocalisation.

1058

Bk. VI. Cn.

40

In the Chhandas there

Vdrt:

vowel of era followed by the affix

is

as

diversely vocalisation of the semi-

ot + T^= ** + *?=* + * + TFJ:=t + f-l-3<E

Sometimes it does not take place, as


= ^"?C; as, 3TT *^FKJ $T f%^T:
is
not
changed
to ^ as required by VIII. 2. 15.
here
The H
Cra*TR gfs^JrT U
when a Name is meant:
There is vocalisation of 37$^ before
V&rt:
(VIII.

I5)

2.

II

as ^r^Frt

the form

11

^r w

This Vartika

ll

11

^T^r

ll

11

f&fe,

f?j^

11

12 where

11

t stmnKuiftcM^^r fare <m ^% s^tt'cto erirerr?:^ ?r *r^fcr


In the substituted root ^T (II. 4. 41), the
38.
11

is

employed

in this

aphorism

one could have done well without

ffrP

2.

(^swrtun* *)

sr*r-, *r:

the Perfect is not vocalised.


The phrase ?r ^praTTO is understood
word

See VIII.

unnecessary.

is

given.

^ptffarjr is

fefe
ff%J

3ftnr5T-

^r

arcs

mz

qranrro faf*

<rc?fr

3T3RJ:,

3?3 H
:

in

The

sake of subsequent sutras, this

even.

TOrerHT

^s^^^r*

11

Before the tense-affixes of the Perfect that have

39.

an indicatory

(I. 2. 5), for

<%

substituted a

it

Thus z?m,

here.

for the

*J

sr

Thus 3^3:

the *rof

^ may

optionally be

ll

^f or 3>f 11 According to Patanjali, the phrase ^rr^T


ofthiss u tracouldhavebeendispensedwith;this much would have been enough:

or 3*33:,

Thus % + 3T3*t = m + m + 3Tg*T = ***J: and srf (the vocalisation


^r + 3T3^ = 3 + 3T<J^r = 3'-l-3^4 3T^ET(VI.
In the case of ^substitute, the
vocalisation.
Here there is
I. 77) = 3^J
3Jf:
Thus all the three forms have been
sj is never vocalised, so we have 3^g:, 3JJ:

STWJrrc**T rerra

In the alternative:

being prohibited).
:

II

II

evolved without using ^*rev

%3T:
fr%:

ii

II

t|

retar3*3rer

t5r.,(&lKUIH, *0
rmrf$rf <tw wmw*t mft
^r^^mTf^^i
%*S
The semivowel of ^ 'to weave* is not vocalised

<T3TT5T
1

40.

11

II

II

11

in the Perfect.

Thus

^irrf^ class and would have


by VI. I. 15; and before non-fg??j[ affixes the
of the Perfect would have been vocalised by VI. I. 17.

^tf, **fj:,

been vocalised before


Reduplicate syllable

^f

fFrt

This root belongs to

II

affixes

Both vocalisations are prohibited


s*rfq

^f%J

ii

11

tigq4ift

41.

q^TFr

11

here.

s*fa, ^(Hsrcrrcnrq;, 1)

^m ^ t^t ^*T

II

^mRii t *t^
The semivowel of % is not vocalised when the

Participial affix g*rr follows.

11

Bk. VI. Ch.

Thus

45

Vocalisation.

J^ra, SFT^ni

The

II

1059

sutra from the

separation of this

last, is for

the sake of the subsequent sutras, into which the anuvritti of Rj^r only runs.
3*TT

fl%:

sed

II

*R

II

TTT^

II

3*T., ^T,

II

II

II

when the

sq-aar

*\

11

q^rft

ll

As

when the
ifsqrg,

11

11

W&fVH

II

=gr,

The

(^TOT^nr, *)
of sqr

11

cover

'to

(S*r)

separation of this sutra from the

which the anuvritti of

sCitra, in

t^tt%

11

The
44.
when 5^ preceded by
Thus

w,

is

not

affix 5*n**\ follows.

the sake of the subsequent


fo*rr*r <rr.

not vocali-

11

The semivowel

43.

vocalised

is

affix ^q-^r follows.

Thus ir^s, sq^ra

11

fsmrsrr, *ft:, (

vocalisation

wum <u m

may

*)

11

optionally take place

5^

qft takes the affix

3T*or

last, is for

runs.

slj

The augment 5^ presented by VI. 1. y\


<rn?aira
which causes the lengthening of the vowel: since VI.
subsequent to VI. 1. 71.
Tft^ffa

is

debarred by VI.

4.

is

BTT^ar
ff%:

(^rsr^ROT^ T)

3W WfRrfa^S VTT^^fT TOT ^HT?Tr^ T **!%


42.
The semivowel of 33T 'to grow old'

WJ^TOT

11

^Tf^

^rmr

ftrlr

instruction
fa, $, 3?r

Sr%RT

*%

45.
(i.

and

II

4. 2.

II

<r^c?r *r

3^,

q;^:,

cr*arrerr*mfr

?mft

q^ atf^

ftrfa

3 *<*&

?t

*r?n%

11

In a root, which in the system of grammatical


e. in the Dhatupatha), ends with a diphthong

^r), there

is

thong, provided that no


The word

<T^rft H

II

^rg^tr

srnrr: is

***nTr,.MT3*, Wrrssre,

the substitution of

affix

3rr

for the diph-

with an indicatory

to be read into this sutra from VI.

st

follows

1. 8.

Thus

it.

*<%-

Why

do we say ending
with an <rgr (diphthong)? Observe 3TrT? from $, and frfr from
Why do we

say in upadesa or Dhatupatha ? Observed, ^rrTT where % and


f$ are not
faSTTcrr, fasrrap*,

R^rrcT^qr

ll

11

the forms taught in the

secondary forms.

+ fa* = *t*rarcf

**ntf%

<r^of the Perfect: as


I%q; as

has

r%^,

that

at the end.

first

Why

is

enunciation of the root in the Dhatupatha, but are


say, before non-Rl^ affixes ?
Observe ^r-l-^r^

do we

Exception

II

^,

is,

however,

made

in the

case of the affix

Thfs is explained by interpreting the word


*?%
the affixes having an indicatory ^ in 'the beginning:
J&x

This

term which denotes a

II

done on the maxim qfepi RfwniTO ***T "when a


letter is exhibited in a rule in the form of the
Locative
is

Vocalisation.

io6o

and

case,

which

is

is

Bk. VI. Ch.

48,

some thing else which likewise stands in the Locative case,


by it must be regarded as beginning with the letter

qualifies

that which

qualified

denoted by the term

and not as ending whith

in question

it".

The word STRTR is an example of ?M^mMMqr:- a simple prohibition of


a contingent case. Therefore, the substitution of $TT for qr^r vowels, is not
caused by the affixes that follow, but must take place prior to the occasion for
Thus

the application of the affixes arises.

ending

this affix: thus <*:, *?*:

by presupposing

5T o*ft

fefe

II

Similarly by III.

II

understood in

3TT is

**$

qq*TT%

II

There

is

Diphthong of the root

sq-

46.

5T,

II

w$

ffrT:

roots

i^ and j%

II

the subsequent sutras upto VI.

I.

$7

II

srr

for the

affixes of the Perfect follow.

reduplicate of the Perfect

in Sff^sgrg takes place

by VII.

2.

is

vocalised

115 before

^:r%^^sr>snr
11

srr

we apply 3^ to

S3P, fefe, (3?r^)

The

'

affix

all

when the

Thus *jf^r3, ^f%s3f?l*T


The Vriddhi
1. 17.

prrqr

128

3.

9T after

when applying

not the substitution of

here by VI.
the

136 ordains

1.

as 3TT^rT roots: as u*rtR:, g*?5R:

it

The word

III.

*% and a% are presupposed to end in

in 3TT; so that

11

3tt^ sfir t^^ *g*


1

<^ifa

11

'^fa,

^7 ^^f^^raHrc^

*$5c*ft:, srfsr,

**tr ^fq-

(m*()

yta grr^raWr

11

*reret u

In the roots ^p; and ^Jp 'to move', there is


3TT for the diphthong when the affix

47.

the substitution of the


si*^ follows.

Thus fawm: instead of


VIII.

3.

76, the Sf

^r^R? wr
W?T

ftS'tftT:,

and f^rrS: instead of f%F*fa:


f%, as f^scf^:, and f^fcjn^:
II

optionally changed to q after

11

v*

q^rr%

11

jgr,

^, Urnr*,

"ft,

^r^)

II

II

48.

The substution of s?r

place in the causatives of the roots


ftf 'to

conquer.'
Thus

3.

By

is

5EtTO<%,

$frT

diphthong takes

for the
'to by-

% 'to study'

and

srwrar% and

36, since these r.oots

fa^ra^r^rfo*

end
11

in

long
11

^rrrara" U
Tf

The augment

a; is

added by VII.

II

q^rr^

11

r%*r?r.,

arcn^fef*

ll

BK. VI. Cu.

50. ]

Substitution.

srT

The substitution of
takes place
when it clous not

49.

:diphthong in the causative of l%^r,


the next

1061

the

for

refer to

life.

The word TRrfrr'^ is derived form HKfa7 'the next world' by adding
the affix ssj with the force of 'for the sake of (V. I. 109). The double Vrid'

dhi takes place by VII.

The

20.

3.

sense of the word

must

ftrvj

or non-intelligent things for the purposes of this substitution.

TfT

*TP**Tf?T

Why

II

rTT^TTTO %*ra?%,
ledge,

rTPT*T:

do we say when not referring

S^FFT

rcfiSJra'

ZKHUvi

%W*rT

= *TC;THi%r TreflW3'
knowledge
J

ll

next world (f vfiffi) i.


the sake of the next

the next

e.

life,

so acquired produces

does not take

the substitution

place here

result in the

ascetic

3T?t *TTO3I?T,

3TT for q

though the

gift

When

effect,

m^RRrfofref
11

3rr>^

ttItow

f^r^ ^^ror^sr

Ho

*ft

mediation of another action,

then the substitution does not take place.

The

it.

s^pt

*rfcr

fW* sq%wr

And

50.

of

is

here belongs to the Di/adi class and not to the Bhvadi, as the form

flr^nT in the sutra shows

ctttT:

next world, yet as that

in the

the verb favi^directly and not through the

rcr*J

Here

'.

not of the verb RH*, the substitution does take place.

produces paraloukika
verb

produces effect

of the food

II

'

causes food to be prepared for the purpose of giving to the Brahmanas


the effect of ^PT and

for

is

Why
^r^%^lWR he

no substitution of

is

its

m^ of the

therefore, the

and so there

life,

See

The force of f%^ is here that of knowThe ascetic acquires certain know-

austerities, the

ledge through

bt?T rrprafrT*

next world

to the

3^PT

refer to

Thus

hurt

',.fsr

affix *nr follows, as

a <\o

*fRrr%, W5frr%,

ll

nm\ Cr wt,

fr^r

ft^rara., ifasr

suss

sRaran^r^rerei

there
'

q^n%

i)

*m^

substitution of

is

to scatter

and

*,

^i"

f$m

sTTsrnrHr H^icr
srr

^rr^rf rgfa
11

for the

finals

when the
which demand

to decay

well as before those affixes

ft^ro,

this substitution for the diphthong.

By

force of the

word

'

and

in the

sutra,

place of the diphthongs also of these verbs before

and

this substitution

stood as
ing to

if

,J

So

they were enunciated with an

3TT will

apply to them.

Thus

affixes other than

takes

r^,

the occasiDn for the applying of the

takes place, before

affixes arises (3<ff ^PR^TST* 3tr*f "*&&*)

the substitution

all

sprier,

that these Verbs should be under-

btt,

so that

all

rules of affixes relat-

JPtra^W., spTrf*,

ST*fRT,

RTTrTT, R*Tnj*,

f^RRT^*, f?RR, ST^mr, ^T^m^^, STSTcJI., 37^3 H The substitution of 3Tr being understood to have taken place in the very s<Tf sr (in the dhatupa^ha) of
4

io62

Substitution

err

Bk. VI. Ch. L

52.

these roots, the affixes relating to roots ending in f or f do not apply to these
at all.
Thus gq j r 4 r ?4fa, ?^T^R, formed by sfsr and 5^ by taking ff = ^T and

adding these
3.

56)

and

ciw *?nit
srrfo^

11

affixes (III.

??P5(III.

3.

3.

128 and

and not the

sr^ (III.

affixes

11

RHlf^^if wFfir* xr^^r *fk^:

There

51.

is

5^

11

substitution of

optionally the

the final of x 'to adhere


affix

III. 3. 18)

126).

',

3?T

for

dMtup&tha, when the


would demand this substi-

in the very

follows or such an affix as

tution of the diphthong.

The final of ^ will take guna substitution before fo^ affixes, and
become %, this incipient diphthong v[ is changed to 3TT by this rule. The
same is the case with all the roots subsequently taught, thus f^x Wl ^ be %^
and then q" changed to 3TT, ^=T|T and atr changed to 3TT &c. Therefore we
have employed the anuvritti of qf^ diphthong in all sutras. The words
will

'

and

FSfrT

and Kriyadi
ffifa\

fa^Ho

are both included here.

f%rtdM*i

Vdrt:
(III.

56,

3.

fsrfSnra:,

The
Thus

BTrT^T 3"<T^r are understood here.

The

III.

The

rft

and ?a^

t^rtiPT^:, jp=ror

?ft

belonging to Divadi

f^Tg*,

RcilrlF,

faftTcr 5

re^ra,

fafftq U

substitution

3TT

134)

1.

Fwm T^?r

and

roots

(III.

qiin

takes

invariably

does not take place when the


3.
1

126)

f^rr

come

fron,

substitution

3TT

As

of 'showing respect/'deceiving'or 'insulting'.

after FT,fa, A\

f%?rar **%

and

rft

as,

11

when the

3fitc4iy4iqq%,

affix anr^r

sense

that

is

33% ^f%3nWTO%

II

The option allowed by this aphorism is a restricted option (vyavasthita-vibhasha)


The substitution of 3?r for the final off is optional when the sense of the root
is not that of 'showing respect', 'subduing' or 'deceiving*.
But when it has any
one of these three senses, the substitution

ftl$A^fa
fnr

11

pr*rrqf?r

AR

II

*^%

52.
in the

II

q^TR

II

T%^:,

rer?V*is^TO ^cfrdr:

There

is

is

compulsory.

^T%

is

understood here.
ll

I.

70.

sm^^r^ f^m f%vrrsrr btt^tr arT^ >r^r%

optionally

f^rt ^l^frf

I.

II

the

room of the diphthong of the verb

in the Chhandas.
The word m^rm
secular literature we have

See

substitution
fer?

<

of

sit

to sutler pain \

Thus f^xr M<flH

or

fMs*

it

In

Bk. VI. Ch.

ffrf: u gft

I.

56

Substitution.

stt

1063

tott?^** >TnTR7^^ "isfo wr <p* Wl% rwsrr btt^tr Brrf^r *nrr%


There is optionally the substitution of stt in the
53.
:

room of the diphthong

of the root g*: 'to exert'

ceded by the preposition


The

3TT

and taking the

affix

forming the Absolutive Participle

affix <*$;*

is

,3

when
npr

pre-

11

added by

III. 4.

and the word formed by it is repeated. Thus 3T<T*TlT'TT*Trcl. or srriTKHMtlHm


So also this affix is added by III. 4. 53 as, stopptk 3^1% or srewnt ^*F%
u they are fighting with raised swoids
22,

II

'.

fer^dnff

v*

There

54.

room

the

^tr

II

is

^^n,

f%,

II

orr

II

optionally the substitution of

of the diphthong of the roots f% and

in

stt

^*: when

in

the Causative.
Thus

^T2|^

*qTTOftf

(VII.

3.

36 for the addition of v) so also *T?fainT

or wiuift'

sr^%
^Ttt:

11

tffrnfc n <\\

<rrr?r?

^war

11

q^ifa

There

55.

II

srer^, pt^t: n

^ ^it^^Fc^^^ i**w wn&


is

*nft

^sfto

^ mm

optionally the substitution of

room of the diphthong of the root ^t


when meaning to conceive an embryo \
the

in the

art

ff

in

causative,

'

The root $ Adadi 39 means 'to go, to conceive, to shine, to eat, and to
The substitution takes place when it means 'to impregnate or conceive'.
Thus get ?rrar IP *nrrq-srnr or srerc3frf = rw m^fa
The word ihr means the
receiving of the embryo which in course of time will lead to the birth of a child.

desire'.

11

fa*cft3*r%

*t?ti%

11

11

ir?rf*

11

ft%:,

tg

*rq-

11

11

56.

There

is

the diphthong of the root

the fear

is

optionally the substitution of

Ho

*ff

fear', in

the Causative,

srr

for

when

produced directly through the agent, of the causa"

tive.

sutra

is-

The words #r and f^TTqr are understood here. The word $3 in


the technical ^3 meaning m^TTO JHfnnfi ( I 4- 54* and 55
When
).

the
the

1064

srr

Substitution.

Hetu Agent himself

is

ff*T3 "the fear caused

by the Hetu".

Bk. VI. Cn.

directly the cause of the fear, that fear

Thus gr^t

HfTgcT

VII.

3.

is

36

I.

the

called

or

.58

vrfcTSKT

This root takes the affixes of the


3. 40; So also ^rr^r *rrra% or vrfagar
Atmanepada, by I. 3. 68; and the augment q- is added by VII. 3. 40, which does
not come when there is 3?r substitution, for the vff in VII. 3. 40 is equal to *ft+e. vft ending in f; and means ^f ending in f takes the augment qr
f
(VII.

ll

i.

it

Why
?

r^c^
fi%

wiS

ll

u ^nrr^f^r rarer,
*rr

V9 n
lf??^m

*f

TOT R^TTHfrdw *r^

There

57.

tt%

ll

shows that the

we have

i.

e.

produced from the

is

r? tt*u

ftT^fro*pr??reT ^r^r%-

'to

rc*r

smile'

in

the Causative,

understood here. The word f?^


OtherThus gr^nTT^ IT fWTTTS??
The word >T3 here is taken to mean wn%
See I. 3. 68 where also this meaning has

l\

connection with
11

11

to create \

and

(the

II

far,

iftfeq

and

together; the proper

?g*Tar in

word ought

connection with

vft

II

\*
i#*f *$?% ^fn, 3rr%, wz, 3rfcr%
f^^r^rW^feirrqT^m imv *&m s^rrw *nn%
of *5?
augment sra; (st) comes after the
11

11

11

11

The

58.

for

produced directly through the Agent

connection with

its

^f%^nawr%T%
^*r iwr, ?i%0^%

3?r

fc^TO are both

^f3^^?|qr flrerorai^

to have been ^*ra[ in

^letter

11

anuvritti of pwrqr ceases.

been extended to vr by

is

invariably the substitution of

is

'wondering, feeling astonished'.

srfrT

^ndr:

ft^r,

R^f^rrC^rrsR?

the astonishment

of the Causative.
The words oft and
wise

fear

the producer of the

11

the diphthong of the root

when

Here the

II

is

and not from Devadatta the Agent.

$r>-^37r

vt*k

^N"^%^ ^r^%%3TrT

Observe

fear

do we say 'when the agent of the causative

^sr

'

to see

Mute and the

',

when an

Sibilant)

affix

beginning with a

follows: provided

that

has no indicatry 3?
Thus ^ff + q^*f + 3T- + 3T + ^ = ^f nom. sing. $rer, so also *, tfssara,
fZL %%% ?S^W.Il This 3TH. augment prevents the guna substitute ordained by
it

VII.

II

3.

86.

But

and

in 3WT$fr?

3T?T^f<X trie

Vriddhi takes place

in the Aorist,

augment 3T*I. had taken effect.


do we say when beginning with a Mute or a Sibilant? Observe
Why do we say not having an indicator)' 3T? Observe
^rro with 5

after the

Why

^Sjrjp^,
Jffffs,

ll

before the affix

the rule applies

when

^r-

11

The forms

other affixes relating to

noun

come after these, and not when


Thus ^^^r^CT^, ^^"SfPfcH Here the
than verbs. For the maxim W^l- S^T^t^f

follow.

words are used as nouns rather

^cJF^^i

of roots being exhibited in the sutra,

affixes relating to verbs

applies here,

Bk. VI. Cn.

61

I. .

tft^ Substitution.

st^ttt^t ^ftrvj^rff q^i^m

\^

\\

q^n%

11

The augment WK comes

59.

55 of those roots which are exhibited

when such

anudatta,

penultimate, and

mute

as

consonant having a 55 as
by an affix beginning with a

^lezPTftrirF

Thus

I!

?tot

or

we have

45), so

2.

Why

instruction " ?

do we say

'

Why
rTTtrrij;,

for

^ letter

'

from

lSW*HL,

3> it

^5?

3SPT? which

takes f? optionally.

Observe

vp^r, StTT

Why

II

beginning with a mute or a sibilant'? Observe


do we say 'not having an indicatory 3? ? Observe ^jp,
affix

'

Before affixes not

be inserted, as

given above

the Upadesa" or the system

has an indicatory

having a penultimate

before an
II

it

in

^, 3^,

Observe

exhibited as TOrT. ar>d because

the three forms

enunciation.

do we say "which are anudatta

of grammatical

do we say
fTT^I. ^TTO

first

'

',

these roots are also anudatta in their

11

optionally after the

and cr to be happy
?W, ^fqTTT 01* SWT H The roots <i to satisfy
belong to Divadi class, sub-class Radhadi, and they take the aug-

to release',

PP

% ^^, ^

in the Dhatupfitha

understood here, so also

g-q-f^r is

ment f? optionally (VII,

Why

st^^ttt^-,

in a

are followed

?rffar or *mr,

is

11

and not having an indicatory

or sibilant

The word

end

roots

1065

beginning with a ^pj consonant

^ir*

this

augment

will

not

II

*&**. 3^T%
u-^% fimv fiwmti
word
The
60.
tftjk^ is found in the Chhandas.
This is not a
This word is another form of f^x and means head
Thus safairf
substitute of rr in the Vedas, for both forms are found therein.

5?m^T% M

ffrP

11

*ff#rafsr

**%*&

^rare tester

II

*renm?

ri

'.

^m

f? rre

one form
*r

'

*rrr%F*i

t&rT 5#r,
f^pc

<rfefr n

11

?rr

%\n

%\

when

must

original
infer

it,

for

11

spfrora. H

v^rft

There

The word
The

^fr s fr

In the secular literature there

is

only

11

*, ^,

mk%

11

ii

61.
for feTCH

3%

ll

^Tfq^

which

The

is

the

substitution of this

a Taddhita-affix beginning with


is

understood here.

this substitution

appropriate original

stem sft^
follows.

This rule teackes substitution.

comes
is

sr

ftrc^

is
II

not given in the sutra,

Thus tfHp^t

f?

3*&3T

we

W^>

Some Substitution.

io66

*ftq^F

^t:

retains

its

The

II

original

by anything

else

follows'? Observe

there

Vdrt:

The word

55.

II

sfHrw

hair

As

'.

?nW-

II

wft

II

There

when a Taddhita

when meaning

optional

is

srfe, fStk:

II

srarft rrra% ftrar tftfors? 3rf?^r *^r?r

62.

affix

the

is

it

11

substitution

of ^fn- for fen^T

beginning with a vowel follows.

Thus ^rrto^TST^ = ^rf^ftf^ formed by adding the Patronymic affix f3


Had the word been tfffc* (instead
96). So also *UH(WT f 5*=-- ^Jr^fm

(IV.

I.

^ffq-

II

as taught herein) then

would have retained

it

its final 7^

and would not have given the proper forms (VI. 4.


forming the feminine of ?Tff?r$frf$" by adding csnr (IV. 1. 78),

affixes

culty

s^

STffrT*nT*P,

(n)

is

a Taddhita affix beginning with

we must apply

being the substitute of

r^r

purposes of that rule VI.

1.

is

prima facie a

when

Again

arises

this diffi-

this

^rfcFdfcri'

^f^W^ + 5^^rf^?<3;+g(the \
substitute a zero or <w?5T)

is

in

applied to

sfrfa; (for

m$^

of ^fr? also for the

get will be

this, fTRrT-

6i) = srRrrtfrTW (VI.

1.

is

substitute

The form which we

61).

(VI.

yrong form, the desired form

the affix

2f,

these

before

168).

the last rule and change the #sf into

*^: + i^ = ?rfsraft$*i+*

is

62

168)

4.

The substitution

rr% ^fr*:

of

3.

the final 3T^ not being replaced

^,

this affix

I.

Wl y do we say when 'a Taddhita-affix


=
rm ft&Trt RRWrT, here q is not a Taddhita affix, and so

(VI.

*ZX' SFSTT: or HjT^t: %3TT:

fr%:

added by IV.

here

is

Bk. VI. Ch.

no substitution.

is

11

affix

form before

is

Now

elided

II

How

by VI.

4.

But this is a
4. 168).
do we explain this ? Thus
148 and in the room off we

adesa becomes sthanivat to f, thus


3 not being directly applied to tfft, because this zero intervenes, ^ftq11

this

by tffq-^ as required by VI. 1. 61, for it is not followed by an


beginning with q but by a zero sthanivat to f^affix.

not replaced

affix

This sutra

is

not of Panini, but

is

really a Vartika

raised to the rank

of a sutra by later authors.

<*?,

*%

f fir

wpt
*&%
*rr*

11

to;,

m^,

WC, h?!,

m m nfam *m *t*

**rtrairera3 <ror tt
srf^ir
11

?mm^ *wftr

q-frrl^

fasrr

srsnc,

\**,

cfr**,

V^, 5^,

^nrn^ frcr *** to**^ amnr

^^ur^^

f%

3m^f^'

fan*

*^

11

^c^rg^^R* u

srr*

11

^ *mw*r *<icr^?g

11

f^<rr

top*

t^3C,

sts^ptt

srnra

Bk. VI. Ch.

I.

w Substitution.

64.]

weak

In the

63.

(beginning with the ac-

cases

are substituted

cusative plural) the following stems

*S

<rrr>

for

for 5n%*FT>

q^

sr^r,

R5TT, 3t^j; for


SRfiq;

TO

for qpa,

*m, w%

for

m*J

^r^

for ^7,

for

^r^,

for

3^ for t^f: and arre^ for srr^T

?rr^ri;,

The Kasika

^ for

CT^ m?t

^^^

for

t^c,

II

Kau-

gives >HHJ< as the substitute for 3TRRC, the Sidhdnta

say that these substitutions take place

for

Some

gives the original as 3TR3J which has been adopted in the above.

mudi

the Vedic Literature only, others

in

Others read the word 'optionally' into this sutra from

say, they are general.

VI.

1067

59 and hold that these substitutes are optional and not compulsory.

I.

Examples

>wr^R

I.

T^ RfT?TcpT

5T^- sro^^reRrircn" u 4

h 3

*rr^r

TfRRfa TR^

"^rfo

II

rrmw qwnr ^^rr

SrTT

^HUrT rR3

g^ 55 r

*?rt *rstt

Sf[ *r

n 5

v ar^^- -siflreii ^rrt*rt u 8 gq^ ?rc


6 fsrsr- -wrereirai' Rrftr 3%<t
speirt
*r^
f^r arm^TTFT n 9 ^q^- i% ft*jfr Iptf*** 10 g^re12 sf^sjjr $4& ir^r % u 13 sttckbtrjr r% sft t^rt
^raRT tort
Why do we say when the weak terminations ^rsr &c follow ? Observe
As examples of this substitutions in the secular
Trft% STRffr^i" TrRcT% ?r 3>5T

Hwft$q*i

ii

qrerpr

ii

ii

II

literature also, the following

may

be given

sarram^or *tr*to <nrars5Rfaw

*r

*rrw ^rrcprfo %^rtrt#r;*tp

ii

These substitutions take place before other


Sf^rq^/jt 3r=q%

Vdrt:
for TrRTT,

T^R^P

The following

and *%

*T*r.

and the word

IV.

3.

55 and V.

Vdrt

when
TTf^ra ^TT^
fr%

*:

v^ranr?:

^rfrRfi*

11

it

The
*T

cRT

is

*r

HRT for HRT,

TfcrT^iP (Yaj.

TW, n&

as, *\&Fl,

taught in V.

XXV.

4.

when the

?;

The

II

36),

affixes zng
qqr

f<^

<pg

'

is

and

taught in

45.

?RT for ?rrRJ37r before the affix


cities' as:

^Rrrf?r
vtt^t^:,
%*
wf> ^nrfWr vnrRr
II

II

^rRT^sr ^fr

'a

?jqr

does not

nasal letter*

*F*ni&

II

n, *r.

II

11

gs^rRjflf^^TRri

<*

as, ^n*T ttq^fr,

fnr^rr btp-t^^ for aTfwRrq; n

?r

refers to 'letters', or

being the
Dh&tup&tha.
II

for

substituted for ?ft%3rr only

is

[? follow

64.

the

II

11

1.

Tsr

TOT^TP

The substitution of

take place

vtr^:

^ % fWf

The

Vdrt

substitutions also take place

for stRT: as snTPS"*

*tzn for frRTRpref*,

affixes also

II

JTraq*fr

There

ii

room of

the substitution of ^r in the

is

initial

^*

of a verbal root as enunciated in the

roots exhibited in the

Thus q? ^f, fq^ RJ^frT

II

Dhatupatha with an initial q", change it for


Why do we use the word root ? Observe
*

'

^SUBSTITUTION;

1068

qTTST, qf"3P,

T7^

Why

do we say

'initial

[Bk. Vl. CH.

Observe

'?

^qfrT,

I.

6$

Why

qftr H

Dhatupatha with an initial q, when for


qthis
is
to
be
replaced
by ^r, would it not have been
all practical purposes
easier to spell at once these words with a g" ? This appears cumbersome no
have then roots been exhibited in the

doubt, but the spelling of the roots with

q- is

sake of brevity.

for the

Certain

q when preceded by certain letters those roots


which thus change their letter g- for q have been at once taught with an initial
by VIII. 3. 59 tneir ST is changed to q Thus from r%3" instead
q-, and thus

change

roots

their

tf

into

11

Thus root is exhibited in the Dhatupatha with a q-,


of r^vT^ we have irrq-?r
the
that
Otherwise a list of
know
ST must be changed to q
and thus we
be
separately
given.
One must refer to the Dhatusuch roots would have to
II

11

patha

for a list of

with a

As

such roots.

a general rule,

and followed by a vowel or a dental

Dhatupatha

as

beginning with an

initial

however

roots beginning

all

have been taught

in

the

q as well as the following roots

fff,

letter

though followed by ^ or %
The following roots
*^, f*3T>
though followed by a vowel or a dental are not taught with an initial q viz.
*T*, ", *?T, *?n, %^r, and ^
re^f and

*fr

II

II

Vdrt:

Prohibition

must be stated of the roots derived from nouns,

Thus qr?2T%, wHxm are roots derived from nouns, and


and of fer and 5^7
though these roots begin with q- are not changed so {%% r^TTrT, ^^7^5^% n
The word rg* contains in it two roots rg^r and fs?j^, one with y, another with
11

V, and thus
substitution
ofr ?t:

II

V^

T^rfr

*n,

qfr^ff:

roots beginning with a

*f

t*r

&r$rsqfr *

66.
?r

The

roots are exibited in the

certain

Dhatupa-

.By VIII.

ll

4. 14,

prepositions.

All

should be understood to have been so taught, with


:

ii

There

nft-^TOfcT, tttjt rprf^,

they are exibited with q

;j,

rffs* ?rff

?^,

11

is

when followed by

mv

^[f?,

r
$% t^crR ^t:, *$r<, wfe
*r^ ^x ?Tf iraf$ftr% g*T3T3?T?*rrf*f tT*
11

qraiftfa

Thus

for the initial

not apply to roots derived

when preceded by

v\

into

the exception of the following

and

This does

II

for a similar reason as

these roots change their

11

The

ll

understood here,

is

v&ttW&sfft = ^rfrsicT

from nouns.

ff*r

*tf

But not 3F*r 3T<*T??r

TOfrT H

tha with

ll

There is the substitution of ^


the Dh&tup&tha.

of the root in
The phrase

"J

II

II

65.

Wf

we have two forms in the reduplication


#grs3Rf, ff^farer
of *T for q takes place in the case of the root that has q-

?rr?i

II

eft ^rwir^rrfr^

lopa-substitution

an}'

and

^ra^re^r-

(elision) of the

consonant except

*r

II

Bk. VI. Ch.

The

1.

The

67]

final

a of any stem, be

or

qr

elision of 3

it

and

1069

11

a root or not,

is

by an

elided

affix &c,

Thus ff^+^
e. any consonant except w
beginning with a ^consonant
nom
singular
=
+
+
fff^f^, f^f^mr, TWTTCT:
III. 2. i07)
fH fH ^*I^^f^!
So also the affix 5*
Thus 3^+rf = 3JrT, 'spun', fpg + ^ = 7^ 'made a noise'.
comes after 1TTCT in forming patronymic ( IV. 1. 129). Of the affix *rf, * is
replaced by qa (VII. I. 2). Thus itp*T + T^r + K = *tfar- (the ^ of the affix being
even elided before K) H So also in T%*^, ?m^ the * of fo^ ( III. 4. 102) is
i.

11

II

elided before

sfo3T3 (by
:

affix

^(11 1.

Unadi

io5).So also*

4.

affix

tr^ with the negative

Unadi

tion of

by VI.

affixes (III.

a?

elided in the following:

is

from f&*

-3fr% *3T3 )

3q%r*TTtf'i.

there

is

from Tft%-

formed by the Un6di

There being diversity

II

3. 1),

the

in

not 3>s substitution for

applica-

as required

4. 19.

Why do

we say

any consonant except 3


the word r5f<T is placed

"before

Observe S^TCf,

The elision
first ?
when ^ is not elided. Why
elision
of
in the
take
place
prior
to
the
the
taught
^should
aprrikta
r
and
of 5
=
=
+
(VI.
+
zftv^
%= *{Fj:
So ftrw?*
4. 48 )
next sutra. Thus gfipf;* feq<T 3r&^ *
Why* of 5r*j is not elided before ^ which is a consonant? It is
+ f^r = 95T^;

JKsg%

11

11

not elided, because

it is

Had

so taught.

the elision of * been intended, the root

would have been enunciated as ^instead of prs* H If you say the * is taught for
the sake of forms like fwrW by samprasarana. and *5T^ by reduplication, here also
the 'lopa' would have applied, as being an Antaranga rule, while samprasarana,

and the

elision of

%tT*^

II

^ by ^rf^sp

<TTTT%

II

are Bahiranga.

II

3R^W

II

*Tf!%ll

There

67.

to the single letter

The

affix fift*
affix f*

Observe
formed

some

is

is

In

affix ft includes f^TT, ftqq[, p?f &c.

affix

f^r

is

elided.'

elided.

So

when reduced

II

*, which being an aprikta

Here the

elision of the affix fe

is

(I. 2.

So

41),

also

also 3T*Nr^

is

all

Thus

elided.

*rT^, &?^T^

WTT *,
5

these, the real affix is


ffglfr,

^or^r (III.

(III. 2. 58).

3*fcprr*j (III. 2. 62).

87).

elided.

Why
^J

f^nj;,

do we say " of an aprikta an affix consisting of a single letter" ?


formed by the affix f^(nf being the real'affix) so also
see Unadi Sutras IV. 53. 44. No root can become a noun unless

krit affix

is

added

to

it

(see

I. 2.

45 and 46)

the rank of nouns

from Dhatu

And though

s^V

hence the necessity of these

imaginary affixes, in order to raise certain roots bodily, withdut

affix.

2.

Here the
Here the

to a Pratipadika the

these imaginary affixes are after

way
all

lies

any change, to

only through an

totally elided, yet

by

Elision of

io;o

I.

j%, fa

and 5

Bk. VI. Ch.

I.

6S

mark behind, namely the derivative


Thus f%?r words are adverbs (Gati) and

62, they leave their characteristic

1.

word becomes a nominal stem &c.


lndeclinables.

^fcfa, g,

3tt^*>

fa,

fcr,

After a consonant there

68.

nominative-affix *t and

long vowels and

after the

there

3TT5.),

The

and fa (when
) being consonants; and so also
of the feminine (affix #r and

the

reduced to the form of ^ and

tense-affix

sr
stt

is

But

only after a consonant and hence we have translated

srf^r^rr,

W^

TT^^T

^rfr

sonants

of

: as,

a consonant

after

After a ^r

I'

The

Il

4.

VII.

4:

BTH^TS^r
is

elided

(f*T +

by

q^+^ iMH.

as, ^rcrft,

im,

VI.

4. 8 )

+ O = *T5TT,

66 and

I.

51

i.

II

+ ^+m^=sr+^+>^ +

So

II

the Imperfect has been elided.

and f% are elided


As examples

as above.

^=3T+ i + i+q[(Vl.
,

)=3? + >T+^ +

?j[

VII.

4.

1.

10)

6o) = 3T + ar

54) = 3T + f^ + ^ + ?i (VII.

84 ) = 3TR^+ q;= srft^

it

f?r

After 3tpt
Wffrft
^|T>
elision of fa and r% takes place only after con-

arfsrvpfar^ (^

ar + *Tt + I+-<*
+ ^ + * (VIII.

II

After a word ending in a conmeans


when a long vowel, the affixes 5, fa and
when reduced

sutra translated literally

to a single consonant affix (bt^Rt;^) are elided.

rTSTT, 3*5rT$nt>

r%

the elision of the nominative affix *T

sonant, or #t, or srrr

of the elision

the elision of the

is

^+

fa

UI

4. 76) = sr + r? + vTi+q:
(VII. 3.
anrnr^wjll In both these cases ^ of
The ^is elided in the following: 3TPT%S?r,
Tne is changed into by VIII. 2. 75 and

also

this rule).

Why

do we say "after a consonant, or a feminine affix $ and srr"?


%^RT H Why do we say after a long* vowelled feminine
Observe pr^w^r, 9*ra^ where the feminine affixes have been
affix " ?
" ?
shortened. Why do we say "when followed by 5, fa and
Observe sr%Observe

Tir^afp,

<

The

being read along with

fa, does not include rh* but refers to


Why do we say when reduced to a single letter' ? Observe f*RF<7,
f%ti only.
Why do we say the consonant .is elided ? Observe
f^TT%
ttffq; u

'

'

II

Here the aprikta


titute of

used

fir is

affix sr of the Perfect is

like fa,

in the sutra.

'

not elided

and ought to have been

elided,

fa^,

though

it

PT^?

\\

being the subs-

had the word

^ not been

Bk. VI. Ch.

I.

Why

69

Elision of

fa, fa,

107

it

sr (ij),
(irTi) and 3. (fa?) been ordained
would of themselves have been dropped by VIII. 2. 23,
of a compound consonant? Then the forms *i*n\ r^tt could

has the elision of

rj[

after consonants, as they

being the.

finals

As

not be evolved.

by Rule VIII.

*T5F*+*T-*r5lPI +

*T

(VI.

the form would have

2. 23,

not have been elided by VIII.

2.

for

8) = *r5TT*S[ and by eliding

4.

become

it is

maxim

and the

*T3fPi,

opening of the Second chapter of the 8th Book, that

enunciated

so far as any preceding rule

effect,

concerned

is

as

is

if

could

the very

in

chapters

in the last three

of that Book (2nd, 3rd and 4th Books), a subsequent rule


taken

final JJ

had not

it

therefore, the rule

7 ordaining the elision of s^, does not find scope, since VIII. 2. 23
(ordaining elision of w) is considered as if it had not taken effect. So also in

VIII.

2.

the case of

and

3?srre?I

qtter<x

nasal being elided by VI.


elide

the

final

not by this

ct

we cannot change

the

Rule VIII.

is

+ a^+f^<T

III. 2.
76 = -^m + tf^r ( the
we
have
3*=rr^+ *t = ^rere*r
fj,
but by VIII. 2. 23, we have s^r^T, here

3??rr

now add

rule,

^ by VIII.

into

st

II

24);

4.

2.

72 for

ST

is

not final in a pada, for

effect.
So also in the
The word 3?fiR: is 2nd. Pers. sing, of the Imperfect of pri;
of Rudhadi class. Thus pr + ?jf + rpt = 3T + f*T^ + 5^*+ *r = 3? + pr^; + ^r = srf^TT
+ E[ (5 changed to * by VIII. 2. 75) = STP>5r^ll If we elide- the final sr of

23

2.

case of aTfspTrS^

considered as not to have taken

II

the cojunct by VIII.

into

to

23,

then in 8TpT?rr4 sr^,

form STfvRfSW by VI.

have not taken

Rule VIII.

by

2.

2.

CT^TTO (VIII.

2.

24),

fr%:

11

<*r<T

frit

<t^tt%

11

qr

in arfsnfrjr
11

by VIII.

2.

rnir

same
is

is

<%T

is

is

for *r#

sir

understood here also

as that of the nominative.

spjjl

*,

?jrrn

or a short vowel.
as well as 5W

srrar

1.

Now

11

The word

68 (though

affix

its

of Vocative

By

VII. 3. 108, the short vowel of the


the Vocative Singular affix follows.
for stp^T and ^rg
and by VII. 3. 107, a short

when

substituted for the long vowel % and 37 of the feminine

and

elided after

is

of the nominative-affix (g and


elided in the Vocative singular after a

replaced by a guna vowel

Thus we have sp% and


vowel

by

11

however is not to be read here, as its repetition in VI.


anuvritti was there from the preceding sCitra) indicates. The
the

*?^p,

restricted

t <jl*? % s^rcr^ra^Qr

ST|rK

is

is

23.

<f, t^rac, srsgt":

st^rict ^refsra%

nominal-stem enidng in ^ or

stem

sif^r

rule

The consonant

substitute sn*)

The word

considered as to

ct is

also in

i.

t%%, ?r^f%

69.
its

11

So

this rule.

would be no lopa even, for ^ffiTFcHPT


e. ^ only and no other consonant

therefore there will be no elision of

^^rrr^r.

the * would not be changed

113 since the ellision of

when applying

effect

24, there

1.

applying the present sutra, the affix

as qff

st is

and ro

elided after

10/2

$37

As "|

the above words.

all

AUGMENT.

BK. VI. CH.

I..

9%

The Vocative
^ ^ft % f^rj!, % ?rfl ?
thus formed.
By VII, I. 24, srr replaces *T
of 3?n. and the final 3? of ^^- coalesce into one sr by
?pr%

pf the nominative, the sr

!,

Singular of ^rg- a Neuter noun

'-,

is

Here by the rule that 'consonant' only is


$r which becomes a part of the word by
VI. I. 85, for it is considered both as the final of the word and the initial of
the affix). Now ^ is not an bt^ ?^ ff t s P art >f the affix 3T9., and its eli*
sion would not have taken place had we read the anuvritti of aprikta into this
Thus we have % p^
But in % ^frT^ there is not the elision of the
sutra.
VI.

which becomes <gxgn

107,

r.

we

to be elided,

elide

11

^only (and not

II

is sr^ ( VII. 1. 25 ).
being f?<l causes the elision of the final 3? of 5ff^ (VI. 4. 143), and
have ^tt + 3T?i;, here we have not a pratipadika which ends in a short

of the affix bt^, the substitute of

This

we

the affix there

affix

vowel, but

word

fj for

in,

a consonant^ hence

gee also VII.

not elided,

is

25.

\.

The

used in the sutra in order to indicate that the guna substitution

is

Therefore

stronger than lopa.

then guna substituted for

\,

in fsrf^T-l-

but

!J,

there

first

the affix

is

guna

is

not elided

is

and

first

substitution and then the

affix is plicjed.

$nfc^fa ST3^
ff^T*

f^?T^

rcr

11

V9o

q^TT%

II

II

5T,

*?m f%q% ^nr *r?n%


In the Chhandas,

wgti

70.

ending *

II

^%^

3F^%,

II

11

the

elision

of the

case^

of the nominative and accusative plural neuter,

(f^r)

is

pptiqncil,

^ %^f or afTH %?rfpr, sf ^?tf or stpt srfr


5*rcr fai% sn% g^ \s?
t^TR ^^, farir,
rrnr &m
s*^ 3*tft% *rror
fr%:
Thus

11

11

11

the augment

s>r%,

g^

II

11

To

71.

11

<t*?tf

ii

a root ending in

(g*r)

when

a short vowel

a Krit-aff]x having

is

added

m indicatory

follqws.

Thus BTf^ + f^ + f^^^T^HTFi;,


3<T*3?T formed by the affix ?^i

%%& and
vowel'

Observe

so also
11

$13^

Why

q^r and

Similarly

11

do we say^ending

in

a short

Why

do we say * having an indicatory qr " ?


Why
Observe firP*, frT*
do we say "a krit affix"? Observe T^:, q^J,
with the Taddhita-affixes **<* and tF^qr
In the compound ^f^r**, though
?

3TF**,

^PVm'

II

II

11

the root

is,

made

short, yet there

is

which the root has been shortened


an Antaranga one.' The maxim is

anga

is

which

is

no augment 5^,
is

3Tf%*j

regarded as not having taken

Antaranga

is

to take effect

in as

much

as the rule

by

a Ba4iiranga rule, and the present rule

ari^pranj
effect,

<

That which

or as not existing,

is

is

Bahir-

when

that;

Bk

VI. Ch.

^fed q
i

I.

74

\S*

II

The augment 3*

<T3T1%

II

II

%ft<mTT^

In the following

72.

words ^T%cn*TTO

clusive, the

II

upto VI.

stitras

157

1.

in-

an unbroken flow of speech

in

'

1073

11

',

should be supplied.
This

an adhikara or governing sutra, exerting

is

What

we

its

influence upto VI.

must be understood to apply to words which are in tfftrTr, that is, which are pronounced together with an uninterrupted voice, Thus ^m, *P^TW the f and 3 are changed
Otherto q and ^ when the two words are pronounced without any hiatus.
I.

158.

wise

we

shall

d^

ever

have $fa

II

shall say

%,

The augment
vowel also when ^

speech.
Thus f^fa, rpesfw
short vowel itself

is

that,

II

73.

short

preceding

ar^r, 1*J 3T^T M

T^rft

vss H

in the stitras

the

II

3TT*T*ft

The

?j

added to

is

3c

follows

an

in

changed to

is

(the thing to

preceding

uninterrupted

^ by VIII.

which the augment

4.

The

40.

added), and

is

not the word ending in that short vowel. Therefore in W^5^JJ, HTf%5:, the
augment is not to be considered as part of the Reduplicate fa, but of the short
f only and therefore it is not elided by ^j^: *^T (VII. 4, 60) rule applying to
;

reduplicates,

This follows on the

maxim nnvHT^QT-

*T3?TOre*rer *ref% "the part

of a part cannot be considered as a part of the whole".


the abhyasa syllable fa which

is itself

not considered as an abhyasa: or because

dered as part of f and not of fa of which $

srr^r^nsr

11

vs*

74,

the prohibitive

11

T^rft

11

Here

q[ is

a part of

a part of the verbal base, therefore

wr&,

yj

is

being an augment of f

is

fj is

consi-

the part.

*rr^f:,

11

The augment 3; is added to the particle 3tt and


particle jtt, when ^ follows in a continuous

text.

The
as a prefix

Particle STT has the four senses of

(f^Rrr:)

3.

the limit inceptive

I.

littleness

BTRrlrfa)

and

4.

(fsrw)

2.

with verbs,

the limit exclusive

3* necessarily, where by VI. 1. 76, itjvould have been


Thus f q^rar = srrsSTSr; 2. With verbs: as 34l^|^r^, 3 and 4- arpisSTOrar:,
So also the negative particle *rr, as, *rr%*r?t, **TM^? \ H The ^ m vn;^
^Tr^r^nr
fairer).

This sutra ordains

Optional.

ll

Rule^ or sandhi.

1074

and

shows that

*rrf;

when used

when used as a Gati and

3TT

as a negative particle are meant.

in the following:

Bk. VI. Ch.

may

? is

yy

*TT

not necessary

be optionally added in

The 3?r here has the force of recollection


The word %m is formed from the verbal root

by the ptefix and the affix 3T^ fill. 3. 106) with the feminine
and the word ending in 2tt has not the indicatory ^

*tf3F

I.

a Karmapravachaniya and

Therefore, the

sTro^il The ra;

3TT3T2Tr *TR3r%,

these as 3TT35TOT and ST>TP5^:


(S^ar); 3TT3T^r "Oh the shade".

sj"

affix 2-pr,

II

fr*r\

*\

q^ifN"

11

Thus

g^

frim,

The augment

75.

followed by

11

added to a long vowel, when

3; is

continuous text.

in a

jjHsft, *33T%, 9TT3rre3T2W, ff^rr5^R%

II

The augment belongs

to the long vowel and not to the whole syllable ending in


<T3T?cTT3CT

\ 1%

11

II

VS^

q^Tfa

II

^fafa^gptit ^trf

*T g*TPT%T

srf%3re

11

W?r

^T?cTF^, ^T, epZ


^grcKrcKnwgfei

II

II

'Rrarrftafaror

*$& Hfoq ^r F&t

*m

11

nr^r^rfRr s^Rr^rr

final in

full

^r^*

3*TrT*TT ^r^rfrm

The augment

76.

vowel

that long vowel.

ii

added optionally to a long


word (Pada) when followed by & n
^,

This allows option where by the

is

last it

would have been compulsory

The augment is of the long vowel, and not of the word ending in
long vowel. Thus gftrHgrror or frarfew, fT?5Ngrar or a^terar
The ^ar augto add

it.

ll

ment here is added to the end of a pada, and this is therefore a padanta rule
and not a pada-vidhi. Therefore the two words need not be in construction
Thus f^^ jJHTfr'egN'
for the application of this rule; (sr*Tr T^fr) not applying.
SO-^-dHl, "let the girl stay. Take the umbrella of Devadatta". Here cgru% and
S^- are not in construction, but 337 is stll added optionally.
Vdrt
ferersre &c.

The augment
As,

v\ *mfe
arf%

11

rT

r^^nH^T* or
11

vs\9

11

<t^tt%

is

optional in the Chhandas, after the words

nm^s^, ^T^^T^ft a^pro* or ?r^rat jr^frwi u


II

srra

**?:, iun,

wmvnt *nn$ u
^i^rro sr^ftfrrw^ ^mrWr ^^3:

\\

3tht virf fq^r

*rrr%3TO.

11

%?*

77.

"The semivowels

of the corresponding vowels

when followed by a
This sutra

is

%,

sr,

3",

11

^, r, s are

3 and

the substitutes

(long and short),

vowel.

rather too wide.

It

must be

namely the following vowel must not be of the same

restricted

by VI.

I.

101,

class as the preceding for

BK. VI.

Cli.

80

of this

application

the

K4r/:

THE SANDHl

Thus

rule.

^rv|

1.1

-f-

1.1

1075

sa

3^ = ^W,

*H|

+ a* * = T^f*,
5

This semivowel substitution of vowels takes place,

ceded by a prolated vowel, even to the supersession of VI.

Thus

lengthening.

The phrase when


'

ff%

r^

II

sp^TT \ f f?j=3Ttt

a vowel follows' exerts

*1"R~ Sf^r 'Krft

S^ 3T^ 3TT^

3TT* f

For the vowels

78.

TO

ftFR.

its

^%

3"

and

TO%

pre-

requiring

3*^,-3**^

VL

influence upto

sff

when

101

I.

3^*=<T*T

8?ftW 3*T!W*

$,

sc,

9^

108.

I.

are respectively

srr

and stt^t when a vowel follows.


Thus f^ + e^7 = % + BT?T = ^JRI, ^r + 3T?T = ^?r;% + ST^ = q-r?T^-, 3f + BTcf?

substituted

asnr

sre

3Tr*r,

=Rnrer:

So

11

fr%:

$iw^. **n%

11

w%3re.

tr|[tr

11

vs^

II

q^rr%

II

II

^t* n 3T^TfRr*r

11

The

i48)=^r + 3T?r=^3T:

2.

sr^

s^rfr

irera

<T*^rr

substitution of 3?^

3^

and

5TT*

also

come when an

substituted letters

146 and IV.

1.

with an

affix

initial

viz. st*

3?

follows.

11

It

srf

and

II

Of

the four

sr^and

(viz.

follows that the

Thus
+ ^x= arret + *I = 3T^P (VI.
3TT and afr
So also^p^o^:, ^fis^r^, fq-^sar. sjnw *rrsqr(IV. 4. 91)5^:11
and 3TT^ "? Observe TCifcestfcT^tzinT, no change of q- be-

must be

II

105).

Why

for
3"

and srnMI
those which end in gr

substitutes taught in the preceding sutra,

**n%

11

those which end in *

^FrT are

11

II

also takes place before an affix beginning with

The

4.

(in.

srran, ft,

^rerilsr arfanroi st* sffanrrofnc. st

^fa

79.
srr

sim^fe, s + g^"

also *$?&, S8fa>,

R" srere

STFcTT

fore

do We say "ar*
Why do we say
3

affix " ?

Why do we say
Observed RHt, ^IFPl.
Vdtt
The word ift is changed before ar% in the Vedas. As ifr + ^r%
=fTsgr%, as 3?Rr Orer Wtf f%^l*mg$nT*UI Why do we say 'in the Vedas'?
11

an

Vart:

1 1

*Tf3i%:

II

This substitution takes place when referring to the measur

as, nsffrT

'TTW^R *Trf

II

vrrcfR^rF^Tr^lrar
*HiHrir

before ^"? Observe trpqpi, ?P*IPl.


I

Observe

"

This
II

to* t^t SRrfWt n^m

is

in the secularliterature,

\\

t^tt%

ii

of a road:

i&nth meani lg

^rnr:, crftrmTrer, t*s

gFftrgrni.il

II

11

For the final diphthongs sft and aft of a root,


substituted sre and 3rrr respectively, before an- affix begin80.

are

ning with
first

*r,

then only when such diphthong has been

evolved by that

affix.

itself

The Sandhi

io/6

rules.

VL

Bk.

Ch.

82'. )

The words ^psr:, *l-^ir^[ JP3% are understood in this sutra. The word
^^r%TT means 'caused by that L e. caused or occasioned by that affix beginning with q
Thus ft forms its Future Passive Participle by ^(11 1. 1. 97), this
affix causes the guna of 37 by VII. 3. 84: Thus ^+?j = <% + 3f, which according
So also* <TT + 3 = ^5^11 w + onrj(III.i.i25)
to the present sutra becomes r^*t
^ + zf = 3^^j^f$af^and3T^2(cri5^^li Why do we say'ofa root'? This rule should
'

11

For then, though

not apply to a nominal stem.


of *

4- 2?

where

=*

stt

3T9T + r = mqpQ

and

srf

it

are not caused

before the affixes

were added.

it

may

be

all

right in the case

not apply to cases like ifr 4- 3= tts^,

will

by the

% + 3 = TT^,

stem
do we say 'caused by that affix itself? The
When the change is not caused by that affix.
affix,but are integral parts of the

Why

substitution will not take place,

Thus the Passive of % with the upasarga stf is srr+% + 3^+%=Here by


Samprasarana(VI.i.is)3r becomes 3,as 3TT + S + * + lr; now by sandhi 3TT + 3; = STr
VI. I. 87), we have srr + *RT = afr^ET Since aff is not caused by 3, there is no ^\
So also 3TRET, ftRPfffc:, $T8Rn%: (IV. 1. 95). The word cjf in the
substitution.
II

aphorism has the force of limitation, with regard to roots. In the case of
roots, afr and art before q are changed then only to art. and 3TT* when q has
caused the production of aqrr and 3TT in case of nouns there is no such limita;

Here the substitution takes place whether the 3 has caused the production
of 8TT and aft or not.
tion.

In ^q* and spar there

81.
for

when the

only then

q;

sense

is

substitution of sr^
that of " to be possible
is

to do".

The roots fa and f$f before the affix


(III. r. 97) assume these
forms when meaning to be able to do the action denoted by the verb. As
Why do we say when meanTO** ST5=ST53 (fa + H = 3r + aO; so a so J^
:

ing

" to

that of necessity
'

JR^TOI^

II

82.

when the
saleable

:3

Observe

be possible to do"?

TH",

WT

f*W

Here the meaning

is

q^TTT^

II

In

sense

is

pfjssr

II

W., 3^f

there

that of

'

is

II

substitution

of st^ for

exposed or put # out for

GC

sale,

'.''**

The word w*Q

is

guna % being changed to n

derived from #V
II

The word

rT*4

with the affix uq[ the


to buy
means Tor the purpose of that
'

*,

Bk. VI. Ch.

e.,

i.

say

for the

we want

84

EkAdesa.

the sense

that of saleable

is

to purchase corn, but

n^ mpir ^ ^ftr ^
n

**i

*iifTj

11

j^utf 3ttt 3rw*33R*i

<rrn%

iTT

W&t' ^*3T*

Observe

=63

11

Why

do we

^f "^TfcrT

^t^m,

".

snp^-

*r*ar -

^3

sft

^, a^fci,

11

11

The forms

83.

'

not put out for sale

it is
11

1077

As w*zn

purpose of being bought.

when

'

and sr^TT are found

spar

in the

Chhandas.
The word ^3 is derived from *ft + 3?t, and
The gun a tt is changed to spa
Thus *TS3 PjFff*r#F
is

added

to

>fr

m&U

if

+ Q<1 N

sft

The

II

ar^

with the force of Ablative by virtue of the diversity allowed by

^q^fr^f^(III. 3. 113)
able".
The word ST ^-M
is

sn^JT from
^c^TrTft

II

II

always used

is

Why

the proper form.

Wl

Thus favft *r&VZ = v

II

do we say

'

in the

in the

"frightening

feminine

Vedas

'

or

fear-

in other places jf^i

Observe H^P*

Jf%^

in

secular literature.

The

word IHiq should also be enumerated when referring to


=
is added by IV. 4. 1 10 (?f + 3The affix
As $> *r^T ?ft^r ^rr?:
Vdrt

water.

II

*** + *)

II

^4<l <4t :

*c*r.

II

^S^

II

From

84.

**^,

II

is

an adhikara

here upto VI.

ways to be supplied the phrase "


following one is substituted ".
This

sutra.

n7TP,

1.

for the

II

Ill inclusive

al-

is

preceding and the

In every sutra upto VI.

r.

112 (excluding

whatever we shall teach, there in the room of the two, namely, the
preceding and the succeeding, it should be understood, that the substitution

the

is

last),

one.

These form tne well known

ru'es of ekddesa,

one

letter or

form replac-

Thus VI. 1. 87 teaches 'There is guna


We must supply into that
by a vowel
sutra the phrase q^: <|fqw: L e. one guna is the substitute for the final s? or
btt and the initial vowel.
Thus ^<rr + f??: = WZ*Z'>
Here jj is the single subsing two consecutive letters &c.

substitution,

when

titute of the

both preceding

^ T*

that the substitute operates simultaneously on both.

at or stt

is

followed

'.

II

show

the substitute would have

come

and the succeeding

tetter %

ll

The words
Otherwise

in the place of one only or of each one separately.

*pn (3THT) = " after 3T or 3*r, there is guna, in a vowel ". Here 3TT^
the ablative, and by I. 1. 67 the guna operation would have taken place on

Thus
is in

letter 3*T

in 3TT^[

the letter following

it

so also sti%

is

in

the Locative and by

I.

I.

66 the
t

EkAdesa.

ro7$

Bk. VI. Ch.

8$.

gun a operation would have taken place on the preceding so jt is not clear of
what letter there should be guna substitution, of the preceding or the succeedThe
ing. But the present rale shows it must operate on both simultaneously.
single % shows that a separate or a different substitute does not
word
not be two separate
e. the substitute must be one, there should
operate:
;

'

i.

substitutes one for each sthani, such as

^^? T ^

ffignrr H'$

of the precediug
ijcfi

is

u?
:

is

>

Here ^

^").

11

*\

?T

taught as substitute both of

srer - srn%

rr

42

2.

^ and

= R^+5T = f^5r:

rac

this single substitute

the preceding (form), and the

final of

the sutra VIII.

(cfr>2tf

of nishtha, after * and

get two H, as f^T +

^n%

And

85.

find in

According to Mahabhashya the word

not the case here.

srerrf^ra

is

we

not used in the sutra,

is

we

the substitute of the

^,

is

f^fx is

^,

But

II

and

and as
this

redundant.

11

considered as the

initial

of the succeed-

ing (form).
taught in the last, is considered in the light of
and the initial of the succeeding. An adeSa
form
preceding
the final of the
ekadesa,
the sthani is indeterminate, or rather the
in
an
but
is like the sthani,

The

sthani

single substitute

Hence the

sum of
sutra.
The

or the

the collection

is

necessity of this

the preceding and

the succeeding.

sense of. this atidesa sutra

is this:

as

the beginning and the end of a thing are both included in the thing itself, and
therefore when the thing is mentioned, the beginning and the end are both
taken; so

add

37

is

Thus to the stem sr^T^j we


and now 3" f 37=37 (VI. 1. 101) e. arsi^j
a Nominal-stem (snmf^) and the affix 37 is a

the case with this single substitute.

the feminine affix (IV.

1.

66);

i.

Here &nvg is
non-pratipadika, and the single-substitute

+ ^ = 5rgj3r;vj

II

tipadika.

by virtue of
But for this
)adika

(I.

I.

46),

because

this

comes a

final

word would have rather ceased

feminine affix

Similarly for the final non-case-ending st of

considered as the

of the pra^

that

virtue of the feminine affix 3? the


ti

37 is

we can apply to the form sgr*^ the term pratipadika and


this designation we can add the case-end'ings to it by IV. 1. 1.
rule, we could not have added the case-endings to it, because by

So

single substitute 3*r

by VI.

I.

37 is

88, this

to be a pra-

not included in

and the case-ending

ekadesa

afr is

IV.
3fr,

considered

1.

1.

there

both

as a non-case affix and a case affix, that is, as the initial of the affix afr, and
gets the designation of Pada I. 4. 14 as it
the final of f ST and thus the word

f^

ends

in the <r affix

sfi

II

This awil^-ftl*! does not apply in rules relating to letters i. e. to rules


for their application on letters.
Thus isrg + sir - ^TJT II Here the

.depending

Bk. VI. Ch.

ekadesa

stt is

86

Ekadesa.

as the final 3T of

*3gj,

but not

of the rule which says that the fa*r

is

1079

purposes of the application

for the

changed to

a nominal-stem

after

ending in st, so the Instrumental plural of lg%[ will not end in q but will be jgr[So also in 3jsr?r II It is the Perfect 3rd per. sing, of^ or ^r ( VI. 1. 45 ).
f*r:
1

:,

II

and we have sjs^TT = sjyjsrr which by VI


This singler. 108 becomes 3jfr, the 3 being the single substitute of 3 and btt
substitute 3 should not be considered as^rr for the application of the rule VII. 1.
34 by which the Perfect affix on* (*T) is changed in 3TT after roots ending in a?r H

By

VI.

1.

53, the

changed

is

to 3,

II

Similarly in 3T^T + ^^3":

= 3T^T

3T*3" :

(the

v being

the Dative singular of ?^t in the Feminine with

is

added

q = 3T^I

Here

cation of VI.

The

3TT

II

By

Dative with the shortening of the preceding

in the

II

by VIII.

elided

is

the single substitute for

q* is

109 the single substitute

I.

qr

3TT

and

it

it

3.

VII.

3TT

Here

bt^t

19).
3.

14 tot

as ST + TOT

should not be considered like

sthanf of the single-substitute (ekadesa)

is

the

for the appliq-

ll

sum of the preceding and

is replaced by one, and not any one of


For that which is replaced by another is called s'hani: as
replaces sr^the whole form sr*r is called sthani, and not st or *r separ-

the succeeding, both taken collectively

them
when
ately.
is

separately.
>t

The

made up

parts,

may

be called sthani only inferential ly, because the whole

The

of parts.

parts not being considered as sthani, the rule of

not apply to an ekadesa with regards to the parts, and


no operations dependant on such parts will be effected by such ekades*a. But

sthanfvad bhava

it is

will

intended that such operations should take place.

Nctig^kftor*

86.

considered

11

<\

The

as to

11

t^tt^

11

substitution

<*,

sn%gr:

of a single

have not taken

would have to bo changed to


is

<rer - g^t:,

Hence

or

this sutra.

adea

is

to

be

when otherwise ^
when the augment <* (g^)
effect,

to be added.

The word vtfwg means not-accomplished


e. the operation caused
having taken effect is not produced. The word asiddha always debars
i.

by

its

operations dependent upon the adesa, and gives scope to the operations dependent upon the general rule ( 3Tfa^^*r%^^^r^?rtf3^^^Hr^iT =q- 11
)

Thus ^rsRHTft here *T is not changed to q*


The equation is thus exhibited
+ 3Tf*r^i;=^+3W2nt ( tne ^ changed to * by VIII. 2.66 ) =
+ 9Tf%^ (3being substituted for * by VI. 1. 1 13) =
+ 30%^ (ar-l-^ = afrVI. 1. 87) srtsfw^fi (3TH-3T = 3fr VI. I. 109). Now applies our sutra. By VIII. 3. 59, *r coming
II

after afr requiredto

be changed into

T,

but here the single-substitute

str is

con-

GUNA-EKADESA,

I080

sidered to be non-effective for this purpose. Similarly

Similarly in

3T*fr?T

there

is

the addition of

?j

BK. VI. CH.

by VI.

71,

87

%S**T, ^TSFT, Ifrs^r

sffTSTO,

1.

II

though actually pre-

ceded by a long vowel. That long vowel had resulted from the ekadesa of f for
and this ekades*a is considered as if non-effective for the purposes of

K-l-S,

augment

33?

Here

Similarly in JH-5H-g^-i-*i-^f.

also

= q-

sr-l-f

con-

is

sidered asiddha,

Vdrt

Prohibition must

Locative singular case-ending f^7

%\

Of

11

we have

before which there

flftr,

ing

vocalisation

3TF

108).

is

be stated
(?),

in

the following

the case of samprasarana, the

Atmanepada affix
=
^RTf^ ^TPJ, OFffe, then we add

and the

1st per. sing.

vocalisation of sr, this

3"

combining with

^r^T-l-f|^" = ^r^rs^TT-i-o

becomes ^ ekadesa; as
The Locative plural is formed by g

(VI.

1.

i5)

in

+ SR?f (VI.

5Pfft-l-g = 5P*rgl 'the

the follow1.

lengthening

Here ^ is changed to q the ekadesa 3 for sib?


+ f&% - TK + fjiT + 1^*=not being considered asiddha, So also qfcft^ (qrc +
Of the affix f^ we have: f$T-l-? = f%, add w%n, then the single
qrcf%, add 5)
taking place by VI.

4. 2).

II

substitute

q-

being considered not asiddha

we have fSfE^m

or f%s^ro

II

Of

the affix f? of 1st Pers, Atmanepada we have 3TT%-i-i^r JT-3rT-^-<^'T or 3?q%spj II In both these cases we optionally add gqp by VI. I. 75-76, by considering the ekadesa (VI. 1. 87; as to have taken effect, and making the finals

$y

or long,

Here the ek&deia

is

not asiddha and therefore

optinal

is

and

not compulsory.

s n ^gq n

II

*s

II

or

stt

the single substitute

of the final

fa or srn-a vowels guna).

The word
3TT,

is

II

of a preceding word and the simple vowel of the suc-

ceeding

T or

stf*, fpr.

The guna

87.
st

^n% H

and

srr^

is

understood here.

for the 3? or 3Tr

For the towel which follows an


in" the room of both these

which precedes a vowel,

preceding and succeeding vowels, there

is

the single substitute guna.

*^

Thus

^*r + *?**:
s^*r.= *nrr^*, *3%t + z?m= *srfr?^3, *& + *r** + ^^r^: = ^^^^^^r + ^^K = ^5^n: H B y analogy of I. 1. 51,
the guna substitute of ^ being 3? is always followed by ^, as that of ^ is folloThis universal rule is limited by the following aphorism.
wed by *

- *s%&,

^^v^

II

tf&l fk

'
II

II

<*?TPT

II

n%:, nr%

>

Bk. VI. Ch.

Vriddhi-EkAdesa.

89. ]

The Vriddhi

88.
srr

ed

substitute of

the single

is

of a preceding word and the

108 i

or

diphthong of the succeed-

initil

3TM-diphthong = vriddhi).

(ar or

For the diphthong which follows


in the room of
an st or arr,
and
diphthong,
or
succeeding
there
and
is a single
3T
3TT
preceding
both these
guna
taught
in
the
debars
last
This
Vriddhi."
sutra.
the
viz.
Thus
substitute

The word
and

3TT?t is

+ <ty3t = atrsw,

argi

q*r?P, ?cr?r

for

***

II

ff^ftfsr

i^n%

II

II

II

'

3T^T|rf?5T ffirfrfOT

^T

||

II

^To

||

ire

The Vriddhi

^T

II

II

t ^^^Tf^rnTfywRnT-

^ $ ^Sr rT^S? tRf ^T^rTST: ^T-

in qr%,

II

wr^by VI.

3tt?t
e.

"

sre-l-37?r

quired by VI.

t^,

and

not to VI.

1.

for st or gtf

4. 132).

are understood here.

when

87, the present sutra ordains

1.

rule.

95,

%rnr^ ^Apavadas
that

and

The

the root f assumes the form

The q^r does

of

not qualify the

Thus 3^ + ^=3%!^, 3<T -f-irfq- = ^ft-, ^-ft; ^-l-ipTO


= JTfr?r In the last example, guna was the substitute re-

the Vriddhi was debarred

exception to that

to be

n&),

not a diphthong.

is

= ^fcT,%*?%;
<rr%

II

II

as that root always has an initial diphthong, nor does ij^ qualify gjr

urtj

for 3?

^fe^-rWH

ff^^^r

^"T^rraf

internal changes, then apples this Vriddhi rule.

root

<Jrrfara"*T!% STfa[

the single substitute for the

is

of the last sutra and

the last sutra qualifies the root?

by

SJt^T

(the substitute of ^r in

The whole

+ irf^-

3^5

and nsn%- (root

or 3?M-bc of qj^r (root f)

of

fs^r

fa$r*n*r

^T^fttw^fj^r^^^r

II

3T H

^ H^ +^ ^iTFTrefr ff^T^lT
89.

W^

i^lR^HIW* Stf*

<5TTo

-1-3?

^fa, <3^n%,

*k% snf^frr ^ hwi<^ u

STffTSr5*lt<^ ff^r^-rfi^l H

sr

s^+^f^n^T^-alim^nR-:,

II

TTrriR^rifW'^nTHT^ <P*

^TT%3P*

which precedes a diphthong,

^r + ir^n^^^^r*

+ ^HT^:=^|r m^:

m^yc^d^
5arfrr:

understood here.

for the 3T or 3TT

The

because

present sutra

maxim

the

1.

nearest

to

them,

In the case of

94, this sutra

is

an exception to VI.

is

SOTrmrsr

that precede the rules which teach

superseded by the apavada


stand

Vriddhi instead.

by VI.

WtKK

makes an
1.

94 and

lt*#r srm^r

operations that have

operations,

not

the

supersede only those rules


subsequent rules". Therefore

ST + STH-^^^-f q-?r = ^n?: (Here


though 5 is changed to if, the rule does not apply). Therefore the form 3*%i%
is wrong.
So also 3^-1-?^ = 37rP for here the root f has not assumed the form
the present rule does not apply

if,

here,:

therefore the rule does not apply, the

Vdtt:
ifoft, as

The Vriddhi

*T<trM*

*PTT

II

is

word

ifr^r

qualifies the root ?

the single substitute

when

st$j is

11

followed

by

Vriddhi-ekAdesa.

1082

Vdrt\
f* or

1.

The word

II

fc

is

The Vriddhi

*q

Cri.

90.

followed by

is

formed by the

affix

qi^

f^ = ^T the compounding takes place by

^r = ^rPTsrra^ % *reS5TcT with

is

Bk. VI.

when

the single substitute

to f^iT^T(Ad. 8 fqqrproTOT

Another form

32.

is

or ff^fr thus ^r^, ^r^TT

"frf^r,

added

The Vriddhi

the affix farR (III.

2.

II.

78

).

when q is followed by gjf,


qsq:
The
word
as
qq",
ipw,
sfrft:,
qq:,
qrf
ffs
qq is derived from the
3>re,
&&,
root S3 to wish' (Tud. 59), f<* 'to go' (Div. 18), and fq; 'to repeat' (Kry. 53), by
adding the affix qi and the word %*q is derived form the same roots by addVdrt\

the single substitute

is

:,

ll

ing
q

?tfj[

q:

This Vartika ordains Vriddhi, while VI.

II

While the roots

ll

and

f*r 'to glean',

f<r 'to go'

1.

115 and 642), form fq and f^: with the above affixes
will be qqv and qcq: II
1

The Vriddhi

Vdrt
8T

followed by

is

^FT

s*t?P

$%*

- W^'-r

Observe

tal?

s^tt

Vdrt

q*q<f

II

is

3*trT :

The Vriddhi
m^m,

is

q^aRT^ 'debt

Vdrt

debt.

S<T

'Compound'? See

debt of a

5R*ap*,

So also when

^f^PT^:

the single substitute


q^rq

As

ll

Tsrrfrff.

srrara*

**

II

90.

augment

3TT? is

The

in

<T3TR

Wh y in Instrumen-

when the word

the words q^T and f^r are followed

are:, ^r

II

sfcor

follows

q^rKf iq, 'the

of a blanket', qg-qp'H 'debt of a cloth'.

II

(Bh.

forms

II

jn^JT 'principal debt',

The word qt"Tr^ means a debt


The Dasarna is the name of a river and of a
and

q, their

when a word ending

the single substitute

= 5 ^nf but ^T

Why

q,

qjrtJTTt^w

and with

and forms an Instrumental Tatpurusha compound: as

the following:

steer',

94 would have caused

to injure, 'to show'.

The Vriddhi

by

qjon

as,

incurred to pay off a prior


country.

II

is

the single substitute

when the

followed by any vowel.

anuvritti of qfq- ceases

that of stht however,

vowel that

is

subsequent to the augment

to a vowel

in the

room of

and precedent, the Vriddhi

these two
is

i.

is

e.

the single substitute.

The

present.

and the srr^ which


the 3TT? and the vowel

air^,

is

precedent

subsequent

The augment 3?K is added

to the roots beginning with a vowel, in the Imperfect, Aorist

and Conditional

Thus qf!re,^OT, ^rer^, sftffcfc $?&$*> ^T^^ from


(Tud. 32) and 5 ST *n$ft ( Tud 2 ) Acroots ts^R (Bhu. 641), ** 3r
cording to Siddhanta Kaumudi the 3rr* {s the augment which fr*j case-affixes
take after nadi-xtfords (VII. 3. 112). According to him the following are the
Tenses (VI.

4.

72 &c).

examples :^f^r-i-BTK.-i-3r =3Tf^^l (Dative Singular).


augment also in the Vedic Tense %?
ll

The

3TTC.

is

the

Bk. VI. Ch.

The
96 when

95,

^r

'and'

*ir#T

or

11

q^rft

11

that the r^^T

is

taught

rule,

when

in

VI.

1.

the preceding vowel

^roWta^, ^r%,

11

vrrrfr

11

the single substitute

of a preposition (upasarga)

3tt

1083

superseded,

arl*^. follow, is

The Vriddhi

91.
3T

the sutra shows

in

and

s*t, sfr

^MH^iki%

VkiDDiii-EKAnESA.

92.]

1.

when the

followed by the short 35

is

of a verb.
The word

9TTft

understood here

1S

When

also.

ending

a preposition

by a root beginning with sp, the Vriddhi is the single


substitute for the precedent 3T or 3?r and the subsequent 5 H
This debars
the guna taught in VI. I. 87. Thus ^T + ^SjTrT^qi^JftT, JTT^fa, sqroffa
Why do we say after a preposition ? Observe ^st^rt, jfr^^frf, JT^FTfSP =
ffTru" sfFsSW sr^rn: ^n?l H Here the word it is not treated as an upasarga, hence
in st or TT

is

followed

II

'

'

does not apply.

sutra

this

follows'? Observe
that short
is

s<T-l ?rT

to be taken

is

It is

= ^rrr:
?

II

Why

a Gati here.

Why

do we say

have we used

after

Observe ^T + ^^nTr qRT = 3*ThkfaH

The

allowed here by the subsequent sutra.

is

?j[

^
II

when

'

indicating

No

option

used, in fact, for the sake

of the subsequent sutra in case of Denominative verbs, no ordinary verb can


begin wirh a long s^
Why have we employed the word srrg, when the word
ll

'upasarga' would have caused us to

infer its

order to prevent the application of the rule VI.


or non-sandhi of s^

II

bhava taught
' Dhatu.
prakriti

srr

ff%:

ii

^nfasns:
srrf^nr

is

VI.

*>*

11

repetition of
1.

129,

11

sit,

Dhatu shows

the case of the

in

^ft, srrfa^:
qrc nifrK i f r

According to the opinion of

used in

JTfirrPTrf:

that the alternative

'

y*ru*w%

It is

129 which causes

would not apply

q^Tft

^rrrftrW *r

1.

m of

ll

t^

sfWf?m$<mTfrc-

A piSali,

the Vri-

when the st or sir of a


followed by a Denominative Verb beginning

optionally the single substitute,

preposition

with 3T

in

sq^ircm

92.

ddhi

ll

The

correlative *rrg?

is

II

Thus ^rspsffam or ST*fttafa, 3T^Rr% or STRSfftftofrT


The qr and
homogenous letters, therefore the word m in the last sutra
The name of the Grammarian Apisali is mentioned for the
includes t* also.
sake of respect; the ^T itself was enough to make it an optional rule.
II

are considered as

STRTt -S*TO*ft:

II

II

q^TT%

II

3TT,

^fan, 3T^- S^ft:

II

Para-rupa-ekA&esA.

1084

For
and

93.

case-ending sra;
The word arm
=-TTJ

rr

Thus

II

or

*ri <T*ar,

q^ar; as

3jr:

the

Nominal

of a

stem-i-a? of the

sth, the single substitute is


a

is

*TV

stt

[Bk. VI. Ch.

compound

<Tr.

word

II

of

STr

+ STlrT:

11

3TT

94

Accusative
I!

^ -3t*, = ^re,'TH-*r*J.

Thus

This debars the Vriddhi of VII.

rris also

1.

a nominal stem ending

I.

in arr U

90.

So

also

The Sarva-

namsthana affixes are ffcpj after this word also (see VII. 1. 90) which would
have caused Vriddhi, therefore, this 3TT debars the Vriddhi. The word st*K. here
means the affix of the Accusative Singular, as it is read in connection with the
and as the word

case-affix $Tf,

!|t

of the last sutra governs this also. Therefore

TW the verbal Tense-affix of the Imperfect

*T^m
^ttt:

we have

not meant: thus

aifa^*r,

qri ^ qw?5rf *ref?tii


t^t
%% ^rrR^t qr^t
srrcfrs%: *rer% ^r q^r ^fk^* u ^ro u q^fsrrfts ^rcr t*^ ^rffaitf
For the 3T or srr of the Preposition-!-** or aft of
94.

11

swu^nrfem ^1 3reqiRgTO u?grfrqT3t %S M<4t

5TTre^r

qrfrr**
^ro

is

II

^^

sr^^nTfs

ii

ii

^ff^acw n

^r<> n

ii

ii

a verbal root, the second vowel


The words
ing in ST or

3TT

sffifc

is

the single substitute.

3WffFT#t are understood here.

followed by a root beginning with

and the single-substitute


Vriddhi taught

in

VI.

I.

is

tj

In an upasarga end-

or ^T, the vowels

the form of the second vowel (m.^4)

II

coalesce

This debars

Thus ^T?5*lrr, ff<TOT%, Prefer, m^f^'H Some read


by VI. I. 92, according to them the para-rupa
the case of Denominative roots. Thus *H^<*?iRf or

88.

into this sutra the option allowed


substitution

is

optional in

snnraifam, ^rr^rRrt or grer^ffora u

Vdrt:

&c.

The Para-rupa substitution

takes place in the caseofsraFg:

As^7-l-3T?^: = ^^^M^ + 3T^T = ^H?T, 3fa + ST?rP = tffarf

referring to

'hair',

Vdrt

the form

The

is *ffar*?T

'

'hair';

when not

Para-rupa substitution takes place when x& follows a

word, and the sense is not that of 'appointment*. Thus 53- 1-^= 5^; wrsH-^=
When the sense is that of fMfpr, the Vriddhi takes place: as ftw vr^,
T^
11

irs^^r

tt:

11

Vdrt :The Para-rupa substitution takes place optionally when ^t$J

and ^ra are compounded with another word: as **r& ^j^:=^^: or *tf%g!,
When not a compound, the Vriddhi is compulsory:

so also i%*tn#r or f%i$T#r U

T*3 'Stay Devadatta, see the

as flrg^rTrfte

Vdrt
&c. follow.

lip'.

In the Vedas, the para-rupa substitution takes place when

Thus

3TTT

^T

^^=5Tqt"^^

So

also 3TTT <^T 5*nr?r=3T7T

J^te

^nreMi

Hk. VI. Cn.

I.

61

PARARUPA.

For the

95.

st

or

srr

108s

+ sfr of

sfr^,

or + the

vowel of

the Preposition srr^, the second vowel is the single substitute.


The 3t)'?t is understood here. Thus ^r-i-^tr^^^r? zrr-i-B?r*r = 2iTS as
;

^r^r^ 4ftiCwi
<T?T

+ afrST =* <T fr^T

^T-i-^sr^rsr, then Br^-i-BTr<fr=B7^rsr, ^?r

= ^rer,
Thus this

i-sir?r

+ ^^^it^^T^n'^, then 3T^-l-3T^rr<t = BT5l^r?lll


and the lengthening (VI. I. o'S, and 101).

arr

ll

rule supersedes both the Vriddhi

For the

9(5.

Pada
is

+^

or full word)

sr

or

not standing at the end of a

of ott the Tense-aflix, the second vowel

the single substitute.

The

understood here.

This debars the guna substitution


Tims f*r^H-*RT = R <2*, r%5^nr-l-^ = fs^'
3T^M-^t =
All these are examples 6f f*!$ (Potential;
**%', (Sj^of^) 3T2ir-l-^ = 3T3:
and af3P (Imperfect). Thus PT^ + ^r^+ffT (the zjr^r is added by III. 4. 103)=*
III. 4. io8) = f*r?^
(II.
re*! +- 3 + 3*T (^ replaced
ST^r + ra^+f|T = 3T^T +
11
BT + Etr + ftr = 3T + ^r+^?T (VI. 4.
4- no)=3T?r+?T=BT5-.
4-77) + *i
m) = 3T*3;: The ^st is also the substitute of f?T m f^ (Perfect) see III. 4.
taught

VI.

in

ls

3Trfl
I.

87.

?:

Ii

II

II

11

11

When

82.

the

preceding

vowel

is

not

3T or

Thus the 3rd per. pi. of the Perfect of gj is


The word
^t we have btt%h-I-^h = 3lfspT3:
affix 3*r

strictly

rule

this

does not apply.

xrfH-Stjr^^eJ:
BTTfRffi^ 'not

II

pada' does

srr,

ll

So

being

speaking, serve no good purpose in this sutra.

can never be added to a Pada,

also

from

final

in a

For the

must always be added

it

that has not yet risen to the rank of a Pada.

If

3"*t,

to a stem,
however, be taken as the

syllable s?T (whether an affix or part of an affix or not), then the limitation of 3T<t-

becomes valid. Thus effr + SW = ?FR*r,


+ 3V*m = #KHT
Most likely
word has been read here for the sake of the subsequent sutra or because
syllable Is taken here and not merely the affix 3"?r

qFcTTfl

11

this

3TT

11

sicft

^n%:

11

3$

II

*ttit% H sro :, 3pr

It

sr^r^rffTcT ^?r%

97.

Pada,

is

Tt^&mwtit *rent
not being final in a
then in the room of both

srarr^rcrerripf m^r- ^Jqrran **tpt

Also when the short

followed by a

the precedent

11

Guna

letter,

and the 'subsequent

11

sr,

the single

subitstute

is

the form of the subsequent i. e. the Guna.


Thus q=^-l-^r'T-l-BTf% = T 5r-l-B7f?tT = T=qFrT so also 2rstf?cM This debars
lengthening of VI. I. 101. Tq- + = T%, ^ *T + <T = ^, here the Vriddhi is debarred
(VI. 1. 88\
Why do we say " after the short vowel 3T?" Observe ?rr l-3TFrr
Why do we say when followed by 'a Guna letter?' Observe
= nf^T, 3if?<T
*

<?"

ft

Pararupa.

1086

3TT^-i-f = 3?*?%, bt?t%


-

<P3

-l-3Tsr

= f ^ni*,
CT

eS5"S^rTOTf?#r
srrfrrera

ii

Cii.

I.

ioo

Pada, this rule does not apply

in a

final

Bk. VI.

as

znTPT*, 3JSI*HC

S^3P ^f^ tR^T^rWr *Hu1t


toss*

BT%^rr^ f^r

The

98.
(of a

When

II

II

ii

5 of %fe

is

the~single substitute for the

word denoting imitation of an

3T<*

inarticulate sound)-l-^cT

II

when some
The sound which is
that
sound, by
resemblance
to
has
some
one utters distinctly something which
Thus
tth-isome contrivance, it is called bt^Rot or imitation of that sound.
not distinct and clear,

^=

is

called stssr;;

?fiT = ^f^T, W^+ IRT = ?rf^T' 3^1+ 5frT = ^f*TF%


do we say 'imitation of an inarticulate sound'? Observe
5^ = ^1^111 Why do we say "of3Tr'? Observe *rc? + ff%'= TOfm
do we say when followed by %f$ ? Observe q<r^+3T^ = T^r U

qMcT, ^rC+

II

Why

II

*FT?l-l-

Why

explain the

This applies when the word consists of more than one


How do you.
the following:
does not apply
+ fRT =
Here the
the following: ^2fff% *TwftoT*fHftrcr
form qsf^ra

word

q*q;-l-fftf

syllable.

Vdrt:

Therefore

is

it

not

in

3 3T *A
II

sound-imitation word
tfcT,

II

II

<T^TT% II T,

STTwfi^T,

3T?3ref 3, ^T R
,

This substitution does not take place when a

99.

of

^rf%frT

but si^-l-ffcr H

^T^fer^T^^rcT

?i;-HC

^TnC

in

is

doubled, here, however, for the final

the single substitute

is

optionally % (the second

vowel).

Thus T??l52-ftl% or <T2Wl% ^Tn% (5*3^1 + ?RT = *&<& + f + f% = T**TOt)


The word is doubled by VIII. I. 4. The para-rupa substitution will take
place when the whole word so reduplicated denotes a sound imitation, thus
Here we apply the precedeing sutra. The amredita is the
qscTiff^ ^TOffi H
name of the second member of the doubled word (VIII. 1. 2).
II

f?rasrrirf^T
ff^r-

11

^M

^tt%

^"

100.

which the
final

sTcj;,

ii

^o

ii

re gret S5?re3!t

affix

q^rft
^r^nrir

n ft^rac,
1

m^r%^, ^n%

sr^rt ^rer%cr rrFCTratensqvfirgfchwgqr-

Of such a doubled sound-imitation word,


3TT

is

for the final

to

added which causes the elision of the


^ of the first member and the initial

Bk. VI. Cn.

I.

Pukva-rupa-Ekadesa.

101]

1087

consonant of the second member, such subsequent consonant


is always the single substitute.
Thus
4. 57) is

added

VIII.

12: this

1.

to

there

^^,

is

^FTT^-I-^ (V. 4. 57) = T^^


When the affix ^pr (V.

II

really a Vartika.

doubling of the word by the Vartika under

is

doubling takes place before the

\o\\\

II

st^^Nt^" ^fa

11

57), ^T^TT ^TTrW

4.

Tnis sutra

3i^: njsrft ff:

*rr%3ra.

(V.

<T*<TT ^FTCTTrT

= V&t*T 0*+ <* = *)

<*frft

^r ^ttt

When

101.

II

final

*tf?:, *nraf, qftifc

^r^

^r

a simple vowel

is

ii

*rr>

elided.

btfjt is

ii

t*r%

11

ii

hom-

followed by a

ogenous vowel, the corresponding long vowel is the single


substitute for both the precedent and the subsequent vowels.
Thus
+ 3^=3^**^ 4- f?j: = *4tar:,m + 3?% = *T*?#T and %rf + 5ft*3

Why

do we say an st^t or simple vowel ? Observe 3T*?H -if = s?7

do we say 'by a homogenous vowel?' Observe ^fSr-i-3T3r = ^.;re


The word
srf% is understood here also. The word sppjr, therefore, qualifies the word 3THT
understood. The rule will not apply if a homogenous consonant follows. As
The f and srare homogenous, in spite of I. 1. 10 for that prohibiff*Trfr%%
tion does not apply to the long f and ^r, because the rule of classification and

51*332

II

'

'

Why

11

II

inclusion contained in BT^rf^T^PTfai ^TW^^r: (I.


tion at the time

portion of
is

when

^r$

the rule of

Therefore

definition

in ?rn&

( I.

I.

I.

1.

UW those 37^;

first

1.

69

) is

not brought into opera-

10) rule operates, because of

Therefore, so long as

q-?pfi rule.

not accomplished.

Therefore

?n"3 fr#r

its

being a

does not come into operation

it

the rule of ^ra

|f<fr

comes

it

into play, then

9 ) and then comes the sr?3rer?mR ( I. 1. 68 ).


only are taken which are not included in the

class of homogenous vowels


e. only the 9 vowels contained directly in sr^-,
and not the qtfft- vowels which I. 1. 68 would have denoted. Therefore
though short \ and ^r are not ^r^ax by I. 1. 10 the long f and ^r would be savarna.
i.

Vdrt
is

optional

two
one
is

m
is

\y2

or

t?

When 3 short

so also

with

by

followed

short, the

necessitated

is

long substitution

because

(1)

the

samvrita and the other vivrita, or (2) because their prosodial length

$$

and so the word

or fr53iTC

II

cannot be applied with consistency

Thus ftH%ch{<: =frrRtTrThe #* of 55 is 5

snurat: ^TOsHr:
ii

is

This vartika

II

the precedent and the subsequentare not homogenous, because

(3y=fH^ &c).

ffrr:

r5

sr^r fi% ??4 ff^

or ftf^T?;:,

in their

so also frg -i-^^r^:

case

= f cc^r
|

II

\\

^
ll

II

^rfa

II

srornfr:,

srTTr^rsfr f^TFFrctre"

^nft:,

II

^^^^rrr^^rftrWr^rfq- ire^f^r

Purvarupa-Ekadesa.

ioS8

Bk. VI.

ClI.

g T03

I.

For the simple vowel of a nominal-stem and


the vowel of the ease-affixes of the Nominative and the
102.

for

Accusative

numbers, there

in all

is

a long vowel corresponding to the


The words
here means the
here the

are both

^rsr:
i-

e.

vowel.

first

= ^n

snTTT

This sutra teaches the substitution of a T^q" or

fH-3?*r = f?aT

examples

last four

The word

understood here.

case or the Nominative, and includes

the 1st

long vowel corresponding to the

^rg-!-3fr

of these

f^Tnn

f%^rf?K also.

ftnffar

a homogenous

= BT*;fr

and

3T3T

Tfvppj

the single substitution of

:
>

first

vowel.

Thus

^m^ M

so also sstp, f$TP*,

STFT-l-sff

In the case

&c) the rule VI. 1. 97 would have


would have given the form ^-t-3T^r = ^r:,

(f$r-l-3T5T

caused para-rupa substitution

i.

e.

would have debarred the lengthening rule VI. 1. 101 on the


maxim apavadas that precede the rules which teach operations that have to
be superseded by the apavada operations, supersede those rules that stand

and that

rule

"

nearest to them

but not this t^pjtjt lengthening rule as

"

The word 337^" when a vowel


Thus ^H-st = ^t:, %w>
The word 3T5J7

nearest.

'

\\

here

Thus

also.

the antecedent

?'

qff-i-3ft

The

= TPfr

Why

substitute

The

or the subsequent vowel,

will

follows
'

it

the simple vowel'

do we say

not be one

^74 or 'long'

is

does not stand

understood

is

'

here

also.

understood

is

a vowel homogenous to
homogenous to the second
'

used

in

order to debar the

substitution of pluta vowel having 3 measures for a pluta vowel.

^m^^r *: jrcr

^rr%

II

n cT^rrci*, srer:, ?r:,

gr^r

II

After such a long vowel homogenous with

103,

?o?

II

substituted for the g; of the Accusative case affix


3TO; in the masculine.
Thus f^-i-^ = ^-i-3TJT:=fSTF7
So also 3T^fV^, w?,^^, fr*% t^^tr:
FgWl, ST^R, *r*n &c. All these are masculine nouns. Now the word ^r>^
lormed by the elision of gpj; meaning a figure like a ^(s^j (V. 3. 98), may refer

the

first,

is

11

to both the males and females.


referring to a male being

accusative plural of =q^r, the


^fsT^r: <T*3
first'?

Why

ll

The

do up say

rule will not

It will

See

however

^ 3^1
will

retain

S2?l% W*(H

we
f\.

say

by VI.
'of the

Why

I.

93.

Accusative

do we say

51

In forming the

).

Thus *r*rp

II

q*3j;

such a long vowel homogenous with the


the long vowel has resulted by being a single

'after

apply

Here ^

feminine form though

2.

not be changed into

if

substitute for the antecedent and the subsequent.


afr-l-B?

its

I.

will

Thus

not be replaced by

plural'?

Observe f^:,

c^p

is

3TF

as

x\\\

substituted for

cp*^

endings

"in the masculine?" Observe, %$:,


*gfr:

^ifp

\\

in

Why

do
Norq

Bk. VI. Ch.

?m^fcr

I.

fi%:

107

?o

q^rn% *,
tfimMHf t *r^m

srrirffifa-

11

II

The

104.

with the

TuRVA-RurA.

sth*, rf^r

ll

11

substitution of a long vowel

when

does not take plaec

first,

10S9

or

st

homogenous
followed by

stt is

a vowel (other than a?) of the case-affixes of the Nominative

and the Accusative.


Thus fsjt, c?r$fr, ^>, ^r%
Here Rules VI. 1. 87 &c. apply. Why
do we say "after 3? or btt?" Observe ar^r U Why do we say "followed by an
||

5^ (a

vowel other than

^rsftsrfar

ffrP

11

fr^[55fT% ?N-

II

?o<\
"ST

ous with the

first,

1.

H^

<7^H*rfP*f

102 applies.

q^TTJT n freTc*, srftr,

11

TTrT:

The

105.

Observe ^n": here VI.

sr)"?

ll

II

homogen-

substitution of a long vowel

when a long vowel

docs not take place

is

followed by a nominative or accusative case-affix beginning

with a vowel (other than


Thus ^Hff,

m ?^r
^r%:

rersr, srgrcswit,

?^

11

jflqj'H^R faro

11

T^ri^r
srrer

ll

or

by the Nom.

vm*&%-

II

11

^ro

srr,

PI. affix sm;

^ f pt ^ T^r ^r ^*re<$Href t *t?ti%

In the Vedas, the long vowel

106.
ally

st)

11

may

option-

be the single substitute of both vowels in these cases last

mentioned.
Thus

*xm
f rrT:

11

^:

bt^ft

*rr^cfh

ll

f^r

^ovs
i

srr%

107.

vowel,

ending

when
zjtz

a*

fWh

or ire^r,

11

*t^7T7t

II

or

srro,

<ri<fr s^r:

^t^t?

There

is

.ft 53*1 :,

^:

**rr>r

srrcifr

or *rnrsiT

srMr

*#

n^Wr *r^rr%

11

the single substitution of the

simple vowel

is

or

followed by the

st

first

of the ease

II

The word 3T3T: is understood here. Thus ^r-|-sp=f$TT (VII. 1. 24)


^TT, STf^-l-BT*=srrT*r, *T3*U1 The word *% 'antecedent, first' in the sCitra
shows that the first vowel itself is substituted and not any of its homogenous
vowels. Otherwise in fiTOr + 3T*=frenfar the
f would have been of three matrAs
or measures, as it comes in the room of + sr, the aggregate
matras of which
f
are three.

In the Vedas, there

is

option, as ^iff or

q**

c.r

jink

3T*

is

the

PURVA-RUPA.

I09O

ending of the Accusative singular of


the Neuter

singular in

fr
fnr*.

(See VII.

23,

I.

24 and

ummn g ?* ^n% *T*srcrn;on7i;, ^


^ ttop **rrc *k qr^n%<ft *vn%
*$ tm snrarviKf*
There

vowel

is

the

single

109

28).

ii

substitution

vocalised semivowel

for the

I..

II

<re*T :

108.
first

ll

ll

ll

11

Cli.

genders and also of the nominative

all

in certain cases.

BK. VI.

of the

and the subsequent

vowel.

The word

is

$=:

vowel merging

in

(VI.

(tt-I-^F=S 3T3-l-?r),*T^+CT---=w3^-l-^ = ^fa

become

the vocalisation would

a vocalised semi-vowel

is

alone substituted, the subsequent

is

Thus ar^-^ = f3?:5M-Tfi

it.

When

understood here.

followed by a vowel, the vocalised vowel

1.

15) =fS^(f-i-3T

= ?); so ^THI

Had there not been this

II

either useless or the

merging,

two vowels would have

Thus in g-qr + rT=^rq^+rT, if the sr did


cause
sandhi,
would
and 3" would be changed to * by
then
it
in
merge
not
3,
again
assume
the
form ^<r
would
But this s^rrf^ would
word
the
and
fSKTSFffcr
been heard separately without sandhi.

ll

caues samprasarana
rule, the

rule non-effective,

hence

it

follows that but for the present

two vowels would have been heard separately as

gr

3TR

II

The rule of option in the Chhandas ( VI. 1. 106 ) applies here also.
Thus we have 3r5S*TT#r f*T^TWW or StSTRT H "When you have just said that the
two vowels will remain separate and there will be no Erorf^r when there is no
purvavad-bhava we do you form gwTT^; it ought to be f 3Tr^TrH;" ? We have
only said that vocalisation rule becomes useless
ing of the subsquent vowel; but where there

only an option

is

useless because

is

if

there was not this rule of merg-

and
become totally
&c, therefore when in the

this rule of purva-vad-bhava,

allowed, then the rule of vocalisation does not


it

finds

scope in cases like f^:

its

not applied, there gprf^r will take place naturally, and the ordinary rules of sandhi will apply. The merging, moreover, refers to the vowel
alternative

which

is

it is

same anga or base with the samprasarana. Thus ^rarpT ^ZTHT = 5T37^T
3Tr = ^*\ H Here 3U which is in the same 3?^ with f merges in to
forming the dual, we have 5F37?? + 3Tr H Here aft coming after the sam-

in the

4 f^qr = 5ren?

ll

But

in

prasarana

gj

sjiq- = ^r^j^l

does not merge therein, and


II

In fact

when

we have

subsequent vowels will produce their effect because


\ 3T

into js, the purva-rupa

fication,

but there

is

w^\

II

Similarly

is

fcT

no such

necessity,

<T^TF?T

II

II

in the

antaranga operation

ordained to save the samprasarana from modi-

when a Bahiranga operation

applied.

^: M^dl ^

3T373

once the para-purvatva has taken effect, then

II

U&:

T^T?cfm:, 3TT%

II

is

to

be

VI. Ch.

:k

I.

ii2

>f

room

In the

109.
:he short

Puknarupa-Sandiii.

which follows

<%,

the form of the

first (a;

it,

or

1091

a Pada, and

of

o:

is

substituted the single vowel

or

final in

aft

rt) n

= bt^s^", ^T%-i-*R" = ^fsw


This supersedes the subsWhy
do we say 'of <j or 3TT? Observe T*F*, !***
the
s
Here
Observe
=
Pada'?
'final
in
a
%-I-bt^T
say
N
do we
TH*, RT-lrypr Hf33.
do
Why
not
word.
and
at
word,
the
of
a
of
the
end
body
qor^r are in the
we say "when followed by a short sr'? Observe ^^-l-ff?r = ^raPJf?T, *PTH-fra =
Why do we say 'short'? Observe m*ff arTOu"? = sTTO^lTft
^Tffif^nT
Thus

titutes 3T^

3T T^-l-BT^r

and 3T*

II

Why

II

II

ll

^ftw^cter
w^fa

\\o

li

<^rf?r

^fer^sft:,

11

11

11

In the room ofo; or sfr (in the body of a


word),-l-3T of the case-affix 3^ of the Ablative and Genitive
Singular, the single substitute is the form of the precedent.
110.

The f and ^ of 3TFT and ^T3 are gunaThus 3TT%-l-^r^ = ^r 3% ^nft:


by VII. 3. III. This sutra applies when the q or sir are in the middle of
a word and not padanta, as in the last. Thus 3T*TOT%9f3r, TOinTTOf<r 3F%
II

ted

^*,

srrot:

^cr

*^*

ll

11

1\\

<*?tt%

11

spn,

ts;

11

In the room of 3f-l-3T of the case-affix

111.

the Ablative and Genitive singular, the single substitute


letter short

gr

of

3?^;

the

is

II

Thus fnr-l-BTCTzr^^C The ^ must always be followed by ^ I. I. 51


this s is not the substitute of 5^ only, but of 5^ + 3? conjointly: on the
maxim that a substitute which replaces two both shown in the genitive case,
though

as itrp

and 3T^n$3

tely as the son

him

may

in*

one of these separaand "mother B (though both conjointly produce

this sutra, gets the attributes of every

of a father

be called indifferently the son of

or the son of B.

So the

3"

be called the substitute of 5 or a?)


The final ct is then elided by VIII.
and we have fr3* = ^Tc[:
Thus ft^ilM-^m, ft^J ^T*
II

II

^srerrcqRi^

SPOTfohlf

11

i\^

11

24

^T

of

II

<t^tt

ll

^r -

r^-,

% rfT^r T^l 3TO S=#C?T ^r^Rf^rr wlr


112.

may
2.

There

is

the

<rc^r

II

substitution of

3"

for

the

kuLES OF SANDHI.

1092

Bk. VI. ClI.

sth of the Ablative and Genitive singular, after ^rfe


when for the % of those two stems 5J is substituted.

I.

11^

aiid.<tfcT,

The phrase 3 %^r: and ^rqr are understood here also. The Wi means
to % and ?ar denotes fa and ?ff,
*?ft when the f is changed
to q
Thus *u%-l-BTH = ?jH5g: as *r*3g<T*r%T%, *T*?i *T* H
So also <T<*pj*T e3T%, <Tc*j: ^^t
The illustration of mt is ST^ which is derived
from the Denominative Verb thus *Tf*?PT 3^% = 9*3;, ^^f*T^f^ =^3H-*Fsp*
r

and includes f*?j and


the % being changed

II

II

8)=^p^r3 (VII. 4. 3). Now by adding fas <t to the denominative root
we
W3m get 1513V one who wishes for a friend'. The Ablative and Genitive
Singular of this word will be *reHt-l-3TW = ^5sr: also. Of sft we have the
(III.

I.

'

following example.
singular

of which

Nishtha,

is

F?I

in

^rFro-3TtT
is

= pft?st, add

sgJ,

also

the

considered like {^(VIII.

sutra, instead of saying

the

does not apply to words like

The word

3Tl%vfi%

applies only to

but

to

all

and

^r and

grfr

'

smr

<fr,

^^fafWTCtT

^ir^anr^

The phrase
3/tf-i-g

BT^ = f^r-l-BT^r (VI.

^t:

ll

??3

The ^

t,

of VIII.

3.

17, as it

(I. 4. 7),

:
,

and

the rule

indicates. that

where we have 3TRnH%

of

q;

peculiar exhibition of ?s^

%TPT3r

II

for that prohibition

in it, on the maxim


That which cannot possibly be anything
which ends with
I. I. 72) not denote that

"

(g^f^-;jfa = g^H-rlf<T)

'

<t^tr

II

^
(

1.

is

2.

^tct:,

n,

Thus ^53:, ^3: &c.

st^ps,

= ^is=sr
3.

ll

1.

109)

srfrT

of VI.

I.

109,

66). f^*-l-sre = fff3-lThis ordains


so also c^s^

= f^r^= pre (VIII.


(VI.

not a

is

it.

2.

II

17, there would have been otherwise

depends upon ^ VIII. 2. 66)


have been by VIII. 2. I.
would
otherwise
(as

^^,

an w, which

66) when

understood here, as well as the word

1st singular )

87)

II

the substitute of ^ (the r substi-

is

VIII.

whereby VIII.
S
does not become asicldha
for

&c

both precedes and follows

Thus

The

2. 1).

According to Dr. Ballantyne this rule applies


one who loves pleasure' (g^sTPT^Sfrf = msfa-l-f|p*).

itself".

such as

tute of a final

in.

the Ablative and Genitive

directly ^fssfTRP'Sji

one who wishes a son

113.

pluta,

and not to a compound which ends

^ff^T

denotes only

it

of w^t being the substitute of

STRTCfffsI

but a Pratipadika does (contrary to


it,

= |pu"

fq in spite of the prohibition

is

^^qTrTT sJTOqT^T

f%f?r

it

*T

for the

and

this

purposes

Why
do we say 'after an B?'? Observe btf^ -3T^ = btf?TC^
Why do we use ^ with its
do say a short bt ? Observe cjW-l-Bni = f$Tr bt^
indicatory s, and not use the ^generally ? Observe ^^l-ST^ = *TOr, srrrTCH-BT^"
Here the final t is part of the words, and is not produced from ?r
m^m
Why

'

-I

'

II

II

11

ll

Bk. VI. Ch.

The word

115.

Non-modification.

understood here also from VI.

*rf?f is

1093

109.

I.

The * must he followThe subsequent *f


f?

*r, therefore, not here: <*rr-i-f5 = f$T


must be short, the rule does not apply here f^-l-BTTf^rT =f*T 3TTfa?T
Why do we say preceded by an apluta bt'? The rule will not apply if a
Pluta vowel precedes it. As, gWrfr ^ 3?^ c^rem (VIII. 2. 84), Why do we say

ed by a short

it

11

'

"when

Observe fag^ TO
followed by an apluta st"?
Here C53 being held asiddha, there would have been 3

BTT^^T ( V IH.

86).

2.

had not

substitution,

the phrase *T<^T been used in the aphorism.

*fa

^r

\\*

11

^rr%

11

II

kt%

**

II

The v is the substitute oft (the * substitute


66) when it is followed by a soft consonant and

114.

of

^ VIII.

2.

preceded by an apluta short


The

$3J"

pratyahara includes

st

II

all

sonants or soft consonants.

Thus

tj^qf

urf* or ^rf% or rcrfrT &c.


sr<STT

spsr-qr^ns^qt

The

115.

??*

qf^TT%

II

final

or

sfr

ir&i is

the nominative case and


ginal nature, cause'.

when

understood here, but


not in

The word

The word
rf*f>'

the

followed by

3T is

stf?f

also

is

T<rw<fr 3Twre^

3*r*(Rig IX

Why

51.

do we say

The word

and not

understood here.
Rrcr
;

wtvi*

5$r

to

*ftf:

the

Thus
VI.

inner half of a

means

q-gn^"

'

iit

ori-

the Locative

'the foot

of a verse'

verses of secular

^?t

sT 5

#*% ^^(Rig.

'in the

The word

spcTlis an Indeclinable, used in

to the Verses of the Vedas,

when

should be construed here

it

the Ablative.

case here and means 'in the middle'.

^*rnu

3?

il

||

The word

refers

^cf.-^rr^r^^R:

and the following

retain their original forms, except

or

st^tt,

ll

middle half of a foot of a Vedic verse,

the

occurring in

11

Sfa ar^ H I^ >sr^

(R. Veda, V. 79. 1)

poetry.

STflT^

srt*ra?

58. I),

foot of a verse

Observe
when g; or * does not follow
^TT *mt firf ^rrm i^TS^for Why do we say
ST?" Observe %s^r^ (Rig X. 109. 1), %S3W?ff
Why do we say <r or err ?
Observe aT^r^^^TPTsWa^ U Some read this sutra as vrrscP W^rsanx
According to them, this sutra supersedes the whole rule of juxtaposition or
?

'

"

II

II

tff??Tr

(VI.

1.

72).

Prakritibhava.

1094

?TT^

ffrrj

BTcT^g:, 3T2HT, 3?*H*, 3T^T5g, STEFFJf

3?^r^ Bresrox bt^s:

ii

or

nc

I.

118

II

bt^bt^ b?^^ ^^

btprt

The

11G.

[Bk. VI. Cn.

3^^&n:q*<*n?f T^ms^:

retain their original form in the

sfr

middle of a Vedic verse, when the following words come after


them (though the s? in these has a ^and q- following it)
:

srs^rac, sTc^rr^, 3Tsrs?7g:, stcTcT,

Tims

(Rig VI I.

BTTOg:

*rnrr

btf?p sTreref*Rf

zwtz, st^ ?3,

sf^J

fowfr

BTspsrnt

Brssir?*

ii

27);%%

32.

(Not

BTefrTp

II

(Rig IV.

Bohtlirrgk gives the following examples from the Rig

ST^tH BTcTrfR (IX. 73.

(VI. 14.

3),

% 3T^?f

farT*:

is

(Not

in the

generally elided in the

TsFjjc.

ffrf:

\V*

11

^c? ^rsf q^;^r

Sffif

Veda

after

or arr)

q-

sr^r%, 3t:

11

^f*r R*R sf% ^^rr

In the

117.

BTjpRr^(IX. 73.

Rig Veda: according to

^n%

11

5),

mft

8).

^rf^rfr sp*

bt^^; (Rig

3T

ftr-

Prof.

Veda : *fter?fir

Bohtlingk the

Prof.

^TClStfTCTT

tt

4- *5)

the Rig Veda).

in

ST5RT*

itfSif:,

of srs^

III. 42. 9).

ii

Yajnr-Veda,

3^

the word

when

changed to 3rr, retains its original form when followed by a


short ST which is also retained.
Thus

s*t

*wfcr* (Yaj. Veda Vajasan. IV.


the word as
ending in

They take

as aj^rs^P U

case assumes the form

7).

Some
which

3-,

read the sutra

in

the Vocative

They

give the following example ?fr 3T?rTn^r ^ftfr II


VI. II, the text reads ^RSrrfWft
T' " In lhe Yajur
H

But in the Yajur Veda


Veda, there being no stanzas, the condition of bi^cP TTf does not apply

^r^g-TTorTfwr75rf5%r^psrr&^*^
%^ix:,
^Trr:
sisjf*

11

stswt^, stt^%,

errors, 3?*%,

at^fr^r

Tf^#r

rr

btrt

3rr?r g^rrofr
<TCrr :

sr^r

vreFcr

35),

f^r

bt^tt^

and

1.8.

1.

here.

sift., ^ttut:,

ll

I.

also in

.(Yaj. IV. 2).

(Yaj. VII.
22

Bp%

and

3? is

retained

after s??% or sttstt^

II

V. S

4, 43, 2. 5. 5. 4)

3?finft

m^ 3*WI

BTlp-^l *PTfcr I?*

Sanhita has gf^sf^


(I.

v?[m

11

11

after sirrr, ^ttstt, ^oft, ^f%B">

Y.

\\

^r *f% ??t% ^t bt*% bthti% %&m ^ $mfssr%r3Ts^*lf

when they stand before


BTpft

y$

\\t

In the Yajur Veda, the short

118.

Thus

11

The

btsstr

).

^rrfr bt^^TtSTO

?rfq% Bifa;TT% U

Yaj.

The Vajasaneyi

Taittariya Sanhita has ^fq% ajfa

^F^%

(V. S. 23. 18

where the reading

11

is

arf*^ s*^ri?5%) but Tait S. VII. 4. 19. 1, and Tait Br. III. 9. 6. 3 has 3T*ac
The words 3t% &c, though in the Vocative, do not shorten
their vowel by VII. 3. 107, because they have been so read here.

BT*%

3T*3T?srf*3%

II

Bk. VI. Ch.

I.

Prakriti-bhava.

122.]

In the Yajur Veda, when the word gr^ is


the subsequent short 3T is retained, as well as

119.

followed by 3T^,

the preceding ^ or
Thus
fWrT:,

*7F

?r%:

%?$:

STFTT

sfr

||

3T^

3Tff

^: STTW 3?^ 3T^

^qt^

11

W*^,

smfV<**

^j:

Yaj.

^n% ^r^f^r^

3T3?r%

1095

3T^

*Tn>TT

3Tff

P^Nk*,

q*?* tfT% 3Ttf

6. 20).

<r*:<fr

rW* q^^^rr

^fq-

h^i%

ii

In the Yajur Veda, when an anudatta st is


followed by a Guttural or a sr, the antecedent ^ or srt retains
120.

form, as well as this subsequent

its

st

II

Thus 3ni t 3TF^J (Yaj. 12. 47), bt^T ^t 3T^?:


Why do we say when
gravely accented ? Observe 3TOfs*r, here vfc has acute accent on the first
II

is

Why

syllable.

Observe

do we say "when followed by a Guttural

(fi)

or a ij"?

^tsarcf^T: srtfSw'll

3^<isiit%

f%q^<T3F ST^^TT

iri

11

WcT
of

3?

3T^?Trr%,

ll

ll

11

In the Yajur Veda, when the gravely ac-

121.

cented

t^fm

11

q or w, the vowels

follows

srarqsrrac

retain their

original form.

Thus ^t
perfect of

by VIII.
STFIP

I.

28.

Here

II

^%

When
3?

*t^ fkwm
%nr:

11

*r^r,

3T^T^r:

The word 3TWTP


Thus

is

2nd

3T-l-^-i-^<T-i-*rr*T

per.
11

Singular Im-

The

not gravely accented, the sr drops.


not grave by virtue of VIII. 1. 30.

is

*fr:

&;?m

ll

Atmanepada.

in the

q-qr

it is

II

II

q^rr%

*rrqrar =^rr% T*^f

II

sHbr,

3? is

grave

As S^gr

r%srr<rr, nfr: h

n^m *n?f?t Jwqr n

in^

After nT the subsequent 37 may optionally


be retained everywhere, in the Veclasas well as in the
secular
122.

'

literature.

Thus
ffs**r:

ifr

3^ TOtenTTOr

?T*'<
S3TT

*rrs* or

3T*

In the Vedas also

ll

3TTW W 3T^ *ft

11

11

3??frrrr

H^

11

mf rr^

II

?^

||

iT^TM

^h^^rwr

II

3T*f

srf*

tot

*%>*:

*WT^q\il
tr*

ffproroinTrfo ifenm.

09 6

Prakriti-bhAva

the substitution of

is

125.

According to the opinion of Sphotayana,

123.

there

Bk. VI. Ch.

s^

for the sft of

^ when

it is

followed by any vowel.

The

of stHt ceases, that of srnf manifests

anuvritti

sni = *r^ra*, so also it^rfspnr,


sw*r, ifrsnr^-rr, iTtfTf*,

pound

VI.

*TI*l

This accent

first syllable,
2.

Thus

).

I!

*T#rm
The

will
tthtt

im^,

Thus

itself.

or in the alternative

we have

fr

tT-

substitute 3T?^ is accutely accented on the


be the original accent in the Bahuvrihi com3T5re^ = rr^rq' II
In other places, however, this

accent will be superseded by the samasanta Udatta accent (VI, 1, 223) The
mention of Sphotayana is for the sake of respect, for the anuvritti of fairer
was already understood in it. This is a vyavasthita vibhasha, hence in fRW*
the Tf^ substitution

is

compulsory and not optional.

The substitution of srsr for the aft of *rtia


compulsory when a vowel to be found in* the word %r% fol124.

lows

it.

So
Thus tt>?j:
Mahabhashya.

also rr&j zr|p

11

The word

11

fSfaj is

not found in

some

|exts or in

^?T5rfiiTr srr%

\r\

11

^rfo

ii

^srrsnfq q^^r

II

^sni^r

3?r%,

ll

ffrr:

11

c^grr^

*r3T??r w

The Pluta ( VIII. 2. 82 etc, ) and Pragrihya


remain unaltered when followed by a vowel
vowels
(1. 1. 11 etc.)
( so far as the operation of that vowel is concerned).
125.

Thus f^rTT
prolated vowels.

3re

The

^%r

and the
(VIII. 2. I,

three chapters of Ashtadhyayi

purposes of previous

^Tfr^rTT

%Vi 3TFT3

prolation of vowels

sCitras

is

in

the tripadi or the last

tripadi are considered asiddha for the

This

).

the mention of pluta would be redundant.

vowels the following are the examples

Though

These are examples of

II

taught

Of

ar^ft

is

not the" case here, otherwise

the Excepted or Pragrihya


ff<T,

3T

f?rT, *sf| ffcT,

the anuvritti,of 3Tf^ was current in this sutra from VI.

tion here

is

for the

sake of ordaining

sj-fifrprre

That

is,

I.

77

HT% ffw H
its

repeti-

the pluta and the

pragrihya retain their original forms when such a vowel follows which would
have caused a substitution. Thus w$, s ^TTO, ^srr^ here in combining 3fr$ + 3 into
5Tr%, the 3T is no cause of lengthening, therefore, the lengthening will take place,
Isfow since

is

a pragrihya,

it

follows that *fr^ which ends

in

is

also a pra-

Bk. VI. Cn.

127.

grihya, and therefore

it

Prakrti-biiAva.

should not be changed before 3T of stri

*5*ff*rTr^\

WT^T tr

but by

5TT

in this sutra is necessary, in order to

enable us to give this peculiar meaning to

Otherwise, had the sutra been simply c^ron^ir:,

the sutra.

Hence we

11

There may also be the form srrawf, not


(VIII. 3. 33). In fact, the repetition of 3THT

have the form ^rr^+STTO^STT^ST^

by

1097

it

would have been

"The Pluta and Pragrihya retain their form, when


ever a vowel follows". Therefore in in"^ * ^TW, since ^ is followed by a vowel,
it will retain its form, and will not coalesce with
the ^ of 3TT3
But this is
not intended. Hence the repetition of the word srf^T, and the peculiar explantranslated ordinaeily thus:

ll

ation given above, namely, Pluta and Pragrihya vowels retain their form before

a vowel which would otherwise have caused a substitution, but


prevent the operation of any other

^ will become lengthened, because 3T


the change of
sutra

3*

which of course

to %,

understood here

is

Therefore

rule.

in srnj

3T

The word

prevented.

is

II

\r%

*v%tt*

II

II

srr^:,

in

the s +
it

causes

fi&X of the last

These pluta and pragrihya always

also.

s^hikt^s^^to

3HH

not the cause of lengthening;

is

form and are not influenced by the rule of shortening given


srr^r

8TTO

would not

it

retain their

VI.

a^nifa*:,

I.

127.

&%m

II

s^Rim^^r w% ^ ^ st^^tt *rf?r


For the adverb srr, is substituted in the
Chhandas the nasalised sif, when a vowel follows it, and it
sr%:

ii

*tt#t sf*r T^srrfrTnrT *f^t% faro

11

126.

retains its original form.

Thus

Some

Ii).

here

9T*

3TT (Rig V. 48. i)

3TT

read the word

ar^

*pftT 3?r

into this sutra.

%*st *TfIPTm*:fI=3Tr 3Trrc?

3*3* fW^rT (Rig VIII. 67.


Hence there is coalescence

11

^T S^T^T *IIW4'er I^nST


5^, ^

||

^\S

q^TFT

||

**:, 3T*F*nf, *ll<t>4*<l 9

II

II

^fr['

11

r^f s^t* sf*

^rf%57^
*r

11

11

tttt^

*rar?3**r*T*** *fc{ n*ui *^i%,

Rrfspwrr^r^r- srraFrofa^TT

fanrorfts, "-?%

ipgfawwT^

^fj^

*ttrs**

%wz

mn^x- PTPf **T%

It

11

ii

According to the opinion of S&kalya, the


simple vowels with the exception of st, when followed by a
nonhomogenous vowel, retain their original forms; and if the
127.

vowel

is

long,

it is

shortened.

In the alternative we
Thus
snr, T 3T*, ^*TTPt 3T*, minft 3T*
Why do we say the j* vowels i. e.
have ^*?r, T^HT, p4f, ftrcrr**
Why do we say
simple vowels with the exception of st ? Observe *&pf'<
ll

'

II

'

followed by a non-homogenous vowel

'

II

Observe

'

frcrCfar-* H

The name

of

Prakriti-biiava.

1098

akalya
of

mentioned

is

this sutra

This

Vart
ed by an

for the

clear from

is

sake of respect.

129

Because the alternative nature

very formation.

its

aka1ya

rule of

prohibited in the case of words form-

is

having an indicatory

affix

Bk. VI. Ch.

and of words which form invariable

q;

Thus sra ^ zrrfN?f^ra:, *T*TT fc^PT SKf^P*. The


compounds (nitya samasa)
word %Mq is formed by a %?jr affix, namely by sj*t (V. 1. 106), added to 553
Before a |%^ affix the previous word is
and therefore the ^ is changed to ?
:

11

considered a pada

Vdrt:

9s<a<*> :

^1%:

^r*r

11

16

( I. 4.

which are so by

3*U*W*JL

Of nitya-compounds

In the Vedas
?v

II

f^T

**3TR

II

srrer^^ ^n*^cre3^4ra

<reire

wft

*rent

are %^r^CW, ^ft*^, s^TO^T,

18 &c.

II. 2.

&c

3TST-

W% ^
*&ffo

are found uncombined.

s^sip

f^

II

^m^^vr^k^ h^^\-

its'-

As,

M*^r *nn%,

11

According to the opinion of Sftkalya, the


simple vowel followed by 35 retains its original form, and
if the simple vowel is long, it is shortened.
128.

Thus
ed by

?=r?r sjt>aF,

Observe,

f^nf*

!$[&*$

'

sjt* 3^,

Why

II

SEW

ff<|

Why

ll

do we say

"

do we say when follow-

the simple vowels (3T^p)"?

Observe f^n^j: (f^t + ^^T) H This rule applies even when the vowels are
homogenous (which were excepted by the last rule), and it is not confined to
f37

vowels as the

last,

sp^regprft^
R[?rm

II

^^

is

The word
That

is

in

II

* 3*fRT

Before

3T

<TTTft

and
11

srr also.

>

^iferit

II

II

the word %fe in the Padapatha, a

treated like an ordinary apluta vowel.

means the affixing of ffa in non-Rishi texts


e.
up into its various padas or words and f% is added.
Padapatha, the Pluta is treated like an ordinary vowel, and hence there

a Vedic text

when

II

STfJm HP*

129.

Pluta vowel

but applies to

STf^TrT
is

being no *$f?rw (VI.


5T?T = ^*T?$fa

i.

split

1.

125),

Why

there

is

sandhi.

Thus

have we used the word

*^r??n^

*f?T

like as

= g**5T%f?T,

instead of
saying "the Pluta becomes Apluta" why do we say "Pluta is treated like apluta"?
By not using ^, the whole Pluta itself would be changed into Apluta, and

agHfrftr

";

would give rise to the fcllowing incongruity. There is prakriti bhava in the case
of pluta and pragrihya. A vowel which is pluta need not be pragrihya, nor a praBut where a vowel is both a pluta and a pragrihya at one and
grihya, a pluta.

Bk. VI. Ch.

131

Prakkiti-ihiava.

1099

the samctimc, there will arise the difficulty. Thus in the dual BT*;ft or ?ff, the %
and 3R are pragrihya. They may be made pluta also a ar^TT ^ or ^* \ 11 Now
at all
if before *r?t the pluta became apluta, then we shall not hear the prolation
in

sr^

fl% ^rf

sfrT

is

?K
ffrT^

11

ijKfr *

heard

in

by the present

sr^

^ ^flm ^r
f $ sftt- c sj<fr

\\o

11

1.

fl^

and

this

is

retain

will

additon to that they will

in

Hence the

not intended.

II

q^rfa

125,

But

rule.

| fft,

For here the vowels

+?rW &c.

by being pragrihya by VI.

their form

lose their pluta,

pluta

formed by

II

^rnrafrw**

%,

sht q^arre^arerHTrfos

^f^nc^ra

II

11

According to the the opinion of Chakravai'mana, the pluta ^ followed by a vowel is treated like an
130.

ordinary vowel.
Thus 3T*3

name

ffHi3nrirr

of Chakravarmana

f^ fa XVI

The

used for the sake of making this an optional

rule.

f^sr^

or 3?*3 t|

is

11

f%5 fan or

This option applies to %ft rule (VI. 1. 129) as well as to words other than fft
In the case of ffa it allows sandhi optionally, when by the last rule there would
11

have been always sandhi. In the case of words other than fr%, it ordains
when there would have been always prakriti bhava

prakriti bhdva optionally,

by VI.

1.

This

125.

f 3* or ^%^nr

f^r sc*
ffrP

II

11

&\

as

11

^n^

11

l&i q^T^TTf rfr?TrT5'T^T

ft*, ^c
f^ ?frt
nT5^rTrt

,j

For the

131.
is

prapta and aprapta both.

3*TO5rre*TreT>

This apluta- vad-bhava applies to pluta vowels other than %

Ishti

mxi

a case of

is

final of the

when

the substitution of 3,

SHTrT Tf^jR

f5J% T W^J*,

^r^^^T?!

II

nominal-stem f^, there


(I. 4. 14 &c).

a Pada

it is

The portion q^ ofthe word q^T?^ must be read into this sutra from VI. I.
The word ff^r is here a nominal-stem and not a verbal-root. Thus f|f^ ^jr%
ZR^ = ^^ri *n*Tr^, f%T5*| ft^T, 5ra?P*. <gf*f U We have said that f%% is here a prati109.

padika and not a dhatu,

for as a

dhatu

dha and should have been read

as f^[

it
11

ought to have

there takes place the substitution of long 37 for *

we

shall

have

3q^3i*gr*t, 3T^T^pT

meant, and debars


will

be 5W*r,

sutra.

Why

TOwft:

^fvr:

II

The

^ sfrft

3F

with a

by VI.

anuban-

being used as a verb,


In that case

4. 19.

^ shows

that short

is

In the case of ^substitution the forms

377 also

comes because it is taught in a subsequent


tada ? Observe f%^ft, f^:

do we say when
'

The

servile letter

its

4. 19).

(VI.

373"

its

In the case of

it is

s^RTroT^TTTH ^fe

ll

'

ll

\\R

II

^tt%

II

*a<t

cr^:-,

PRAKRITM3HAVA.

IIOO

to ^T?rrr^

m* ?ra

*roFr tfrcr

w?r

After

132.

Bk. VI. Cu.

134.

ii

and

o^Tcjr

there

tf^r

elision

is

of the

case-affix s; (of the nominative singular), when a consonant


follows it, when these words are not combined with ^
(

V.

3.

71

and have not the Negative

Particle in

com-

position.

Why do we say
*T Vftfrt, <^W^> ^ 3S1*%
Observe ^r ^TRf,
^^% H Why do say "the case affix of
Why do we say 'without
the Nom. singular?" Observe q^r *TT#r *TCT
H
The
words %%% and n& with
ipT^Rf
*Hffr
Observe
f?n%
STRT,
3T'?
Thus w> +^TnT = *TT Wfo,

of

ffrTT

and

ll

II

the affix bt^v, which

and

rTC

without such

falls in

affix,

the middle, would be considered just like

and

in fact

would be included

in the

words

qtT?H

q^ and

hence the necessity of the prohibition. The general maxim is ?r^Rf?Trrany term that may be employed in Grammar denotes not
**T *T^*T *TS1%

^,

'

merely what

is

actually denoted

by

it,

but

it

denotes also whatever word-form

may result when something is inserted in that which is actually denoted by it".
Why do we say when not compounded with the negative particle " ?
Observe spr^r WRT> ^^ "R^ " In the c o m Pund with the negative particle
Why do
sp^, the second member is the principal and takes the case affixes.
*

followed by a consonant'? Observe i^Ssr, ^ts^

we say 'when
ff^r;

11

to f^RTTO

^f% ?fo t^t z&s r^rfr h^rt

II

ii

In the Chhandas, the case-affix of the nominative singular is diversely elided after ^j, when a consonant
133.

follows it.
Thus

3*T

to

^rrsfr

mvfa

R 'S

&wm

IX- 8 7> 4)

to TO% T^f %^ ^fa (


The ** means he
f^^K
5

'

apr TOT

?ett

*^r arr^sr *rrsrft (Rig IV. 40. 4),


Sometimes it does not take place as

sfcrntf

'.

I'

sf%

^cnri;-,

<sft

^T^an*

11

\\*

11

q^n%

*:, stt%, <sft,

%<*,

*nr-

il

134.

a vowel,

if

'

The

by such

case-affix of
elision

W*

'he',

is

elided before

the metre of the foot becomes

complete.
o).

Thus %s n^r *rofa ^"ffrPtCRig I. 32. 15 ) #rcr>fa3S*rer (Rig VIII. 43The case-ending being elided, the Sandhi takes place. Why do we say

Bk. vi. Ch.

'when by such
*Tfrt

135

elision the

The word

II

hoi

a* Augment.

metre of the

btN" in the sutra

is

line

is

for the

completed'

Observe

sake of distinctness

*r

sgrsir

for the pur-

poses of metre would not have been served by eliding the affix before a

consonant, for then the syllables would remain the same.

It is

by sandhi

and sandhi would take place only with a vowel.


Some explain the word qTf as 'a foot of a Sloka' also, and according to them
Thus we have: OT fntrcyt
this rule is not confined to Vedic metres only.
that a syllable

is

lessened

^ *n*&:

11

U^

Upto VI.

135.

sentence
is

added **"
This

is

11

g?,

1.

*ra;,

15:,

11

157 inclusive, the following

be supplied in every aphorism:

to

is

^tr

" before B

II

an adhikara sutra and extends upto VI.

I.

157.

Whatever we

augment !J? is placed before


^' should be supplied to complete the sense. Thus VI. I. 137
After OT., qft and TT when followed by the verb ^j, the sense being

shall teach hereafter, in all those, the phrase 'the

the letter
"

teaches

that of adorning".

complete the sense,


preceded by

Here the above phrase should be read into the sutra to


e. "the augment ^is added before the 3> of g> when it is
and ;yq-, and the sense is that of adorning". Thus *Pl+S[

i.

^, qrc

+ 3; + < = H*3f?Tr, *r*3uf^, ^^^31.11 In the succeeding aphorisms it will be


comes only before those roots which begin with gj
seen that the augment

What

is

II

then the necessity of using the phrase

used to indicate that the

*t

remains unattached to

Thus though ^ becomes

^r^T

in this sutra ?

though

it

It is

stands before

should not be considered to be


a verb beginning with a conjunct (sanyoga) consonant: and therefore the
it.

*$, yet the latter

in VI I. .4. 10 (the root ending in s^ and preceded by a conjunct


guna before f^r) does not apply, nor do the rules like VII. 4. 29,
nor the rules ordainjng the addition of intermediate 5? (VII. 2. 43) by which
the f? would come in f^ and f%^ (Imperfect and Aorist) as,
*re$tfre and
and so also VII. 4. 29, does not apply as grf*3ps% the Passive Imper*PT*25?r

guna taught
letter,

takes

fect

(stf%f Rjjfl7 )

of

m~g

If so, then the

anudatta accent taught

28 would not take place, since the augment

non-Rrf -word
verb.

It

is

^ and

g? would

VIII.

1.

VIII.

r.

word ^qf%, thus ^unfa would have accent on the


wfHr "fSsT^ftsfTmiT in applying a rule relating to

the f%^;<r

maxim

'

accent the intervening consonants are considered as


therefore

in

intervene between the

if non-existent'and
does
not offer any intervention to the application of the rule
g?
28.
U^is not to be taken as attached to 5jf, hgw do you explain

|? Augment.

102

Bk. VI. Cn.

I.

137

the guna in the Perfect 3rd Per. Dual and Plural in *nrefRg: and *hre?7$:
which apparently is done by applying VII. 4. 10. Though that rule strictly
applies to roots beginning with a conjunct consonant,
roots like

guna

The

is

Sutra VIII.

is

for the

purpose of differentiating

it

from

the

in

70.

3.

^iw^*rer$fa
11

apply also to
;

indicatory ? in

ff%:

will

it

&%> which have a conjunct consonant for their penultimate and the
done also on the maxim rr^^TRrr^T'*: ^f^T *I?T% (See VI. 1. 132).

11

\\\

srfsapn^ s^r^o^r^f

11

irrft

stsstto

n **?>

^^r^?r w?r

s*rcr%, sift

ll

11

The augment ^is placed before 97 even


augment sr? (VI. 4. 71) or the Reduplicate inter-

136.

when

the

venes (between the preposition and the verb).


Thus
^"^R

s^r^fTT

bt|-

snrejRtrj;

This sutra

II

^HR

ei^rqf^, ^tottc

(=sra+3T5tffr^),

is

not that of Panini, but

and

3T-j[r^a[^R

II

= ^+^^r),

made out of two


The augmented root

<tr-

Vartikas

is

would

have given the form srajn: by VII. 4. 61, if ct be considered an integral part of
It
i, and no rule of Antaranga and Bahiranga be taken into consideration.

might be said where is the necessity then of


relating to a Dhatu and Upasarga is Antaranga,
the Upasarga, and

augment ^?
is

*TC^

is

it

sutra

this
i.

e.

a root

The

is first

operation

joined with

undergoes other operations afterwards. Therefore,

Thus
Now, we

the form to which 3T? and sr^RT operations are to be applied.

have said

in the

foregoing aphorism, that

is

considered as unattached to

and therefore, the augment st? may be added after this 7 and so also
Thus we may have the forms
plication may take place without it.
,

efftr?^

and ^^cfTR

But

II

this is

sutra teaching that even after


fore 37

and no where

**q|qw

3-

70.

like

*rt-

BT^and

reduplicate, the fj*

must be placed be-

ll

^vs

ll

<*?n^

The augment 55

srac - <ift

is

^<n%:,

placed before

sr

^n&,

when

and the sense

is

The * of *p* is changed to anusvara


The 15 is changed to by
So also qfts^r TR^i TR^rf^^
5.
So also with 37, as ^q^rTT, sqs^f* TT^ssw. Why do we say

Thus
VIII.

not desired, hence the necessity of the present

^H, qrc and ^q are followed by the verb


that of ornamenting.
3.

the redu-

else.

^><ft ^rfr

137.

by VIII.

the

first

added, and then the 3T? and 3T>qRT operations take place.

src^rlf, *reff*,

ST^<f *** "

11

<sr

13k VI. Ch.

I.

140

g^ Augment.

1103

'when meaning to ornament'? Observe 7TO> H Sometimes 7 comes


thus ^sf-rFreFU
after ^-q even when the sense is not that of ornamenting
1

*n&& ^

\\*

11

comes

3>

combining.
The word

W$t

^ g*

placed before

is

when

*j,

W%, qR and ^q, the sense being that of

after

*t*t^to

'

^:

?p* ^'

*r<si>rTr

<rrc-

'.

*r^r

11

*nrar3r,

means aggregation. Thus


T ST^cR"==STgfftTO that is we assembled there

tfScT*, rT^T

ff%:

The augment f

138.

the verb

^^

g^PrrcreprorfspRra far** ^r *rrePEira

TOT WttH

51 SRF^fr

the verb

comes

take pains

after

3"<T,

something,

for

srfassr

faf^^r %f>rR

**TPJ H

The augment ?

139.

srtffcr

placed before

is

when

*r,

and the sense is that of to


to prepare, and to supply an
'

ellipses in a discourse \

To
crease

take pains in imparting a

value, or to

its

keep

prepared or altered

which

is

ft$<T,

the affix

it

is

safe

new

quality to a thing In order to in-

from deterioration

called %?>rf

called JrfrT^

is

The word

II

%f>rT

To

is

alluded

'

II

'

When

II

we have

not having any one of the above

3T3Wl%

forcer
fT%:

'

II

it

to, is called the sror^rc of a sentence.


Thus in
we have ^qt^^TTf^^ (See I. 3. 32) ^jpTSTTTOPTIn the sense of altering by preparing we have
^T^rT *np#, 3"<T*I>tT
In the sense of 'supplying a thesis we have TT*?>rf 3T?qrfrT, T^fJrT-

of a sentence which

H*ft%

is

supply by distinct statement the sense

the sense of 'taking pains'

TB^f?T

11

being added without changing the sense, by considering

st<*

to belong to sn^rft class (V. 4. 38).

*^%

That
same as

the

^^

STriWT

*rfTHff*

II

five

senses (VI.

11

?o

11

q^rft

11

SHI^TRf^f^rfr *TRT

^S^^tR^:

farm,

^r%

?TOTPftr*

11

f^ 5FT*1^

HJPT

or split

3F

II

II

The augment ^j? is placed


comes after ^T and the sense

140.

the verb

137-139)

I.

before
is

when

5;,

that of

'

',

Thus ST^PC ?r^r

^TPrT, 3q*37TC sfT^4I^KT PTP>T -

f^F3 ^TRT

II

to cut

no4

^ Augment.

The

Vdrt

when

above augment takes place

is

I..

143

added to

the meaning

is

not

',

J41-

verb

tirg?*

When

the verb sr-fj, as shown in the above examples.


that of to cut the form is ?qT3ftf3
'

Bk. VI. Cn.

comes

37

T ne

after 3"q

augment ^^ is placed before % when the


and sjr%, and the sense is "to cause

suffering".

Thus sts^*^

Why
^r<TO

do we say when

fsn*

the sense

^r^=^m % s*r fw^r *gnr. i*n


to cause pain

is

'

Observe

qfrT-

II

n%^%
*psi%

or jtrt^ft ?nf

g?,

) n

11

^^rr^rg^ra^w^ fsR^r^ppr^tTM *^mm *


The augment qga: is placed before ^r, when
142.
after srq and the sense is the scraping of
comes
the verb 3F
earth by four-footed animals or birds \
sr

11

ii

'

Thus sttR^c^ irrr f? arrff^c^ i^f^ir *$*ir$? srrfN^f **r 3Tpronrr-=


Why do we say 'four-footed animals or birds'? Observe
WTFTO3 f%f^TTT%
:

II

*rrf*rcra

\***p
Vdrt

11

This rule applies when the scraping

the sake of finding food, or


errf%tf?r **r

sfrf^fT^rrerrp

through pleasure &c, that

Tarasmaipada

ii

And

ll

t\\e

root

affixes will follow.

5*g*f6far *m%*.
fpf:

making a

fs*5*5tftf*

11

??

11

is

through pleasure, or for

resting place,

takes Atmanepada

See

I.

^n%

npfrt *rfsr%f*!%

3.
11

Therefore not here:

the above senses

in

is

it

affixes

of scraping

otherwise the

21. Vart.

s^gsfsfa, *m%:,

g*

11

11

The word $^3*35 is irregularly formed with


augment |jar and means a species of herb \
143.

the
so

'

The |tf3*?3 1S the name of coriander


The exhibition, of the word in the
called.

i.

e.

vn^RT

the seeds are also

sutra in the Neuter gender does

When not meaning coriis always Neuter.


not however show that the word
The word 5*5^ here means
ander, the form is 3*f* (ftf^rR 3*f5far)
the

fruit

of the ebony tree.

Bk. vi. Ch.

gr

I.

m^mj:

145

? Augment.

ftFi^rorrcT^

ment ^? when the

TO Ed

The

noun, CTKTTO

be

?r

of g*T

r$i

and

:
'

(2)

*ri^

11

formed by the aug-

is

of *pr

do y ou explain 333*, it ought to


rRT, on the strength of the
elided before a word ending in a kritya affix, the
is elided optionally before
and *resr the ? of

is

is

cfiPT

is

elided before Tr^7 or

HT^giPrS 8**^

T^*t

How

optionally elided before

the final 3T of vfa

tTrT,

(4) fft TT^

11

123)=^'^

i.

elided before

is

= 9T^iTO^,

ff%:

(V.

The

m^

uninterrupted action \

that of

*n**rr

"The w nof 3re>3*T

SFrTFP*

Karika:

^kp

stmt

srq^<ro:, fe*rr

not meant,

str^t

VTTC:

is

11

M^fnT = ^RTrptf^grfT *T^g^T U When the contiwe have STTCTCP *TTOT *rs^fnT - 3TT\ <fr^ W&&
comes from *TrTrT, by adding ssrar to form the abstract

Thus 3TT**W:
is

sense

t^r

11

The word

144.

nuity of action

\w

11

1105

mHi ^&

" (3)

q^r

II

As

(1)

*RJ^i = tff^>

sjfifa*

rrrt=^rf3

II

II

^ f%<ra
3^ ^ ^r *rnnt s%pr%
The word 'Tr^ is formed by

*tt*T3T%W K^rararir

145.

3^*2-

visited or not visited

meaning a locality
means a quantity.

11

when
when it

^j?,

by cows, or

Thus T?t*TCr ^P = *nT' t*j% ^rer* %tr sr ^ttpt* %ferTr jsn n So also
The word ttkt? by itself does not mean not visited by
TiTr^T^rnirf%
Therefore the negative particle is added to give that sense. So also
cows
'

ll

'.

*TT5TTTr# ^N">

*fr*mt ft%^

Here the word has no reference to cow, but to

When

the quantity of land atid rain.

ifn^t=rfr q?*H
:

rfrCTTf

What

is

it

has not the above senses, the form is


word sfirftcr in the sutra, the word

the use of the

by adding the negative

will give 3rffr*re

*T>i compound
means "a man who is a Kshatrya &c. not

force of

is

a stone &c".
land but
grazing".

in

Therefore

3Tffr*re

it is

intended that

such possibility, hence 3T*TRrT


never enter, are called

stt^ gfigimn

Inr

'i

with

r>]rN

which cows do not graze, but

But

srn^smre

9}%^
ll

particle,

rfrtfT?

- 3Trrr*T?

that of *j|5T "like that but not that".

it

would mean "a place


in

The

srgrrgrar

Brahmana, but does not mean

which there

is*

like a pasture

a possibility of cows

should refer to a place where there

used.

Therefore, deep

forests,

is no
where cows can

srrer^, *msr*TP*,
'
qmm m^%*T f-tTr^ u

\*%

svj* stf^r

is

As

ll

i^rfir

ll

no6

5^ Augment.

The word

146.

meaning a place

The word J?f?TOT means


Thus smr^ 3T%?T
authority

'

Observe

3Tr

^TT^^rf^^
wra fr R<rra?rr^

ing something
The word
^T S^r^VrT

gr^%

'

meaning a

11

srf^r

srnsro**,

ll

formed by

srnsHr is

when mean-

fgs,

unusual \

3Tr*TO is

formed by adding the

and the augment

3TT,

sh^fc:

fj?

not having this sense,


11

f^lRTO^

5^^f^T *^<T

^tt%

ll

do we say when

II

The word
'

When

ll

when

fjsr

11

147.

the preposition

150

firm place, established position, rank, dignity,

Tfr^=3TrT^

?*^

ll

formed by

is

^P* Why

'.

'

srreq^

I.

or position \

'

place

Rk. VI. Ch.

?*

q^rr%

II

^H

sfni

3Tsre*PC.

ijsrnr,

^r^T^I

3Tr^$

*lff

ll

ll

II

The word zm*$F:

148.

to the verb qr with

jqr

we have srr^R

sHh%,

II

affix

Thus 3Tn*$

II

formed with

is

mean-

fjs

ing "excrement''
That which has bad

To

ejected food.

the root

lustre

and irregularly the g*

spf

excreta

(the rectum)

lie

is

is
II

is

called

added the

Thus

*MHi

^f^Trf

affix 3T* (III.

3Tsre^rS5re?TO;

also so called.

When

II

It

ll

applies to the

3- 57J, the preposition


The place where the

not having this sense,

we have

sre^
^n% H aniwr., *ww*
smsFTt TwrgK ?**
3TT^rf*hCrlife?RR^'T f^TTrRrrt
3T<T*3Frc fm R^r^% **1T% %^fa
ff%:
The word srq^^T is formed with ^r meaning
149.
;

II

ll

ll

ll

II

II

the part of a chariot \


This word

affix

btt (III.

have

3T737* H

3-

is

57)

also derived

and fj^ augment.

with the preposition 3TT and the

fj

When

not haying this meaning,

we

f^^r: ^f*f%fopfr ^T

Verse

*ft ^Tfrf^r

150.
ally

from

II

\\o

11

q^

*W f^TCP >4^ild

The word

when denoting

fafarc

II

firr^c

a kind

is

ll

fa**?r.,

ST^%:, fafcr., ^T

II

formed with

option-

of bird, the other form being

Bk. VI. Cn.

I.

This word

formed by adding the

is

preposition f% and

Though
specific

and nothing

form

this

affix

^ffiftf^fn"

(III.

3F

with the

also refers to birds

added from the Vartika

is

^^r

Thtis sft ^

135) to

i.

f^R
vt^r

$*fc*IW

faf^Kir:

would have given the optional form


the sutra indicates that

in

Otherwise

else.

1107

The word

11

sCitra.

the sutra f^r^^cr^r^^Y

mention of

*j<

The phrase

no part of the original

is

'bird'

augment

the

only, a kind of cock.

and

5* Augment.

is3l

f^raft

would have

always means

nfijRT

refferred

ftr^n:,

II

the

to

some thing

other than a bird.

ff%''

II

Wit *P^f^
In a Mantra, the 5^ is added to

^ff^Sf^TT^Tf ?f^T^: gr*T*t

151.

member

second

is

it

compound and

in

II

^^

when

preceded by a

is

short vowel.
Why do we say after a short vowel ? Observe
Thus fj^fff 5TT^
in a Mantra ? Observe, g*T?yr frfareft
say
Why
do
we
rorhf^wrf^T
The ^tRT^ can only be in a compound (samasa) as it is well-known to all
II

'

and

it

does not msan, 'the second word

Therefore the rule does not apply here

<rfe<^3Ta* *>$r:

the augment

%<yt

11

To

152.

11

the root

is

town to-day,

^ftn" is

srfaTTvT

153.

to go, to punish

151 in

added

xtrt,

the

srr

affix (III.

1.

134) to the

II

'.

Why

do we say

"to the

root

^f\^[" ?

fr

II

m\, and
y\\

II

not to a derivative word.

ttfr

II

?t^j^ ^r?sfr,

The words st^j^ and

I.

is

',

the preposition

II

the Mantra,

referring to Rishis,

here

it

we have j^t7^

refers to

S*P,

3s$r

II

^ftaar^ are formed

meaning the two Rishis of that name.


The word ^R^j
Thus J^IT ^ sjtR-:, ?K???? mfT-

g^r,

II

Thus mn*m JT^nfT H* % ^ ffrer^SP 'I shall


jrf^
The word JrfrpEKSP means " a
be thou my emissary

to the root

sr^^J^ftsr^sCTf

VI.

sjrer/

^&:

^CT^JTr^fiSTTS^ 'a horse guided by the whip'. Here though


yet the augment does not take place, because the
3751

derived from

augment comes

ll

trfcWiSn, ^,

formed by adding

messenger, a herald, an emissary".


.Observe

^rsf^ra" T?g-JTn?T
II

meaning might convey:

as the literal

II

word'jrf^s^^r

root, with adding the prefix

inspect the

q^rfa

',

when preceded by

fjar,

form being ^Pcro^r.


The

11

'

II

by

could be formed by

other than Mantras.

(?Ji<*j <TPT rHipTrf ?TC*?T^)

When

?R**ff TFTT^

not
(fft:

no8

* Augment.

<tfT2TT3rer*ff:

VI. Cu.

I.

bamboo

',

Sfc.

157

11

The word

154.

means

Jn=*Et

'

*IWK3( means a mendicant monk \


When not having these meanings, the

form

derived nominal stem, having no derivation,

to which fj?

and

'

This is an un*
added when 'a
addition, when a -mendicant is to be
is *t^t*

it

is

meant; and the affix ffa in


Why do we say "when mean-:
thus we have t^rt and TC^fist
and
expressed
mendicant
Observe
".
*ih<mr?: " an alligator ", ij^ff
ing a bamboo or a
word, being derived from
the
word
derivative
*$&is a
"an ocean". Some say

bamboo'

is

II

WW

'

to

do with the negative

particle

'

*rr

and the

fap^% ipr qT>rf%^^f% = T^fT^s 'a

long an being

affix ar^r, the

bamboo

by which the
So also by adding fpr in the sense of <rr*5i?3 to the root
we get H^K^M Thus m ^WiRT==*rercr "a
5 preceded by the upapada m;
monk, who has renounced all works". A mendicant always says "rr$3<T: 2f?*frm

Thus

shortened.

prohibition

is

OTf?<ft: ^reft''

*TT

or stick

made'.

"Do no works ye men,

qRTCdtarareg 5 ^ 5ftc

?Vi

11

peace

^rr^

11

The words

155.

for

is

your highest end".

m^rn*, snreg^, ^rft

II

tfirenr

11

and sr^rcg^ are names of

cities.

When
(3T5TW

not meaning

&vm)

cities,

we have

5f?Rffr*

(rr^ rftwO

and sr^ a r f*i

II

<T^TR *K^<:, f^:


^rrc^tr !$n
V<i\ H
^fa<tt*3%
ffrT
ZxK^t
ff%:
means a tree '.
The word ?T<
156.
This word is formed from sfnT + fifir (III. 2. 21)=^*^: n When
Some do not make this a separate
not meaning a tree, the form is 37R^::
II

II

^^KT

II

II

II

^<

'

II

sutra, but include

it

qncsronjcfTfa

^ftp*
ff%

11

in the

next aphorism.

^ %fran*

11

tvs

^rr%

m<w

ll

^ ^s^rrr** f^rrnF% srsrnir f^ra


157.. The words *TlT^vC &c are Names.
11

gfTTC^s

country called Paraskara'.


N. of a measure', f^f^*'4T

^7

^r,

ll

TrrejrorecftPr

These words are irregularly formed by adding

'

sr^frr%,

in the

similarly

compound
by

'

N. of a cave',

of <T^+^T, and eliding

inserting !J^

fj*

N. of a tree', totot

sr^
f|

ll

'a thief

f^ETfrT

'

',

Thus TJT^T'

11

N. of a river',

'

f^Scjj:

formed by inserting

N. of a Diety', formed

between ff^+q^r and eliding the

11

Why

do we

Bk. VI. Ch.

I.. 158

Accent.

1109

say when meaning a thief and a diety

?
Observe ^vfiv, f?cTTcr: U The words
and
are
used
in
the
Ganapatha
merely for the sake of diversity, the
^K
^TT
word g-fn would have connoted that s^ptf^ ift:
When the root g7 rJ*<T 'to
injure' is preceded by the preposition sr, there is added gr to JT, when the agent
-

11

of the verb
sira

*WTT%

gated

II

utgujft

II

do we say 'when the agent is cow' ?


g* is added to a finite verb, which

the

*T*$S*wi*T

*tP> JTCg^Trfr TPir, JT*<|*<Tf?cr *rm'*

WWW f%3,TCW

JSTaWM

qifrl**i

Why

a cow.

is

ff ^nW^r5R3^T

158.

sr^%:

if g

HaR g

an^TTRI% ^Th^H.

word

is,

ll

BT

This

is

Observe
is

s*r<j-

thus conju-

Thus

an akritigana.

II

with the exception of one

syll-

able, unaccented.

That

is,

only one syllable in a word

This

anudatta or unaccented.

is

a Paribhasha

is

accented,

or

maxim

all

the rest are

of interpretation

with regard to the laws of accent. Wherever an accent be it acute ( udatta )


is ordained with regard to a word, there this maxim
or a circumflex (svarita)

must be applied, to make all the other syllables of that word unaccented.
What is the one to be
The word ar^nr means having an anudatta vowel
excepted ? That one about which any particular accent has been taught in
the rules here-in-after given. Thus VI. 1. 162 teaches that a root has acute
c

'.

accent on the

final.

other syllables

Therefore, with the exception of the last syllable,

are unaccented.

The

the rest are unaccepted.

^nfcT has acute accent on


as

^tr:, has accent on

sFftrTCrncf*

^'

m
II

ll

Thus
root

in

Tr tTr5frT

accent

is

the acute accent

superseded by

?rr

is

all

on

the

all

accent, thus

The sit accent is superseded by cT?t accent,


The rf*r accent is superseded by srPI. accent, as

II

fohHW JT1%: IT^W


1*T*j ^TCHf ^J*r %^fTO Tf^T:
The
words 'with the exception of one syllable' show that the separate accent of
srpT*TW

II

an augment, or a preparative element, or a stem or an

when a

particular accent

is

I. 98 teaches
"srp* acutely accented is the
sarvanamsthana affix follows". Thus "**|fo SRjff:, here

10

affix

should cease

Thus as to (1) augment: yij


augment of ^g? and SFTg? when

taught for a word'.

fehe

augment-accent

mo

Accent.

^3* was

supersedes the accent of the stem, for


syllable, so also ST^fi?

thus derived

(^^tUn V.

3*^+3^+1%$

sr^r 5?Rr==

vocalisation of

of

158

acutely accented on the

first

these being formed by the affixes

Thus ^r+3T*=<%?:

tively.

^ VI.

1.

= 3T^Ji?

i5

Bk. VI. Ch.

3^

accent VI.

58,

and

3*^

197

I.

I.

respecis

3T?rf?

replaced by ^, and there is


This word is formed by a Krit affix

the

>

II

st is

with a karaka upapada, therefore, the second term will retain

original accent,

its

namely the final acute of a root. (VI. 1. 162 and VI. 2. 139 ) st^ct itself is
derived by adding the affix ( Un IV. 189 ) 3T!J^ which makes the word acutely
accented on the
cented when
a vowel

stem

sr*^

3TRT^(Un
I.

197).

stem taught

is

in

of the vikarana

irf^r

from

derived

is

an example of fr%K
1.

'a

foot has an accent on


28, 3),

makes n

acute. (4)

as ^rfoip^,

96) here VI.

1.

The determination

its final',

and

So

an anitya

rule,

^rpJJR;,

added

to

it

to

by

accent of the affix (III.


rule III.
*TPTr3

(VI.

1.

32

all.

162),

The

III.

1. 3),

1.

i.

test

is,

Thus

28, the

e.

VI.

way

gives

affix

162).

I.

and the sequence of those


a nitya rule superseding

what

*tr<TT3TnT
3J

guided by the

foil wing

another

(VI.

1.

(>*fij),

falls

rule',

finds

derived from

It is

I'

162).

When

*j<t

the

affix

3TR

is

a root.

Thus

and thus takes the accent of a dhatu

on 3
that except one special accent taught

and the accent


is

the remaining rule that

word becomes nrrra and it takes the


now falls on TT but now comes

which says that a word taking the

rule

is

the accent

II

syllables take anudtta. Therefore,


is

it,

rule,

rule, that in spite of

rule.

gets the designation of root


1.

3TT in 3TRT

which are formed by the

which as a root has accent on the syllable


is

affix
(

of the proper accent of a word depends upon con-

scope or activity, bars that former

affix 3TT3

first

supersedes the accent

185 debars the accent of the root (VI.

But another

applies after giving scope

root,

of the

first 3?

an antaranga superseding a bahiranga, an apavada rule super-

utsarga rule.

seding an

75

also the accent of the affix sup-

a latter rule (qr) superseding a prior

e. g.

1.

the accent of the

rrr<Trai%

the acute accent on

e.

i.

sidering the various rules that have gone to form


rules,

VII.

by adding the

3T*t

Similarly in

(3;

II

1.

162

srrsT (III.

ersedes that of the stem


1.

3Tf$f,

(Vikarana):

which makes the word accutely accented on the

to the root-accent which

Spa^III.

3TC*T,

f^T-fnr

there shall be stt^ acutely ac-

supersede the acute accent of the

The word

VI.

and

any of the subsequent terminations beginning with

will

3??r
l

III. 154)

This

3TT**T, ^HT,

follows or

?r

This

".

as

Similarly as to

first syllable. (2).

teaches " instead of

where there

is

in a sutra the other

a conflict of rules, the accent

maxim: "q^W'rTCfflW^ ^5^**11 ^^fj^fsre^"

namely (1) the sequence, a succeeding rule setting aside a prior rule (2) a Nitya
rule is stronger ftien Anitya, ( 3 ) Antaranga stronger than Bahiranga, ( 4 ) the

Apavada

is

stronger then Utsarga.

illustrated above, then

we apply

quote the words of Kasika: ^T

When

all

these are exhausted, as

the rule of strtrts

f? 3fTO(.sn%

RT*3%

II

What

rT^f 3TTC3RT

is

we have

this rule

W%

"that

To

which

Bk. VI.

Cri.

I.

Accent.

158]

does remain and must

Thus

other".

by which the acute


(VI.

*?rg*^; v

last

1,

spite of the presence of another, debars such

in

here the ljrtKiHt-

in *fnrrar<t;

on the

is

192) by which the

formed with

addition of the

tne accent of the affix" (III.

of a dhatu

final

rule of

and

debars the

it

the case of deriva-

in

because even ofter the

^rfrTftre,

these words retain the designation of dhatu.

affix,

1.

an apavada to the

is

acute,

is

debarred

in its turn

is

by the

affixes,

"

syllable of the affix

first

dhatu-accent; but this affix-accent


tive verbs

iiiz

Similarly

^ffwrNKH g ^gp, "The son of him whose upper garment (uttarasanga) is of black
color the Son of Baladeva" the Bahuvrihi-accent(VI.2.i) being an apavada to
Samasa-accent (VI. 1.223), debars thesamasa-accent; but this Bahuvrihi-accent
is in its turn debarred by the rule of ^rreftlE when a further compound is formed
and the final word is a compound only and not a Bahuvrihi. Though the accent
of the Vikarana is a 5af%Rrg, yet it does not debar the Sarvadhatuka accent
in

VI.

1.

186

accent of

: .

^fa:, the accent of the vikarana

in

The

?fT-accent

the accent of

debarred by

;ft

docs not debar the

11

Vdrt:

btr^ here

Thus

).

<t*t

T^ accent

stronger than the case-affix accent.

is

2. 2,

in

VI. 1. 166) though smrerg is


Negative compounds are Tat-

vibhakti after ft*j

taught in VI.

Thus

for

purusha.
Vdrt:

The accent of

caused or occasioned by
in =qrcnr

is

Tfsr

this

stronger than the accent of that which

Thus STOW*'

occasioned because of the case-affix, for

a Sarvanama case-affix follows

But

is

a vibhakti.

udatta

Why

VII.

98

1.

II

it is

This

).

udatta

srf is

superseded by the accent of the Negative

is

do we say

'in

As

will retain its accent.

body of

the

||i|tT!

pada

VI.

98

1.

).

particle.

In a sentence, every

'?

is

Here the augment 3TPT


added only then when

word

*rr^nT ^pfr^r "O Devadatta, drive away the

The word qf^ is in fact used in this sutra in its secondary sense,
namely that which will get the designation of T^ when completed had it
meant the full ready made pada, this word would not have been repeated in

white cow".

tr^rfagnr sutra (VIII.

would

as belonging
its

belonging to

because

it is

Tftlft class,

first

affix to

by

2.

it

full

we

IV.

nn

acutely accented on the

is

adding the feminine

get ff^r, which will retain

trf

II

But

it is

syllable (Phit II. 15),

44, thus

'pada' been meant, the incongruity

^^

The word

not technically a

on the

formed from

Had

16, 17).

to n\mft class (Phit II. 15),

tta accent

2.

i.

arise in the following.

f^^rr R^fTR

rest syllables anudatta, just at the

would have taken

to

it

acute on the

by

first

so, the word ^rfr has anudaand hence we can apply the 3t*t

=^T^w

Similarly the word

It

II. 15),

with, the affix

*Tpfafr

sj^r

(V.

If here the affix fft being uoLatta causes all the

very

moment

of its application, without seeing

whether the word was a pada or not, then the word


3}*r

#rr

first

not

(belonging to Gramadi class Phit

115) and the feminine #[<* H

its

affix

and therefore

its

exception

is

rrpiofr

proper

being anudattadi
in

the PTSffl^ class

1 1

End-acute

12

(IV.

2.

38

But

).

Bk. VI. Ch.

remain acutely accented on the

^FtP

Sisft S?cT

and

first,

be useless.
*F*ferat

II

its

q^TT%

II

word

enumeration

*&,

II

would

*Tf$oft

38 would

in IV. 2.

S3T,

STcSTcT:,

3T?cT:,

II

159.

stem formed with the Krita-affix

the aeute accent on the end-syllable,

(^m)

^*

root

160

the anudatta-hood of the remaining syllables were to

if

follow after a word had got the designation of Tf, then the

3^TtT.

I.

or has a long

in

stt

if it is

ster

has

formed from the

it.

This is an exception to VI.


Thus.qE$*vlF$, *r& r tf&i ?TO :, >rf:
1. 197 by which affixes having an indicatory 3T have acute accent on the first
The word 3vT is used in the aphorism instead of ^r, to indicate that
syllable.
II

^jf of

Bhvadi gana

The word

by

affected

is

^^

STS^faf

II

\\o

II

^TT^

&\ fj^frf

and not

this rule,

derived from Tudadi

sJM:

^sgr^RnC,

II

first syllable.

II

The words sr^ &c. have

160.

of Tudadigana.

has acute accent on the

acute accent on

the last syllable.


Thus

1.

s>:,

2.

4. -3^^:

STxSF,

3-

*?re?:,

II

and would have taken acute-accent on the first.


spr affix (III. 3. 61) which being grave (III. I.
taken the accent of the dhatu (VI.

Some

read

also here.

5zr<J;

causing of guna

is

7.

^i'

162),

1.

of a carriage'.

by

this

is

and has

on the

accent

syllable.

first

is

3iT:

'

poison

means

it

8. *Tf:
',

^11^5-^1%,

Sama Veda,
last

in

III. 3. 121.

word ItTP? occurring


:

other places^

it

end-acute when meaning

on the
on the

first.

first.

ed by

srsi,

H$T

otherwise
thus

3.Tr*3rrr?r vTRTTff^n't,

14.

tation of vrnrsrfr

^tH^tT^T

mto

tn * s a * sa

though a

in

Sama Veda

the

*5

^^ root

a part

formed
acute

is

;F

here qprf

11

first syllable.

stotra

*%% ^:, the

3-T*

means

has acute on the

affix

it

3?:

has

has acute

in other senses, the acute is

^I^^

^^ ^T*T F2Tr
;

12.

when formed by

*rr*3"', rrr?:,

e S- T*W->

*Hbr,

on the

falls

U.^tTR: ^Sf, the

has the accent on the middle.


'a cave',

'

',

is

11

e.g. VK*i^, TK|?t, 1^11

the

= (|slr)

in other senses, the

syllable.

the non-

affix,

a cycle of time

11

take the above accent, when denoting ^rn the accent


I0

srsi

first

These words
M: O^Sf:), and ^:, ^v{
When denoting instrument (sr^jt) they

9. %*t:, %ft,

by qrr by

are formed

when

would have

acute on the

and the word means

irregular,

In other senses, the form

sr<*,

these words

4),

from ^ar by

derived

is

5.

e.

i.

These are formed by ^Tl


6. spj: are formed by
*r<|:,

Some

(*pf^r)

ll

read the limi-

These are form*

Bk. VI. Ch.

161

I.

3sg\ 2

End-acute.

w&z, 4

vfrs&, 3

^TrT,

1113

5 ITT, 6 ?p* (ssre),

7 31T,

mt

0>*-

|I,

12 *** ^;, 13 CT**<rraT *rnc*T?far*, 14 s^^rTT#r(STT*rereTPT*n&tr) *t^t, is h^pt^-,

Hnnrwn!

wr^^m^P

An

161.
accent,

unaccented vowel gets also the acute

when on account

The word udatta


to

it,

the s|

is

elided (VI.
:

words

5^

&c, are

Why

when

148), the

Thus

fr^rl

is

elided.

+ f =ftfIRT

the unaccented (anudatta) #r<i

anudatta $ becomes udatta.

The

ll

is

added

So

I.

sfa^+g: = 5*T,

88),

also

ll

ll

'an anud&tta vowel gets

&c

'.

Observe FRT^:

H^=smT^P

II

Here though s^r^ is end-acute ( VI. 2. 144 formed by


q^ with gati ) it is followed by 3 which is svarita (VI. 1. 185), this svarita
causes the lopa of sr udatta: but it does not itself become uoatta. No, this is
not a proper counter-example. For by the general rule of accent VI. 1. 158,
when one syllable is ordained to be udatta or svarita, all the other syllables of
Therefore when ij is taught to be svarita, all the
that word become anudatta.
So there is no lopa of udatta
other syllables (like ) will become anudatta.
when i[ comes. The word ST^frT is used to indicate that the initial anudatta
becomes udatta. Had anudatta not been used, the sutra would have been
2RrerTT^nTr, which would mean 3{f^s?rS% mw, ^TTTr^pfcT rT^FrT ^Tr[\ *n?rrT, for
There would then be
the anuvritti of st^T would then be read from the last.
anomaly in the case of m ff ^TcTPT, and *irft $TT*TP*ll From the root &g we
have formed ^ncrprand^rm-JT in the Aorist Atmanepada,dual. ^s + ^r + STrtTPr
Here STrrTTI causes the elision of the udatta 3T
=^?H-ST (VII. 3. 72 ) + 3rrrTPT
of *r
Therefore the final of stiWpt would be udatta, which is not desired.
The augment sr is not added because of *rr, had it been added, the af would

( srrcrf

the preceding acute

The <TTC^ has


5f^+ sir = I*n
also ;si + f*T3<T = ^glj^(IV. 2. 87), d^, 55^
The
end-acute, and the affix TfJ (^) is anudatta (III. I. 4).

+ 5T*T = 5*f (VII.


So
acute on the last.

SrfSft

last,

I.

it

understood here.

is

word gpnr has acute on the

of

^^TrT I V. 4.

76

).

II

II

Had

f|

would have become anudatta

in

have been udatta


28
it

VI.

4.

71

).

not been given, then also the whole of

^n^rmr* because o fa^Tpr?: (VIII. 1.


See VIII. I. 34 (f| ^r). Why have we used the word 33" in the sutra? If
was not employed, then the subsequent anudatta may be such which would

*J$rrrrp*
).

not have caused the elision of the previous udatta; such udatta being elided by

some other

acute and this

and

still such anudatta would have become udatta. Thus


Here wrsr: is plural of m^:
The word Hi^hf is endacute (sror) was elided in the plural, before the affix *r*r was added.

operator,

in vn;*fcp, Hr*RT, **l?:

II

ll

End-acute.

1 1

The

here

elision

case,

had

not caused by sth, but

is

Therefore

f^ro).

is

*t^%

not been used. m*x

Observe nre + srsr

elided"?

a subject of sps (not

fqi^ri

but

iV.

104

1.

=%pj

*>

II

Why do
ll

1.

The gotra affix was


we say "when an uddtta
The feminine of this will

Tfr^^T^

Here f causes the


73=%%
unchanged.
remains
So also Irr ^F
and hence

beV^ + ^^CIV.

165.

does not become udatta, which would have been the

*r*r

elided prior to the adding of the case-ending.


is

Bk. VI. Ch.

of auudatta 3T of

elision

<?,

II

^cft:
ffrP

II

3TnT

II

\\\
%$H

*T3Tfr

II

^TTrfRnT

162.
The word 3T?rT
T%cT:

\$\

II

II

is

II

II

II

fecT,

(3T?cf:

t^ttt.)

^r,

II

II

stem (formed by an

having an indicatory

substitute)

^TtT:)

^trtt:, (3T?cr:,

root has the acute on the end-syllable.


understood here. Thus ttTtT, qrfrT, ^Tfl%, *TPTrafcT, 3u%

T^n%

163.

II

ZWW W?T

acute

gets

augment

or

affix

or

on the end

syllable.

Thus

These are formed by

^l^Ul,K%K^l'

"k*z&i,

5^ III.

2.

161.

^r^^TP by II, 4. 70 where the substitute <^r*"3^r^ is employed. To


added fPT in the sense of Tfi, then is added the feminine affix 3T* thus

also

The descendants

has middle-acute.

Gargadi

The

).

plural of

indicatory
affix in

the acute accent

but on the

So

base.

be formed by eliding

will

<rfe=T^T
II

prefixes.

3"g<T:

(V.

3.

last syllable of the

f^rT

fall

II

II

<9\

having an

taking the stem and the

The affix ^fr^ns one of those few affixes


The accent will not, therefore, fall on
whole word compounded of the prefix + the
\

It is

added

s^^r

(V.

in

3.

the middle of the word, but

71).

crf3C?T^T, (sFcT, 3^TtT.)

PTc^f^rRSPTT ^rt

164.

an indicatory

^TT%

II

final,

( by 3>t of
and substi-

II

68

on the end\ as

?$

%ZH

3r>J

In the cases of affixes

on the

falls

also with the affix sj^r^r.

the accent will

fT%:

Thus

an aggregate.

which are really

is

^f^sT^fr

cf Kundini will be c^rfo^^f:

Kaundinya

tuting cr^r^r for the remaining portion.


S3r

So

^s

vnrffi

II

II

stem formed with a Taddhita-affix having

has acute on the end syllable.

Thus ^rs^r?^*- formed by the

affix <tt<f*t (IV.

I.

98).

^>5T +

(^

<^-tt

being elided by II.


>3 = !7r>5rc2Ri: dual %T>^n*^r, pi. SFTSarnRP
thus giving scope to ^<Ft accent). In this affix there are two indicatory letters

and

tj

the

^ has only one function,

4.62, and

namely, regulating the accent according

has two functions, one to regulate accent by VI. 1. i97>JJid


another to cause Vriddhi by VII. 2. 117. Now arises the question, should the

to this rule, while

word get the accent of ^r or of*r

ll

The

present rule declares that

it

should get

Bk. VI. Ch.

the accent of

er

if 3j

167

End-acute.

and not of *T,

for the latter finds

was to regulate the accent,


fccr.

fr%:

II

II

\v\

^Tf^r

ll

rrf^TrT^^

r%cr:

II

T^frT

57,

Thus fTlT3^ formed by <?raf? (IV.


5T?rf^^s formed by y^r (IV. 4. 1).

r%^4t
ffrT:

II

<3rcn H

a function

left

to

it,

while

II

^Trfr

I.

wnftjHfr,

still

would have no scope.

11

A stem formed by a Tacldhita affix having


has acute accent on the end syllable.

165.

an indicatory

"^r

tTfcrJTO RhcTlnf

1115

T^Tfa

Rr^WT:,

II

faRvq TrRtn t*IM S^P^t T^PT

99),

3TCT.,

^rrrrarn:

Similarly

11

(aFcT, ^TtT:)

II

II

The Nominative

166.

so also

plural

of 1%^; has

(sra;)

acute accent on the last syllable.


Thus fkfifaBfa

The word r^w

2.4.

This debars the Svarita accent ordained by VIII.


of fir VII. 2. 99) meaning three is always

(feminine

'

'

There are no singular or dual cases of this numeral of the seven


plural cases, the accusative plural will have acute on the final by VI. 1. 174

plural.

the iemaining cases (Instrumental, Dative, Ablative, Genitive and

Locative)

have affixes beginning with a consonant, and by VI. 1. 179 they will be
Thus the only case not covered by any special rule is ^tct (nom. pi)
udatta.

which would have been Svarita, but


not provided

for,

rule applicable

then

merely saying
only,

to ifcr

why

for

this rule.

riff *W

has then

If

^pt be the only case

would have
it

sufficed to

bean employed

make

in the

the

sutra

done, in order that in compounds, where fan may come as a subordinate member, and where singular and dual endings will also be added, this rule

This

is

will not apply.

Had

*r*T

been not used

in tois sutra,

then

in the

case of simple

m*T there would be no harm, but when it is seconed member in a compound


there would be anomaly.
Thus 3Tftrm# would have become end-acnte. But
that is not desired.
It is svarita on the final by VIII. 2. 4.
^5^:: srftr
fT%:

II

^g*

11

\$*

ll

qr^rfc

STRT !*.$( S*tT 3ST?ff

167.

Thus
2.

99),

^*;:

^rg?:.,

^r% (stj^ttt:)

on the

tr^ the accent

ll

II

The word ^r, followed by

plural, has acute accent

(VII.

11

^frT

is

the

accusative

last syllable.

on 5

11

which has acrte accent* on the

The feminine of ^3^


first

(VII.

2.

accusative plural will not have accent on the last syllable,

is

^ct

90 Vart), and its


This is so, because

^g^has acute on the first, as formed by 3*^ affix. Its substitute ^rf^ will also
be so, by the rule of **nfT^?j;
The special enunciation of arr^Trr with regard
ll

to sTrTW in the Vartika

^aq J rWt n^ TKH

3FfNl (VII.

2.

99*)

indicates that the

End-acute.

ii 16

present rule does not apply to


,

5[rT?|4-?T^= ^rer

+ ^C. H Now

Bk. VI. Ch.

Another reason fot

snr*[ H

comes the present Sutra;

169

this is as follows:

here, however, the

substitute of sr being sthanivat, will prevent the udatta formation of the st of

q nor
;

will

m be

considered as

final

and take the

no vo-

acute, as there exists

but a consonant ^ which cannot take an accent. As *qcrcr: T33


ProI have
fessor Bohtlingk places the accent thus q^J, Pro. Max Muller *rj*;:
followed Prof. Max Muller in interpreting this sutra; for Bohtlingk's interpre-

wel

il

11

tation

would make the ending

fir^rfe:

accented, and not the final of

Tg*

11

ll

^TtTT **!%

II

The

168.

case-affixes of the Instrumental

the cases that follow

have the acute accent,

it

and of
if the stem in

the Locative Plural is monosyllabic.


The word ^r (locative of 5) refers to the 5 of the Locative plural.
Why do we say in the
Thus irqt, ir^zfr*, lf*h, WW, 5Trff, 5H?#P, 3Tnf
Locative plural ? Observe ?mjr, *% U Why do we say monosyllabic '? ObWhy do we say 'the Instrumental and the rest' ?
serve |iw, f^ft^n", *r5T*J
Why do we say " the case-endings (ff>ri%: ) ? " Observe
Observe sfhlr, ifaThe plural of the Locative being taken in the sutra, the rule
#Ff^r, ^TtFTT
J

II

'

'

ll

II

II

does not apply to c^r and

cffa,

more than one

though

syllable,

as in the plural of the Locative they have


in

singular locative their stem has one

syllable.

aT^TTTTf Tr^TTT^^rcn^^nrf^i^mm
<*,

3TMWIH,

SrKM^Idl,

ff^T:

11

vw*f

sfcr

trerarssrrn" *renr

STRSTCraTO

*m%, f rff^Tf^ftHFFKm

The same

have the acute accent,


final,

q^rfa

11

11

sT^cfr^TTrr-

Fter*^

^&t

*ft

ferrra^rcprr^p

*r-

11

169.

at the

\\\

11

II

if

case

the

endings

may

optionally

monosyllabic word stands

end of a compound, and has acute accent on the

when
The

the

compound can be

easily

unloosened.
The

phrases "ijehM:" anc^ SI*irftf#*Tfw are understood here also.

nitya or invariable

compounds

HOTT^ff, <T*?HrV or

5nf

According to VI.

223, the

1.

are excluded

by this rule. Thus htw^Ht or


So also WT<f^r or <?ref &c.

552^r: or "^pf:
compounds have acute accent on the

rule applies in the alternative

11

when

final

th*at

the case-affixes are not acute and gives us

Bk. VI. Ch.

171.

End-acute.

Why

the alternative forms.

Observe
the

2. 2.

^HTT,

B^rr^r,

gtftft

do we say is acutely accented on the final ?


These are Tatpurusha compounds and by VI.

'

II

term of the compound retains

first

in;

its

original accent.

Why

used the word 'standing at the end of a compound' when the word
indicated that the

compound was meant

the aphorism would have stood

<TCT?ft

compound having acute on


pound

the

srafn

M W 3l* qreFT5remrer

The word qwr will thus


second member of the compound, which

thus the rule will apply to $$i*i

compounds having more than one

'

In a looseif

(^r 3*^)

is

do we say

com-

intended.

and not to
loose com-

Ins. *jr5Tr, *rn?: &c,

Why

syllable.

the

qualify the

'.

fa?rcrerlf

not used the word StR-

the above affixes are acute,

final,

consists of a monosyllable

compound and not

And

the

as,

Had we

have we

in

These words form invariable (nitya)


Observe 3TP 2f^fnrr, *TR*frTr
compounds by II. 2. 19, and by VI. 2. 139, the second member retains its
original accent, which makes h* udatta.
pounds

'

II

3T%3^^y4Hi4mFn*
^Ttt:

11

?vs*

bt^t: <tu ssir^re^rreHFF^rTrr

11

^rf?r

11

>r?nir

11

iftoto,

5^% f^ra

&%m

s^brm-

In the Chhandas, the case-endings other


than the sarvan&masth&na, get the acute accent when coming
170.

after

T%

II

In the Vedas, a stem ending in the word

on the

affixes

previously mentioned, but on

sfsr^,

has the

acute not only

the accusative plural affix also.

I. 84, 13).
Here the word ^5- had accent on
by the present sutra, the accent falls on the case-affix 3T*[
Though the anuvrltti of " Instrumental and the rest " was understood here,
the word asarvanamasthana has been used here to include the ending 3^ also.

Thus

\ft

As

f??T f**l%T

by VI.

irrrrqf

5W1

1.

sftqw (Rig

222, but

11

*rft *ffir*if*%Pt.

11

II

The same (asarvan&masth&na) case-endings


have the acute accent, when the stem ends in 3TS\ also after
*^H after qf &c (upto f*ra VI. 1. 63), after sri, 5^ $ and
171.

foil
The
taught
8T$r?*

The

in

3;?

VI.

4.

is

the substitute of the

19 &c)

Thus

?s|rf:,

derived by gjs substitution of

anuvritti of "a^^fTTrrft"

11

is

*r

5fr

of

gsfrfr,

(VI.

4.

but not

in

?*n?

in srsrft*

VI.

4.

I32)^nd not the

gjy

srdgfr (Ins. sing of

19 &c).

%^ BflMn*,,

iff*'-

unsderstood here, therefore, when the word

it

ENd-acut.

Bk. VI. Ch.

173

f is not end-acute, this rule will not apply. When, therefore, there is anvadesa
under II. 4. 32, the final being anudatta, this rule does not apply, as ar^T *fh^T
&c upto f^T^f in VI. 1. 63. Thus Rni*rcTjt
PHjar*rqTrT " The Tfrft words are q^,

st^ <t^, wfNf:, *n>5i, si*, 3**sfc, s^ V**, 5^ tfl TOr, *r*ik,
rC^ H As regards the other cases of ff* the accent is governed
The word 3?^ and those which follow it, in VI. 1. 63, are not

3>r?,

*r 1 w^rrnt,

*T?>T

>

f^ff,

1.

183.

r?f*

by VI.

governed by
anuvritti of

irsffpT

because they consist of more than one vowel, and the

understood here from VI.

is

when

course, anudatta, except

TOr

sTfa

1.

168.

When

these

the elision of 3T (penultimate), then the vibhakti will

The

161 even after these.

I.

this rule

monosyllable by

by VI.

**^

sraffo

sraFfr frsrfo; n

**

%*

f^?^

^Tir%

(I

be udatta

case endings after these words are of

these words

*$ft

become

become monosyllabic

As

iffarsi

"

sts*:,

fr^

The asarvanarnastMna case-endings after 3^


have acute accent, when it gets the form st^t
172.

eight

',

II

The word
follow

namely

it,

3^

3?CT

has two forms

and

3T2"

II

The

the long form 3TT and not after 3T


con.

arib-sp,

3T?r con

^^

II

The word

belongs to the class of ^rTTft words (Phit

in

the ace.

pi.

affixes of ace.

Thus

and the other cases that


pi.

&c

are udatta

after

opposed to 3?Ipt:, srir**:


has acute on the last syllable, as it
21); and by VI. 1. 180 the accent would
3T$T?>f:

^^
I.

have been on the penultimate syllable. This rule debars it. The use of #rr?T
indicates that the word 3T2^ has two forms, and the substitution of long sr
in VII. 2. 84, thus becomes optional, because of this indication. Otherwise
of the word frqtr[ would be useless, for by VII. 2. 84 which is
employment
the

taught

couched

in general

terms, srg^ would always end in a long vowel.

There

is

another use of the word ^hT?t> namely, it makes the word 3T?P3(. with long srr
(VII. 2. 84) to get also the designation of *nr n For if srer^ was not to be called a
q?, like 3T^, then there would be scope to the present sutra in the case of srep*

would be debarred in the case of 3*5-^ without lpng srr, by the subseto *r? word, and hence the employment
1. 180 which applies
of the word ^Nrc would become useless.

while

it

quent rule VI.

jp^:

ii

BT^T^Trrflr^

nf%3FT

II

to* 3?3*^
1

f ^Hf^fcTWTRW

173.

^ w&mvmvm^&m t# 3T^rf?fW%K3nRr-

II

After an oxytone Participle in ar^the femiand the case endings beginning with vowels

nine suffix i,(nadi)

BK. VI. CH.

III9

Vir.IIAKTI-ACCENT.

175.]

I. .

(with the exception of strong cases) have acute accent, when


the participial affix has not the augment *(i. e. is not 3T^).
an oxytoned word' is understood here. Thus
and ?**
3#, 33* 22*, 53* from Q$ti 3$t
Sftff ^#r
Why do we say " not having the augment 3^?" Observe ^%T, $jHere also by VI. 1. 186, after the root 5^ which has an indicatory sr,

The word

3?*r

Srft

11

$**f,

3T%?TTTr7T; 'after

(snj) is anuDhatupatha, being written 3?, the sarvadhatuka affix


I.
(VI.
of
udatta
162),
with
the
^.coalescing
3T
anudatta
This
datta.
$f
applicable
held
being
not
Rule
VIII.
2.
1
and
becomes udatta (VIII. 2. 5)

in the

(feminine

^%

say "a

&c.

i?*0">

Iw

ff*> T?*

11

as f^ft*

"

^n:^*r

the acute accent,

acutely accented final vowel of the stem, a

for the

semi-vowel

^ ^*wi
The same endings have
11

174.

when

f ) word and before vowel-endings?' Observe ^>3R.> 3foxytone, the rule does not apply. As
is not an

Here the accent is on the first syllable by VI. 1. 189.


The words ffrft" and *T$cfr should also be included

II

Vdrt

rrf%3f*

in

do we

If the participle

Z*qm

^W^ft

Why

gets the accent, and not the feminine affix.

here, the Participle

and which

substituted,

is

preceded by a

is

consonant.

Thus

n-f=^#f

^r

7
,

?^f

11

on the

final

Observe

(VI.

^Hft,

I.

^brf>

163J.

Why

i^T, I^T,

'

*fr,

?3T?lft,

sreff*

aciuely accented final vowel

'

2.

4) *|f% f%rT^f%

udatta on the

final

WffarTT, the

is

3T^^n"

by VI.

2.

is

11

irofiVr,

replaced

formed by r^ having acute on the

do we say preceded by a consonant

(VIII.

All these are <to ending words and hnve consequently acute accent

sroff^T

Why

'?

?i% STf^rff:

In

175.

replaced by \, but as

II

first

&c

'

syllable.

Observe ^gffi^f g|r rlf rr^fr &\$pm


This compound with *f gets

making the Instrumental singular of


this \ is preceded by a vowel, the affix

gets the svarita accent.

Vdrt

The

11

P^gff

the stem

ends

VTTcHft:

^ though

not in a

II

?\9t

II

||

3%

||

11

nine affix

(IV.

1.

66), or the final of a root.

After the semi-vowel substitutes of the udatta

udatta

in

II

v:^:
q^TT% *,
^#r srrem s s^tto^ ??x%*cTCrH<T*r s*n-sra^rc*^reftvTf^Tr?rTrr ^r^r%
175.
But not so, when the vowel is *of the femi*

5Tt^
ff%:

when

rule applies

semi-vowel, as ^RTgrr*

final

3: ( IV. 1. 66 ) or of the
vowels of the rogt, when preceded by a consonant, the weak case-

1 1

VlBHATI-ACCENT.

20

endings beginning
SgT?#, sjft?Mr,

udatta (III.

vowel

I.

3),

76

ggjirwfr,

The ^

2. 5).

substituted for

before the ending

3>

have become udatta by the


2.

sp-^from \ft*^J which has acute accent on g^, because |jj is


and the ekades*a of it, when it combines with the preceding

a semi-vowel substitute of an udatta (s'SHTS' !) the affix after

err, is

I.

Thus

vowel do not take the acute accent.

witfi a

also udatta (VIII.

is

[BK. VI. CH.

4 applies and makes

last sutra,

^-3*0
(

substitute of the vowel of a root

would

it

the general rule VIII,

so,

Let us take an example of a semi-vowel

svarita.

it

but not being

tgwi from *f??f


Wf^gT, ^%&*
formed by f^q affix, the second member of the compound retaining its
original accent, namely, the oxytone, the semi-vowel being substituted by VI.
:

*5F*t

4.

83 before the vowel case-endings.

frf%^

ii

c^rsfrw

*rgq-

ssttt^ ^^j^r*

11

*o* u

%*r

srftw

<raj:

11

The otherwise unaccented Jig; (<*) takes the


oxytoned. stem ends in a light vowel,
has before it the augment ^ (VIII. 2. 16).

176.

acute accent,
or the affix

when an

The word
So

9^fo, 5t*fc*

^T^r^rTTrfl is

!!

also

understood here

when J^g

takes 3?, as

Thus

also.

3Tjotcrr,

3Tf?mr^,

^Jg'TPJ,

Here by VII.
added 37 by VIII. 2,

^T^ItTr

word 3*?% takes 3T^ and becomes 3T*T^, then is


and we have 3T$T^*Tg<T The preceding ^is elided. When the stem
pxytone (antodatta) this rule does not apply as f
The word

is

not

has

Un

I.

I.

76, the

*6,

I!

g^

acute on the

first syllable,

which

Un

as

it is

formed from

srw

11

with the affix 3

10)

9 ) so the ^5^ retains its anudatta here. So also in the case


pf*I^T^, the affix does not become acute, though the word
has acute on
is

nq-

I.

j^

the final as the intervening

^ makes

the

^ of ^ heavy when

maxim *^tM?T 5^5Fm?f'SlTR^ does not


that ^ is only taken as an exception, shows

the general

yery fact

Vdrt

The

STfoPI - tf^HSSlTCcf

of one, as ^

f,

affix

There

11

becomes acute

*f<j<T

then guna, *

is

^rT

addeds

heavy vowel of

"^

as

vocalisation of q of *fg, as ?;f ^ then substitution

11

after fa

as ref crRr^nj-

II

snuwrercwp*
TTr^re^rr ^1%

3^yw
177.

l*

*\svs

*t*tr

ll

q^TT%

*\k,

^^t^^^tk

11

11

After an

light vowel, the genitive

accent,

is

this.

after the

Vdrt .-The prohibition should be stated


ITPfST

the afiix

apply here, because the

oxytoned stem which ends

in a

ending *$% has optionally the acute

BK. VI. CH,

Thus
I.

It

54).

shown

in

179.

sprfffaj^ or ar^farw, ^ryjjx*

might be objected, that


the above

should also be read

light

crp*

examples, then

be read into this sutra

light vowel'

light

VlBHAKTI-ACCENT.

into this

rule will

apply to forms

or

^prri

anuvritti of

that the

meaning being

sutra, the

when followed by *jg<,


vowel may become heavy before

^Wr*

(see VII.

not preceded by a short vowel, as

is

how can the


The reply is

vowel

wise, this

or ^rf^r*,

II2I

cause the

will

"

?jpl

3^

anuvritti of j{^%

a stem which has a


acute,

though the
Other-

this ending, in its present form".

like

f^pfH

is

'short or

^rf qm iq; having light vowels

Why

before *rP and not to the forms above given.


do we read ?rr*T with the
^augment (VII. 1. 54) and not STTC? The rule will not apply to vp^rg $l<fi T

which get the acute on the

Why

do we say after a
stem ending in a light vowel ? Observe ^TTrf^TP*. (the word ^ftr is end-acute
by Un III. 138 and so is ijrffrT by VI. I. 161). Why do we say after an
pxy toned word ? Observe q-^rr^ MHI*( the words sr<j and ^|j have acute on

by VI.

final

1.

174.

'

'

the

first syllable.

178.

In the Chhandas,

the ending *rr^ has di-

versely the acute accent after the feminine affix %


Thus f^rcnTRr* arpTvrssRfftrqr, ^Rri f^crr
Sometimes
\\

ll

take place, as

HTO7K ^RfNr*^:
;

renrags^ s^ijfc:
ffrr:

11

179.
ant,

11

sT^t^TTfrf^rTrlrf tt^i

?\s^

11

qr^n%

**, ft, ^gsln,

^rfc:

11

11

The case-endings beginning with a conson-

have the acute accent

The

does not

^^^^f^^^fsRp-sr ^r <rer s^sif^HFRSfrTn" ^n%


after the

24), as well as after r% and ^jjt

words

it

Numerals called

^h* (I. 1.

||

anuvritti of sr^ftHTn; ceases, for the present lule applies even to

|^ and TOt which are

acute on the initial by Phit II. 5. Thus


V*rr*, tip?:, inHk T^nrri, irsrff*, faf? J, fir*#>, w*n*, ^^%f (See VII. 1.
Why do we sa)j 'before case-affixes beginning with consonants'? Observe
55).
<T^T (VI. I. 167 and VII. 2. 99).
like

%W

*y<^MMsre:

rfffi

*T

11

1*0

11

q^n%

wfe,

^vrzwn

I^TItT^I
180.

ll

11

The above numerals, when taking a casebeginning with a w or


get the acute accent on the
penultimate syllable, when the said numerals assume a form

affix

consisting of three or

more

syllables.

Accent.

ii22

The numerals
with a

q"?

must be of three

Why

'the

feim

*q^J^

and

^r

penultimate syllable'

*TnT*TTH.

\*\

II

Thus

*?' ?

*TTrf^

II

||

<Hfp?

:
,

^tSptj,

r%**nr:, ^%f*r:

Observe, T^Ffr**, sgrWTO

Observe

Tff*?*, qir*3

WZ WK

f%*TT*T,

11

Why

II

In the Secular language this is optional.


181.
The Hiff case-affixes coming after the above numerals q?, fif and
may make the words so formed take the acute on the penultimate op-

tionally, in the

spoken ordinary language.

alternative VI.

1.

5T

179 applies.

So

11

*rr

^ f?W:

Thus

*HlfSp or

also mtpr- or *nri*?

*TM?c^T^*far^f ?^Hi

?T^, 3T^,
ffrr*.

182

syllables at least.

do we say 'beginning with

do we say

I..

when ending in a case-affix beginning


word (q ?), in such a word the penultimate
The very word penultimate shows that the

full

syllable gets the acute accent.


<Tf

Bk. VI. Ch.

HT and ^FJ*

consonant, form a

$r?

?^

II

:
,

^TT%

II

q^rpf

fa^PT: or
II

In the

II

m*jnf

11

^,^,^^,^3?^,

II

^srr^r ir sjn%3nr=5j% s^rWfcr *rf 3T^ t& wt ?Mr^r u^ <& vnn%


The foregoing rules from VI. 1. 168 down182.

11

wards have no applicability after *tt, and W3C and words


ending in them; nor after a stem which before the case ending
of the Nominative singular has
after a

stem ending

in 3T>^

s?

or

s?t,

nor after

nor as well as after

i**r

^s^ and

or

||

Here by VI. 1. 168, the case-endings would


is however prohibited.
So also tj^rr,
also iprr, %, sj^r*,
VI.
1. 169
is prohibited.
So
Here
H
and
U^r*
U?i%
T^^Tr, Vt*Wt and q^^^TI H The word 3T^rT (#r 3TW) means 'what has 3? or
(The
CTWJ-ftw, ?T%, T^^nTT
err before 3 (1st. sing.)" Thus ^5:, ^5:, %*&

Thus

4fT, *r%, TP*n*H

have got otherwise the accent, which

II

II

the prohibition applies to


srf = 3T3^+ffp*
word *r
is
not
(VI. 4. 30). Thus s?r>^r,
elided
nasal
the
wherein
word
this
that form of
must take the accent;
the
case-ending
there
elided,
is
nasal
Where the
(rs^qra
Thus
word.
formed
faff^
%3^TT, %>%, ^j^>qrr
is also a
as nr%, JJT6T HF*trP U
is

formed by

I'

2^

is

Why

derived from

has the word

jspt affix)

^
^
^

would have applied

'to do'

to

II

or from

'to cut'

by

f|pr; as

%^x % and T^ikr

II

when the rule


been especially mentioned in
e\en without such enumeration, because in the Nomithis sutra,

it

native Singular this woid assumes the form ^r and consequently it is *rr*r^i: ?
The inclusion ojf*^ indicates that the elision of?T should not be considered

asiddha for the purposes of this

apply to words
after the elision

like

rule.

3 and fa which

of^of 3TTf

in

(VII. 3-94)-

Therefore, the present rule will not

Norn.

Thus

Sing, end in

srr,

as nr

and fr^r

the Locative Singular of

3 will

BK,

VL

Of.

by VI.

be h?*

86

VlBHAKTI ACCENT.

168, this prohilition not applying,

I.

udatta after fan by VI.

^
m-

?f%:

\*\

11

is

|t^s

*|-qpT,
fr?^

SfRldWIH,

This debars VI.

II

consonant

l<&

'

Observe

T^TM

After

ff*P or ;#?:,

fa^ftdH
ii

ll

*T

II

^, ^,

Why

168, 171.

I.

f^rf, ftfa*

do we say

if

^-MdWIH

II

a case ending beginning with

or

11

^:,

sj^:,

t^tr

ll

^pr ^Hr
,

fe, Jjf

^rfen^,

fcrcj;,

But not so

II

6#,

\)

ll

m^^ftrlr *nrRr u

An

185.
i.

II

optionally unaccented.
Thus

fi%-

11

After 1%^ & case-ending beginning with

184.
*T is

h^

be debar-

will

unaccented.

beginning with a
5J

r^r:,

11

qrr sr^ft*rfTT^r?TTTr

Thus
'

q^n*

get

affix t^t will

i.

11

183.
or *T

and the

But rule VI. 1. 176


176 as fr?TPl H
the case of flr^T^ because ^r is a tfPTWll

red by the present in


fir^t

If2j

affix

having an indicatory

is

svarita

has circumflex accent.

e.

Thus
H?l (III.

1.

HTffrd&r, p5rr*%,

This

124).

is

For exception to

adyudatta.

formed by

an exception to

(III.

ar<X

III.

this rule see VI.

1.

1.

1.

97).

Tt ^fa^TI"

all

with

affixes

213 &c.

crre^^WTf^^Tr^rrir^Tg^?T3^TTm^f^#r:
rTT^^t

sfnifa, 9r*nr

which makes

ll

\<%

T^n%

ll

ll

II

The Personal-endings and their substitutes


124-126) arc, when they are sarvadhatuka (III. 4.
186.

(III. 2.

113

&c),

unaccented,

phrastic future

the

after

characteristic

a root which in the

(cflTO), after

tha has an unaccented vowel or a

and

gf^

3C^?)

Thus
\fT<

as

rTIT%

^rP,

as after

what has a

Grammatical system of Instruction* (upade&i).

final 3* in the

Anudattet : as,

Dhatupd-

(with the exception of

letter, as well

as indicatory

of the Peri-

^w, ^^TRf, ^"^R

3^ Bir^r, **T i*%

|frT:,

4^cp, <fcp

II

II

this debars the affix accent

f?^ :
root

^= g%,

taking *TV

sfrf%%
(3*) is

(III.
H

1.

3).

a?^ ST-

considered as

1 1

Accent.

24

taught

upadesa

as

disregarded on the

^JTTTJ
plained

if

ending with an

maxim

The augment

II

in

TO?

as the indicatory letters

sr,

3T^?>^qiTOirr?TOf^r
is

Bk. VI. Ch.

added by 3TR

two ways; first, the augment TO?

TO?^

is

= af'TOJpr^ )

VII.

added

3T

3T,

when

137

and ? are

may

be ex-

to the final %T of the base

(ahga) when 9TTT (STR^&c) follows; or secondly, the the augment 59?
to the base (ariga) which ends in

Thus q^rm^

II

82 which

2.

I.

In the

STFf follows.

added

is

first

case to?

becomes part and parcel of ar and will be taken and included by the enuncia3T, and therefore sr^rtsr will mean and include an St having such|*,

tion of

on the maxim ^MlHKrT^^dlWiM^M *??!*% "That


added denotes, because the augment forms part of
denotes also whatever results from
fore to? will not prevent the verb

its

.TO?

augment

it,

secondly TO? be

3T,

But we get

intervenes.

is

yet fa"$ accent (VI.

"9",

karana >

do we say

1.

163)

rule.

Though

the affix

debarred by this

is

rule,

is f^vj; (I. 2.

after

Observe f%5#:

rTn% &c.

the purposes of preventing the

Therefore though

guna of the

*| is

prior term

considered so for the purposes of subsequent accent.

may

fq^#:

The

II

vi-

4) with regard to operations affecting the prior term, and

not those which affect the subsequent.

Why

&

But

subsequent,

Why

sutra

it

rid of this difficulty by considering


and therefore asiddha, when the Antaranga operato be performed. The augment TO? (*r ) in the last two examples

%SFV% has an indicatory

fir?! for

is

but

as Bahiranga

tion of accent

it is

itself,

then the ^^TT^rrT^T does not follow an

consequently does not prevent the application of the

as

which an augment
not merely

combination with that augment". There-

becoming STfT^r

taken as part of the base which ends in


st^T^T, because

to

Or

f%

considered as
it

not be

will

the word

ri^q; in

this

be taken as equal to fr^ff^T and not the aTTRrV^rar r^vt like $3

do we use the word upadesa?

So

that the rule

II

may apply to ?MN


^ in upadesa. though
:

which ends in
TTPP, but not to f $, f if: the dual of
Therefore ??: f?tp Why do we use
before cfST and sr^r it has assuned the form f
the word ?5 (Personal endings)? Observe STrfi^ ^THr formed by Wi'^ added
to* (1 1 1.2. 128), which not being a substitute of^, is not a personal ending like
11

11

5rm^
f$K U
BT>?J%

II

Why do we use the


Why do we say with

fij

Observe

ftfcn,

s^ and ^?

RT^R,

Rf-

Observe ZjTn,

*1T

II

187.
ally

word Sarvadhatuka
the exception of

In ftf^ Aorist, the

first syllable

may

option-

have the acute accent.

The word s^lrT


Irfam or *TT ft r5?f%#TL

is
11

Thus m f| #irsfo, TT
example the accent is on

understood here.
In the last

f? 3n?1.;
ft;

*tf

and the

k. VI. Ch.

reason
in

VI.

why

itf

and

f|

The

\6ii

1.

189

I. .

Verb-accent.

1125

are used in these illustrations, has already been explained

^ of

indicatory

fq^ shows

that

by VI.

1.

163 the acute

be on the otherwise unaccented augment f? when it takes this augment.


The Rr^ being a wff affix will take the augment %z ( VII. 2. 35 ), and it is a
will

general rule that augments are unaccented; so in the above the r^ would have

been unaccented, and the accent would have been on the


catory

of

fir**,

Vdrt:

which otherwise would find no scope.

An

having an indicatory

affix

<i

final,[but for

Thus

when coming

( fq^; )

Aorist formed by repr without the augment ** (3TR* f*r*


tfdatta

in the other,

it is

non-acute

This vartika

).

in

is

the indi-

f^ gets acute.

an

after

one alternative

restricts the

scope of the

Thus we get the following two forms, which


otherwise would have one form only by dhatu-accent, namely, acute on the first,
Thus Jfrf| tfitf* or jft ff *l% U But when it takes the
for fax is anudatta.
augment,
there
are
two
forms (1st ) *rr ff $rf^r as a (%3=^t, (2nd.) m f$
j?
on
accent
(VI.
1.
When however the
163). but never *rr ff F5Tft<?3;
mzfa*
ft
is
the
accent
augment at
added,
falls on this augment (VI. 4. 71).
sutra with regard to fq-^ affixes.

II

^qrf^ft^*^t%

The

188.
Syllable

when

\&

II

qccrfa

ll

n-^qrf^, fen*, srfe,

acute accent

is

srftfir

optionally on the

11

first

a Personal-ending, being a Sarvadh&tuka tense

beginning with a vowel, provided that the vowel


augment ^, follows after ^<r &c, or after fej;
affix

is

not the

II

The phrase

mfof
falls

or

TOr,

FTOT*fqTg#T in the locative case is

*?tfRr or

*?#f??F,

by the accent of the

affix

the augment js

Thus
The accent on the middle
Why do we say 'before an affix
Why do we say 'not taking
fMNc

f|%RT or fl^FrT
III. 1.3.

beginning with a vowel'? Observe

Pfaffil,

understood here.

II

II

Observe **ft#: and sjflHf: U This rule applies to those


vowel-beginning affixes which are fivj; it does not apply to AqTR, f?#STf*T II
?

'

3TS*reiHmnT.
?!%:

11

w \<a>

^rar'sfpnrR' raftf*

11

q^TR

II

?refri vJT5% TCrr

stw^t^frc, s?n%:
srrff^r^r *nuir

\\

11

The acute accent falls on the first syllable


reduplicate verbs when followed by an 'affix beginning
189.

of the

with a vowel (the vowel being not $r) and being a sarvadhdtuka personal ending.
Thus
affixes:

s^fa

12

|^r%, f^g,

Before

|^r,

%^

ir^RT,

affixes

^^'

: s^h

II

^ffara, sffag:

Though

11

the

Before consonant

word

arrft

was

Verb-accent.

1126

understood here from the

last

Bk. VI. Ch.

aphorism, the repetition

for the

is

I.

158

sake of making

this an invariable rule and not an optio?ial rule as those in the foregoing.

3Tg3T%

II

?^o

^rftr

II

3*3^1%,

11

^r,

11

^ ?rerHrarg% nxm s*3rerFCTtff^?rHr vr^f%

^1%: w 3TRrrcPTftT%

Also when the unaccented endings of the

190.

in the singular follow, the first syllable of the

three persons

reduplicate has the acute.

The endings 1%*

and

f^rqr

are

r%<r

lr?[f%,

nffSrW,

l^rfrT,

Bahuvrihi

an

e.

i.

PSflrar

The word

which there

affix in

apply when a portion of the

mi$W fsTRfc
*r*w
*rrf%^

ii

and

w*

|>?THi>r
11

affix

is

This sutra

(III. 1.4).

to be

3Tg?rrr is

construed here as a

no udatta vowel, so that the

elided or a semivowel

is

rule may-

substituted

as

If

"*&&*

?*? n

*^r,

11

srfcro' s?r^r^^^r%

sttrs^

The

acute

191.

is

anudatta

do not begin with a vowel. Thus |^n%,

applies to those personal endings which

5ft

11

is

on the

first

syllable of srl

when

the case-endings follow.


Thus
Observe
it is

spr:, *r?rr :

mkv,

13

^ the acute

so taught in the Unadi

affix

Why

srtrT 1

sr^ and forms

^:

is

do we say when the case-endings follow ?


on# The word sp? has acute on the final, as
11

by ppTRP*

list

qraTO

f^K-

It thus being anudattadi takes the


II
This rule applies even when the case

affix is elided in spite of the prohibition of

VAtt: The
^r|^:

11

rule

Here the accent

^RTR^^f

sr

, I, *T,

63)

as iprc^fa: H

does not apply when the affix srsf^ris put in


on the final by f%nj accent (VI. 1. 163).

as

is

ftfT^iTT^R^^^K^r3rm^f srerar^

^fap *WKm,

for%

11

^,

*ft,

(I. I.

TOrorac,

?v*

q^tfJr

fqr%

ll

$t, fr,

11

>T^II

In *,

192.

in their reduplicates,

v&dh&tuka
singular,

unaccented

( fa^;

),

fr, >, j,

nf,

3^ ^,

the acute accent

endings

of

Jfr>

before

three

on the syllable which precedes the

This debars the accent on the beginning.

C^> *&^ ^

the

is,

'

Thus

an d ^pr,
the sar-

persons in
affix.

flrVit, fm$fa, ft^*r,

Here the root *r? has diversely taken in the Chhandas the
fe^TT
vikarana , though it belongs to Divadi class, ^rl^, $sjpr
The verb is here
^?or the Vedic Subjunctive, so also is the next example, <?*ff<t from *ft >rr%
:

II

11

Bk. VI. Cn.

I.

Verb-accent.

159

the f ofi% being elided

by

III.

III. 4. 94. ^fsfti, ^fdrfn, 5rrTrf%

4.

97,

1127

and the augment sr^ being added by

qr^

i.

the three singular endings), the accent will be on the

feRHI

The

193.

acute accent
affix that

3TTf^g^^cr^*rn*

^f

is

or %|<qsr

unaccented by VIII.
not accented,

<|

1.

sra: *r<rrftr

11

?v*

q^n%

11

tirgsr

as fRjf^

II

11

2.

&

II

HrftRhrWl and
54) accent on the fa and ft H

sirf^:,

I.

133),

nrgfo, 3T^<n:**TTO

may be

optionally acute

follows.

*TTnft

roots

vowel,

makes $i accented. When


by fo^ accent This rule is confined

present sutra

to reduplicated Absolutives (VIII.

sre:,

11

^-*rr%

which are exhibited

may

gr<ff3T is

is

I.

4).

11

in

Dh&tu-

optionally have the acute on

before the affixes of the Passive (t^j),

the sense of the verb

11

In the reduplicate form ^fn, the second part

The

namely

11

final

first syllable,

The word

II

3.

The

195.

patha with a

II

on the syllable im-

has an indicatory

(IV.

*TtK?3

will get the accent

to polysyllabic Absolutives,

the

falls

syllable

first

absolutive affix

Thus Fsf^T
is

\w

The

194.

f^rf^

endings other than


syllable

first

fMSrnfap, nfiftfar. with the affix *%* (III.

^Ml C vprKg with the affixes fln^and

when the

e. all

q^Tfa llfefall

II

mediately preceding the


Thus

we have

In the case of other verbs

11

Before affixes which have not the indicatory

w hen
T

Reflexive.

understood here.

When

Thus

wqir or gifo

%^R' PTsRq"
on the first syl-

II

3TW S^fa"
on 3 (VI. 1. 186).. This rule applies to 5[^, ?cp^, and ^pj when
they get the form srn^, STTO^ and ^raft the long srr (VI. 4. 43) substitute is
considered as if these verbs were taught in the Dhatup&tha with long qtt
m\k%
lable,

or ^rW*T

it

the accent does not

fall

falls

II

Thus ^ra% or srrlfir *Wfr &ra% or %r^ S^Wf %T^ or ^i^ ^vpw M Why
do we say when ending in a vowel' ?* Observe pt% t^spft
Why do we say
" when the sense is Reflexive ( cjj ) " ? Observe fgifa %^RT %**%ffi
;

'

II

II

Verb-accent.

123

Bk. VI. Ch.

I.

199

Before the ending

r of the
Perfect, second
person singular, when this ending takes the augment % the
acute accent falls either on the first syllable, or on this %, or

196.

pn the personal ending.


Thus

^Fjf^T,

we

may have

get the four forms given above.

may

fall

on any

When

syllable.

In short, with

the

*f is

5rfr^r%**p*
nrrlt ptkt

ii

ar

>t^

or

11

an indicatory

VI.

193

f^,

Thus

).

%q termination, the accent

not %?, the accent


1.

I.

193)

qqfif

N^r? *n%,

ft^rac

falls

on the root

II

II

derived with an affix having an

is

has the acute accent invariably on the

if,

syllable.

first

Thus *fMt with


This

loses

generally does by
37^,

have

III.

accent,

this

I.

1.

lost their

arofNTcTFT

II

I.

105), lrC^T^5,

When

1. 3.

e.

i.

ar^f:

the affixes

the affix does

are,

not leave

Therefore qlfr, fafv, M>-Jt

62.

with 5^ (IV.

its

mark behind,

having

98).

3.

however, elided, the

lost

as

Tjaj,

it

3?

accent also.

V<*

wfa ^mNd^, ^
II

II

The

198.

(IV.

3T5T

an exception to

is

word
and

T^rfa

11

Whatever

197.

indicatory

11

f^Riff^iTTr

"sr

trw has

also the accent

and we have one form only by ra? accent (VI.

fr%;

As

and ^nrsr.

sfsff^r, sS^f^T,

the syllable preceding the affix

syllable

first

II

of a Vocative

gets

the

acute accent.
T
Thus ff^rT *$^r?T ^t^TrTP This debars the final accent ordained
by VI. 2. 148. Though the affix may be elided by a ^p* word (jg% <r or
As ^fqrrS), yet the effect of the affix remains behind in spite of I. 1. 63.
!,

T5S"

irer 'l-^irl

qfaJTsft: ^Hfcrnrwft

199.
qf^ftC

and

II

!,

and

II

?A

II

^t^t

II

qft,

The acute accent is on


when followed by a strong

*rsft:,

the

^^m^R
first

II

syllable of

13)

case-ending.
rnkpz
affix ffa, ( IV. 12.
Unadi
the
and
derived
by
JrRj-^are
The words qnr^
adyudatta
before strong
and are oxytone by III. 1. 3. They become

Before other cases we


felT%, ^TR:
The accent is on the final by VI. 1. 162, there being
The rule I. 1. 62, about the remaining effect of the
elision of the udatta f^u
As rf*f fJfa', has acute on the final of the first
affix, does not apply here,

Thus %^n,

pases.

have:

qtfs

5"TT'Tr,

tr^,"^?: q^jj u

fTRJ,

h*rF !

II

Bk. VI. Ch.

I.

203

word, by retaining

First-acute.

original accent.

its

3^^:

sr?cTsr cf%

Roo

II

The

200.

v^rfe

II

^i^r:,

ll

Infinitive in

and on the

syllable

first

1129

^,

<rt,

has the acute on the

cf%

syllable at

last

a4|M <

one and the same

time.

Thus 5&ff

|^

This

II

also

it

which there can be only a single acute

The word

231.

iffTTf?

in a single

word.

has the acute on the

^rqr

house, dwelling \
The word is formed by
H

syllable in the sense of

Thus

III. I. 3 by which q of fft"


countermands rule VI. I. 158 by

an exception to

is

ought to have got the accent, and

first

'

j^t^s^

affix (III.

1.

118)

and would have had accent on the affix (III. 1. 3). When not meaning a
7
house we have sHtf ?4m $*fprr* H The word is formed by sr^(III. 2. 31),
:

3PT.
ff^r:

*XWK

* ^

II

The

202.

of
q

^ft

accent falls on the first


whereby one attains victory \

the sense of
Thus lr%s^:, but otherwise

III.

118

1.

f<sr

11

argWMIHl

III, 2. 31 )

syllable

The former w*

is

by

11

^ffa INKMIH, ^,
>t^
The words f ? &c have the acute on the
II

II

II

ff^^Trfr^nrrf^TTfr

203.

^r ^^

the second by sr^r

INK M ^IU3
ffrr:

II

acute

3HT, in

affix,

^nVH^

3HT.,

II

-znmv ^TQT^r^ sir^mr ^f?r

11

11

first

syllable.

Thus
by bt^(III. 1.
it

II

1.

I?:,

^5:,

15. 3T5P, 16. j$r

and ^:,

20. s^pr:,

21.

3.

The word

134).

7. ?T5:, 8. rfr?:, 9. fT?:,

er^ numbers 8 to

5PT:

2.

if are

IO.

18. q?^:

ijq

srtf'',

is
1 1.

from
3T5

not in Kasika).

(formed by arf

3W,

f#T:, 4. q?:,

(formed by 3T^

III,

^,

These are formed

tr-*Tra%, irregularly

I2

CTf

III, 3. 104).

both formed by

fan, 6. ?r5: u

5.

it is

treated as

%I
?Tj H- *2 (formed by
is
formed by 3? (III. I. 135)
:

>

J 3-

WWW ^m STT<Tr TnRfi^TP :


134), 19- WRT formed by f^Tf,

17.
I.

22. 3TRT,

23. vynr, .24. ^r^T,

(all

three

formed by 9?^ III. 3. 104), 25. ^: = Tfr ^lf^ formed by t^ 26. sfFV'-, 27. qr?:
formed by q*T, which may either take tile accent indicated by tl\e affix or by VI.
1. 159, 28. *R:, 29. ^:
All words which are acutely accented
It is STT^ftTW
!

11

on the

first,

ll

should be considerd as belouging to this

not be accounted for by any other

rule,

class, if their

accent can-

First-acute.

30

Bk. VI. Ch.

206.

^K 4^J 5^:,

1 fsp, 2 5PT:, 3

12^:, 13 ^:, 14

stjt*:,

18

?rrf?rr:,

28

^sp,

15

afar:,

7^:,

tt^:,

8 ?rr**, 9

sMt

16 *prc*ft *faraf

*j^r,

19 *fw., 20 an*:, 21 arnr, 22 ^nr, 23 ^rrr, 24 ^.-, 25

29 3TFrlPT3T

10

*rrwi<rf:

***:*,

11

llm*:]

^7:, 26 q^: 27

q^:,

II

^NrnTTgqrn^t

*o

ll

The

204.

T^rfr

II

accent

acute

of that word with which

3 sfipi;, twrh

11

on the

falls

something

11

syllable

first

likened; provided that

is

a name.

it is

Thus ^>=qT, If^iT, ?m4<fl", 3T*fr


All these are 3WT words used as
names of the 3q%3 (the thing compared). The affix g^ (V. 3, 96) is elided here
by V. 3. 98. It might be asked when ff^ is elided, its mark, namely causing the
first syllable to be acute (VI. 1. 197), will remain behind by virtue of I. 1. 62,
ll

where

The formation

then the necessity of this sutra.

is

iMJB qqr rule

cates that the

is

of this

sutra indi-

not of universal application in the rules relat-

ing to accent.

When

the word

is

not a Name,

an upamana we havel^TrP

^ srsnrcrat

ftw

Thus
*WrP

3Tri

ll

Sp?Tf 2T
ffrr:

11

an

srr

stFsStpjH"^

II

When

is

it

not

q^rfa

11

frgr,^,^^

disyllabic Participle in

(NishtM), when

3"

but not

syllable,

first

snrrac H

if

the

first

II

i^

|nr:,

non-participles

*!T?F J ,

11

we have

148).

2.

has the acute on the

syllable has

f%Rri?5,

\ \

205.

Name

11

(VI.

>

f^T

we have

if:,

Tni s debars the


tfr*r.

the Participle

Ro%

tr^TT%

||

srrftwa sm *%>

206.

not a

Name we

g^fr, ^jfr

II

u^ ^

Also

is

nurHU^i

^^

and

accent (III.

polysyllabic

In

II

affix

In Participles having long srr in the

When
II

Participles
syllable,

first

have, $3*, ^J*r

I.

3).

In

we have
we have,
II

II

& top

\je

11

have acute on the

first

syllable.

These are non-Names.

wzi

*&& ^o\s
q^rr%
snfercr:, ^fr
snRR^f: qF^r^t arms^r *r?rfrr h

snfcrcr:

%ftp

Thus ^.- and

11

207.

has acute on the

11

The word

11

srffacr

first syllable.

ll

ll

meaning

'

having eaten

Bk. VI. Cn.

212

First-acute.

Thus STrf^r^TrT:

The

active participle.

This debars

second

is ^ffifar

ft^"
ff*r-

11

=?*;

fkw^T

II

II

on the

q^Tl^

II

3rrft^r%

ft%, f^TFTT

II

*r^f?r

gsrftcr

or RrS?

ftrf;:

^t%

11

II

This debars VI.


*tttt%

11

Thus ^%: or sjf sffTrP or arfq-^


always on the last syllable (III. 1.
:

fac*f *r??r

II

**o

q^rft

II

II

fje

3).
II

in

the Mantra even

r??

11

q^rft

11

e. g.

The acute accent

sresrj in

?Vl,

<fo

PRM

rrr^T^TT^ RreTcn'

yiwf- ^^i^ :^ ^ro

11

is

on the

T ^T^lfWr

II

11

first

syllable of

the Genitive Singular.

This applies when the forms are t& and


*T*T

srf%cf

first syllable.

ll

211.

and

srphr

In the secular literature the ac-

II

g^^nffc#r%

*p*rf

^ and

Some say that this rule applies only to


^Hr^ffrr fa*Jir*
in which option is allowed even in the Mantra
so that

srftrT

has acute on the last

it

11

first syllable.

fk&K, **%

have always the acute on the


Thus

^ s^rfa

In the Mantras, these words js and

210.

and not to

204 and 205.

1.

^^t, stfJ^,

11

have optionally the acute on the

5j

optionally the acute

In the Chhandas, the words

209.

is

II

11

first syllable.

Thus

cent

we have airfoil t^T%H


The former is vn% Ttf, the

'.

The word ft^ may have

208.

used as an

Participle

'

ftrfrcrst fa*rerr

Passive

In the

BYrf^TOI the eaten food

'.

it is

to 3?^[ preceded by 3TT, to form both Active


which by VI. 2. 144 would have taken acute on the

that.

eaten by Devadatta

Here

Devadatta, having eaten'.

added

rff is

and Passive Participles:


final.

'

1131

The word

gs*r;

and

3TCT5;

<nr,

and not

*T

and ^

11

are derived from gq- and

Thus
by

srST

affix *rf|^ (Un I. 139) gwrj + 3FH = 35^ f 3T^T ( VII. 1. 27) =rf?
+ 3TfT(VI. 2. 96) = rrf + lr^ (VII. 2. 9o) = rP* (VI. i. 97). Here by VIII.
5, ? would have been udatta, the present sutra makes ?f udatta.
So also

adding the
3TI
2.

with rm

11

^fa
^f%=

11

ll

11

q^rfr

^fa ^ll
% Swfkw
?f?r ^r

gCTr^frftfrr *j%, srrf^srT

212.

5^5 and wx%

The

acute

accent

is

q*$t

g^swretfWnrr

on the

in the Dative Singular.

first

>r?ri%

II

syllable of

First-acute.

1132

Thus

The making
cation of

fj**TO.

^qTWT

yushmad

and

Jfer*

the forms

of two separate sutras


rule

and asmad

in the Dative,

$ and

Bk. VI. Ch.

are not governed

"*t

by

21'g

this rule.

the sake of preventing the appli-

is for

Had

(I. 3. 10).

the s'utra been gwT*wrJj[ fS^HT?,

then

the Genitive alone would have taken

in

this accent.

'mtssrrsr:

\\\

11

<r?rfa

11

Whatever

213.

smra:

?ra:,

li

formed by the

is

a disyllabic word, the acute on the


exception of Sfrsq-: from sfr
The word gj^r is understood

first

affix

^% has, if it is

syllable,

with the

II

(III.

1.97); Ir^T^t, ^TTWl. (V.

1.

here from VI.

i.

Thus ^WL, sf 1*

265.

This rule debars the Svarita accent

6).

But ^t sn^^faii The rule does not apply to


by fsfqr (VI. 1. 185)
thus
syllables,
two
than
f^fp&fa:, <4<4'l<*)<i
words of more
required

11

iwwtfterjtf

^prt:

The

214.

^??, I

of If,

affix <nr<*

^^

II

*?a

I'l

qsprft

II

fe, srec, f, trer jsmc, *cr:

11

accent

acute

5f when

^ n(i

on the

is

first

II

syllable

they are followed by the

II

The'two letters tn and < being


*N**> 5Hfc, fef*, ff^JT 5:
of the last sutra. The accent
in
yat
included
not
nyat is
indicatory, the
however
is debarred by this rule.
The accent of ^
would be regulated by rl

Thus

Vb^PIL,

II

'

'

'

'

II

The %
kyap

in the stitra

See

affix.

is

%W

III.

^vrrft

109.

1.

ferarm rf^n**fr:

The

215.
syllable of *rg

11

and

of Kriyadi class

**%&

acute accent

^fR

11

the js of *mf class takes

fetfnfr,

is

%^, *asrR*fh

11

optionally on the

first
t

II

the word %^ is derived


fafk: or psffti
have acute
would
by the Unadi affix oj (III. 38), which being a PTFJ:
formed
by ^r^
is
the first This allows an option, The word f?>TR, if it

Thus~%: or^:

fwrFT' or

II

0/w^

on

have the accent on the final. If it is considered to be formed by *TR^, the


replaces udatta final of the root,
affix being a sarvadhatuka is anudatta, and as it
It
gets acute on the middle.
thus
and
pw*
I.
(VI.
161),
it becomes udatta
it

will

would never have acute on the

When ^j

is

used as

accented on the

first

first syllable,

the present rule ordains that also.

an upamana **jfcr^3o then

(VI.

I.

204).

it

is

i?ivariably acutely

Bk

VI. Ch.

^r%:

^rn

I.

219

Acute.

?
216.

trn srcr

^q-

The

f&fim

fw<srr sTriT*?mr **rra

acute accent

syllables of 31m, TFi, ^T*T,

1133

^f

optionally on the

is

affix

syllable also.

first

(III.

%?: or fff :,

<*?rr%

11

11

11

ftf5rT^r^rTnT3^TTt vr^f%

catory

ll

sfitf:

or

tfit

ordains acute on

this

final,

?:,

stfRnrn, ftft

11

rrc^

formed by an

is

formed by sh

J&q":

11

*r%T ^T^rrr*

having an indi-

affix

has acute on the penultimate syllable, the

consisting of more than two

full

word

syllables.

penultimate syllable can be only in a word consisting of three

Thus

syllables or more.
<T5STr!?3p, Spfrlfta

by

^3^Tcrc^nn:
ii

w:,

f^rerTfar^sgTTir

What

217.

ff%;

ll

13).

1.

^tw fa% *
ffrTJ

or

sjs":

first

These are formed by

Thus ^HT: or STpff:, ?pt:, tf^:, fr^t, fr^


and by VI. 1. 159 would take acute on the
:

the

1^

and

**5,

^s^r

11

r\*

(V.

The

3.

This debars

19).

q'^Tw

11

ssrrr^^r3TrrrT5^TTt

218.

by 3?%!^

^cqfaff and ^wffa* formed

:5ffrffa^

>t^

^rfe,

III.

I.

wqcir^rn;

(III.

may

acute accent

word consisting of more than two


HT r? sfNrSrf* or

96)

11

be optionally on the

penultimate syllable of the reduplicated Aorist in


Thus

I.

3.

stfirCrTPl.

the

sr^,

syllables.

The augment

ll

3T?

is

elided

by the

*TT,
4. 74
ff prevents the verb from becoming anudatta VIII.
The augmented form with ar?
1. 34 then comes the f%r<t accent of *^&
syllable
has acute always on the first
VI. 4. 71. When the word is of less

VI.

addition of

11

than three syllables, the rule does not apply,


TTcfr:

*t,

^brrt^rfrai ftron*

ferarac

% r%:

11

when

Thus
place by VI.

%%l

II

^Sn,

bit?*,

%frr*rr-

ll

*?i%

before the affix

name

in the

gs^r^ft, ^rrfrfr (IV.

^fc^nfr

is

tf*rr

Why

2.

**<*

has the acute

Feminine Gender.

85).

The lengthening

do we say 'the

arr'?

\Observe

takes
^*Trfl",

The words
Un. III. 157 and ?^ (V. 2. 108) are end-acute, so accent is
by VI. 1, 176. Why do we say when a name ? Observe %TCrfr M *$$l
formed by 3^ and has acute on the first (Un. I, 151). WJiy do we say in

SpT^lfr

is

120.

3?r

word

the

3T5T?nrrft,
3.

mffi *$**&*$ sftfojF

The

219.

on

as, JTrff

<T3rrr% n jrcft:,

11

11

tjtp <j} arairrc s?rTTr

accent,

11

T5<t

13

Accent.

1034

the Feminine Gender

Observe

*T??

3T?cft

rsrf$7ft

S^rqT:

Why

Observe srcPTP^N

Bk. VI. Ch.

I.

223

do we say when followed by

II

II

V^lfa

II

II

^m^TX:

ST^cT,

The Names ending

220.

It

have the acute

in srecft

accent on the last syllable.


Thus

arrsrr^r

W^M #f,

faltf,

^TR"7

^?

Il

These words being formed

by W(X would have been unaccented on the final (III. 1. 4). Why do we
use ar^rft and not ^rfr ? Then the rule would apply to trsrarfi also, for this
word is really cnr^rrTr ending in 9T?3rft, the subsequent elision of ^r is held to
be non-valid for the purposes of the application of this rule (VIII. 2. 2). But
the change of H into ^ (*T^="^)

considered asiddha for the purposes of

is

this rule.

bf^V

II

<TTTft H facqr., (

^TtT:

The Names ending

221.

II

have the acute on

in f[^fr

the last syllable.


Thus *#*#, stfN#f, S^ft^f

^
ffxr:

11

<r^Tr%

11

11

^if*?*s*falC'?*Kra *nqnr

11

qTfrr^

^Tf rrr2fcr?f?r

222.

Thus

<fht T**;

VArt:
(i

11

srs^sr

srs^r

the final

in the

weak

This

is

an ex-

As

?njHf:.

remains.

V^^T, **Sf%: T*^ 733, t|^T,


and VI. 2. 52.

This rule does not apply before a


11

mfo

rfr^'T^- $fr3Rr ?f r^r

1%

II

161, 170

1.

Here the accent

^jrr^r^r
ffrr-

word has the acute accent

^ of

cases in which only

ception to VI.

if

11

^pr^ u
In compound words ending in

of the preceding

vowel

rr>jrir:

is

T^rft

11

^rsttsprr ^fTTfr H^flr

223.

Taddhita

regulated by the affix (III.


11

^mrcns*,

^tttT

1.

affix.

3).

11

compound word has

the acute on the last

syllable.

Thus

*r?

jw

The consonants being


udatta
sonant.

will fall

37ir^f , 72?^, ^T^r^r, ^rsrif^ sn-grw?;* n


held to be non-existent for the purposes of accent, the

5rr$rJi*ir&,

on the vowel though

The exceptions

it

may

to this rule will be

not be

final,

mentioned

the final being a conin the

next chapter.

BOOK SIXTH.
Chapter Second,

^i^t

^S^ftti" snFcsrr

trmft

II

In a Batmvrihi, the

I.

own

II

*5zft&

jts^tt,

member

first

h j m ^h

preserves

its

original accent.

The word $^q^r means here the accent whether udatta or swarita
is in the first member
i\^A means, retains its own nature, does not
become modified into an anudatta accent. By the rule VI. I. 223, the final
of a compound gets the accent, so that a>ll the preceding members lose their
which

accent and become anudatta,

except one. VI.


its

Thus

158.

I.

IfrsaftTRT^TJTi

11

zfn*v[ is

154) from ^tot a kind of antelope


'

syllable

first

ffT^sp

of a

compound

'

and has the

sxq-

derived from

is

in

5 by

f^ (Un

treated as
first

syllable (VI.

formed word as

the

133, VI.

Sutra V.

1.

is

84

being formed by

i.

^rrT^r

e.

is

first

I.

197)

i.

and the

III. 25)

e.

3.

on

also
27),

affix

is

acutely accented on the

is

syllable.
it is

So

also 3Teqracfi$r:, the

formed by

f3< affix (III.

tne ^rnra being enounced with an indicatory

acutely accented on the


(IV.

1.

IV.

udatta on the

sfrnfaspp,

affix stst

the word ag -qi R^ has a Kritand gets the acute on the final (VI. 2. 139). So
is derived by
(V. 4. 29) affix and has fa?j

also flfl^ l HT'THrefi^:

part,

accented on the middle as

193).

2.

word

197)

1.

word 3TS2HW

second

Thus

always udatta.

compound also. So
Unadi affix T (Un III.

(Un

and hence the word

So

197).

1.

its

also slrrrcff^, the

accent (VI.

III. 26),

are unaccented

nrqr accent (VI.

the

before which the vpwel becomes lengthened

is

Taddhita

derived by the
;

syllables

ail

of a Bahuvrihi would have lost

with the present sutra commences the

final

which the word preserves

word

the

member

first

accent and become anudatta

The word

one word

in

as"

the

exceptions to the rule that the

the

161) a

rlftC

first.

*T|S2farT,

affix is svarita (VI.

1.

the word

185),

r.

In

^5^

Accent.

136

The words udatta and


Therefore

if

d&tta, the accent falls

3^,

rprro,

fr^w'rT^t

?rrf%^

on

it

aphorism.

this

udatta on the

*T*wnT5, here

rule

by the

final

all anu-

w\ being

11

<j<fi*rr, *re*ft,

*r^

^wr^,

3ts*t*t,

^m\\

fecftar,

11

11

srsssr ^37Fnrrrrr*rrfaf?r

(i

will get

Thus

223.

I,

in

II. 2

purvapada are anudatta, the present

all the syllables of the

has no scope there, and such a compound


universal rule enunciated in VI.

understood

are

svarita

Bk. VI. Ch.

5^53*

11

In a Tatpurusha, the

2,

its original accent,

when

member

first

preserves

a word (1) meaning u a resem-

it is

an Instrumental or (3) a Locative or (4) a


word with which the second member is compared, (5) or an

blance

",

or

(2)

(6) an Accusative, or

Indeclinable, or

(7)

a Future Passive

Participle,

Thus (i)!?3%3M, i?wf?*r, t^ifp*, si^jrp, st^rftrn, sfrsnui


Karmadharaya compounds formed under II, I. 68 and $pg being
These
on the first (VI. 1. 216). The word ^fr
is acutely accented
formed by
Vart),
and
has acute on the final (VI. 1. 197 and
is formed by f*?^ (HI. 2, 60
VI, 2. 139). So also *rfsr%r *fiwr??P, gf^PTSraUl Tne w rd STC^T is formed
are

by

ztra

When

added

to

197 the accent

I.

165 applies and

IV. 143), and

with the force of sj^, and thus the noun

it

final-acute,

is

to sr^[

formed by

the

(Un

fafci is

member

first

III, 65),

Ffr^ affix

(2)

?jr

is

udatta

and hence VI.

affix

formed by the Unadi

affix

1,

$ (Ua

% to

When

the

as

is

a word in the Locative case, as

The word

is

final

and

qr,

first

is

acute (III,

is

formed by the

is

acute on the

member

^[^mr,

sr$T

1,

3).

first

3j^j
affix

The word
(VI.

1.

193)

qpc

?*r

is

owing

a word with which the second

|i3^^fr,

^Ir'T^T,

wrcn^TTftH'WI,

^ft-

These compounds arc formed by II. 1. 55. ^r#r is


'and is final-acute ^g? is formed by <% affix (^r *T*% = i^)
Vart and is acutely accented on the first, or by Phit sutra

formed by

3^

pee III.

5.

it

to

(4)

ERF^PTr, ^TTP^fft

1 1. 3

and

added

compared,

is

2.

139).

being treated as a f%?^ (Un. IV, 142) has udatta on the final.

accent,

f?yq>

a word formed by

is

?irg^r

^fe^astfr^ro?:, so also ^Frerp^ll

member

2.

II

When

(3)

to the

on ? (VI.

the whole word

added

falls

first

CTT:, so also
is added the affix
or

and by VI.

z%

member is in the Instrumental case, as: sr^ aq r WT< =5T^$rTo the root ?*r
fisRWP (II, I. 30) *IffaT is derived from strfJ+r^r

the

'I

has acute on the

first.

is

formed by the Unadi

affix *r

added

to

s^

Bk. VI. Ch.

(Un

II 3

and

III. 62),

Samasa-accent.

accented (III.

finally

is

and $

1137

PTT?f?r ?s*TPT:

1. 3).

formed by

changed into ^ as Panini himself uses


The words fqfretFT,
CTCRr ? are Genitive Tatpurusha, and their second member has accent on the
first syllable (VI. 2. 135).
(5) When the first member is an Indeclinable, as,

8T^

(III.

this

form (VII.

1.

134),

5)

3.

irregularly

is

and

pr^tonf*^, R^m^rRr,
compounds have udatta on the first,

^rarsiT, ^fq^:, Iotspp, i*w

these Indeclinable

accented in the middle.

it is

11

Vdrt:

In cases of

All

Indeclinable compounds, the rule applies only to

those which are formed by the negative Particle

Though

(nipata).

one of the Nipatas,

?r>r is

that qrsj.-accent debars even the subsequent

does not apply here FT Mich ir

to

11

they are formed by

&c.

II. 2. 5

it

$frrer<j:, ^fcrrra:

Mayuravyhsakadi

When

(6)

the

the

is

and

first

on the

final

m$m

on the penultimate (VI.

^jtWH^^
%S T^^cf^q"

II

They

srarcfor:

Therefore,

II

final

and belongs

is

3frfg*3?,

II. 1. 29.

?=Hkr5T is

*|$
formed

finally accented.

member

is

a Kritya-formed word, as, irrgafa^m ^

(II. 1.68).

*r*q

i.

^rfa

*TTI% tffifa^t

last.

by

is

formed by

<^

and has

and ^arra are formed by SRfaC. and are accented


e. on *\
185 and 217)

1.

II

are formed

acutely accented on the

*rnn*P, Tr^^rrT^, fC^ffa^*


svarita

as

as in the accusative case, as

Spftrih?f*Rr

affix 3T^r

When

^-accent

which has acute on the

member

first

belongs to qt$uft class and

(7)

Particles

class.

ffrfoWfa*, swlsjf^sfr,

by the samasanta

by ^, and by

3T,

separate mention indicates

its

>T^frT

II

^:,

11

sr*r,

3t%&

11

II

member of a Tatpurusha preserves its


original accent, when a word denoting color is compounded
with another color denoting word, but not when it is the
The

3.

word t&

first

Thus fW^nr^T,
?T3

affix

by the
I.

Un.

^rflrraTTjft,

?^*c*Tiq:, fFJrftrT^Trqn

II

&W

affix rpj

is

4 ) and has acute on the final (III. 1. 3). <7rft<T


added to
(Un. III. 94) and has accent on the

III.

formed by
is

formed

first

(VI.

197).

Why do we say 'color-denoting word ? Observe *reTjs<?: (VI. 1. 223).


do we say 'with another color denoting word '? Observe ^cornron (VI.
Why do we say 'but not when it is tr^r' ? Observe ^cttct, FfrfffN? H
1. 223).
The compounding takes place by II.i. 69.
,

Why

irrsrasmrott smtffr

11

11

iTcrrft n itt^t, re<Tpft:,

smr^T

ll

1 1

Samasa-accent.

38

The

4.

compound

the

Thus

member of a Tatpurusha
when the second term is ira or

much

may

salt as

e.

sha compounds.
acute on the
(III. 2. 184),

be given to a cow or a horse

?&%

formed by adding

is

(VI.

first

1.

197).

and

first

(VI,

(III.

1.

197).

I.

3): *fr is

affix f^r

is

'so

added

to

formed by ft(Un

II.

^^ affix added to sr^[ (Un.

The word

I.

JPTTT here denotes

The power

'quantity', 'measure', 'mass', 'limit', and not merely the length.

of denoting measure by these words

Samba

^T^^T*

These are Genitive Tatpuruto 5^ (Un. IV. 94), and has

'.

formed by

final sfr; bt** is

and has acute on the

fffcrcwi,

formed by the

is

arf^T

and has acute on the middle

68) and has acute on the


151),

preserves
ssspir,

water as low or fordable as a

of the depth of an oar or a pestle'.

i.

II. . 5

expresses a 'measure or mass'.

?rr*mT5?3T'r, sif^HllMgiqra.'

or an Aritra

Bk. VI. Ch.

first

original accent,

its

here indicated by and

is

dependent upon

accent.

When

not denoting jhttt

second member, the

its

tance preserves
Thus

*re*T*rHF*

and qwST^L

In a Tatpurusha compound, having the word

5.

^TOT^ as

we have

first

member denoting

inheri-

original accent.

its

tTTfrsir

fMlrfrar?:,

The word

ll

Rpsjr is

formed by the

^r*

affix

The word ^T is derived by adding


3. 99) which is udatta (III. 3. 96).
\*rsT
to
(Un. II. 81). Though the Unadi Sutra II. 81 ordains <*g after the
53
root *rr preceded by f?r, yet by 3-^7 (III. 3. 1) rule it comes after \*r also when
(III.

it is

not preceded by

f?r

and

spr

has acute on the

first (III. I. 3).

In the forms f%3OT?ranr> &c, what Genitive case has been taken
is

the Genitive case which the

the Vartika 3THT<T?Hr>TRr

The

pounding.
i.

e.

^f^ff &c.

why

T ^gf

?t

^ntf? requires

*T*T^% (II.

Genitive case there

a trfq^T Genitive case,

case, then

word

and not a

is

2.

by Rule

the other Geintive case

If

it

10 Vart), there can be no com-

the ordinary Genitive case of

J?f?r7^

then by

II. 3. 39,

Genitive.

taught

If

it is

a 5

fl

IJ

II. 3. 50.

Genitive

39 with regard to
That sutra only indicates the existence of the Locative case in the

alternative,

is

and does not pervent the Genitive.

been ordianed in that sutra,

this

In

particular case

in

II. 3.

had merely Locative


would have prevented the

fact,

Genitive on the"maxim that a particular rule debars the general. But the
employment of both terms Genitive and Locative in that sutra indicates the
alternative nature of the rule

&

JjfirTf

and shows that the Genitive case so taught

Genitive, but a general Genitive.

is

In short the Genitive taught in

not
II.

Bk. VI. Ch.

II 8.

Samasa-accent.

1139

3.

not an apurva-vidhi, the words naturally would have taken Genitive

is

39,

the taking of the Locative

Why

I.

223

the only

is

new thing taught

do we say when meaning inheritance


taking the final acute of a compound.

'

ferts^f*ft:

srfaqfc*

^55

q^ffa

II

there.

Observe

n srfirafa*, !%?:,

m*mm|

srs^fr:

11

member, the

as its second

first

member, when

denotes that which experiences an obstacle, preserves

it

VI.

In a Tatpurusha compound, having the words

6.

fet or

n $

'

its

original accent.

Thus $raf*ro
and

compound belongs
to

some

affix,

and have

either to the class of

an attribute and the thing

owing

qualified.

When

do we say which experiences a hinderance

'

'

II

II

preserves

word

its

The word
Sirffa^r

becomes

II

j-rj is

This

(II. I. 72),

or of

delayed

is

there

difficult,
II

is

Why

II

q^, srq^T
smr% t^is^^tt^ *%&t
II

n&fafrit

when

the

H*n^

11

member
second member is the
first

a pretext \
means a pretext
a contrivance \ Thus l^qtr
Gone on pretext of voiding urine or excreta.
derived by adding the affix 8^, to the root *^-, the 37

'

s*q%^r

Jrfl*rcf :

The word

*m

193).

I.

*wif*K or *i*h##
Observe gig^l,

tr?s^r

original accent,

denoting

q^"

II

The words

called

In a Tatpurusha compound the

7.

JTf^qrT:,

q^T

\9
sq^fr
spf^r ^rsrerrsrr*nt

11

11

accent (VI.

going to a place

defective arrangement or cause, or


is

q^

foq[

Mayura-vyansakadi

produced an obstacle or hinderance, and

ffrr

s^rlr^pt

*forsr^c., ^rfrtfrsrc* or

formed by eg*

ttn^rot are

'

',

sr?r of to, (Un. IV. 163), and has acute on the first (VI.
be a word formed by etsj to the root %ft 3R r
The word

being substituted for


I.

or

197)

SWTC

is

may

it

also

11

formed by

*rsj

and by VI.

2.

144 has acute on the final.


is an attributive compound.

compounding takes place by II. 1. 72 or it


Why do we say "when meaning a pretext ?" Observe
^J7fr

j^^=f^-

11

f?teRT sTTcnrr^

8.

preserves

its

word f^rcT
Thus

So

f^^n":

The

also

ll

<

ll

q^rft

erra-^

forr^,

ll

ll

In a Tatpurusha compound, the


original accent, wlien the

in the sense of

'

j*fa r%?T<T => ^ttfftnrcr

member
second member is the
first

a protection from wind \


'

a hut as the only shelter from the wind

#frR^m*, I^Prem^or ^^TPrerrT*

ll

The word f^RT

is

'.

an Avyayi-

SAMASA- ACCENT.

If 40

[Bk. VI. Ch.

II. .

lO

bh^va compound = ?rm^ sprnr* (II. t. 6): or a Bahuvrihi = R^ctf srrarsf^t


The words <?rf^Trrc &c, are examples of compounds of two words in apposition,
sgif and 5Pft are formed by 3*Nl (IV. I. 41) and have acute on the last
ll

(III.

I.

3).

Some

say that

and treating

ff^gr

derived from

is

augment

araf

that

derived by the affix ^Tf? to

it is

Why

it

as

and the

fjf

do we say when meaning

fWrf ^STfa, IpsT

TT^PT^nT

= ne
'

'

wfa

11

11

a shelter from wind

it^ mro5r

with the

others hold

has the accent

affix

Fmm =

Here

j?j
;

'

Observe cnr-

<Tf *f

'

'

pleasant

is

or vicinity.

II

In a Tatpurusha compound the first member


original accent, when the second member is

9.

preserves

first

under the shelter of the king

lives

the shelter or the protection of the mother'.

sur^ ****%

by adding

has the acute on the

is

f^Rrl,

its

the word s&TCT, having any other sense than that of

'

au-

tumnal'.
The word

3TrN"

means appertaining

to season (*G)

i.e.

when the

i^

Kq^HL
word 5TN3 does not refer to the season of m<l or autumn. Thus
So also s#^ SfftfT: *r*T^ the saktu flour fresh from the
fresh drawn water
i

'

'

'.

and it forms an invarinew


The word m*$ means here fresh
The word rssj is formed by s affix added to *[ (Un. I. 15),
the *T being elided. The affix 3 is treated as f?r^ (Un. I. 9) and the accent
The word ^qfo is formed by the augment
falls on the first syllable (VI. 1. 197).
mill

'

'

'

'.

able compound.

of the vowel of the root

q and shortening
(Un.

I.

131) and has accent on the

Why

'to tear*

final (III.

(STTnt),

and the

affix arft^

Observe

qTrsiTCf**,

I. 3).

do we say when not meaning autumnal


SrRSrrc?* the best autumnal grass &c'. (VI. I. 223).
'

'

In a Tatpurusha compound denoting a genus,

10.

member preserves its original


second member is the word st^ or ^<*T*T
the

first

accent,

when the

||

Thus rfNiF^,

3&3T^--,

genus or

s&HW^

kind

',

213).

Vri,

zfft* !ITtK
sjTTFnr

(IV.

3.

101),

and the

affix

comes from ?^rf^+ *** (IV.

II

These are Appositional comxr&l is formed by


5?T* is derived by sr* affix (III.

with a fixed meaning,

pounds denoting
and has accent on the first (VI, 1.
I. 34), and to it is added the Taddhita
'

affix PTPT (IV.

is
3-

3.

104), in the sense of

then elided by IV.

3.

107.

The word

108) in the sense of ^rrtTr vrti (IV.

3.

Bk. VI. Ch.

and

101),

(VI.

it

12

II. .

Tatpurusha-accent.

would have preserved

(See VI.

144

I.

Thus

vart).

also *rfr4a3rePW;,

The words ^PTT*? and

pounds.

to ^rc

meaning

a 'genus'

Observe,

K^

(VI.

final

final

this affix

be elided

So

(III. 1.3).

is

fftTft3?

165).

1.

<n7Tp:i:, q-Wfirn*

^ft

ll

(VI.

formed by

Why

z%> affix

do we say when

223).

I.

**TO, srfdVWt:, 13T&fr


??
s^m^t w<r
snra jtrt^t ^sirrcterrei^r: *rr^rerf^t <r*s^r *rm%
II

II

II

II

*w

11

In a Tatpurusha compound expressing

11.

emblance with some one or something, the


preserves

Wtt

will

These are Genitive comare Genitive compounds and have

The word

and has acute on the

*TC5T5rf^T*ft:
fnr:

3*irs*T

223).

X.

f^of sfuSrrcr^

accent on the

g&nfn? gets

SHI^M^iNI*4Ho ffarft^frer^

accent on the final (VI.

added

form without change before

its

164) but for a vartika which declares that the

4.

141

or xrfcf^r

res-

member

when the second member

original accent,

its

first

11

is

II

Thus H^qgAP *T fq $A
The words faf and HTf are formed by Unadi
affix ^r ( Un. II. 95) and are finally accented.
By II. I. 31, SOT forms
Instrumental Tatpurusha. That case, however, is governed by VI. 2. 2, which
,

provides for

As

I'

jrcir:

and

^zm,

it

Jjsrdrr

applies to cases

ttW

and the

case-affix gets the accent

So

fafqfaV4

also

The examples

Instrumental compounds.

Genitive Tatpurusha
elided.

Tprirra^P

:
,

II

Here

II

srcft

and

<jqrfr

Observe wrcrrf:, StPTCT^I (VI, I. 223):


compound is that of honor and not resemblance

11

TOP*

11

?*

'

'

ll

q^TR

ll

flMi^-tUMf iprprofafSr <T*g^-

12.

sure or quantity
accent,

when the

Thus
TO, the

r%*ft, snrtfr

^*n%

ll

^nt sr^m^t

^t^Tct h

member preserves
second member is a Dvigu.

SrESTCTRtf *T:

affix *TPT^

'.

In a Tatpurusha compound denoting


',

the

and

first

^v*TTC*ni^*r.

The word

II

denoting 'measure' (V.

2.

37)

is

WWH'

or

first

II

JTT^T

has acute on the

or on the middle

*nrcTT :

'

first

while iTRjruT

So
is

'

mea-

original

= SHTOTP HWl2.

37 Vart)

also Trr?qfft-

either accented

as
belongs to the Kardamadi class ( Phit III.
do we say 'before a Dvigu'? Observe sftfareij H Why do we
when denoting measure ? Observe W I*HHH
it

Why

10).

say

|df|r:

its

elided (See V.

JTr^wnfr *nrcPT* = 5r^rcnrerc: "an Eastern seven-years old".

on the

not

here the sense of the

fscft
frfp

is

are finally acute,

when semivowel is substituted (VI. 1. 174),


Why do we say 'when meaning resem-

blance'?

'

are of

here given

where the case-ending

'

'ird<jqu<4 srrftrer n

14

\%

11

q^rfr

n tt^tt^t,

II

<rnni,

mfrnt

ll

Tatpurusha-accent.

142

Before the word

13.

member

of a Tatpurusha preserves

word specifying the place whither one has


in

which one
Thus

compounds.

on the

last (VI.

I.

e.

derived by

*T? is

Kardamadi

I.

^t

finally

is

and

'

ware

we have:

II.

'the

67)

is

acutely accented

class (VI.

109),

3.

or the second

first

dealer in cows',

3T**3rrfan5r:

has acute on the

3T^3"

and

The word *TR*TR belongs

Tffqrrfrrsn 'a

and

All these are Loca-

first

do we say the place whither one goes, or the goods


Observe qwifui^K STOTfMb U

is

(Un

II

in

which

3r<rerar,

art",

'

^r^tta^^r^ 5tj^%

ll

V*

msrfa

11

snrsrr,

it

swr,

11

The

14.
its

and

II, 13)

consequently acute on the

is

(Un

accented

Why

5T5H%

Madra &c'

(Un

affix

icar

to

or the second syllable.

first

class,

151) the affix being

one deals

to go, or the

m^Ffl belongs to Krshodaradi

165).

1.

by going

trade

(Phit III. 10) In the sense of qvq


&c.

it

Wfa*rrcfrf^i=*T$rrp^ *r^r sspr^fcr

^jrfta^if&rerJ,

who

has acute either on the


to the

first

deals.

*rtkrfa*r:,

Mad ra- merchants


tive

when

accent,

its

14

II.

a trader \ the

'

enforsr

Bk> VI. Ch.

first

member

accent before the words

of a Tatpurusha preserves

^W when

^wr, 3"W*T and

JTTsrr,

these words appear as neuter.


Thus nronrnr t
is

^rf?r sur^ncr, srslr^Hr

gfrsftrr

fepsR

The word

11

here synonymous withgrS, the phrase being = f*T$rrar*3^15rjTPjr, and

tive

compound.

(III.

3.

The word
it is

final (III.

a word denoting

TrppfrT^r^r^ s^cff^i

sq*rr, as

pTST,

1.

by st^ affix from


V 3). The word

qf^

So

also with

snfiretfc? U

1% T**irf^r TFnTH U

(3%^

Phit sutra

I.

).

So

s^sp^ l55**^ sfrnr^g^ *J^m

formed by

g^Tf^f T^T ?

f>r affix

The word

qTPFT

has acute on the

^t^>jt, as aTT^rq^'t

All these are

jfrtr

a Geni-

by the feminine affix 3T


The word ^55" has also

(qf&Rrsrsap^ *nf&r^), and has acute on the

ssnfe being

197), so also
5

3).

'a sea',

All these are Genitive compounds.

II. 4. 21).

word

derived from

and has acute on the

103),

acute on the final as

with

pt$TT is

is

WmV,

is

also
(see

derived

final, (III.
first

(VI

I.

?^?3PPF*I*,

Genitive compounds.

The

+ ^? + 3T affix added with the


force of sj>7, the qr being changed to ^ the word belonging to fsfr^rf^ class
(VI. 3. 109), and it has acute on the final by VI. 2. 144.
The word ^{fa is
formed by spfisjv and has acute on the penultimate ;fr owing to the indicatory ^
(VI. 1. 217). The word
HR has acute on the final by VI. 2. 172. The
word 7r?f is formed by 3^ (III. 1. 134). The Tatpurusha compounds ending
srrdr

s^rafar)

is

derived

from

3Tr

in 3T5TT

and

grqifre

are neuter

by

II. 4. 21.

So

also with srar,

as fS'OT'WL,

"

Bk. VI. Ch.

Tatpurusiia-accent.

17]

II. .

1143

The word f^[ is derived from $qr by 3" affix (Un I. 13), and it being
(Un I. 9) the acute falls on f the first syllable (VI. 1. 197).
The word st|*t has also acute on the first by Phit sutra II. 3. The compound
5*1*313*11
treated

is

as fa^

Tatpurusha

a Genitive

the

compound

is

\\

ll

<*?"%

II

The

when

accent,

^^,

II

Thus
JpTTf^FT,

Hfaq q;,

m jim
i

good

193

1.

).

'beneficial',

i.

of pleasure or delght.

Sfi^

\$

II

of a Tatpurusha preserves

5^

is

or

and the sense

faro*,

So also |sch^PT U?<"I^SI5.r


These are appositional compounds. All the

11

affix

and have acute on the syllable preceding

Sft^r, <*

II

first

II

member

accent, the second term being

its

II

The words sukha and priya have the sense of f|rT or


e. when the thing denoted by the first term is the cause
When this is not the sense we have q^H^4i*t, T^fr^ H

The

16.

ft%

**qr? J^rlr^rt *rerf?t u

pleasure of going'.

fgaflr

^Tfa

II

mm

good'.

is

above words are formed by ?g?


the affix (VI.

When

II. 4. 22.

(II. 4. 25).

fsfcnifc,

the second term

ipFTfjTsPr 'the

f-c

Neuter by

it is

member

first

delight, or

is 'to feel

'well

and

si fas ?^rT^TT?:T^rffrmf^rR rT^^r

11

15.
its

&j?n

not a Neuter we have ^^njTOT

^=rfe*T*nf^
^rfi'

f^rr(\

of a Tatpnrusha preserves

^^

or

in the

fsrcr,

sense of

"agreeable to one, or desired".


Thus

fl

^JiH^

"the sweetmilk

<rra*T

^^^

by or agreeable

desired

&c. The words


*r^:
Brahmanas", ^mfrors^vsjra:
acute on the final being formed by the affixes 3ror and or (V.
\\

(III.

1.

^m

and

to or desired,

11

11

?\s

q^rfa

ll

^rprcrs^TTCTf

m^

When

final.

4.

62) respectively

not meaning agreeable

rTrj^qr *rer%

ll

^n^, ^rwr%

*^tht

*5<t?

ll

*r$ra^

*refa u

In a Tatpurusha compound, having the word

17.

^ qr

has svarita on the

to the

m%W and 5TW have

we have IM^JT ^carnT^!!

^r ^rrfm?ir
frrT:

11

as its second

member, the

first

term,

when

it

denotes

the thing possessed, retains its original accent.


Thus

Trrernfr, 3T3^rTHt,

%^rpft

already been mentioned before in VI.

word denoting

q3nW5r

possession,
11

\<

ll

we have

q^rft

ll

H
2\

The
14..

TCftqcn'

qrfr,

accents of

When

II

k*&%

ll

the

iff,

first

sre and
jnember

*FT
is

have
not a

Tatpurusha-accent.

144

Bk. VI. Ch.

In a Tatpurusha ending in qfo when

18.

II.

21

means

it

member preserves its original accent.


The word n^is formed by ^
TjfirrW:, %%<TRP, fofffir:, W^fofa'*

'master' or lord', the first

Thus

II

(III. I. 144) and has acute on the final (III.


vrihi (q"f
^T*t = %^0, and by VI. 2. 1 the

^T

The word ?R
acute on the

is

derived from *

first (III. 1. 4),

the word

? )

^SCT#*f^T3

5T

sf?r

mihai

11

miVX

*^rT

*T

trt?

?^

II

<T^TR

II

Observe

'lord' ?

its

accent.

and has

(See Phit

final

H|$i<itr

II.

^<ft<T?i? "a
:

^, fee*, %%$

*, *J,

II

a Bahu-

is

affix sr<r (III. 3. 57

has svarita on the

srr?^

Why

do we say when meaning


Brahmana, husband of a Sudra".
23

first

by the

'to lead'

The word "^Rr


member retains

1. 3).

II

^wnWt <P3^ spirt w *n$ f^ r$q% fWRrin sjim ft TOfar

II

The words q,

fe^ and f^ra^;, however,


do not preserve their original accent in a Tatpurusha when
coming before the word qfcT denoting lord
19.

^r*r,

>

This debars the accent taught by the last aphorism.


1

f^TfJ^TR

<THT.-,

fS^Tfrf

:,

accented by VI.
srr

ffTH

II

gsR**

All these are

Thus wrf?T:, *HGenitive compounds and are finally

223.

1.

^trt ^t, g^ra:


ifSTWSrKM? q^W^rf^ rT^S^" SPIRT *TPT^3f S^Tf ^T M$f3H<. H3TrT
20.
The word g^r may optionally keep its accent
11

*o

II

II

ii

in a Tatpurusha, before <tRt denoting

Thus ^?TTH^
80),

or

%^7R

and has acute on the

ordains

comes

first

in the secular literature also, as

T^ *WrSR

STTCTfT*pl

II

STfJWS^Tf rT^^T?r% T$ft

Before

ber in a Tatpurusha

when

*Tf,

1.

197).

||

lord \
*j?r

II

formed by sr^.(Un.
II.

q^rRT

II.

80 (Unadi)

the theory of *jg$ (III.

^p^TTfrTUr^p

\\

is

Though Sutra

I.

3),

it

II

||

3TH[Tf 3TT 3P*,


,

^f^^,

II

21.

of a

(VI.

^^ after w in the Vedas only, yet on

*HTR%
ff%:

The word

'

II

3TRTf aTRT^T Vffasr f c^^rRT^ tRTWlfafll

srreTf

srrap*

compound

and ^^t^^, the

preserves

its

first

mem-

original accent,

treats about a supposition.


The word *THI*HHl= 3TR<R^rH*{r3: "the hesitation about the existence
thing
Thus TORftTg; ^% 'one fears the journey'; so also t^rrof s^^TTit

'.

&c.

Similarly $nftTCPl

*5fflT ==

TiR *\*m

*PT sf*TR*r% "it has stepped in as

Bk. VI. Ch.

II.

23

Tatpurusha-accent.

1145

So also ^hnTTWHT*, ^rlr^rWPT^ Similarly *PTCHqfat


s*iV^^: = T*refmT RSfiSWrf^ *P*T^ "the journey stands

an obstacle to journey".

i*R%ffa

r*,

directly before

Why

".

do we say when a supposition

meant

is

Observe m+^flq

All the above words are formed by fj^ affix and have fal accent.

(VI.

11

I.

193)-

H^ qrnj^

**

ll

The

22.

preserves

its

q^rfa

II

i$,

ll

member of a Tatpurusha compound


is the second
accent when the word

original

"this had been lately

is

Thus STR^t H^I^ = *^1?

".

The compound
The compounding takes place by II. 1.
belongs to Mayura-vyansakadi class. So also ^fra^:, fjfrere*^
Why do we say when meaning had been lately \ Observe mx^:,
:

must be analysed
it

11

first

member, and the sense

57 or

^nj^

in the

"

formely had been rich

",

above way.

II

'

^P^

wmcn

vn-r^: then

it

should be analysed as <reTTOT

"f%rlr

becomes an example under the

In order therefore, to

make

this rule

IT

II

analysed as m$f

it is

and not a counter-example.


applicable we must know the sense of the
rule

compound.

?*firra^*TO^r^^^^3 NiV4
*&n, <^i^,

*nrchc,

The

23.

preserves
*nfr>ar,

wm^

q^rfa

11

srfira,

ll

^fer,

member of a Tatpurusha compound


accent, when the second
member is

first

original

its

^3

11

11

^fte, ^rmf^,

'

and

*rerer,

?^r

in the sense of "

what can

be found in the vicinity thereof".


Thus

*ri*rf^iT,

Mj^iRsrnn**, JfrnStarfw*

VL, 'dhrTCPl' and *TsfcrtTO


of these words have been

words

srnrc &c,

vicinity':

srs

f*^ra^*^=>^^wf*
&c

from

= *T7P,rt SNT^*

Observe

Observe ^r^TCPRfr

>

ll

before

in

So

also

and

Why

bounded

tIsrty*, T?Nr jroT-

cffntflT

Sutra

VI.

f^rar &c, but they

II

2.

all

The
12,

field

accents

The

13.

mean

do we say when meaning

TOIW *$% tpranf

"the

11

also with *TRCTR

taught

are derived

*n?*rrc>t

vicinity thereof?

So

'

in

the

in

the

\H(*l a field having boundary'.


'

of D'.

Why

tip

we say

$rfa>*

II

RumiKiR *pnr^rg

11

ll

^tr

ll

m*mu, ^Kifa-gnr^ftg

11

Tatpurusha-accent.

146

Bk. VI. Ch.

II 25.

The words ra^qre &c preserve their accent


when followed by an Adjective word in a compound,
24.

Thus f^TS <*i**l, NNr^Rf^fiiT s^RMi^** ff^TSP^T*, repT^FTOW, *^tRThe compounding takes place by II. 1.4, and it should be analysed
,

xWtil
thus

II

ft*<re

*S*"* &c.

The words

fi* Mg &c, are indeed here adjectives, and in conjunction


and therefore
with 375 &c, they denote an object possessing those qualities
not being in apposition, the compound is not a Karmadharaya.
;

The word
also acute on the

word

as fafsRP,

pfcte has acute on the


as

first

it

first

by VI.

2.

The word f^nr is


Some read the
acute.
The word ssfrR

49.

gets the accent of the Indeclinable.

which being a Bahuvrihi has also first


The remaining words of
first by VIII. 2. 4.

has svarita on the


STT#,

kg or

TF^S,

the final by VI.

(Un

fa<^

and

is

I.

9), it

2.

^f,

144;

f^q; affix

(Un

I.

quality "

qrre^j,

3Tr^T%, or

144, being

Observe

'of f%*7

Why

is

formed by

final

I.

(VI.
I.

106), *5rq^ being formed by a


1.

&c'

3Tcni

The word

and

has acute

having

when followed by a word expressing a

II

ll

toc (

the word qrq


Thus TriR^rg^r,

understood

f?rg<JT

"

*TT3T ),

V.

3.

preserves

first
its

mem-

original

60 ), 3*T ( V.
64), and before a form built from

accent before adjective forms built from


)

163), for f^r^is

106.

m affix added to yjj &c.


Observe f^!R^ StTT^^R both

ber consisting of a Verbal noun (

61

to the root q-T,

being formed by

In a Karmadharaya compound, the

25.

3.

^=jj

final

formed by

do we say

ft?<T?Br5Pr

srrmrc^

Un

ill from sutra Un.

I.

do we say
final.

*rfc,

cfTflr*

rtf

Tf*TrT

has accent on the

in), has acute on the

Unadi sutra Un.


on the final by VI. 2.

Why

144).

2.

3"

first.

class are

this

Of these, the word %T# has acute on


(Un I. 18), which being considered as

fatj^r.

formed by

^Tr^?5ri% = <^T^:,

in the

acute on the

is

has acute on the

finally acute (VI.

a krit affix

and

^TT<?

sr

V.

3.

II

T*rFre*r or irT*nirfta-

ll"

or

So

tpftw, ibFT53S*
also rre^PTrm?

F37 formed wot^s and hr.ve

f?y?

accent

i.

or

smhu*t;

frmnfor:
e. on the

ll

tt*tt***' ?ta*fiq*i*, frr-

All the

first

first syllable.

members
(VI.

1.

are

193

are substitutes which certain adjectives take in the


The words *sr, 5^ and
comparative and superlative degree, and the employment of these forms in the

sutra indicates that the comparative and superlative words having these ele-

Bk. VI. Ch.

II

27

Karmadharaya-accent.

147

ments should be taken as second members, and so also of qre, the comparative
and superlative are taken, for this is the meaning here of the word TPT^q;
Why do we say "** &c" ? Observe r*H{ii*RT
Why do we say 'a
Observe *T*FWf:, where the word itr is = n**rer S%T 'a carraige'.
verbal Noun'?
Why do we say 'a Karmadharaya compound'? Observe ire^r ^n:=ir*njVn:
11

ll

II

&m< r
ff^r:

11

r$

5hiimj

vm

zf&ww

standing as a
Thus fWr%^T,

the final as

it

II

first

^stfc,

srer%

The word

26.

when

thrift

II

II

sr^r^t w?r

$m<

11

preserves

member in

original accent

its

a Karmadharaya compound.

fttrc'WTr, fFTT?rrnT*ft

The word

ll

has acute on

grer?

derived from the root apmc s&CTqPl with the affix sr^ of

is

By II. 1. 70, it is ordained that ffflT is compounded with


Some commentators hold that the word flK must be followed by
They refer to the maxim
( II. 1. 70 ) to make this rule applicable.

T^rrf^

II

^ppf &c.
*to<jt

&c.

(REfanrn?-

?I^P irfjTTfTrfftare STf^rq, "whenever a term is employed which might denote


both something original and also something else resulting from a rule of

<T

grammar, or when a term is employed in a rule which might denote both


something formed by another rule in which the same individual term has been
emoloyed, and also something else formed by a general rule, such a term
should be taken to denote, in the former case, only that which is original, and
only that which

in the latter case,

is

formed by that rule

make any such


of^*TK

limitation, but

in

which the same

in-

Other Grammarians, however do not

dividual term has been employed."

apply the rule to

all

Kaimadharaya compounds

3ttt%:

s3rt%

WTOtffJjSrrfr

WrT

i^rft

ll

srrfc:,

*&*fa

II

ii

27.

followed by

li

In a KarmaclMrya

src^fa^;,

the acute

falls

compound
on the

of

Kumara

syllable of

first

Kum&ra.
The word JT^nr = irf^TcT ^^TT
The

word udatta

or

for the construction of the sutra requires

member

preserves

srf<T*Trf*PTr

*KQ

Thus

ll

its

it,

and the

anuvritti of the

accent' would be. inappropriate because

tiie
*

employed

here.

yb^Ftt&m

^qris<4Hi:

II

required to be read into the sutra to complete the sense:

is

II

^TR

II

qftj,

3TOcR3*n^

11

word

'

first

3TTr%' is

Karmadharaya-accent.

148

The

28.

when the second member

tionally,

name

is

VI. Ch.

II

op-

acute

is

a word denoting

29

the

of a horde \

The word
Thus

also.

Bk

Kumara

of

syllable

first

or $Tr?<*r?^*Tr

^frSrT^TJ

Here

'

or

&c \ See V. 3. 1
So also
f^rr^m^:

a multitude, a collection

^K^I^T

or

frcnFTRSffP

|HK^I^f5TT:
II

means

*cr

(VI.

reTC%^rln

or

26),

2.

So

II

II

also with |wK4<4l4fiP,

W&r

and the affix S3 is added to


In the above
the Plural by II. 4. 62.

^Trf^f &c, are horde-names

them by V. 3. 112 which is elided in


examples when the word Kumara' is not accented on the first syllable, it
gets accent on the last by VI. 2. 26, when the srirrTfrrfi maxim is not applied
when that maxim is applied, the final of the compound takes the accent by
:

'

the general rule VI.

223.

1.

fH*d*W*MIJeWII#*TOl5
?pm, *KM!$, fen*

fl[TT

II

M^lPf

II

II

%*l*G,

*MW,

^T^,

II

WW* WU1 TO*

STtT H rtnT^TRTt *W<*l?lR

In a Dvigu compound, the

29.

serves

vowel, with the exception of


time, as well as before ^nrra,

Thus %>-^kQp
Dvigu

(II.

always

elided in

>^fr *<fr

vrr#r *T.

affix *<i
1.

(V.

So

88).

1.

i^rrefsP

W\T& and

Dvigu
This

80

(V.

is

82).

2.

3 Vart).

So

also

also a Taddhitartha

So

also ih^rcran*:,

also fcere fr
S

isranrns*,

by IV.

1.

Why do
q^rrf , ^TPi:

II

<d, MWKll*

When

pre-

srcre

word denoting

II

are examples of Taddhitartha

q>^HIH(-, farn-ap

Dvigu

&FP$

(II.

the affix

q>^vnTr^j, |^r>mR*,

These are also Taddhitartha Dvigu formed by


elided

member

first

before a

sj (*j),

The above

11

J&VI J?*ffiW

equal to <HKgK(: smiWHl, the sftft denoting-affix

52),

1.

tf*rfa

a stem ending in a simple

original accent, before

its

$^1%$ *T f|%

IV.

2. '16,

1.

52),

to

mw*

is

qr*^ H\HW,

formed by the

being elided (V.

5>^wn=,

lira 11 4* m

the affix srar

being

88.

Why

an frr^ stem &c

" ?

Observe TqpTO^tffa: =*
do we say "in a Dvigu Compound?" Observe q^T-

we say

" before

compounds, by case-modifications do not end in


fs^ vowel, but the vowel is replaced by a semivowel or Guna, the rule will still
This is done on the stren S tn of the
ThusJfcq-tt^T- or qsnrrera: u
apply.
maxim 3Tf*FZr arf^JpFcPCff. " That which is bahiranga is regarded as not having taken effect or as not existing, when that which is antaranga is to take
effect " because the substitution of semivowel or guna is a bahiranga opera:

these Dvigu

BK

VI. CH.

II. .

32

DVIGU-ACCENT.

Or

tionjn relation to accent.

II49

may

the substitutes

be considered as sthanivat

to the short-vowel which they replace.

HircrwHH

\o

q^rft

11

^5, 3rera?3?ra[

11

In a Dvigu compound, the word

30.

stem, or by a time-word, or by kap&la, bhag&la and


This allows option where the

Thus WRITS'
:

by the

affix fj

or ^f^Ttrf

(Un

the anudatta 3?
preserves

its

is

11

and

*TH*?T

Tsfcrfer

11

3*

WrT

ii

its

n fefe,

or Wf-

first

example,

first

member

Email ^

11

:,

members.

l>^RrlRrp or T*^Trrf^:
denoting words dishti and vitasti (V.

TS^fsfg-: or

sr^T^rrj;

may

when followed by the words

accent,

as second

crsatflf*!:,

The

II

II

q^Tft

II

2.

^ft,

ll

mw*

affix

37).

rers:,

3*9?,

ll

t^

twuHf ^rrt fas W%\

^^r ^\|TK A^*f?iw<


,

*re?cr srr

%?s&*ft s^ranr

11

32.

locative-ending word

note time, preserves

and

.^P,

Tjir

words

sa;;zkas*ya

sr^r in

III. 16 ) in

ftfrU^S

its

original accent,

when it does not dewhen followed byr%c,

a compound.

Thus ^T^r^ter^:
(

w&

ll

T%^^W^^*JF3T3;

3^5,

^p?t*

arf^rTr^, 3l|>T*Tr^

has acute on the final being formed

fWtn %^w^wwu%fii sm% s^pp^rt^t n%mwx mft u


31.
In a Dvigu compound, the first member

ffit

elided after the sprr^

*re>,

^ft'llr*' or

acccent. In the other alternative, the accent falls on the last syllable.

Thus
is

optionally preserve
f^nj

The word ^f

II

garfiva.

accent necessarily.

I. 29). When the 3 is changed to *, as in the


changed into svarita by VIII. 2. 4 when the

f^feftcrariNr

%Rap

last rule required the

or 5T||Tr%:, ^t*TT^ or 7gTTC3

^fsTCTf

>

op-

when followed by an ik-ending

tionally preserve its accent

WH*

may

Tf

or

srilrrafTO*, 3rrf*<r?irfTO or 37rr*??3rcre


:

and' kampilya have acute on the

the alternative the accent

^rfNjs^f: H

The word f^PT

is

falls

final,

on the middle

derived by

affix

s**j

11

The

and by Phit Sutra


also.

added

So

also

to R-srrsr

and has acute on the middle the word 3737 is formed from ^% root by the
affix 3737, and has acute on the final.
So also 'Irg'T^f ^?rq"g?:, cF^frT^j*
The words Kumbht and Kalas*i are formed by #r* affix and have acute on the
final
the word srrg is formed by %% affix, and has acute on the beginning.
So also ^5^r^: ^K*M* ^ U The word chakra has acute on the final, and
;

charaka being formed by f&has acute on the

15

first.

ll

1 1

DVANDVA-ACCENT.

50

Why

BK. VI. CH.

II.

33

do we say when not denoting time ? Observe ^^Tfarfsrlp,


The compounding takes place by II. 1. 41. The accent of the
STW?5Tra^
Locative Tatpurusha taught in VI. 2. 1 was debarrd by Krit-accent taught VI.
The present sutra debars this last rule regarding Krit accent, and re2. 144.
ordains the Locative Tatpurusha accent when the Krit- words are fag &c.
:

'

'

II

The

33.

particles

qft,

which

their accent before that word,

and night,

or a portion of day

pound

specifies

srqr

preserve

an exclusion,

an Avyayibhava com-

in

also).

Thus
(See

and

^q*

strt>

II. 1. 11

<?ftnr*r?T

and

^nrifppj, sferq?is?r*>

%%f

" I*

rained

So

also

By

1.

Phit Sutras IV. 12, and 13

So

first.

'pari'', 'prati' &c, as

rules already

11
all

and

Trigarta

".

|ffTIrq--

12).

Particles (Nipata) have acute

also upasargas with the exception of

have acute on the

in)
II

11

Rpm %tV, ^M**, ^T^Wr (II.


first syllable.

round (but not

all

So also
ffwhfk* TOSTpM *, TCt&TTI
Ssrrorei, t^F^pr*, I<ttt*t^i*, It^ht*, #rr<mnr*
12).

3rfvr H

on the

Therefore qrc &c,

In a Tatpurusha and Bahuvrlhi compounds, these words

members would have

first

gone before

retained their accent by the

the present sutra, therefore,

extends the principle

The precf the preservation of the accent to Avyayibhava compounds also.


positions srq" and q-ft alone denote the limit exclusive or ^sfrr, and it is therefore with these

two prepositions only that the second member can denote the
With these prepositions 3T7 and
s<T H

thing excluded, and not with qrirT and


term if denoting a
qfc, the second

member

of day or night, are also taken

even as excluded, therefore no separate illustrations of those are given.

Why
and night
not

in

it',

'

do we say before a word which


'

Observe

the accent

n<M l **

falls

WWV

on the

rule, as well as all special rules

34.

The

TrTRT H

last

is

excluded, or

by VI.

2.

a part of a day

which debars

178,

which might

affect

member

of a

first

is

In JTr^nT* "air round the forest, but

^t

in a

this general

compound.

Dvandva compound,

formed of names denoting the Kshatriya

warrior

clans in

B K.

VI. CH. II

36

H51

DVANDA-ACCENT.

the plural number, retains

its

original accent

Andhaka

belongs to the clan of

when the warrior

or Vrishni.

The words Svaphalka and


Thus ^<T^#5ren\-, %w?S*fWT, n?T?reiwrr
Chaitraka are formed by sror affix (IV. 1. 114) and have acute on the last (I II. 1.
11

).

The word

Rrf^ has acute on the

Why

noting Patronymic.

first

do we say

'

in

syllable,

and does not change in de? Observe

denoting a Warrior clan'

Here %c^ is derived from $7 by the affix ^ (IV. 3. 10) =$rqr **T:j
S^lni^Hr
These names belong to Andhaka and Vrishni clans, but
%TT3ff: =%H^Tcq ^r U
are not the warrior-names.
The word ?J5PT here means those Kshatriyas who
11

belong to the family of annointed kings and warriors

srfHfqrtf^tf

these

(Dvaipya and Haimayana) do not belong to any such family. Why do we say
in the Plural number' ? Observe g^qor^nj^rf H
Why do we say in a Dvan4

'

dva compound'?

Observe

Andhaka and Vrishni


sresrr

3^

11

clans

^rR

^tjfpTf i jnTT:=ff^T^TT?P

II

Observe

'

^4^rrer:

Why

II

do we say 'of

II

^qrril

The Numeral word, standing as the


Dvandva compound, preserves its accent.

35.

member

of a

Thus

The word

q^rf^T, fr^T, %^r?^T or ^riff^r U

(Un

ij^f is

43) and has acute on the first (VI. 1.


the substitute of r% (VI. 3. 48) and has acute on the final.
t>y

3&1 affix

III.

sTT^pfr^r^^FcT^T^r
*ft, (
ffrrs

sr^f^rcq;
3Tr^r7^W^iTO?ri

11

first

member

When

the scholar

is

^npaffrofcr., ^, st^w-

% f^rR^rTf sr^m^t *nrm

means a pupil' a boarding not a day scholar'.


named by an epithet derived from the name of his
Thus STrnrsri3THTr3f<TCrFT: or teacher-derived name.

3T%rr*it
is#

name

that

TTfrpffar:,

mm ^fa-Sftap,

IV.

<ren*R

s^ct

retains its accent.

teacher,

ll

The

197).

words denoting scholars are named


their teachers and are compounded into a Dvandva, the
The word

name

\%

derived from fi

When

36.

after

II

first

is

'

'

#iffcre?reT?5^TP

ll

of a Teacher or foundei of a school


1.

95

adding sr^

).

The

science

taught by him

affix to srrfTO^P (IV.

the Apisalam are also called

The son

3.

101

3Trfq^r*r:

is

and IV.
the

of Apisala

an acharya
2. 11).

affix

is

arrfq^n^ the

formed by 53* affix


called srrmHE> formed by
:

The

denoting

scholars
'

who study

to*tudy

'

is

elided

by (IV. 2. 59 and 64). Or the pupils of Apisali will be also called Apisalah.
Thus in both ways Apisalah is a scholar name derived from the name of a
teacher.
The word STPTrsfrT^^FT qualifies the whole Dvandva compound and

DVANDVA-ACCENT.

52

not the

member

first

That

only.

is,

compound

the whole

Bk. VI. CH.

II.

37

should

in all its parts

denote scholars, whose names are derived from those of their teachers.

There-

qTfMfa%T^T where though the first is a teacher-derived name,


not. Why do we say "names derived from the teacher's"? Observe
Why do we say "a Scholar"? Observe STrfq^tfMlfWl^ mw U
ST^^rarer^jrn

fore not here

the second

is

||

^r^nTTT^nsr

II

CT%*&*ra, stt^t:,

Those words of

from

II

first

retain their accent.


this list

which end

dual or plural

in a

The

so exhibited for the sake of distinctness.

words.

Also in the Dvandvas ^r^rsr^T &c, the

37.

members

^Tfa

3V3 H

II

following

is

afifix

have been
of these

list

^rr^-^r^r (formed by 3Tot IV. 1. 114 in the sense of Patronymic,


and ^TSTT these being Rishi names )
2. CT3f5rar o ^3i3r ( savarni is

1.

gjrT

11

formed by f>r Patron, affix and TT*f%3 by s-sk IV. 1. 1 19 ). 3. ^H^A^-h f: The
word Avanti is end-acute, to which is added thePatron afifix nyan by IV. 1. 171,
which being a Tadraj is elided in the plural; ST^cfmr Ffaref ^T^sr^RT the
quadruple significant
descendent of Paila
elided

by

being elided.

3TT

Mt^3m0i3r:(Paila

4.

II. 4. 59.)

is

derived from Pila the son of Pila

be formed by adding

will

The word Syaparna belongs

female descendant will be 5yaparni

Syaparneya,

We

pound must,

which

therefore, be

always

1.

NH^

Saitikaksha by 3T^r, IV.

by

fsr

which

is

IV.

$^
is

We

I:

1.

by

elided

her yuvan descendant


sory.

is

Paila, the

which

yuvan

however,

is,

1.

descendant of her

compound should be

(Kapi has acute on the

107,

6. ttrerererr

156,

104, the
will

be

plural always

also.

Rffa3rr<rar

formed by 33^ IV.

I.

to Bidadi class IV.

the yuvan

not necessary that the

It is

have q^^rT^rlr
5-

IV.

fqrJ

is

final.

The son

however elided by

is

of Kapi will be

II. 4. 64.

This com-

in the plural.

(Sitikaksha
114, the

is

the

name

of a Rishi, his son will be

yuvan descendant of the

II. 4. 58.

latter will

Pafichala's female descendant

The

Pafichaleya.

plural

number here

is

is

be formed
Panchali,

not compul-

have%?rgF7r^Tr^T%tr also.)

7-

ch^^i^n

1.

59,

which

is

or ehgehc||-^ten

>

(The son of Katuka

elided in the Plural

by

II. 4.

66.

will

be formed by

The son

of Varchala

Varchaleya).

(The son of Sakala is Sakalya, his pupils are Sakalalj


of Sunak will be Saunaka by ar^ IV. 1. 104,
which will be^elided in the Plural by II. 4. 64). Some read it as sra7?rerJT^P,
where the %tj affix after Sanaka is elided by II. 4. 66. So also 3J?ren*r%si H
8. *llh<43JTOiP

by

st<?t

IV.

2.

in.

The son

9.

SFHtf^nrer:

(Archavinah are

those

(the

son of

who study

Babhru

is

Babhrava).

10.

srr^rfWj^P

the work produced by Richava, the

afifix

BK. VI. CH.

DVANDVA-ACCENT.

II 47. ]

II53

added by IV. 3. 104. Mudgala belongs to Kanvadi class IV. 2.


This a
Maudgalah are pupils of the son of Mudgala). II. 3f?fT*J<.lgr
Dvandva of Kunti and Surashtra in the plural or of the country-names derived from them like Avanti. Kunti and Chinti have acute on the final. 12.
13. rFT^rTTP (Both belong to Pachadi class formed by
fNf?rT!pTgr: as the last.
3r?r III. r. 1 34, from rff? rri"*r Bhvadi 300, 1^4 is formed from the same root with
the prefix 33^, the aj being elided, and both have acute on the final: and are enum-

fart being

in

erated in the Gargadi

list

IV.

1.

105.

In the plural the patronymic affix q*i

is

irrr^p Here also srsi affix is elided II. 4. 64. 15. 3rf%TTT^TH^^r: or f^rr n Avimatta has acute on the first being formed by the ?r*i
particle.
Both the words lose fi patronymic by II. 4. 66.

elided

by

II. 4. 64.

16. srore Al

14.

He arers

Salanku or Salaftka of

PTR

of Babhru

99

is

is

Babhrava, and the son of

Salankayana.

takes f*i in the patronymic which

who

are those

104) being elided by IV.

3.

Kalapah, the

f^of kalapin

3T<3T

elid-

is

is

3.

read the work of Katha, the

Those who study the work


3. 108, which required
164 but by a Vartika under VI. 4.
107.

being added by IV.

be retained by VI.

to

144 the f^ portion

elided before

st^t

4.

11

Those who study the work of Kuthumin are ^rsprr formed


by VI. 4. 144 Vart already

19. ^T3W*pir:

by

Kathah

^y^RTTT:,

(IV.

of Kalapin are

the

I.

II. 4. 66.

18.

affix

IV.

amWH'e3?Tr Danchyuta

17-

ed by

The son

?F3Tf3

83 the 5^ being elided before 3T*


referred to above.
bt^t

IV.

1.

20. ^r*j*Trefr$Tp

Or

kshah.

the son of

Those who study the work of Lokaksha are LaukaLokaksha is Laukakshi, the pupils of latter are Lau-

kakshah.
21. *ftfflTTO

Stn has accent on the

ll

the son of

22. rn%cq-?$r^r:,

Maudah.

So

I.

is

final.

Maudi, the pupils of

latter

are

also Paippaladah.

23. ^T^far?*!^

VI.

Muda

The double reading

of this word indicates that Rule

223 also applies.


24.

sr^r*^ 0/ ^r3T**rP=^T+*n:fj;

25.

So

they take

bt*t

ll

Vatsa has acute on the

final.

The pupils of Susruta and Prithu are so called


^r^r, 27. q ^ I^nSr Yajya is formed by cr^,

also ^TT^rPTnT^P,

IV.

1.

83.

26.

added to q-a, the iff is not changed to a Guttural by VII. 3. 66. It has svarita
on the final by f%q[ accent (VI. 1. 185). Anuvakya is derived from anu +
vach + *g^

11

1 1

KARMADHARAYA- ACCENT.

54

The word

38.

the following
ffe,

*n?=r,

and

Thus

%f^*,

*i^ffc^

qf^n^trK

^jk %mr&,

>

flkf^

maxim

II. .

?rrca,

srnrre, ?rrc,

40

|r%-

II

Tfrsfrf?-, *ifNiif"i:, T^irfg-:, jf^rrcr:,


:

BK. VI. Ch.

retains its accent before

*r^i; (jt^t)

sfrft, srq^nr,

srf^c

The

*iffj[

i^^mw,

has acute on the

already mentioned under VI.

2.

^hh::,

(Un

final.

ifkm,

*r?!-

On

the

II.

26, this accent will

84)

apply to that

compound of Tfq[ which it forms under rule II. I. 61, for that is the particular
rule of Karmadharaya compounding relating to mahat (pratipadokta). This rule
Thus J^r arf? - Tfl^tfl^
therefore, will not apply to Genitive Tatpurusha.
'>

which has accent on the

final

by VI.

1.

223.

Q. The word Jff^T is a Participle formed by tF affix, and by rule VI.


2. 46, in a Karmadharaya compound, the first member will retain its original
What is then the necessity of reading this word in this sutra ?
accent.

maxim

Ans. That sutra VI. 2 46 applies, en the


special participles
ciple

and nouns mentioned

in

II. 1.

of pradipadokta, to

the

59 and not to every parti-

and noun.

^rasr 1*3^
39.

H 3*>

i^rft

II

W?*',

**,

%r$%

II

The words mahat and kshullaka

retain their

accent before the word VaisVadeva.

thus

Thus I^N^TC., and


PSlfrT^ipr* to

word has udatta on the

3^: ^rf^rr**fr.
40.
1

sadi

'

and

'

^g^f^^

II

3? (V. 3.

kshullaka

73 &c)

is

derived

is

added

and the

final.

^ifa

II

The word

vami

The word

II

which the Diminutive

'

II

^5:, *fff^, waft:

ushtra

'

retains

its

II

accent

before

^t^, *m%, *rrcfa,

sstfir

The word Sg is derived from


Thus i^^nf? and s^rre
by
(Un IV. 162) and has acute on the first (VI. 1. 197). This is either a
Karmadharaya or a Genitive compound. In some texts the above examples
II

affix

are given with a yisarga in the masculine, and not Neuter.


*tt:

^r^rrTOTcfai

ll

a?

ll

<t^tr

ll

*tp,

Bk. VI. Ch.

The word

41.
sadi

'

and

*,

formed from

Or from
is

*R[

retains

accent before 's&da',

its

STT^tfrT,

The

root.

and OTf^, the Samasa-accent VI.

I.

Krit-accent

223

II

'

3T?Trr5f^ft-

The

42.

following

Aglila-dridha-rup&

The

',

and

'

first

member

first

'

',

&c

'

',

ili g Htre,

(^^^rt iftf^)

has acute on the

Vdft\

formed by

',

Pan-

'.

first

two of these are exhibi-

ted without any case-ending, the renaining five are in nom.


is

Astita-jarati \

Taitila-kadrtih

seven words are compounds, the

Kuru

ii

WK'

%$fc

accent in the

its

Kikta-guru

Pare-vadabS, \

Dstsi-bh&ra

'

'

ctwN

<T**T3^reft

ffl%c$^r? WVftx**?!

retains

debarred
of

^, h$m4;chh

^refrorcrnrnj;,

iT^^^^TT TH^S^r

Kuru-g&rhapata

ya-kambalah

q^*^^:,

cricT^r^rsr:,

l^TlfTtT ft^?J3

is

in the case

fT^nrl^crf^fT^^I^^^^I^^^^ m^TOTT ^f^FST:


3^rr, MK^srr,

11

^r>i

from the same causative

forf^r

in the case of STS

ffrP

55

*tt arf*:=tr?rrffs, and flfsrncfa


snr
and forms a Genitive compound (tit: m^Owe get^TTCTTf: by adding sn* (III. 9*frerr#

*rr^fa=m%r^,

*tt

with the affix

the causative verb

formed by

>

'*ft

i i

s&rathi \

'

wmv or

Thus
is

Samasa-accent.

171. ]

affix

added

to

Singular.

^ Un

I.

Thus

24,)

and

final.

So also

jfit<U HrPfc,

<

the word Vriji has acute accent on the

first.

= R%^; or R|r^: for rikta has acute either on the first


or on the second (VI. I. 208). SoalsoST^r "STCrft = ^rTSTCrft, 3T^*T5W=^r'!?R
Asuta and asltld being formed by ttst particle have acute on the first
gg ^ iir
(VI. 2. 2). That which has ft is called 3rte, the affix w^ being added by its
changed to & by its belonging to kapilakadi
.belonging to Sidhmadi class, and
This is a samasa with the force of
class. So also qrtV^T, this is = qK3^lf H
case
ending.
of
the
The
word qrc belongs to Ghritadi
elisicrn
is
there
and
$3,

So

also f^fRT 33:

11

*;

and has acute on the final.


Titilin is Taitila formed by w*

class,

acute on the

first

(VI.

I.

%f?H7PTr
affix,

the son or pupil

=%fcT^Tf;:,

qozfti*affi : ,

panya ends

in

of

and has

213).

nas acute on the first only when it is a name. Otherthe accent will be on the final by the general
compound,
wise in qftrrrT^i SFF^
being
frrmed by
affix (III. 1. 101) is acuteword
The
<T<^
rule VI. 1. 223.
u^*^
The
word
is as Name when it
q
ly accented on the first ( VI. I. 213 ).

Vdrt:

!3rejT3R:

means the market-blanket

i.

e.

a blanket of a well

known determinate

size

Samasa-accent.

.iiS6

and fixed

price,

when

compound means a

1.

the

If

223).

it

which

generally kept for sale


saleable blanket,

be objected what

formed by a kritya

we

is

^^g^Rs^T

44

But

blanket-sellers.

takes the samasa accent (VI.

by VI. 2. 2,
compounds
compound is by

accent in the Tatpurusha,

affix, will retain its

such as ordained by

it

by the

II. .

the use this Vartika, for the word qn^ being

is

^m used in VI. 2. 2

reply that the

[Bk. VI. Ch.

relates to pratipadokta kritya

34<rtld!ir II.

68, while here the

I.

and is a general compound. So also^iw^nTJ^llffare: N


The words belonging to Dasi bharadi class are all those Tatpurusha compound

re%qnx fqrePBFT

II. I.

51

words, not governed^by any of the rules of accent, in which


first

member should

f^ftf^:
10).

retain

accent.

its

Vasu has acute on the

II

3TTTf^J =3fr^r^ft^S^n'^,
!

ed by

s^

has acute on the

Some

first

it is

desired that the

of them are"|lf3T|%;,^l*Tr^

being formed by a fa^

formed by f^

?^TrW

:
,

Un

affix

affix (III. 3. 93), gftT

I.

:
,

being form-

^-ju p is formed by 3?i% affix


added to the root *TT^*n% preceded by the upapada **&$ as, ^^ + + 3tct = ^f?(VI.

first

197).

I.

*TCT,

the affix being treated as

(Un

II. 13)

and has acute on the

^tff <T^

II

%\

retains its
is

word

word

accent,

suited to

Thus
able, as

it is

f^rgo* is

acute on the

q3[TFT

II

43.

which

f^(Un
||

IV. 228), and ^??is formed by

*3 affix

final.

^3^, cT^, *$fNTO*

II

in the Dative case as the first

when the second member


become the former.

member

expresses

that

|q^r^, P3$t$\u8W
The word
has accent on the first syllformed by q- (Un III. 27) treated as a r?j[ (Un III. 26). The
formed by ^7 affix which is treated as
(Un. I. 108) and has
ll

So

final.

also ?*I^PS,

WffT7

f^

II

Ratha

is

first-acute

formed by

(Un II. 2). Vallt has acute on the final formed by ^sr affix. (IV.
I. 41) Why do we say 'it being suited to the first' ? Observe
This
gj%^f?S
accent applies when the second member denoting the material is modified into
the first by workmanship. The composition takes place by II. 1. 36.

kthan

affix

3T^

II

^T!%

II

44.

II

3T^,

iT*Ri^<H

Before the word

'

II

II

artha

the

',

first

member

in the Dative retains its accent.

Thus

ftpt St

finally acute as

foq[

= ,TT5hfa, sf^r^/^frTwfall The words *rrf and fa?r are


(Un II. 95) ^rr being formed by

taught so in Unadi sutra

affix (V. 4. 27)

and has acute on the

has acute on the middle


first.

srfrTnT is

formed by fpr^

affix

Bk. VI. Ch.

II

The
*

47

Samasa-accent.

between Q^b and

difference

wood', f^T7*!

'

gold

',

has not inherent

sr*f

in

1157

the

that

is

former,

like

$T5

the sense of adaptibility, while

it

means adapted
Some say that the making of two sutras, one with
and
other
with
the
3p} indicates, that the former rule is applicable only
^$
to that compound where the material itself is changed into the substanccTbf
'

sriS"

grass be suited for the horse

H *<\

q^rfo

ii

II

The

45.

Thus

fftlfrT*

The compounding

*,

^r,

M^fawH.

member

first

*%ffaar and

is

^r^nc^
ff%5

T^S^T*.

Dative case retains

in the
xf?

II

3?^%^*, rTPT^SRTrra SR*


The compound *rrtf$rrT means crr-

sJ^lf^l, *THT%TO,

takes place by

II. I. 36.

II

a sampradana Dative.

sftsr

*$

11

^tM

ll

ll

3i*hirc^, srftgr, srg RK

3?*reR^ *rei% ^RFcRTT^Tf sftsrer s^Tt

11

&c, though

&c.

'

accent before a Past Participle in

its

V^^H.

Therefore the rule does not apply to ST^^H?:,

the first
*

'.

Before a Past

46.

member, when

it itselfis

h^

Participle in

'

^iH

11

kta \

the

not a Past Participle, retains

first

its ori-

Karmadh&raya compound.

ginal accent in a
This rule

w^Hi.

'

and the Nouns specificon the maxim of pratipadokta &c. Thus srforThe word ^fro has acute on the first as it is
^T ^f>^T 3v#cTP, fMrc^rTP
which is considered R^ (Un IV. 51 ). The word $tt is
formed by the affix
mentioned

ally

confined to the Past Participles

is

in

II. 1.

59

ll

>

formed by the

affix na* (Un I. 124).


The word *j3j is also
The word PTO=r has acute on the middle. Why do we
say in a Karmadharaya compound ? Observe ^jr %fi = ^H ffi fa
Why do we
say when it is a non-nishtha word ? Observe ^TT^rll.
Here the compound-

end-acute as

it

end-acute (VI.

is

32

2.

).

'

ing

is

by

II. I. 60.

3T^*
qifri***

fecfnrr

II

ll

*s

\\

ft^r^T^^frT

trrfa

^s^

Before

47.

*<ft.

fe$

mean

a Past

Participle

is

acute on the

16

its

in,* kta',

accent,

when

a word
it

does

a separation.

Thus
trilakala

II

ending in the Accusative case retains


not

ll

II

'

Kashta has acute on the end,


asya), and consequently
grama has acute on the first as it is formed by the faq[ affix

grlpsrrP,

f^l^WTfrfrr:,

a Bahuvrihi
first

*JT*iMrT:

compound

(trini

ll

Sakalani

S AMASA-ACCENT.

II 5 8

BK. VI. ClL

11

49

to *r*, the final being replaced by 3TT (Un I. 143)


Why do we say
'when not meaning separation' ? Observe cfMIUc|T^:, ^rsFTTrlfrP, because one
has taken himself beyond kantara and yojana.
This rule does not apply when the Past Participle has an
Vdrt

padded

11

upasarga attached

g^m:, ! *sOTri*

as

an exception to rule VI.

48.

2.

word ending

This

^tsfTrt* (VI. 4. 144).

in

is

an Instrumental ease re-

Past Participle in

before the

tains its accent

i<sil4'^,

144.

'

kta \ when

it

has a Passive meaning.


Thus 3Tf^r: or arftVr: sffrP, #35^, *^KM3rP, TOPTPT5TT, im^\\
The
with the proposition 3jr which is shortened,
word ahi is derived from
and the affix fur (Un IV. 138), and has acute on the final, according to others
affix (Un II. 22) added to
the acute is on the first Rudra is formed by
the causative flff Maharaja is formed by the Samasanta affixf^r; nakha
is formed by *3T affix added to ?T3 (Un V. 23) or it may be a Bahuvrihi jth^j
j^f^-j^cp, formed by ar^ (V. 4. 121), and has acute on the final Datra is
formed by g^(III. 2. 182). Why do we say when having a Passive signification ? Observe c^T 3Tcp = *^"3T^:, the kta' is added to a verb of motion with
an Active significance.
\\

'

nf?rc?ren;:

ft^

II

II

% ^rWfrlr ^%%
49.

q^ffr

II

^forHTR

word

n *Tr%, 3T*?cn:: (

M^id^<^ )

^Tt JT*f%^i ^ra

TFF*T3-TTC<f? *TfrI??T?rn;:

called Gati (I. 4. 60)

immediately before a Participle in 'kta

11

when standing

having a Passive

significance, retains its accent.

Here one of the following rules would have applied


Samasa end-acute IV. I. 223 (2) or the Indeclinable first member to retain its accent VI. 2. 2, (3) or the end acute by VI.
The present sutra debars all these. Why do we say 'imme2. 139 and 144.
Where the distant Gati words
diately?' Observe ST^^cr^ *rl^T 3^fcr
stpt and ^pr do not preserve their accent, but the immediately preceding Gati,
does retain its accent, though it is not the first member of the compound
as
word. Compare also VIII. 2. 70. But in ^T^+3*T*TrP (agata being governed
by this rule) wo have fu^m:, ('II. I. 39 and VI. 3. 2 ) where VI. 2. 144 has
= 3T*lm<P In the former
its scope, though it had not its scope in 3TPT + t^cp

Thus

sffift'*,

fer

II

otherwise, namely, either (i) the

>

II

case this

wlienever

maxim
it is-

applies

^qfor nm^R^'T^n^ *W*

"

"

Krit affix denotes

em-ployed, a word-form which begins with hat

to

which that

Bk. VI. Ch.

51

II.

Samasa-accent.

i 1

59

Krit affix has been added, and which ends with the Krit affix, but moreover
should a Gati or a noun such as denotes a case-relation have been prefixed to
that word-form, then the Krit affix must denote the same word-form together

may have been prefixed to it ". In the second


not applied, because scope should be given to the word

with the Gati or the noun which

example,

maxim

this

is

When

3JHtK in this aphorism.

the Participle has not a Passive significance,

the rule does not apply because the word mw*[

^rJ^^Tf:

JT>rT:

This sutra debars VI.

II

^ ftfe w^i

cn^T

An

50.

beginning with
<J

^0

is

understood here also

as,

ll

immediately preceding Gati retains


a word formed by

which has an indicatory

<*,

144.

^r^rfa n crr^r, ^r, fafa, ^r%, 3t-<tT

ll

accent before

original

fore

11

2.

its

a Krit-affix

but not be-

||

Thus

l^riT (with

3^) foff* (withggqr), v%ft:

sutra debars the Krit-affix accent (VI.

2.

Why

139).

with

fwO

This

II

do we say "before an

beginning with q;"? Observe sHfeTRr formed with the affix qr^FFI. (III.
155 ), and the Gati sr, the accent being governed by VI. 2. 139. Why do we
say 'which is f^'? Observe JT^rrf formed by th^ affix. When a Krit-affix
takes the augment f?, it does not lose its character of beginning with r on the
affix
2.

Vartika fjfq^ir
not before
crl

" ?

=5TT?cTr

st^E^to*

err

rTT^-ffa^fa

Observe

3TT3;
*

3Tr*T?f

\\

II

Thus

sfofq?rr, sfc5H<Jl.

with the Unadi affix

q^TR

II

II

cT% 5

Why do

11

5^

we say

"

but

ll

ST^:, *> 3*TO5fc

S^Htf

11

An

51.

immediately preceding Gati retains

its

original accent before an Infinitive in crir (III. 4. 14) but


whereby simultaneously the final has the acute as well.

Thus
acute on the

Su IV.
(VI.

2.

All upasargas have


to^ift^f, qTCTT#f, 3TfH%^rl
except abhi
which therefore has acute on the final. ( Phit

sfr<rf,
first

II

'

'

which declares 3W*rr STFO^rrn' 3Tf*wW


139) and is an exception to the rule that
13

1 1

in

This debars $qr accent


a single

word,

a.

single

syllable only has acute.

srf^^rert

srsrc*re n

t&

ll

q^rf^r

ll

qfftatm, sn^rer,

*wm$,

(sr-

n6o

Samasa-accent.

An

52.
in $ or

II 55.

immediately preceding Gati not ending

srs^when an

retains its original accent before

3",

Bk. VI. Ch.

affix

having a ^follows.
Thus

sfr^,

srrs^, Sr*

But with
affix

VI.

*f' ?

member

Observe

vj

222 presents

I.

in % or

fq-^r:

I.

wraT
ii

some

is

qiMr

II

Why

here by VI. 2. 139


do we say before an
'

elided, then

is

rule

superseded when a Gati not ending

present rule
is

acute and

is

irST^, ^>"4"l, srer*^r:

the nasal of 'aftch'

texts, the reading

accent
i

original accent.

When

The

11

also TO"f, ^I>^r, m< >-^ :, q*r*r,

Thus

subsequent.

is

H5* H H M< M3

The

II
I'

fcrsp

affix 3^ is like

and
fanj^

67),

11

xH srfa

<^

qrn%

11

f^tr

Thus

3**,

fa,

The

Gatis
*

II

and

f^r

anch

da?, ^r*#r, ^r>^i

t^re^qr^

ll

<&

ffstf^ra

The

q^rft

ll

II

11

however, retain their

stRt,

followed by a -^ affix.
becomes

bt

&5*W, $yw., 4$^:,

^>=*fr,

*, (

w*m m^-. sr$f?rercr *r^r.

^rs^rtir

original accent before

3T^,

So

but that rule

itself;

53.

also

its

II

tfnNrr, iii>^i

sfnjF,

6.

we have

in f,

retains

^-cH

or
2.

precedes, because the

In

11

&c, (VI.

*|r*T:

which ends

srf%

the second

by VIII.*

optionally svarita

II

svarita

WNt

IfN-:,

by VIII.

2. 4.

So

11

*n*, 3t?*T3r^it, (

s^ftreroi

5 The word %^^ when first member


pound may optionally preserve its original accent.

) n

of a com-

Thus ^^r^KS or f<sr?fi3#, ftrtfaf<* or %q<ffi%$i


f$l has acute on
But in f^^T & c tne Krit-accent will necessarily take place (VI.
2. 139) no option being allowed; because the compounds to which the present
rule applies are, on the maxim of pratipadokta, those formed by ^q-^with nonll

the

final.

>

Krit words under

femTMft m
$frP

11

*ft

*Ft

ft*7^farr*nrrHT

55.

gold,

II. 2. 7.

retains

word sr

II

<tf|

^rf^T

II

WTi

T%^nr-MK44|U|H

^t ^T^rs^rxT^q^ s^rrwrf sj^^t mfa

The

first

optionally

(5T^l%^^m)ll

11

member, denoting the quantity of


accent,

original

its

the

before

II

Thus f^^r^PT or ftUT^fo.


fffJ^T?

II

^W

cf^

fi^pPT,

*I*T1

ll

This

II

It

may

is

Karmadharaya compound

also be treated as a Bahuvrihi

compound, then the accent will be of that compound, as fflfg^far or ff^^rWhy do we say gold ? Observe srere^ Why do we say quan\^j
tity ? Observe ^fHnr^PH
Why do we say *pr ? Observe r5K*tptt

11

'

ll

'

'

'

ll

'

ll

Bk. VI. Cm.

II. .

Samasa-accent.

58]

1161

3T5TOT

s^ kI^'utA

ll^ll

i^rf*

The word

56.

pound, retains optionally

ll

*nr :,^%r.,TW*<TrfT (snT^nrri;)ii

when standing

srqrr

when meaning

original accent

its

a com-

first in

a novice \
Thus SHPT^Pfn^T:
The word STprfPT^TfrT - STfMTT*^ or STPTT^TO
or spT f^TT *?W = *P?f*TS3ire?* T J*szKJ *% W* 'one who has recently commenced to
study Grammar \ The word jt*pt is derived from sr*J by 3T*r^ (Un V. 68) and
by f%<^ accent the acute falls on the last. Why do we say when meaning
1

II

'a

,J

Novice?' Observe

Grammarian
on the

ro<Hrareftqf:

W^^PTPTPar 5^r

Grammarian of the

first

rank

'.

^T

It will

H'>

W-

'the

first

always have acute

final.

fPW:

or a

3^515?: ^cRST^** S#73

57.

member

of a

Sfft*TP3[

used

S^rT^r J^frf^t Hlfa

The words cf^rc and s^cTO standing


compound retain optionally their

cent in a Karmadh&raya.
Thus $3$R* or SFTTO?!:,
dharaya

*PT1%

sfTri&K*!

for the sake of the

or SffrPT^

next sutra,

II

II

as the first

original ac-

The word Karma-

could have done


'katara'and 'katama' by the maxim of pratipadokta, form
only Karmadharaya compound by II. 1. 63.

without

is

this sutra

as

it,

^rt ^r^^^^'T3PTrn;<T^p ^nNrOi sr*n% s^rr^i sw^r^ >rera


The word srrf" optionally retains its original
58.

^frf: u 3Tp5^rT

11

accent in a Karmadharaya, before the words sfTfrir and stttpc


Thus srr^r^T: or srrfer^, 3Tr%TP:: or 3TP%*rr?:
The word 3TP1
Why do we say Arya ?
is formed by "^ affix and has svarita on the final.
Observe qT*r3fisn5:, m^'ll?: U Why do we say before Brahmana and Kumara ? Observe BTTJRiTfW H Why Karmadharaya ? Observe BTRre^T aTgpjp
II

ll

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

=?wqax&$:
Bohtlingk
*T5Tr

II

According to the Accentuated Text the accent

Irrs;

Pro.

).

11

\\

11

TTif^

before the

ll

*T*rr,

ll

^^

The word
words Br&hmana

59.

dharaya.

is

<

'

retains optionally

and

'

Kuimira

its

in a

accent

Karma-

Samasa-accent.

*l62

Bk. VI. Ch.

Thus <Mai&"l or jjsrsrsrSp, ^rsT^TCP;: or *r*f$1lf:


The word ?t^fi
formed by the affix 5?Pf^ added to *tst (Un I. 156). But ^tj^t argnn = tTSTOTgF*:
:

i*s

61

II.

where the compound

11

is

not Karmadharaya.

The making

of this a separate

purpose of preventing the yathasankhya rule and also for


the sake of the subsequent sutra into which the anuvritti of *r5T^ runs and

aphorism

not of srHt

ssrc*
ifrP

51

II

for the

is

JT^nt

?&%

S^JrTC^irf%frr

WSnTt *im*i' i#T^

The word

60.

rajan

'

'

^H^^H S?*lrfl*!ir ^f^t

iT

ending

the

in

Genitive

ease optionally retains its aecent before the word sreFrf^


The words *r^L and 3T?2icrc*3iri. are understood here also. Thus ?r^:
The sign of the Genitive is not elided by VI. 3. 21. When
Tm^r- or *RT sr^ff
STpfPST is not meant we have, tRrsrenr or ?r*ro^P
Why do we say 'ending in
\\

ll

11

the Genitive'

Observe

61.

optionally

its

snrr

^^r

word having the sense of always

accent before a Past Participle in

Thus p^W^TrP
added

VI.

2,

its

(IV.

II.

104 Vart)

2.

1.
;

144.

If

it

28.

FT?*! is

These are
formed by ^<r
II

and has acute on the

2.

49.

1.

3F?*rfoT xfi,

Why do we say

when

first,

The

4).

has acute on

ht^:,

be considered to have been formed by

cent will be on the beginning by VI.

retains

II

accent, the affix being anudatta (III.

being formed by tR affix with the force of

^frfrT

^fr

or nr<2rc?T%t:, *TrT#JT?i%rP or H^JT?l%i'

to the upasarga

the upasarga retaining

word

'

Accusative compounds formed under Rule


affix

no option.

tf*Rrw=*r5rJT^rc"P

final

by

then the acthe

first

term

means 'always'? Observe ifrnr^pfrr


In the case of rarcw^TOvP &c the samasa aecent VI. r. 223 was first set aside by the Accusative Tatpurusha accent
5

VI.

this in its turn

2, 2.

was

li

set aside

by

q^rft

srro:,

=qj

accent VI.

2.

144,

which

is

again

debarred by the present


srro:

*ztk)

fafeqft

ll

ll

ll

rof^rfr,

st^ctc^t**

srs>j%

11

ttw sra[cr?$3r sr^mprt >rera


The word vcm when first member of a com62.
pound, optionally retains its accent before a word denoting " a
f^r

ii

srmsrs?

professional

^re?

rerf?<rerfsr*

man

cr artisan

11

".

VI. ClI.

K.

64

II. .

Thus iWrrf^rp

acute on the

say'asilpi

SAMASA-ACCENT.

^W^ pr-

or

Why

first.

unRTTt^S
do we say "

*nV

or niH*"iR:

Observe

workman'? Observe

a professional

Il6j

The word vm

ll

q*7T?nfqr??

iftTCiqT

Why

11

where there

has

do we

no

is

option.

stjirt
fTrT:

^t**

) n

W^RTI*: ^crf

ri

f^R^RTf^T^TTW

The word

63.

ST^T^T^f

TWWRraT TO3W1T H&fawt

*T*n* followed

noting noun, optionally retains its accent, when


be expressed.
Thus ^r^nf'TrP or *T5Hrfq^, Im^r^- or *T5T3j^R
:

i.

barber or one

a skillful

e.

barber

II

elephant

praise
"

'

'

'

'.

phrase

II

V*

^rft

n srrf^:,

This

is

first

syllable

in
Ty

If

The

an adhikara aphorism.

2.

91 inclusive the
in the

word standing

(the

is to

>

the following aphorisms.

the acute in

^Ttt:,

In the following up to VI.

64.
u the

Nominative) has the acute

be always supplied.
first syllable of the f^T

In short, the phrase

'

should be supplied to complete the sense of the subsequent

very next sutra illustrates

That sutra

it.

Locative case or a word denoting the

first

word

To

Thus

syllable".

'the

3Tiff

sTT^rrm:

first
it

Locative
a tax,

name of

^fTOT<T:,

syllable

'

is

5^"

is

it is ^t*jt

II

2.

g&
The

sCitras.

a word

the

the receiver of a tax or

tri-

is

lawful, but

^Tj^rr^:,

understood upto VI.

governs upto VI.

2.

"

not before

has acute on the

W^^rfr

91, the

word

The

II

STTrT

has

137.

65.

The

case

or

first

member

of a compound,

if

in

the

denoting the name of the .Eeceiver of

has acute on the

member

SRHTTT'T,

"

will

adir udatta'

in

complete the sense we must supply the words

longer stretch

means

literally

denoting that which

before a word

bute, standing
".

be either

'

stikmi^

f^iT

royal barber

may

It

to

is

Why

compound.

or a Genitive

'

'.

II

do we say '*r3p^' ? Observe


Why do we say when denoting praise'? Observe ^jsi^nTW king's
Why do we say a professional man ? Observe cr^^cft a royal

Karmadharaya

WHlfw

to serve the king even " &c.

fit

**f$t

by a profession -de-

a word denoting

first
*

when the second


lawful \ but not when

syllable,

what

is

n64

Samasa- accent.

The word
means

'

^ift^ rneans

'

Bk. VI. Ch.

appropriates the dues or taxes

'

and ^r*4t

by the custom

the due or tax which has been determined

of the country, town, sect or family, that which one

is

6?

II.

or usage,

lawfully entitled to get'.

under IV. 4. 91 and 92 and has the sense of


The word t**4 is formed by
both.
Of Locative words we have the following examples
*q"-^rPT' t^-

^TrqfqTjpT

under

With

^-ftqf^ffr, f^-f^Tf^I, |qf^- |TT'^:

the

name
is

fcfHSEfTTf:

In

sacred

||

Tope

lawful'

some

the following

So

sacrificer'.

places the established usage

also

^^ W

^T

9 and

3.

irn^FrP^

'

IO.

the

*^3MiVJ !3*cfl', Ir^T^J,

to give a ^tpt coin in every

is

Why

&c, or to give a horse to a sacrificer &c.

Observe 3T*^:, ^H^K srf^fr ^rf&rOT

by VI.

not elided

is

we have

of a due^receiver ^fl

the customary due of the

horse which

is

and the sign of the Locative

II. 1. 44,

These compounds are formed

ll

5TTT

do we say

^ *%Wl

'

what

VfF& VT3^',

W$*T

Why do we say "but not before


riff?Rr,
^fe^TO ^1%, 3Trer
Observe 4K44W3. that which is given to a mare'. ^T is that customary
food which is given to a mare after she has been covored, in order to strengthen
her. The word ^r is a Krit-formed word, its exclusion here indicates that other
Krit-formed words however are governed by this rule when preceded by a
and thus this sutra supersedes the Krit accent enjoined
^rfr denoting word

ST

^t" ?

II

'

by VI.

Thus m^4<l4

139, so far.

2.

subsequent VI.

has acute on the

kept in order.
The word

gxK means 'he


i.

'

S^W

II

67.

when

e.

after

All these word 9?3t

ft^TT^T

this

rule,

the

first

on the first syllable,


by whom the things denoted by the

cowherd looking

by

member of a compound has acute


when the second member denotes that

The

66.

appointed duty

first

139 not applying.

2.

cow

Tf^fr?

VS

'

5
,

who

is

prompt

appointed

person

the

OT3: &c mean

qT?J^r:

The

acute

is

Thus

after.

IwfPT^

*n%?s3J:,

JTrg-g^:

'

iT^<s3:

a
U

'the protector &c.

*E[tfr H fajTRT, ST^TO, (

II

the discharge of his

in

to look

frasrs?:, 'ffnr'PT^ ',

are regulated or

first

optionally

STT^TtT^

on the

first

II

syllable

the word srsr^r follows.


Thus ^n^ftr

8T^PSl5r:

or

*T^dJ:

'

a superintendent of

cows

'

^^T2J^:

or

II

mq ^ f^rf^Ti^

ll

wft wm, ^r,ftrfeift


ll

(rW*r)(3TTf ^n)

ll

Bk. VI. Cn.

II 70.

First-acute.

1165

The word qnr has optionally


when followed by a word denoting

acute on the

68.
syllable

first

a professional

man.
Thus

qmnw, <TN*^:

^cR!T?rr: or

to the pratipadokta
54, when it is an
compound. Thus

samasa of

compound

appositional

MiMtJMrfTC^OTFTriqil:

#**^ ^i^^itih )

siTstfrg, ft, (

The

69.

of the

syllable-

first

it

taught

in II.

1.

forms a Genitive

II

first

member

of a

name
when a

before a Patronymic

before 44I"N and siraw,

meant.

Thus :#^r*rW = % SRRT'T ^RJffafcT

*CTc^

^^1^* fBra%, ^n^r^ ^^r^^sff^rfW

;rra^

This rule applies

II

or a scholar-name, as well as
is

<Tnr*rr*n*:

and not when

compound has the acute accent


reproach

or

ttt in the sense of censure as

:
,

mvfa

tT$r*rra

w>

W',
11

*& *A\*&\i\ m*m\'

*rafr^n

a de-

scendant of Susruta under the petticoat government of his wife'. The compounding takes place by the analogy of TOPrnSfai
tTOflflgfrq: (Brahmakrita
II

belongs to Subhradi

with scholar names.


i.

e.

who study

for the sake of

The above

class).

Daksha

the work of

w%

when followed by a
when reproach is meant

say

'

ST^lfa flT^

II

70.

V9

11

sake of marriage

the pupils of

and iff^qTr%ffap

f ?ftrtan,

frcffargror:,

'

q^TR
first
it

||

ST^rfa, fc$t, (

syllable of the

STTf^nrTR

word preceding

17

vs?

II

frc*T,

maireya prepared from treacle or molasses


\

Why

I'

11

II

denotes the ingredient of the same.

the wine

^TfiF^rer^i

pftrmFHP

II

q^ifir

II

*ran^rr:,

'.

do we say when denoting

an ingredient ? Observe totop Why do we say " before


Every sort of spirituous liquor except ct*t is called"?^
3*TTCri
:

Daksha

II

Jj^rarSFT:

Ihf^: 'the maireya prepared from honey


'

&c

|q^r argpp, ^5rrgr>r:

'

Observe

||

for the

= % *&r stw>
II. 1. 4 where no other rule applies.
Why do we
Gotra word ? Observe ^pfPsfffMh
Why do we say

The
when

gets the acute,


Thus ^rcap

Daksha

make themselves

or

*W-I KRFfltar:,

girls'.

= f^?msff*n% iprfr
Compounding by
^TTEKr H
4

'the pupils of

.*rtfter$n;:

Now

are examples of Gotra words.

"

Observe

II

^&% (au^grrerrO

II

u66

First-acute.

II. .

73

word denoting food gets the acute on the


when standing before a word which denotes a

71.
syllable,

first

[Bk. VI. Ch.

repository suited to contain that.


Thus N^TiiTSP, #rFcj^n, 55pinjrer;, ^r-4l^r:
The words like fa$TT, Vr*
&c, are names of food. Why do we say when denoting the name of food ?
Observe SFnwnTO: ( the word STTTCT = *T*TO5T is the name of an 'action' and
tadartheshu suited to contain
not of a substance ). Why do we say
ll

'

'

'

'

'

that'

Observe PT^TTW- which

on the

STT^^ItIH

first

member

gets acute

72.

II

word denoting the object of comparison

gets the acute on the

f^ra, f^i>
Thus
56, the words

and *{Ptm

^rR^

do we say

st*

The compounding

ll

The meaning

"

before

*fr,

takes place

by

II. 1.

Thus

when denoting the

3ftftn*n"2r

3T3?Wd3Urf

11

vs?

vrp^iT^:

^re%?

:
,

Ir!g%*w, 5pt%?w m
? Observe qr*rf%f:

object of comparision "

T^rfa

11

is

compound must be given according to


means *T3T^3tTS3f^TrT ^TPT U So also

of the

prVrfsr^T^i, ir^'^fir^R;, forr%?

when standing

&c, being considered to belong to Vyaghradi class, which

usage and appropriateness.

ffV*m

syllable

first

11

>Ji^|c(:=qTai
iff

an Akritigana.

II

a Bahuvrihi, and the

final.

3T<T?TT%, (

ffrf:

is

$?%, sfrfir^T^, ( sti^^tto; )

TrRT^ ^flR^IW^t^

^1% I^M^I^ItT >T3T%

Why
ll

11

II

member of a compound has the


acute on the first syllable when the second member is a word
ending in the affix srer, and the compound expresses a calling
The

73.

by which one
Thus
4lR^iT

first

gets his living.

l^T^fi

;
,

^h*^,

The compounding

ll

3T^r*3fprer,

takes place

by

fqtffcEffrefr

II. 2. 17.

Why

= <*d^ ?rrre Hr^rf


do we say when

All affixes which


means of living ? Observe % %^fe^\ % ^TT^ra'
become ar^f by taking substitutes, are called sr^f affixes. Thus <^$,
5^ &c are 3T37 affixes (VII. 1. 1). Why do we say "ending in the affix 3T37 " ?
Here the compounding takes place by II. 2. 17, and the
Observe wfiaicttrU
affix ^% is aOded in the sense of sport and not of livelihood.

meaning

'

ll

'

ultimately

ll

srr^f sfreFTFR

ll

vsa

11

q^TR

ll

stt^to,

^ftf*,

su^^ra**

Bk. VI. Ch.

II 77.

74.

1167

First-acute.

compound the second member

of which

is

and which denotes the sport of


the Eastern people, gets the the acute accent on the first
a word ending in

affix,

3Tc&

syllable.

Thus Iji^^H u fc^


mmmM ifiran', n**ir^iT^r, ^vrf^srerr These
by 03*5 affix (III. 3. 109), and the compounding takes place by II.
2. 17.
Why do we say 'of the Eastern Folk' ? Observe ^^q-Mll^r, which
Why do we say when denoting a sport ?
is a sport of the Western People.
&c,' which is formed by ^r (III. 3. in)
for
turn
Observe rr^TJT^IT^ 'thy
t,

11

are formed

'

'

and denotes rotation or turn


'

arm ^3^-

'.

qrrR

n vs^ n

ll

stfnr,

1%*,

(snfrren*)

ll

compound, the second member of which


and which denotes
is a word ending in the Krit-affix stot
syllable.
the
first
a functionary, gets the acute on
Why do we say when
Thus sbren;:, fjftaTC:, sfo^3*Tr, %n^R?
75.

ll

meaning a functionary
*

'

Observe 2firWN

*|itfM J H

>

VS$ H r%f^TR,
3T3?3T:, (^TOTO STT^TTtHI)
T%fcTl% ^T$3T.
RrfeT^rr^'f^ ^TT% SiRR'TT^'fl ^T^TT^T^ *TWI% ST %T5 WW T *T3TrT
ffrT:
II

II

76.
affix

And when
name

denotes the

the second term


the

II

II

first

^r

is

such a compound ending in

of a professional man, but not

(derived from

3>st ),

the acute

srur

when
is

on

syllable of the first word.

Here also the second term ends in 3^ affix. Thus gr ^m ap, gsr^Tsp,
Why do we say when denoting 'a work-man or professional person'?
t re ^R:
Observe 5rr u K AK^N H Why do we say but not when the affix bt<* comes
after ^' ? Observe ^**ran?:, 3T?TC5RTC;
II

'

:,

II

^srnrf =*

11

vsvs

77.

ing in arm
syllable

qTrre

11

11

*nnrare,

*st,

Oi^n stts^TtPt)

Also when such an upapada compound enddenotes a Name, the acute

affix

but not when the second term

Thus i^Fra: a kind of


'

But not so sn* with


iTdlPcWvf

xu%

ll

^
||

as tq3fi&

vs<T

||

insect,
l

the

qTTR

||

spider

name
*TT,

'.

of a

is

falls

^nr

4\MW

'

on the

first

II

the* hill

Brahmana

<TFcT, *TSP*, <TT&,

Valavaya

caste'

(sTr^nrTTR)

II

'.

First-acute.

ti68

The words nt> crf?cr and


syllable when followed by q^
78.

the

first

Bk. VI. Ch.

II. .

79

get the acute on

q^r

}j

Thus

v&lFV

IfrTF*, rFRTTrw,

The word ?n%

II

is

the ropewith which

f^Tlt + r%^ ) This applies to words not denoting a


Why do we say *tt &c ?
functionary, which would be governed by VI. 2. 75.
calves are tied.

Observe

$f?r

ii

sp?*rTT$

faFr^r^TT^'ff

79.
(

Why

rTf

do we say 'followed by

^T^rr^% h^Ttt

'

Observe *TiW

ii

compound ending

has the acute on the

<rp3

in the Krit-affix

syllable of the first

first

furfur

mem-

ber.

Thus fsTfrR^, i^ft^, f^Vrt^

W^r-

^TiR^rm-

11

80.

*wi wre w&wfr m^fZrWF&uin^

first

tion

'.

it

word formed by

has acute
foTPT

affix,

a radical without any pre-

definite

sound

like so

and

so'.

The word 3<t*tpt means the object with which something is likened
means expressing a sound
sr^f^r means root, without any preposiThus %^rr%^, ^Ir^Rrf^, ^WlT^
The word 3TPTPT shows the scope
sutra as distinguished from the last.
So that, when the first term is an
'

'

II

of this

SWT word,
may

ii

denoted, then

word is

and means 'giving out a


'

^rs^nij-

is

before a

syllable,

only then, when such latter


position,

htt?T

When the first member of a compound express-

which resemblance

es that with

on the

11

be a

the preceding sutra will not apply, though the second


forpt

formed word.

sound, the rule will not apply.

When

the second term

is

not a word denoting

As f^ftf*^, 33^?^ which


,

member

retain krit accent

Why

do we say 'a radical word without any preposition'?


Here the second terms radically (i.e.
Observe *Tf^r^nf^, s&rffef*r 5 31?rf^
charin and harin ) do not denote sounds, but it is with the help of the
is
Prepositions sqr and srpr, re and arr that they mean sound.
The force of

(VI.

2.

139)

II

Such words get acute on the first syllable


only then, wheti the second member is a radical sound name. According to
Patanjali, the first syllable gets acute, whether it denotes 3<t*ir or not, when
the second word is a radical denoting sound. ( srs^rtf q^Jr EJTTFi" ^T^TTR ^TWthat the ttoft words are restricted.

^Trrf*T^

II

As g^Tirf^Ht

>

for

had

<r?r

not been used, the sutra would have run

k.

VI. Cn.

II 81

First-acute.

1169

"If the second member is a sound dethus: 3TTFT 5T5^r%fal>rTt and would mean:
noting radical word, then the upamana first member and no other will get the
But this is not what is intended because when the second member
acute".
:

a sound-denoting radical, the

is

member

first

will get the acute,

whether

it is

e. a first
upamana word or not. The word *r^ therefore restricts upamana;
member denoting 3TTHT will get the accent then only, when the second term
i.

a sound-denoting radical. If the second term

is

the

term denoting upamana

first

takes place by III.

3^r^rTT^^

The compounding

79.

*\

11

qTrf^r

11

II

^^TwrT^:,

^ (sttsttttTt:)

II

acute on

first syllable.

Thus
7

not a sound denoting radical,

The compounds ^rannJC &c, have

81.

the

2.

is

not get the accent.

will

3TT*TrTJT?tft

II

jrh K iji,2 lrr*nT%#, 3

These are formed by

!rrTrropfr,
forffi affix,

4 fu*r<H*^V, 5 ^ttt^t, 6 arnnr^fr,


and are illustrations of Rule VI.

Some say, these delare a restrictive rule with regard to the first and
second member of these terms. Thus frff^ &c must be preceded by grfi, &c and
Thus
^tTJ &c followed by tfft^. &c to make this rule VI. 2. 79 applicable.
2.

f
8

79.

wW^ though ending

pounds under Rule

II. 2. 9.

15 IffiTR: (*T*PHT-

16

),

first,

so gTRpstfrcf^

II

two are Genitive com-

last

MhUH:, 14 %5"HnT?rr,
All these are Genitive compounds. 17 jchR rer-

11 fn*PTI33>, 12 IrafsncPT:, 13

This

ll

The

10 IrptsftHriT H

Irtr:

qT?l=^ ^ nTfrr*TTfrs^r
is a Taddhitartha Samasa
:

does not take acute on the

in fuTFT

or cto, 9 IfkfTrrr,

3Tr*TrTT^3n"

II

is

(II.

The word

a Bahuvrihi of three terms.


1.

51),

Jchftlf cP

and being a Tatpurusha, required acute

This declares acute on the


is stronger.
have acute on the first,
would
word
Moreover by VI. 2. 29, this
1^%^:
first.
very
fact that this word is
But the
as it is a Dvigu ending in a simple vowel.
enumerated here, shows that other Dvigu compounds in njf^ are not governed

on the

as the Tatpurusha accent

final,

by VI.

2.

29,

q^WTTft

T
therefore ftftrnT TR; has acute on fa

further proves

f^ffrrre^T^f^c^T
stronger.

5r%^farT

&c

(
>

by

<HM^iC

See Mahabhashya II. I. I.) The


(II- i 48) also belong to this class.
3Tr*TrT?TPft,

7 3rrTrrH^^: (3rnTrT*r^^),

12 irof^TPP, 13 s^fePTCHT, 14
tffarTP^W), 17 SPFTRi

ll

The enumeration
(

class of

4 3THI<H">n, 5

sfftfrrrr,

TT^

present

is

is

compounds known as

3TTTrff^t" (3TTTrR^),

9 *rpT?frw, 10

m^r^^,

15 IpffrerfitTTiL 16

*\m\V (^PTTROi

of the

fx^WTTft*^^

STf-

11 ar^f^RTW:

<TIW%rTrSW

(<Tr*-

II

'ft&CTsrg^sngsit
(STT^TTTTrR)

11

that the

accent for the application of which a case

I ^xFITtfi", 2 BHHWrfr, 3
r,

implication

St

11

<*

qrif^r

ll

tt, ^njr,

rj<r,

'w^,

^k,

^,

First-acute.

ii7o

When

82.

falls

on the

Thus

jkrsr:, #*fr*r:, WTCr3P, frsf:, $J%*t-

f**P

or

is

Bk. VI. Ch.

82

II.

a word ending in a
followed by

the

*T,

first syllable.

( 1 1 1. 2.

3f ^t

II

<\

97

qTTR

II

followed by

These are

for

med by

the

).

a word

In

83.
syllables,

g *,
1

is srrer,

to spj

ST^cSTTr^f

the

WQ

and

^ added

affix

member -is

first

3T5,

long vowel, or
acute

the

31,

ST^Tci;,

II

^K, ^W%

consisting

the acute

falls

faSTO* 0

II

more than two

of

on the

syllable before

last.

Thus sqyisp,

*r?f*;*p,

have upapadas ending

and not the last

^*TTTT

HOTTfa

).

and

srfa^fiTSP,

sr^arrsr:

Why

do we say

<&

^tttr

last

two words

governed by

this sutra

(though the

long vowel, the accent

in

is

" a Polysyllabic first

member "

Observe

II

5rmsf^reT?cr.

II

ll

ll

sror, arfsrareFcr:

Before m*r, the

84.

11

first syllable

of the

mem-

first

ber has acute, when thereby inhabitants are not meant.


Here *rr*r is equal to *r*[? an assemby
^
xnm = f^^rf^ H Why do we say 'when not meaning inhabitants'. Observe
^rf^rqrT. 'a village inhabited by the descendants of Daksha', qrffeh i uq
'a
village inhabited by Mahikas

Thus

JTgjsTFt-,

fpnnjpr:

II

'.

'.

^ <^ T^rft ^Nri%s,


MimRs "^nrcq^ ^TT^inprTf t^rt

vfimftg
ff^Tt

11

11

(i^re^s stt^Ttto)

The

first

member

has acute on the

syl-

first

when followed by str &c.


Thus |n%%r,

frrcrf^r, fri%Hn^r,
^! ? H^V,

^r,

11

85.

lable

11

11

frrcra??*,

frrer^R-,

IrfsnsTr, frrercnw,

or

frrere'^T, fn%^?>r:,

( *sr:

fF^P** T SR5RJ, ll'Rf^r, |ri%fH-:


Of the above, those which denote
J

or <%??:

fiRfg*:, frrerr%r*v

Ir^fw,

frrer-

places of habitation, there the

first

),

irrcrraF<fr,

II

members though denoting inhabitants get the acute accent. Some do not read
the anuvritti of STPTT^Rf in this aphorism, others however read it.
:

1 %sr, 2 cK*

(spr),

9IT(tO lOwsrfaTW),

17*^

(sfSTT^; 3*T)

^r^TTTq-:

?m* (t^), 4

11^,

%$,

12^T^JT#,

ar^ft

13

fftrff,

8 Tjm,

15 f^ft,

16^,

(*^), 6 PTjp, 7

sr^r, 14*%

II

^ii^nr

ii^ii

tttt%

ll

^T5*inr*r., ^iryrcrrac, (srrasTrrr:)

ll

Bk

VI. Ch.

II. .

89

The words

86.
syllable

first

II. 4.

^fo

first

3 htft, 4

),

sf^T^pfr^nRrn

sr^r

ff^r:

^fo

II

in the

The

<^s

term

which have Vriddhi


1

cfrffi,

^r^T^f

II

**

when

is

not

i^uui^T:

cfisfoj

&c

stf^r

But not

II

nor also

(*!#), 5

wsrft^rrir,

SfosreW:, flTWRrer. N

are treated as Vriddhi


1 TTr*r, 2
srfar

h^Vhih

sti^c**, s

gets the acute

of

in

*rfr,

cjtflT,

nf^-

&c.

7 cfF^F (*S5*0,

^ttt:)

(3ttt%:

jtt^t

fn%WP,

in

5ffcffPTC*r: *rftiref:

11

&c, gets the acute

sr^i follows.

Thus

^m,

This sutra applies even though the

In the words xr^ and

?[fraTT

first

the letters q and 3Tf

(I. 1. 75).

3 sfnrf (r*), 4 yr^r, 5

&m,

6^nrr,

7^*^,8^, o^r,

11

sm^rer

srcft

s^Nrni:

ll

*<<

II

^i^t

ll

st, jt^j;,

?nn*, ?m^,

sr^f t-

ll

ii

^iuis^tiw if?HTO3^fcf s^tw^rt


89.

The

?T3*,

nor when

first

word

lable before the

or

xi&

I)

11

first syllable

syllables are Vriddhi vowel.

^fTT-.

11

sn&r n

T&&, 4

^rft

II

The

88.

^jk

11

5 srnaf^, 6 sttr-, 7 irrre (*hf*0

in the first syllable

(l3t), 3

2 J^fr

123 which

2.

Thus ^TR^r^, q^H^lWH

q^if^r

II

Thus f^JTW, ^FZZW', iv&W,

10

thus superseding VI.

o^rftr,

or which

syallbla before

first

becomes Neuter, by

^TT^T

^WHi^m- *wft
member, which has not a Vriddhi

first

syllable,

first

on the

in

src*rai&HTR<rt ^^^ff|^r%rr^f^

11

87.

jftsp

II

11

Neuter Tatpurushas.

specifically applies to
1 ^rfsr, 2

25

first

there also in the case of these words, the acute

of the

syllable

srreT

compound ending

the Tatpurusha

the option allowed in

on the

Vf^W?7T, ^TTFSWST

SlMAIIrir,

Where

1171

&c, get acute on the

Srf*t

when followed by the word

Thus

falls

First-acute.

it

member

*r*rc,

*^rf?r

rr%5fr^t

?r

h^t

has acute on the

but not when

it' is

11

first

syl-

the word

jt^

refers to a eity in the lands of the

North-

ern People.

Why

Thus f^R^*) f^TOL, f^Vr^Tn^il But not in H?R*TC* and ?rwn;i,


do we say "but not of Northern People" ? Observe sir^tTTO[ ^TRffa^l

First-acute.

172

ff^r:

9T^n^TT^f|

11

grar

sg^ #??*!

Bk. VI. Ch.

rf*TTw*r

*nrf?r

II.

93

11

word of two or three syllables ending in st


(with the exception of JT^r and *rq), standing before the
or
word 3T?t has acute on the first syllable.
90.

sir

Thus

three syllables

Observe a^pfa.
Observe srressrare*

?T

fjrf

do we say

The words

II

*^^H,

(^rrf^Trrrr%)

II

^?

II

T^TR

91.
first syllable,

'

'

ending

in

consisting of two or

and 5R are to be read


and WTO.
II

II

*,

srf^F,

3JJT,

^T5fr^T,

II

9T^I^4xiW ^THifrTTlfa W^T

II

The following words do not get acute on the


when standing before arma \ viz ^Jjr, srtfNr,
'

*k<am y **, st^r;

Thus

do we say

TfT

rule therefore does not apply to q^pfcr

3TF^r *T3ffa TsT ST^T^ cfi>*R> *<r|IR ^T^TR

rT

II

Why

II

^jnfy^sin^^^l^T^^^H

st^t,

*rsc,

'

The

here also.

Why

^rrnf^, ^ffrfo, i^spfrl, frasrrei. H

8? (long or short)'?

and

WrTr*fa,

^fi^ra

II

srfwrefa, srsfhny*,

T?R*, 3T^Tr\,

the sutra shows the compounding of those words in

*tfl**ll*H*

(because

madrasmam) 3j>^r*T

compounds have acute on the final by VI. I. 223.


V&tt
In the Vedas the words f^fr^T &c, have acute on the
syllable.
Thus ftfrflWT TTOrT, ^ar*rg ^^rq-

*.

All these

first

11

sren

II

*T^TR

II

is

3Tfw:

11

In the following sutras upto VI.

92.
sive,

II

This

is

syllable of the

member

no

of a

compound

gets acute on the

word

".

In the succeeding sutras, the last

an adhikara aphorism.

first

next sutra the word


2.

110 inclu-

to be supplied the phrase " the last syllable in a

standing in the Nominative case has the acute

VI.

2.

gets the acute accent.

final.

Thus

in the

This adhikara extends upto

inclusive.
4

*nr
^frp

II

*pm^" ^? <t^th ^%^, ?pr, *zi?*?%


*rlw ^i U^*!^ ^ilHHJdKTrt *T^f%
ll

ll

standing as
'

11

II

The acute
first member

93.

sense of

11

on the final of the word *T#


before an attributive word, in the
is

whole, through and through

'.

Bk. VI. Ch.

96

II

End-acute first member.

1173
<

Thus

sr*nrT:,

flSfewp,

sfaWl

ll

Why

do

\vc

say

stf

Observe WT%rf:,

here the attribute of ^?r pervades through and through the object referred

but the accent

is

not on the final of q*T

Observe 3&uT&> golden

sion

but a flrafn^ra^

Observe

".

tffqt

In fact

it

is

Objection:

How do you form


1 1. 2. 1 1. ?

sjurpffar *rer*Tf

Prr^r^T^:

tfgref ft*ra Frit

11

f%^ra

The

94.

not

here at

prerrc*?2i

Moreover,

in

not that of "guna" but of "gunt", not of the

is

of the following Vartika

11

word

*j^: =^1^:, for it is prohibited by


srsror

attributive

'

which do not denote any attribute

',

not absolute, whiteness, the rule does not apply.

but of the 'substance*.

frtft

do we say

'

do we use the word Kartsnya or complete perva%cTcn;: = S^rT here the compounding takes place by
?r^ denoting comparison, and as it shows only compa-

ample, the "kartsnya"

^frr

II

silvery

'

Why

II

the elision of the affix


ritive,

3&!T3

state but modification.

in their original
all,

',

Why

v*

*RW,

^rf^r

11

s^raN^wsr

Ans.

such a compound ^faf

We do

it

on the strength

STJFJPW

ewrro;,

11

this ex-

'attribute',

s^r^nf

rr,
*r*rf?r

fronnft:

11

11

first member before


compound is a Name.

last syllable of the

and f^T^T has the

when

acute,

the

Thus 3T>^r^n%ft:, *T>iRnTrft The finals of afijana and bhafijana are lengWhy do we
thened by VI. 3. 117. WTF#reffra SrNFf*rarrcp, r%Rfra:
T
say when it is a Name' ? Observe retfSrK
HTSTTprayr^h
:

ll

'

II

:,

fTTTT^

3W

II

II

^ifa

II

SWTRft^,

^fa,

Ojjhl^* CT^nSR)il

The last syllable of the first member gets


95.
the acute when the word $?rrcr follows, the compound denoting age.
Thus f^rrft 'an old maid'. The compounding is by II. 1. 57. ^r ^h O
This compound is formed by II. 1. 49 with aTCcfr The words become masculine
by VI. 3. 42 in both examples. Q. The word rcrft was formed by #r* by IV.
be now applied to
I. 20 in denoting the prime of youth, how can this word

11

ll

"denote old age

by being coupled with \TgJor m$\; it is a contradiction in terms.


rarft has two senses; one denoting "a young maiden" and

Ans The word


;

second "unmarried
*rc<fr is

applied.

3-Sffc

ffr

ii

Why

S%cf^

II

the latter sense, that the attribute f^r or


the compound denotes age"? Observe
"when
do we say

virgin".

,$

II

It is in

T^TT%

denotes a
the acute.

ll

=3^,

3T,

%^,

(mS<44H

^dl^MH)

II

s^r^^nr h^ji
when the compound
word
Before the
96.
mixture, the last syllable of the first member has

sr%?rw Pre rrsn%fa *ptt%

18

^^^t^kJttw

^%

End-acute First term.

it/4

Thus iiiii^^

Bk. VI. Cn.

When we

or 1ir&\K> RrSf^fl. or ft'rtH* 1 * U

II.

99

have already

and c7 acute by
svarita accent may result opby the combination of the acute 3T of guda and tila and the subsequent
grave s of 1^, by Rule VIII. 2. 6. The word 3T%^5 means mixture. When

made

the

this rule, then the

5"

tionally,

mixture

fk*TT

^^

u ^vs n

qsfifa

fMr, w^r,

11

^s^lWl

3ffcfr?3ra.,

(^q^ atftft^rere)

11

the compound denotes


member has the acute.
^^^n?1^htt^: = mr^f fron &c Why do
Observe 3rfw*Hf* (*THPTM*Rf ffrT mfwrw)

when

Before a Dvigu,

97.

As

not meant, this rule does not apply.

is

sacrifice, the last syllable of the first

Thus

r%?FP, ^rre^prepp,

irfr

Dvigu compound?
which being formed by the Samasanta affix s? ^ ( V. 4. 87 ) has acute on the
Why do we say when denoting a sacrifice'? Observe
final (VI. 1, 163).

we say

'before a

'

*nrref srjRife

^f%

^rfa

^3^%, Ojbr^i;
W*t

shttoto,

^rerf^srercr ^T^^r^rrr

sr?^;nTH:)il

11

when it is exhibited as
compound gets acute on the

Before the word ^rw

98.

Neuter, the

11

snsrrers^Tfrcf?

11

member

first

of the

last syllable.

Thus ifronwri,

we say

Neuter'

Rules

before *prr

'

tsjttSstvto.,

Observe sn^RT, srBWSTHT

II. 4.

23-24

by
is

final

Why

The word

do we say

^*rr

'

Why

when

maxim

of Pratipadokta

of the preceding term

becomes Neuter under

as, **njfterepi,

&c

the accent does not

here the word

^r

is

fall

neuter not

the force of any particular rules, but because the thing designated (stp?>to)
neuter.

5> sr^ra

ll

99.

T^rfir u 5*:, tfr^rc,

II

Before

the

word

(^q^Tfcf^rrTO)

5*:,

when

the

II

compound

denotes a city of the Eastern People, the final of the

member has
Thus
'

do

in the

therefore when the word ^ht does not become Neuter under

those rules, then by the

on the

m9^i&rc3

tflfircPT*,

#r*pr*t.,

Observe STSPTOHl.

first

the acute.

t**I$3**, 37*^03**,

of the Eastern people

'

remgr*, SiTF?^*, *ft$&L

Observe

ifrestfT

11

Why

do we say

Bk. VI. Ch.

II. .

103

End-acute First term.

1175
!_

When

100.

the

member

first

Thus

we

BTn^jrc.,

the words srirs and

By

Tr i<H,

^c^q^^mT^P

?cTt^TrTn%)

3?:,

This

*$

II

the force of the word


*Tr3">jarT*:T

<T3TPT

II

<ft in

the aphorism,

i\

5f,

But when the words.

is

the acute does not


an exception to VI.

is *rr^T formed by
The son of
The S is elided by VI. 4. 147.

l^^W^^ re&

fall

99.

^fftcR, <K<3^, STr^TT,

qTiffr

11

r^r,

(31-

II

before fifa

'

f^r^er ^RT^^^^n^rR^FKT^i

^M^5

final.

?rftrPT!P^,

f^T,

^p^t

word

\o\

^rr^r

have the

fW H
11

But not so here

*nf-

II

<?57t%

II

class.

T?r, ^tt^ti:, f^r^

and

Observe ^^tlT'fr
11

^37^3;, inT^IT*

*^r, ^r,

11

arffiFFr, ^**fa?FT, ^rrarnn?*


'

and *n^r

belonging to Subhradi

last syllable before the

acute on the
Thus ^??f3Rsr,
Why do we say
f*R*

^R^^7

^rre^r,

on their

Thus

the word

s^r,

*^

11

2,

The words

102.

5T*?^Tr?T,

first,

II

101.

precede

stand

has the acute on the final before the word

can apply the rule to 3TTT?fV^H?fc,

rfre

11

f^r^T:,srnisr-

11

Words

103.

time) have aeute on

expressing direction

the last syllable,

space or

( in

when followed by a

word denoting a village,or a country or a narrative,and before


the word ^trtts
Thus t^^rWHr, ST^I^R^nft or f% and spk' (VIII. 2. 6). The
||

compounding takes, place by II. 1.50. ^^^rrRTr, ST^s^rTT^rr


Country
^qo^r^P. ^TtCts^IHT* H These are Karmadharaya compounds (II. 1.
Story name: prwi^oi" ^f, ^graTrT*, ^Tr^T^*, STTfj^rrT^
58).
So
The employment of the term ste^ in the apalso <g^TR*T?*r, 3TT* ^PTO^
II

name

ll

II

horism shows that time-denoting


cluded.

The word

37rfW*PT

eriraft, (3T?^VrTTr:)

is

f^37

words as

in

^tf&ircT should also

derived from arfw*T JTfa?v^T

gj^f

^?^ (IV.
:

be
3.

in-

87).

11

End-acute First term.

176

The

104.

on the

direction

before the

final,

Bk. VI. Ch.

106

II

denoting words have acute

names of

when such names

scholars,

are derived from those of their teachers.

Compare
&m7*KI**W|i
their
Teachers'
from
names
of
derived
the
when
?
Why do we say
VI. 2. 36
Observe ^frer^n U Why do we say 'Scholar-names'? Observe ^TTFRTO *IPW3. H
Thus

3jTqrf 5 Ffar

STT^TrTTiftan, s^frrer$*STr

ll

'

^% ^

gxT?rr^^T

||

\o\

q^T S^-q^-f^, *3K ^


II

|)

Words denoting

II

and the word


have acute on the final, before a word which takes Vriddhi
in the first syllable of the second term by VII. 3. 12 and 13.
105.

By

the sutra StTCT^J VII.

ordained when

being u,

wq^

11

The word

the Vriddhi of the Uttarapada

3. 10. 12,

the Taddhita affixes having

^ and

direction

sr

or

or

takes Vriddhi, under the rule relating to uttarapada,

12 and

Thus

13.

*?<Tr3^rPTOjt,

3T<?6rfcTR37

follow, the

err

3rn;q?ff^r: therefore,

means
i.

gff*fl * ntfrff:

:
,

e.
II

that

is

Purvapada
word which

under rule VII.

3,

These are formed

125). Why do we say "which takes Vriddhi in the second


word StTCTS not been used, then the sutra would have run
thus f3fjr *ii T, and would have applied to cases like *re*TTCr:, srf^nw: where m^;
and ^rrc^r. are Vriddha words not by virtue of VII. 3. 12.

by

|3i affix (IV.

term

?"

Had

2.

the

^1^ fax* izmwt


f

rrTJ

11

sf

sftfr srrrsf

member

\o\

cent.
qqi\

II

in

s?*ffcnf vnrf?r

fMI*Tfr^ U

This

is

Why
Why

11

final,

an exception to VI.

being

2. 1

by

tE

acute on the

II

2.

first,

as

unrestricted scope jn
in fFrf^r, ffrflfW: U

final,

165 which supersedes

the succeeding sutras upto VI.


it is

2.

120 inclusive.

formed by the

affix

ppaw, f^ro^n and


-

:.

But

as they are governed

this.

in fa**rr%n

by the sub~

The word Bahuvrihi governs


The word f^p? is originally

5^ added .to f%5T

rule VI.

2.

11

This rule has

165 has unrestricted scope

and f^rrsffi: there

is

a conflict, as both these

would apply, therefore by the maxim of vipratishedha, VI,


this,

wmn

11

member in a Bahuvrihi would have retained its original acdo we say in a Bahuvrihi compound ? Observe ff% r^r = f^^'do we say when a name'? Observe f^W 3T?3 = ff *sf^i
But

sequent rule VI,

sedes

^ri^Vd, f^rac,

first

f^jffNr? an d fwiTSRi have acute on the

rules

11

The word f^^ has acute on the


a Bahuvrlhi, when it is a Name.

Thus fMr^P, RptaRTP,


which the

q^rr%

f^^?: ^ts ^rai f^q^

JOB,
first

11

2,

165 super-

Bk. VI. Cn.

3^tt>^33
fi%:

11

ll

sg

3?* 3T^r

First term end-acuti<;.

109]

II. .

^o\s

^rft

11

The

words T3T> sr^ and

first

srwr,

wfe

member

%% 5
rWs ^<m*<fr?TTt

*r*f?r

11

before the

in a Bahuvrihi,

on the

Name.

77

*T?rar

S3, gets acute

compound denotes
Thus

t^t,

t^^i^H Wl*ft&

107.

the

11

ii

final syllable,

when

iN^: and $*%'- This sutra


g
by which the first term would have retained its
The word f^f has acute on the first by Phit II. 7. The word
original aecent.
by
formed
is
*TPT^ affix (Un IV. 145) and is first acute; tit is also first acute
|pT
The word sfr^r if considered as an underived
as formed by f^(Un IV. 118).
primitive, has acute on the first by Phit II. 19.
If it be considered as derived
is

iXHTW, ?#*:, gbRr**:,

sptffa:,

also an exception to VI. 2

from ?i^ with the

then

affix sror

it is

already end-acute and would retain

its

accent even by VI. 2. 1. The first Bahuvrihi word g^u? has acute on the final
by VI. 2. 172, the second Bahuvrihi compound ^uijm has acute on <*r by VI.
:

2.

the third Bahuvrihi with f gets accent on


V. 2. 38. Its mention here appears redundant.

I,

by

$ft
??%:

11

II

l*

*T3TTft

II

$ft

II

A word
on the

vrihi gets acute

Thus

|f? has

cgrer^:, sot^:,

acute on the

first

as

*pn%

ststtot

before tst,

q$t[ is

end-acute

^ q ^Nrfr **(% h
and ^5 in a Bahu-

f%^

srasr

ffi

when reproach

final,

^^fW,
it is

The word

II

sft ittstcr TOrftsrntf? Jrgsftft

108.

II

meant.

is

^n^#P^-, aTFRTrf 5:, ^^r^f^:

a Neutei

name (Phit

II. 3),

and

it

The word
would have
11

retained this accent in the Bahuvrihi by VI. 2. 1. but for this sutra.
The word
qz is formed by ar=^( III. I. 134) and has acute on the final, and so it would
have retained this accent by VI. 2. 1. even with out this sutra. The
word
being formed by sp*(V. 3- 75) has acute on the first.
s formed by
the Nishta affix tFJ
The word 3Tf^TrrT being an avyayibhava, the first
member would have retained its original accent.
In this and the last sutra

m^

k^

II

all

acutes
*?<:

may

optionally be changed into svarita by VIII.

have acute on the

.final

by VI.

2.

172,

supersedes this present, so far as sr^ and


JTfr
^Tttj

11

3Pf ft

11

* pfrfr ^tt%

<TTrf7f n Trfr,

11

3R3?3Trc<ff scorer

the

But ssm?: and

which being a subsequent

sutra,

are concerned.

^fa

^Myw foiTf *nf<r u


i

2. 6.

In a Bahuvrihi, compound having the word


second member, the first member ending in the

109.

**3 as its
Feminine affix 5
syllable.

( *fr

word) has the acute on

its

final

FfRSt TERM END-ACUTE.

II 73

Thus

The words

VI.

BlC.

ClI.

g 112

1 1.

and |rr# are formed by


q>j ( IV. I. 105 ), and
adding #r<? (
)
this
first
acute.
VI.
2.
are
By
1
accent
would
have been retaitherefore, they
Why -do we say "a Nadi (Feminine in j)
ned, but for the present sutra.
word" ? Observe Ifgi^j:, the word st has acute on the first syllable as it is
*rrnf??<j:, fr^lffar 5

IV.

formed by

we

say " before

16

r.

(Un

ar?'cj

to

IV. 146) and

" ?

irfTT

and ?\<w ending

rrprsr

it

that accent

retains

Observe mtfrfw

in

(VI.

2.

1).

Why

do

In a Bahuvrihi compound, a Participle

110.

in

by a preposition, standing as the first member


of the compound, has optionally acute on the last syllable.

^r preceded

Thus

srerHg^P or ffwhrisf: (VI.

jnrrRlTrf: or shrrf^rTTIT

167 which

When

is

ll

When

the other alternative

or IHtrT5^ (VI. 2. 49 and


means
(mouth) then by VI.
3^
169),

the accent

an optional rule,
is

2.

the word

taken or

on the

falls

when

last

by a

preposition'

^TR^Trft:

II

Observe

sr (

VI.

u^ff^x which
<i*Tft

ll

?S:

2.

does not mean (mouth) then

it

by VI. 2. 49 the acute falls on if, which accent is retained


do we say "a Nishtha" ? Observe q^f^J^P which is acute
the krit accent being retained ofter

syllable

1)

(VI.

2.

in the

1).

Why

middle by

2. 139 ).
Why do we say 'preceded
has acute on the first by VI. 1. 206.

^n:, qsTfe:,

In the following

s^rra:

II

upto

VI. 2. 136
" the first
supplied
always
be
the
phrase
should
inclusive,
111.

syllable of the second

member

sutras,

has the acute

".

This is an adhikara aphorism and the word StTCT? exerts its influence
upto the end of the chapter, while the word srrf? has scope upto VI. 2. 187
exclusive.

ffrr-

^f^^^rcj;

*$sflf* snnsr

11

11

\\r

11

q^FR

11

^Trfsrcr ^^r^r^rf^-^^

**:, **r,

&wtm,

^^ST^T^r^rTt

(srrf tttto)

>T?ri%

il

11

In a Bahuvrihi compound, the word sjrdr


standing as second member, has acute on the first syllable, when it is preceded by a word denoting color or
112.

mark.
Thus with

5f^%^

^*^

color

we have

SJl^i^:,

the lengthening of

3>s<jHjf<7t:,

and

and with mark-name, we have


takes place by VI. 3. 115.

^5

BK. VI. Ch.

SCGND TERM FIRST-ACUTE.

115

II.

The marks of scythe


and distinguish them.
'

mule on

'arrow' &c, arc

',

17^

mark

the ears of cattle to

such a 'mirk' which is m^ant here, ti


the rule does not apply to *>JR7T*T:
Why do we say gfjaT ? Observe ^TTTTT
"^77
being formed by %T^((II. I. 34) is end-acute, and aj? being C>>farc^f: here
It

is

II

by

III.

cjr (

1.

Why

compound.

also end-acute an

) is

135

"

do we say

mark"? Observe ^r^RTlT where


end-acute and this accent

Name

first

i.

e. "

itfv&kw'',

II

??

Tr^rfsr- W

effF^fg':,

Resemblauce

blance frri^p,

<t^tr

11

^<*s,

".

^r,

rfNrr,

^sn^

^ (arrf-

Name

members

affair's-:

Resemblance

ifrqnr',

ar^^q:,

*&*Z y B"> ^t^T

3T^3ffa

irafrli^j

II

fr^5",

SHFsrr

Compan'sion ^dfp7^,
37*rpr:

Name

II

and

Name

II

?TF#rirfsr

com-

or

?r^f q:

final

^ by VI.

tl

115.

on

?ft

Resem-

or a Resemblance), the second

member *zg

5^%

:
,

sf!rs*OF

two inches

long.

Name :ItCZpfff:

Here the word

we say when denoting

'

age &c

'.

come

comparison
Observe *tfr$>Iff:
:

it

fallen

out, or

denotes the

become one or
Why do

TPJ^:, %*pjjf:
II

Name

gets acute on the

first syllable.

particular age of the cattle at which the horns

as

In a Bahuvrihi denoting age, (as well as a

Thus 3^TrT%:,

I?

jfr^qfh-.-,

ir

172, this ordains acute

2.

have

TgiW:

^rt^:,

The sutra ^p^'jg^r^I^^ is in Neuter gender, and srar is shortened


Samahara Dvandva. In the case of fjsfr^ the accent would have

on the

has

denote resem-

<$Rch<JP

tr#rT: ,

In a Bahuvrihi expressing a

is

Names *

are

II

acute on the first syllable.


Thus Name fwrlir7 ^,
II

^rj-

when the compound denotes a

syllable,

parison, the second

^rsffa:

149; i

2.

11

114.

Name

(III.

the

1).

persons having ears like a cow or an ass

^3^5r?srnr^
^TrUR

2.

in

color or

or a Resemblance.
Thus gff^H^r:,

blance

being formed by g*z

sfpTT

retained (VI.

In a Bahuvrihi the second member

113.

acute on the

is

th ise ac rents are retains

when preceded by a word denoting

1 1

Second-term first-acute.

80

^sfr axflrffirepprr.

^TTrr:

Particle

on the

Thus

arire:, 3T?TC:, 3TfsRr:

when the

II

?m:,

srr, *tt,

II. 118.

*&v,

(for,

(stt-

After a Negative Particle, in a Bahuvrihi, the

falls

^rr%

II

Bk. VI. Ch.

) n

116.

acute

\\\

II

syllable of

first

Observe srsnTftsp
final gets

and

by VI.

the acute

Why

3T^rf: U

Why

3TT, *rc, ffrsr

do we say

2.

and

do we say
" 5ft

JjcT

II

after a

&c ".

Negative

Observe wrorf

172.

^WTOT ^WTTOl' %\*\\ vrfk *ft:, ^-sr^ft, sr <t*r, ^ft


^TT^r^RT'm^' ^ *f sfrfr smrsr stt^ftt *r^m ^r^sffassffa^rr
ff%:
II

II

II

11

11

After the adjective

117.

ending in

tr;

and

has acute on the

with the exception of

srer,

stem

in a Bahuvrihi, a

3m%

and

g-q^r;

first syllable.

g^

g^H

Thus 55^*%,
gff*m% ?3?t, ^fcrw, afrT*t so also 5#j and
and wfsr with the affix f#^
The final *T is changed to ^ by
From the root
VI 1 1. 2. 72. But this substitution is considered asiddha for the purposes of

II

and these words are taken as if still ending in stct


Why do we say
f^g^tf
Why
Observe
do
we
say
'ending
in
after U?'
^ftf^,
and
and
formed
by
the
affix
Observe ?TST^
fcT^ ?
^rT^
ctfR^ ( Un I. 156), and the
accent is on ^r and rT, but with g, the accent is thrown on the final by VI. 2. 172.
Why do we say with the exception of ^Pffi and 5*TrJ[? Observe <?rlpT and *rf?T
(VI. 2. 172). The follcwing maxim applies here btr^jt^ ?T?*TT^*Nrrr ^T^q%?T
tT^cff%P* snuSraPrT " whenever sp*, or f^ or 3T*t or T^, when they are employed
accent,

11

II

'

in

Grammar, denote by

*T^, there

(yc%

?**, 3T*t

I.

1.

and

72,

i&i)

something that ends with sr^or 3^ or st*t or


represent these combinations of letters, both in

so far as they possess and also in so far as they are void


fore the jpj and 3T*t void of

meaning are

of,

a meaning". There-

Thus

included here.

also

vj

is

formed by jt^ (Un I. 140), but *fik*l is formed by *TR^ (Un. IV. 145), and stht^
Similarly 2RT*r
is formed by ?*rf?HT affix (V. 1. 122) in which *P^ 1S on ^y a part.
but in gsf^
is formed by *T^(Un IV. 191), and so also ^rrT*r(Un IV. 202)
;

(g^** from
is

Ecj*T

with the affix

here part of the root.

then the accent

falls

subsequent Ri^e VI.

*f^

11

f|K<J

III. 2. j6)

the rule applies also, though arw

But when the samasanta

affix 3TT

is

added (V.

on the syllable immediately preceding 3TT,


2.

173 supersedes the present rule: thus jg^r%:,

$*nw ^tk *55frfr s*rr% arr^rTir w^r

4.

54),

for there the

U^rlrW

Bk

VI. Ch.

121

II. .

first syllable

thus gk$:
sTT^rrra

After

118.

the

First-acute Second member.

^3

of

$f^, U^',

^l^ft^:, $fr$$:,

q^i-oe^fe

ii

the acute

in a Bahuvrlhi,

&c.

ii

q^rft

ll

ii8i

^^

on

falls

stt^^tttr:,

5^,

&*%fe

II

In a Bahuvrlhi compound in the Chhandas,

119.

a word of two syllables with acute on the first syllable, when


preceded by g, gets acute on the first syllable.
In other words, such a word retains

Veda X.

5^!fr inraT (Rig

Thus

accent.

fw and g?*f

Here

76. 8).

its

s^R^iT^" 5

and

*,

have acute on

3j

3?^ and to are formed by sp^ (Un L 15 1 )


have the ft^ accent (VI. 1. 197). Why
and
respectively
II.
and e$?j^ (Un
2)
syllable'
Observe stf *i*T%- *#1;?jrc5 (Rig
first
?
do we say 'having acute on the
Here ^rf has acute on the final (Un I. 27 formed by 3 affix and
II. 32. 7).
has the accent of the affix III. 1. 3). Why do we say having two syllables ?
This sutra is an exception to VI. 2. 172.
Observe fggTO<!> Uf^S:
which they had originally

for

also,

'

'

II

tffcrftfN
ffrr:

\\o

||

tt sMt

*ffc

ii

sffc,

sfpaft

s^rfr

*r*n%

II

II

s^fa

re<ra srr^srtr

*tt-

In a Bahuvrihi compound in the Chhandas,

120.
after g, the

q^TR

ll

*c *rsfr mi\ti< i

words

^frt

and #T^ have acute on the

syl-

first

lable.

Thus g^r%, g*ft# 3rflrarr (Rig IV. 17. 4) s^iw^*w (Rig VIII. 13
The word sft4
where
36)
|f#} has acute on Cr H So also g%sft3 7<fa *3TT
acute
on the first.
would
have
is formed by ujj affix and by VI. i> 213, it
But its enumeration in this sutra shows that Rule VI. 1. 2ij does not apply
:

to

*ft4

The word

II

%\$ has svarita on the final in the Chhandas, by Phit IV.

In the secular literature

it is

ffrp

11

wk, 3T?^rm^

^ ^ 5^
rft?:

*irrar

11

?*?

II

<mi%

11

*$&, <fir,^, g^f,

11

3t^t *pt

^r^rft TFt^^ff^r 3T5^ff*rn"^"HRr3Tr^rTTrf%

ing second terms have acute on their


^IT^T, 3TST

and ^TH

ThusTK%^, srf**,

first

syllable

we say

fK*

19

&c

'

frer, <frrf

sql^wtf**,^!^,

'

11

||

TR^fn^, ^tWt^,tk|?5w,

Tlfeff, sqfer*, ri^


g^TT*, M*T*, R<?H* and 5^***
four are to be found in Tishthadgu class of compounds (II. I,

Tft^ffa*;,

w%

In an AvyayibMva compound, the follow-

121.

3?, %&,

9.

adyudatta.

i^?^^^r^^TO^m%
5TR5T, sr^r,

ll

Observe 37^***

Why

do we say

" in

ll

17).

These

Why

last

do

an Avyayibhava

2 1

First-acute Second member.

$2

compound?" Observe
and

the words

bt<T,

q^s^,

3*?*

g TtH*M *r

Bk. VI. Ch.

After the prepositions

11

&c would have become

present sutra supersedes VI.

accentless

and we have accent on

2. 3,3,

Tn^sjfrf, S*f

by VI.

fS*

&c

124

II.

2.

the

33,

not on*

arid

the Prepositions,

f^^

win:,

members
and

Compound

In a Dvigu

122.

get acute on their

the following second

syllable

first

3$, ir*ar

3R*c, TF*r,

sFTv^f r

Thus f^^p,

($r*gf

TOTOr

f^RTST, fi^T'., C the affix *3K V.


affix 3T3 V.

1.

we say

Dvigu

in a

26

is

elided

f%r<f :

19

by V.

elided

11

qrrre

?*3 R

The word

compound when

1.

28

fsqpar:, f^pfrar:, ft3?FT:,

is elided

by V.

f^T^p, %#??,

f^TT?

II

1..28)
(

the

Why do

II

123.

r^g^r, srrarsrrc, hj*A

if

end of a Tatpurusha
the Neuter has acute on the
at the

Sfrssr

exhibited in

syllable.

Thus 5U#uuiW, srnnrarr^


4. 25.

the affix f^a^ V. 1.25

is

Observe <T*H3>^, ^tH <s m *

cfcs^ srrapri 5T5^^r

first

*tffcp

1.

Why do we

The compound becomes Neuter by

ir

say "in a Tatpurusha"? Observe

gl^rtf sfrgrn^ir

which

II,
is

compound and therefore first member retains its accent VI. 2, i r


first
member is a Nishtha word, it has acute on the final. Why
the
as
and
"
the
word *[rn7T ? " Observe STfTTOT^
say
we
Why do we say m the
do
Compare VI. 2. 86,
Neuter ? Observe aT^TOTFSr
a Bahuvrihi

'

II

'

II

s&rsjr

||

I?*

falls

||

s^sir,

^,

In a Neuter Tatpurusha ending in 5F*n, the

124.

acute

q^TT%

|1

on the

first

syllable of the second

Thus ^trwr^tTH:, 3TTf:^r^, ^-c^tr^


descendant of ?pre:

( 5fPT*T:

^Rr g*^

srrgT

is

the verb Sg and the affix ^r ( fit. 1. 136)


These are Genitive compounds.
II. 4. 20.

we have

frfsp^qr

II

^f^^opffan*

ll

q^rft

11

The word

?trcrro:

denotes the

formed by the preposition

The compound

When

srrfr:,

is

the word

is

f^rrfprn*

In a Neuter Tatpurusha ending


syllable of f%^r &c have the acute.
125.

first

II

||

member.
3?r

with

Neuter by
not Neuter

II

in *FTT,

the

Bk. VI. Ch.


..

128

II

First-acute Second member.

183

As f^ u rfrw rq,
In this sutra,

though

fec^q-JT,

its

^SIRI*

The

word htt$

repetition of the

was present, indicates that the

anuvritti

first

The word f^fT is derived from


is formed by adding *p*(III.
gives
which
with
faTT
fa^and^T
foHHTr
D
=
is
irregular.
tne
elision
of
fs* H PTT ^'T
f^l"9 r
^
of the first member gets the acute.

syllable

the root
34) to

I. 1

"*

%^%?^5^^f?t^
l^fcjnl,

ff%

%^^2 *^ *l u ^
,

n^fcira

11

1^$

<

^ra,

%^, 5733? and ^p*^ at the end


syllable,

first

Thus 3nt^, *Trar%WT, TTFT^fsTT HMUsfer, (%*


,

^lh<W^

<T*Tre)

snfTSF^Tw

II

The

ing them to %?j &c.

T^fcrl^gefcU,

When

reproach

The reproach

is

be

tfkgwMH
ffrT-

11

?^ n

*pr *HiH

<rerra n ^fircn,

<JU|HIH, rTST

fS^T

*Ktl*i, rT^tJT SFSpft-

i-

^r^Fj

e.

$*'*i

and the
akjrti-

li

^wh h

sn^nt

syllable,

first

q<H^R>*T

at

>rera

it

the end of a Tatpurusha,

when something

is

compared

it.

ThussfW* 4ttfa~*V*ftt?|i <FHTKW,


1

re-

denoted of the sons &c by compar-

we have

The word ^K,

has acute on the

fPT

effp^RnT

56: the Vyaghradi class being an

1.

^s-h wJiT^r^rf'T rps^" *nn%

it

127.

with

II.

not meant,

is

^rWiW*

analysis will

compounding takes place under


gana.

when a

meant.

is

W^^ (S^T^T^)

w^n,

of a Tatpurusha have acute on the

^TTRfl

**,

$3HI^TR4<*lfa W^ls^^nn%*l^f Mi | l|HMI^Hrl<tiTilMH^fnril

The words

126.

proach

^, ^,

yrepft n

11

tl

when comparison

MddHHwq*

is

fira*

128.

the acute

meant

falls

11

Observe mn^Ck^

'

\^<c

qrri%

11

3? *rt-tf *%

Why

do we say

wy, ^t, tjfsk, fa&

In a Tatpurusha ending in "T^, *T and sthft


on the first syllable of these, when the com-

pound denotes a food mixed

or seasoned with something.

Thus aj^W frT?^W, frT*T Wr^FT^T:, frT^fcftH, 5*5ft%* = SJ%*T fW <R?*


&c. The compounding takes place by II. 1. 35. Why do we say 'when
meaning mixed or seasoned ? Observe mHMrW
:

II

'

$<A*t^gre*Kqrr: ^nih
U4NIHJI
SfrP

11

&?!

^ W*

^rf[

II

?R*

II

^n^-rKM^lR tT*^

^ri%
OTTCT

II

Mafll*li

^,

^",

s^rer,

m^:

foft STT^Hnft H^f^T

II

First-acute Seccnd member,

84

The words
on their first syllable, when
noting a Name.
129.

Thus

*?rf%|h?w,

formed by 3%* (IV.

1.

srrsrwssr*

Indeclinable taught in VI,

M ml ^sr

2.

acute on the

compound, which

of a Tatpurusha

ll

In a Karmadharaya

126 to 130

2. 2,

is

first syll-

ia

we have qrw^T^ll

superseded by the accent of the

though that rule stands

first

and

this,

subsequent*

11

< *q*i has

$rf^W52FT

accent taught in VI.

tl

when at the end


not a KarmadMraya.

As |r^H I^T^w

acute

end of a Tatpurusha de-

at the

able,

Thus

^ have

^?j& and

132

II.

STTf^f^,^!^;, *rr3%^, q "^w4i<ft m ^ fanhft, srf^


villages.
The feminine of ^p* is taken here,
When
not
a
name
we have q?;ifp7W
42).

The word

130.

The

^,

Bk. VI. Ch.

names of

All these are

|f^: u

fj^,

qsrft

\\

At

ll

^qr^r:,

*? 9 ( srrf^RTrr%

end of a non-Karmadh&raya Tatpurusha compound, the words ^nf &c have acute on the first
131.

the

syllable,
In a Karmadharaya
Thus ?rr#?W3 lli3%iqWi ^jnl'4 sr^PT^
The words 3*4 &c are no where exhibited as such the
we have q <*H'&
primitive words w, *?r, T^T &c sub-divisionof ft*TTtt ( I V, 3. 54 ) are here referred
:

-,

ll

ll

to, as

ending with nj

in a

II

affix,

<pr:, jw: ( srr^rcn )


<r^n?r
IVi
P#^l T*TOcT*5^ SPIRT 3U 44 STMT T^FrT
The word gsr coming after a Masculine noun
132.

3*: <jtw
ffrr

ll

II

II

II

5?T^M:

ll

Tatpurusha has acute on the


Thus sFPtf^P,

thi H KHl

^:

Why

qrpisir!*:, *rrrfrf^

do we say

'

after a

^T^r^r^f^^r^Th^iMi^rw:

II

first syllable.

ll

Why

do we say 'a

masculine word

?33

II

<r^rfa

II

Observe

Observe

TPTf<j*r:

^,

stt^f^,

'

gsr'

*t*t,

55-

Bk. VI. Ch.

II 134.

First-acute Second member.

The word

133.

has not acute on the

J^T

when preceded by a word which

syllable,

185

first

under the

falls

category of teachers, kings, priests, wife's relations, and agnates and cognates.

The word
ficing priest

',

&c: sjrfrT means

The word

srr^T^
'

&t$X''all

srnssn"

',

trsrr

prince, king

'

Htfaj*

',

> g| rich^

'

a sacri*

blood-relations'.

shows that the rule applies to the synonyms of

3*?, *nrr?;, iw$$'<,


|

'

kinsmen related through father and mother or

as well as to particular

^rarf^rffj,

means teacher

relations through the wife's side' as sot^T 'brother-in-law

'

teacher

*m$

'

5^^rrf

:
>

5TTnT^5, vrr5<^#*

last sutra

jpr

taught in the

by

the general rule VI.

1.

3THTra<Hfc, TTTOPTgir:,

ursHjr^:, fr^s**, (VI.

:,

VI.

'teacher'

23

3.

Here the

),

being prohibited, the accent

falls

5TWrHST-

^r^t

23)

3.

&c

special accent of

on the

last syllable-

2 23.

The words

134.

Thus

&c.

pound have acute on the

^ft"

&c, in a Tatpurusha com-

first

syllable,

when the preced-

ing word ends in a Genitive and does not denote a living


being.
Thus SJ^>?n,

T**nffT, but

being, and TTT^ni. where

it is

^^arofa where the first term is a living


Another reading of the sutra is

not Genitive.

word Traf being rhe ancient name of q# given by old

*rWr?*wrFf TOfT^, the

Grammarians,
1 *<*, 2 5*rrer,

10

^PTCft, 11

4 <nfepr, 5
^^R), 12 #n*

sfrftT,

*fW* (=^R

mw,

6 yp^r, 7 g^r, 8

ff^r), 9

**<?,

II

The word ^or is derived from the root ?rft sft ( Div 50 ) with the affix
^rf^ and 3rf*T are formed with the upapada zrft and the verbs
'to go*
and IT to protect respectively, and the affix 5j? ( ^jfarfcT = sbRt ) ( III. 2. )
>?K

'

'

^T^T

with the affix f^qr added diversely

gives

5^

srcff?

formed by the
?rr

yftft

the affix

with

this

with

the
cjfcr^

=?K

3T<3.(

^r?)

^
r^n

gives

(Un

II.

^^

56)

with

3T^ (Un

IV. 81)

gives
ST?* STCTR = jmTT ( Prishodaradi
the penultimate being lengthened the word
pg
;

is

affix
added to the root 5 with the upapada $ ( fj^fftif ^TWR
angment 5^ being added to ^
with
5^ ftfft$^ir:

II

gives $37:, ^*t with 3T*T* forms -sr^, then

formed by sr^(

III.

1.

134

is

added

#^

^^

added to sff^and reduplication.,6ft^pT^ = %?$t

fs

n86

First-acute Second-member.

^r hiu4i4iM

tl

?V*

The

^tr

ll

words

^f,

ll

Bk. VI. Chy

II. .

sn^rfrfa, fora ^TN

<gr,

137

R)

II

q^y, ^r, sirer and


grs* of Sutras VI. 2. 126-129, preceded by a non-living genitive word, have acute on the first syllable.
135.

As
%tt
ffr

six

*rrw?, ^re,

S^HHL, f^T^R*

?>T5KFT1, STC^Fn*?*;

In the last two examples

ll

not used as a comparision, that case being governed by VI.

is

^qVw

&Wrtll4k, %$%''

II

Here nw,

and

*rq-

*rre?

2.

127,

do not denote mixing,

is governed by VI. 2. 128.


^NTfk*, *T57f^*> here the compound does
not denote a Name, which would be the case under VI. 2, 129. Why these

which
*

six

'

only

Observe

grct sreq;

u*{*rr>

11

&% n tttr

11

s^?*, ^nr

The word ^ at
compound denoting 'a wood or

sTrsrTrrn* )

11

the end of a Tatpurusha

136.

has acute on the

forest',

first syllable.

The word
3Hi IJ ^ li

word

Why

II

P3"

est' also

fp*sr

means

WT1&K

II

its

?^V9

tl

^T^

The word

137.

preserves

'a

(1) a basin (2) a caste called

primarily and metaphorically.

U$><# T

by metaphor.

here denotes *a wood'

do we say when denoting

II

The

wood'

Some

kunda.

force here

WU&K,

U&<M\,

vwizs at the

Thus

^SjfT'l.,

Observe ? rl^ u ^H

is

say

it

II

The

means

'for-

that of ^gfiq,

ST*icH^<H

i.

e.

I!

end of a Tatpurusha,

original accent.

The synonyms of >titr are also included. As fP?fhi3i<4tJL> fpfarfnro,


^Tsfafp** u The words OTTO &c, have acute on the middle. Phit II. 9. The
word jt^T governs the subsequent

f^ft^r^^i^revPET^
frf^, wrcn*,
ifrr

11

ftm^rcTf

s^ftrerm

f*Rfr

138.
original

accent,

sutras upto VI.


ll

\\*

2.

<r?rft

ll

143.
II

ftfir-, Gter,

^^f^r,

*r-

Wflg TO^sntfNf arf


After fsrfo, a word
when it is always

syllables, with, the exception of

sftfir

*r*n%

tT^f^ft

*T*re

11

retains in a Bahuvrihi its

mr^-H

of not

more than two

Bk. VI. Ch,

II

139

First- acute

Second member.

11

87

The word qrj belongs to f*rrf* class


RlSrer
ftrafe:
fiift fo
on
the
first,
and
has
acute
and
(VI. I. 203)
sto": and arte: being formed by
acute on the first (VI. I. 197),
affixes,
II.
have
(Un V. 21) and zp{ (Un
4)
Why do we say after ftrfa ? Observe $*?ft*Hlf which being formed by theWhyaffix spffa^ has acute on the penultimate syllable ;ft by VI. I. 217
Thus

ll

'

'

11

do we say always

'

Observe

nffesF^t;, for

an abbreviated form of 5&^, the

les, it is

though ^spC
finaj

3T

ls

nere of two syllab-

being elided

in

denoting

compounds other than those denoting age \


we have fir fa^f hence this word is not such which is always of two syllables.
The word fare has acute on the first syllable, by Phit II. 10, and retains this
accent in the Bahuvrlhi ( VI. 2. 1 ). Why do we say 'abahvach or not manyWhy do we say in a Bahuvrihi ? Observe
syllable ? Observe MfaFyFn^
Why
we
say 'with the exception of **Etfj'? Observe
do
r%% qT^-RTRTTr^
condition of

life (

V.

4. 146), in

'

:,

'

II

ll

ftfrePTCtfl,

This sutra

is

<ifo*K*frNM*u&<i
$fcl*<4<H

an exception to VI.

u ?3*>

i^rf*

ll

ll

2. 1.

*rfo y

*rn^ y ^v^Tcj;, ^r,

*-

II

In a Tatpurusha, a word ending in a Krit-

139.
affix preserves

its

accent,

original

when preceded by an In-

noun standing in intimate relation to a verb (Karaka), or any word which gives
occasion for compounding (Upapada see III. 1. 92),
called Gati (I. 4. 60), or a

declinable

The above is according to Professor Bohtlingk. Thus srenr^f:,. jt^TT't,


The compounding is here by II, 2. 18. With karaka-word we
With upapada words, we
S^rJfa^T*. TrflwTrR:, ^*T^^RJ (IIL 3. it/).

JT^T^fi, JrftT* H

have

have

fT^*:, S^fc, gift:

accent

is

governed by VI.

II

1.

All these are formed by


193.

i.

e.

the word pT^T

so also with ^rrrR

is

f^

affixes

formed by ?g^

and the
%vq j^(

so also with g>c*T5T


( T^^TIT^ ^n"^% fa ST ^T: )
do we say "after a Gati, Karaka, or an Upapada
Here the Genitive in ^3T?r
word ? " Observe %^tT^^R^: = f^raiHSP
does not express a karaka relation. The genitive is here a TO^T'TT *V2T denoting a possessor and not a ^r^SFTr n e: for had it been latter, there would have
been no compounding at all, by II. 2. i(). see also II. 3. 65. The word
is
employed in the sutra for the sake of distinctness for a gati, karaka or upapada could not be followed by any other word than a krit-formed word, if
For two sorts of affixes come after a root ( dhatu )
there is to be a samasa.
A samasa can take place with krit-formed words, but
namely ftiF and %^
y&fa

fa )

(**TV

cfi?<r%

^T

*TJ*rffO

Why

II

II

n88

First-Acute Second-member.

not with

So

tirianta words.

that Without employing

have inferred that &i was meant.

Therefore,

it is

VI. Ch.

[Bit.

$^

said the

tne
'

sflttej

Krit

sake of distinctness. According to this view

in the sutra for the

accent in $pr3T%rNT*) JTT^RrWIff

by saying that

'

is

140

If, .

we could

employed

we explain

the

compounding takes place


with * and the words qHftdC and q^farl T ending in ftr3r and <rf*rand then 3TPT
is added and the accent of the whole word is regulated by srr* by the rule of
?=Tf*rnEfE (

see V.

and V.

3. 56.

4. II

).

first

According to others, the ^qr

is

taken in

compounds

this sutra, in order to prevent the gati accent applying to verbal

in

5T^l%1**:,or | M^ % ^ft^ ( V. 3. 67 ), or Irrrfn^T* ( V. 3. 66 ). The


accent of these will be governed by the rule of the Indeclinable first term retain-

words

like

ing

accent.

its

In qHMkf &c

140.

pound preserve

their original accent simultaneously.


and qf^T have acute on the first syllable, and fj^

Thus t^rew', both


augment comes by VI. 1.

The word

both members of the com-

157.

|^fm:

(2)

or ||^f?f

= f?HT

(VI.

TRT:

1.

157)

some say it has acute on the


first.
(3) ST^ffa: (Sachl being formed by &!%), some make Sachi acute on
the first #*fRfrp, by including it in Sarangrava class (IV. 1. 73). (4) rT*#<Tr?
(tanu being formed by 3J Un I. 80 has acute on the final, according to others
it

f|f{

has acute on the

acute on the

formed by

first).

st<t

first

first.

(7)

is

(5) ^rffer*

3.

viSva

is

first:

2.

*(T$Hv\i$\nv

'

first,

(6) fj?p ^n":

VI.

3.

21. Vart.

Sanda and
'

'

Marka

3.

137.

first,

f^

affix

f? %TTS^

(9)

3r*rfrnr^^W

106 has acute on the

'

3.

and ^? has acute on the

II

Bamba

3.

final.

a Bahuvrihi

137.

(10)

(8) f^rTreSSY

137.

is

as visVavayas

final,

is

and both 'have acute on the


being formed by sr*r have

),

is

II

The lengthening

sr^fr has acute on the final.

lengthening takes place as before by VI.

by

is

and has

to *& *raf?rr ( nara is


formed by qsi, the lengthe-

*r*tf*rr

Sahsa

f|}><*

or

the lengthening takes place by VI.

by VI.

by VI.

137).

not elided by

Trishna has acute on the


here also

*m

and has acute on the

?r*2T^r both

acute on the

final,

and napat = na pati or na palayati with

ning takes place by VI.


the Genitive

on the

acutely accented

is

finally

acute,

a Bahuvrihi.

^f:

II

The words governed by

is

and

The

formed

this sutra

are those which wo"Uld not be included in the next two sutras.

%idia4t

tt

11

141.
ties,

the both

v*\

ll

<^rR

11

^rerr,

&&,

** n

In a Dvandva compound of names of Divini-

members

retain their original accent.

Bk. VI. Cn.

II

144

First-acute second member.

Thus f^n%f qt, WM*"H


(by nipatana), ^Tf

first

(VI.

1.

on the

iw

197),
first.

is

is

formed by

*^

'Un

f^R has two acutes by VI.

I.

do we say

140

2.

140,

do we say "names of divinities"


Dvandva? Observe srf^TOT:

'a

and

f?? has acute on the


lias

acute on the

first

and by VI. 1. 197 has acute


and Itidra-Brihaspati has three

III. 53;

Why

acutes.

The word

f^rn?f^T?ft H

formed by i^(Un

n8

Observe PARI*tPr

Why-

II

11

lu a Dvandva compound of the names of

142.
divinities,

both members of the compound simultaneously do not

retain their accent,

when

the

first syllable

of the second word

anudatta, with the exception of gjfartft, *, g%% ai d afeifo;


Thus f^ypift, f*?T^rf the words Agni and Vayu have acute on the
The word uttarapada is repeated in the sutra, in order that it should be
final.
is

II

by the word 'anudattadau', which latter would otherwise have qualified


Dvandva. The word "anudattadau" shows the scope of the prohibition and
Observe
the injunction. Why do we say with the exception of 'prthivl* &c ?
^rTr?f*rlJr or sqi dvyava has acute on the first, 'prithivi' being formed by 'nish',
qualified

Rudra is formed by rak' affix ( Un


f^PJsrnr, Pushan has acute on the end.
4

has acute on the

final, ^farlfcr,

has acute on the

final.

tne words Sukra and manthin have acute on the

W?ffPT?**fNf,

Wei:

II

\^

II

^TTT%

143.

II

#*

II. 22.
(

Un

I.

),

and

159

finaj.

II

In the following

sfitras

up

to the

end of the

chapter, should always be supplied the phrase "the last syllable

of the second member has the acute".


The application is given in the next sutra.
^rnro,
H^r%

srer ftp*:,

) n

11

144.

the acute, in the

The

last syllable of the

second

verbal nouns ending in

sr, st*j.

member

lias

sp*. 5>,

T%

%^ and 3F7, when preceded by a Gati, a Karaka or an Upapada (VI. 2. 139).

sto,

20

End-acute second term.

190

Thus
this sutra,

?pi?tr:,

by VI.

3TTW

3T*r:

first,

ST5T JTh|:, gST^#,

III. 116).

and the

f?*r^ affix

would

gati 3TT

word dGra, but

(VI.
*frfJ:

135).

203).

$m

'

II, 2

and

146

II.

and but for

3),

formed by snt^ affix (Uri


^ f^mT#:, Here tR has the force of

stt^pJ*, 3<T^*F:

rs^f:

II

retain its accent

VI. 2. 49) therefore, srpTrT is first


when compounded with the karaka

acute: this accent would have been retained

the words

(Un

Bk. VI. Ch.

139 these words would have retained their original accent

2.

which was acute on the

gpT,

formed by

for this sutra. ft^gc^: 3TTrnU^: "

dwelling

',

and

^j

377j^:,

'

victory

IM-

ST''* (

3-

56

^r

sr?jf^fVr

JTCTO:,

ST^I^

on the

are acute otherwise

'

first

3*sK?f<t:

rar^r*
= *TT WrT, *sfCf ^TPT (III. 2. 5 Vart) *f?:, Hj|f:, (^f being added by III. 1.
has acute on the first as it belongs to f^rfl class (VI. I.
The word
When the preceding words are not Gati, Karaka or Upapada, this
1.

201, 202).

iraf:

11

rule does not apply

as *<pT

HW,

3TI%*<Jrt H^rTl",

where

fj

and

3Tf*r

being

Kar-

mapravachaniya, the words get the accent of the Indeclinable.

The

145.

Participle

when it is preceded by
member is compared.
Thus
5**.,

^TCTsFP*

sjfjf*, ipfrife)
>

f%?fW?i^

11

or

irftJf

in

has acute on the

rfr

final,

by a word with which the second


With Upamana words we have

,!

This debars VI.

a Gati, the rule does not apply, as 5J*3rfe H^cfr

2.

49 and

48.

f^ra-

When 5

is

not

II

The Participle in kta has acute on the


last syllable, when preceded by a Gati, or a Karaka or an Upapada, if the compound denotes a Name, but not in srrfecT &c.
This debars VI.
Thus wim *TTRT:, ^T|#: S M ^ TfrspvJ: s&rp^zj:
Here
VI.
2. 48 is debarred.
^r^ref^T *fa:
2. 49, vr^srencrT *& ^r**$rrl*
"
"
Why do we say when is not 3TTf*TrT &c Observe arrf^trf^; &c.
146.

'

*TTCt

>

'

II

:,

ll

it

MTPTrT, 2 quffqiT, 3 BTRqTfro, 4 crR^C^T.. 5 fa^J, 6 ffmq?r, 7 3TTf^?*, 8

*n=rr cr^Rfrsnr <rr n


*r?r 3
The word iu^rjr in the above list does not take acute on the
but when it denotes
the name of, anything else than a 'cow

*refa

'

it is

has acute on the

utmqfr ri
%nr

11

when
cow it

final,

'a

'

final.

li

Wvs

11

i^rft

irprr^H? "* wrT^TTrr^nTr^r^

11

srt^rfRrc, ^,

wit

an^st^rero

VL

Bk.

Ch.

r49

I J, .

End-acute second term.

1191

147.
The words JTf^r &c. ending in
acute on the final.

Thus $rf%
**

^fnr^rfj

when

3PTW,

not followed

with these words.

JP|

by

3fPT

Some

ffrf

ii

*F^P, ^V^Z^T^-, 3T3f?rT?


The words have acute on the

fqr*:, JHIttfJ:

^f^*:

&c, though

hold

words have acute on the

*T*fWr HOTS, 6

*f

an Akritigana.

It is

II

the

have

*r*TJ, *3*Tfinal,

even

Ganapatha they are read along

in connection

with

^R

&c

that these

This being an Akritigana we have g^T^c*^

^f^RrF,

in

only

it is

final.

s*n-grr*fa ^%7f tr ^rt

'kta'

3TJ?5f%Tor

terror ^q-ar Hfftlft

Tr^wr^^f R$rg*R3rt ^^?wr(f

The final of Part Participles ^r and ^t alone


148.
has acute, in a compound denoting a Name and a benediction,
the preceding word being a word standing in close relation to
an action

(k&raka).

Thus

%3T <FT?*r:

Why

do we

though a Name,
final, for

So

is

=>^:, R ^ fcl

STClTT

say "of ^rf and

g?r"?

VL

by
makes a

not governed

the present rule

that where a Participle in tS

is

2.

= f%OTJ J9$:

Observe %5qrforp (VI. 2. 48), which,


146, and does not take acute on the

restriction

with regard to that rule even.

preceded by a karaka, and the compound

donotes a benediction and a Name, the accent is not on the final, as required
by VI. 2. 146, but such a word is governed by VI. 2. 48, unless the Participle

be Datta and

Iruta,

when the present rule applies. The word ^fR^f indicates that
when a gati or upapada precedes. Why do we use *rf

the ru'e will not apply

{ahneft So
'Sruta'.

For the words 'Datta' and

nonkaraka word.

ction'?

%WfrTr

The
II

is

'Sruta' will

fa**$- H

Why

have acute on the

final

even after

do we say 'when denoting benedi-

where benediction is not meant. As "5%: ^TroT 33


Datta and Srutaaftera karaka- word, only when

It

therefore does not apply to

srrf^RW ??^T

which

is

^rT

governed by VI.

name of

'the
2.

48.

) n

The Participle in tP has


compound denotes 'done by one
149.

the

applies to

meant.

Arjuna's conch', as

^t^ttp*

As &$',

rule will not apply

This rule

benediction

when

that the restriction should apply to 'karaka', and not to 'Datta' and

acute on the
in

final,

such a condition'.

End-acute second term.

192

The word
^T^TTJT^fTrf?

This

is

note

Noun

means 'being

f<qr*[rT

ST^rT'Trrr'T

of Action

2.

When

48.

then by VI.

(*rj^,

Thus

such a condition'.

in

II 151

?jR!Ty?farT?

and Abstract verbal nouns.

I%T5r^?r as Adjectives

nn exception to VI.

Bk. VI. Cu.

the words sp^tto

&c

are used to de-

J44 they get of course acute on the

2.

final.

^t

^rsrerrfsre*:

\\

vrffr

II

II

^*:,}*re,^^*:,(^^ra*s)ll

After a karaka as mentioned in VI.

150.

the second

II

member ending

in the

affix

action in the Abstract or the object

(i.

148,

and denoting an

stst,

e,

2.

having the senses of

a Passive Adjective), lias acute on the final.

Thus mvtvrsrf

*spt, <roqrrf ?$r*

^i^^jsriSto g?^

All these are

examples of nfl* or Abstract Verbal Nouns, {HRhRT: 5TPW, ll^r^l^rfpf 1TThese are formed by c*j?
<P[\m, are examples of ^raft^T or Passive Adjectives.
under III. 3. }i6. For the Sutra III, 3. 116 may be explained by saying that
(1) rUtf is applied when the Upapada is in the objective case and bhava is
meant,
ation

(2) as well as

when

object

is

When

to be expressed.

the

first

explan-

taken, the above are examples of Bhava; when the second explanation

is

Karma. Why do we say " ending in ?**."?


Observe, ^rr^reiTn*^ " Why do we say "when expressing an action in the
abstract (bhava), or an Object (karma)"?
Observe ^rTMMH^, here far* is added
Why do we say "after a karaka*'?
after an Instrumental karaka (III. 3. 117).
Observe R??R?; 3T3R*i?T?r
In all the counter-examples, the second members
js

taken, thev are examples pf

II

retain there original accent,

^f^^q-T^^r^^T^r^T^R^R^lT^ K aftm
\\l
o^T^^T^T,
5T^5T,
3TT^5T,
*W*,
^ftrTP
^TH^rf^,
H,
:

II

TTTft

II

II

JT^, ftr-

II

*nft

11

151.

The words ending

in twc or f^q; affixes,

the words ssrrwR, ^i^t, stt^t, *?u* and

and

as well as ^rsi^r

^rtcf

&c, have acute on the final, when at the end of a compound,


preceded by a k&raka word.
Thus
swipt
*$pro% w^-^ii fo^^rfaRfjfsn, sTrfror^ra*:

11

srttsr^PsSRT, 5??ransqR*.
P'reR'* H PTTT

*tr**TRC,

compounds under

srcr

3FW1TTO

II. 2. 9,

jrarwMJw synrw3^,

11

II

tststojtt, frr#*T*T*re*

11

srrar^ u^msR^:,

srrsi-

OTiTOf^ words are those which form Genitive

and those compounds only are to be taken here; as

wtjjpi^st^:, $rnTOj-3r^:

11

*fcr fr^f^:

^s*e*f: h

This

is

an exception to VI. 2. 139. and in the case of ifffa, rule VI. 2. 48 is superseded.
Jhe words s^r^R'&c do not denote here *rf or %$, had they done so, rule

BK. VI. GH.

VI.

2.

SECOND TERM FIRST-ACUTK.

153]

When

149 would have covered them.

we have

^n?*

I!. .

st^i?t

and

Tc?rrf^

JT??r

^,

lu

nf

IJ

nrw*w,

The word y<T has

152.

first

member

is

not a karaka,

it

8 ?*?fo, 9

the

Itgft

14 fpr,

12 if*****. IS qr?,

acute

preceded by a noun in the Locative case.


Thus sratfr ^Ft= ^rWTT , fe '^T^?. " The compounding
1

when

the final

011

15

takes place

by II. 1- 40 by the process of splitting the sutra ( yoga-vibhaga ), taking wft


Here by VI. 2. 2, the first
there as a full sutra, and siFT: another.
sutra supersedes that and
present
the
accent,
its
preserved
have
member would
by the Unadi affix Hfj
derived
is
word
The
$**
ordains acute on the final.
and thus
accent
natural
( VI. 1. 213 )
(Un V. 15) and would have retained its
we say
do
Why
VI.
2. 139 )
acute on the first syllable by krit-accent. (
get

Observe !fa $"* - tfT7**

'a locative case'?

The acute

falls

on the

final of

and of *r^, when they are second members


instrumental case.
a compound, preceded by a term in the

^,

the sense of

tl53.
in

words having

*mW

*r*3*$
Thus mini, *iwirfo< i rcfrnMH mriwfitom*
to VI, 2. 2
is an exception
This
II.
I.
31.
by
place
The compounding takes
the third case, would have retained
by which the first member being in
word
ft in the sutra means the word,
Some say that the
,

its

original accent.

formal

mean -"after an Instrumental case, the


in
acute on the final". The examples will be

so that the aphorism would

words **, *, and **? get


addition to the

above,:--4iF^:-HI^

CT

be taken and not

alone

reply that

will

*?

by the word

will

**

II

denote

By

its

sutra

>

^ this

be

so,

then the word-form

synonyms like ft** &C lo this we


synonyms also, by the fact of its being followed

1 1.

1.

its

1,

r* and *t T

Instru-

always take th 2

omitted the word wtfurar:, from this sutra, for


mental case so we could have
would have referred to the
by the maxim of pratipadokta &c, <?iri**
tertl1s nl> for
The mention of
II. I. 31-

compound ordained by
sake of clearness.

?**

'

End-acute second term.

iicjp.

The word
^rrTJRfqcf1*

>

means 'being

f^if^rT

JP^lTrr*

is

Noun

When

48.

2.

of Action (vjl, then by VI.

Bk. VI. Cu.

Thus

such a condition'.

in

II 151

?|WSRPTrp?f

and Abstract verbal nouns.

PPTSTV^* as Adjectives

nn exception to VI,

This
note

the words

ifrSntrT

&c

are used to de-

144 they get of course acute on the

2.

final.

wroifcRrsr.

150.

the .second

ll

\\*

'T^rpr

II

11

^*:,}^,^^*:,(3Ty^rTro)ll

After a karaka as mentioned in VI.

member ending

in the

affix

action in the Abstract or the object

(i.

148,

2.

and denoting an

3t*t,

having the senses of

e,

a Passive Adjective), lias acute on the final.

Thus arr^vrnpf W3f,

**WT*f *sT*

^I^roi^trif g?^

examples of vrr^ or Abstract Verbal Nouns.

ll

All these are

H^T^IfTltW ^Tformed by f$z


are
of
or
are
These
examples
Passive
Adjectives.
rrVr^T,
^T^T
saying that
by
explained
For
be
under III. 3. j 16.
the Sutra III, 3. 116 may
bhava is
and
case
r^7 is applied when the Upapada is in the objective
(
STHW-,

STSTvfrSFff:

meant,

(2) as well as

when

object

When

to be expressed.

is

the

first

explan-

when the second explanation


Why do we say " ending in a?^"?
js taken, they are examples of Karma.
Observe, ^*ri ^RITP*<1
Why do we say "when expressing an action in the
ation

taken, the above are examples of Bhava;

is

II

abstract (bhava), or an Object (karma)"?

karaka

after an Instrumental

Observe

frTJir^r,

fT^HSW

II

(III.

In

all

3.

Observe ^rT*n^k*, here fj?

Why

117).

do we say

is

added

"after a karaka"?

the counter-examples, the second

members

retain there original accent,

^r%?^T^^R^^T^TOR^^^rf^rm:
j,

ll

\\\

o*TT^T5T, 5TSR, 3TT^*, ^TT*, ^TnT^r^, ^RTT:

ft vr^frr

11

151.

The words ending

in

ll

^r^r

ll

*rc;,

ft*-

II

or

fe^

affixes,

and

the words s?tr?TR, ^T^T, 3TTHT, ^TT^T and sfra as well as *jnrer

&c, have acute on the

when

final,

at the

end of a compound,

preceded by a karaka word.


Thus ^-rCfTf^ SFK^-for fo^MlfaftfrTfM HftSH^fa^
11

^raft*

II

^IW ^$%

compounds under

prsrw^'

SWIFT

3M$'!?? words are those which form Genitive


and those compounds only are to be taken here; as

3T S***TR*

II. 2. 9,

"

ll

Sff^ranrfK mrn^j^^, ottotcct: u tfto iTnEftr:, 3**=rfcR Tllis s


to VI. 2. 139. and in the case of jfffa, rule VI. 2. 48 is superseded.
exception
an
The words 53T^3R *&c do not denote here HPf or c??$, had they done so, rule
:

Bk. VI. Ch.

VI.

I i.

When

149 would have covered them.

2.

we have

!rf}R

T^r?^f

s^rf^r

^rTTPTT:
^Ftt:

Second term first-acutk.

53]

11

*"d

JT5?r

'

jv^nt

lu *r?.

sr?r,

\\\

II

^ft

11

II

Tlie

preceded by a 1101m
Thus ar^sTT

word y^T

in the

c^t*,

^TO*^:,

t^^^^**^*^

152.

first

member

is

not a karaka,

8 ?<faj, 9

^R^nTr^

the

trgfj

*r^f?r

12 qrTrT*re, 18

3*^

wx,

15

"?r?r,

II

11

acute on the final

lias

Locative case.
The compounding

f*^^ ^33^*3* ^?<Hfe

when

takes place

11

40 by the process of splitting the sutra ( yoga-vibhaga ), taking *nr*ft


Here by VI. 2. 2, the first
there as a full sutra, and STFT: another.
member would have preserved its accent, the present sutra supersedes that and

by

II.

1.

ordains acute on the

(Un

V. 15) and would have retained

get acute on the


'a

The word 5*3

final.

locative case?

syllable

first

Observe

by

3;*,

krit-accent.

S ^ = t^T^TCr

falls

derived by the Unadi affix

natural accent

17

The acute

153.

the sense of

%f?r

its

is

VI.

2.

VI.

1.

213

ijjj

and thus

Why

do we say

of words

having

139

).

II

on the

and of $Fr^, when

final

they are

second members

in a compound, preceded by a term in the instrumental case.

Thus jrr^r^T. ^n^ftTjfpp* iraM*<4H ^rtfrpiT^iiiqt, ^m^^l ^r^?^f u


The compounding takes place by II. I. 31. This is an exception to VI, 2. 2
by which the first member being in the third case, would have retained
its original accent. Some say that the word v(q in the sutra means the word:

form 3T*J, so that the aphorism would mean "after an Instrumental case, the
get acute on the final". The examples will be in
words *&, *nj, and
above,:
the
WOTnif: = W*wi M If this be so, then the word-form
addition to
not its synonyms like f%=FS &c. To this we
3^T alone will be taken and
synonyms
also, by the fact of its being followed
reply, that 3JT will denote its

^^

by the word

-rpj

ij

By

sutra

II.

I.

3r, jfrr$'arid

^TJ always

take ths

Instru-

mental case, so we could have omitted the word JTcifaror:, from this sutra, for
by the maxim of pratipadokta &c, 3^r*r^? would have referred to the
compound ordained by II. I. 31. The mention of n%qj hercMs only for the
sake of clearness.

Sfxont term end-acute.

.1*94

Bk. VI. Ch.

II.

155

The word fira has acute on the final after an


when it is not joined with any Preposition
and does not mean a 'compact or alliance*.
154.

Instrumental

Thus
?Tr:

g?rrof:, f?T?7rW%rk

Why do

11

employment

case,

we say

sf^W

Why

do we say f*rsr? Observe


?
Observe grsrfaMlT:

having a Preposition'

'not

in this sutra of the

gr^TT-

The

II

phrase 'anupasargam' implies, that wherever

the word miira

is used, it includes misra with a preposition also.


Therewhere
the word r%V is used, we can form the Instrumental
31
compounds with fa * preceded by a preposition also. Why do we say 'not
denoting a compact? Observe srrsmfwr *nrr = srgiap ST? m%* ^rvfor<T5P
The
word ^rjsq' here means a contract formed by reciprocal promises, if you do this
thing for me, I will do this for you. Others say, it means close proximity,

else,

fore in II.

1.

11

without losing identity, and thus differs from

in

f*psr

which two things blend

Therefore though the King and the Brahmana

together into one.

may

be in

close proximity as regards space, they both retain their several individualities:

hence the counter-example ar^RpsnTnTT


While
there is no possibility of separating the two.
II

*mK,

srfaft^, *rqTT%, art, fer,


ff>T;

ii

srTrf? art

fa 3R* *m*m *

*i*HTMrwi% n^f^r

denoting
1. 63),

'

1. 101),

for that

(V.

'

(V. 1.

'

have acute on the

gative Particle ^st

when

the above mentioned


Thus

99),

1.

do we

!r>nrf?r*% *4irar*T-

1.

10 1)

it

that'

(V.

1.

:^rfrrclf: = *T
'?

(V.

'

'

(V.

when preceded by the Nemakes a negation with regard to

II

saj* 'after ^nr

deserving that

final,

II

'

affixes

capable to effect that

5),

Why

11

h ^ tk^ ?n% t^t

99):

The affix is ysr


)
f^K (
n&ffat =5&ft ^ (%?*TfR). The affix is 3:^
The
that' (V. I. 5)
3T5**fH[: -*T ^fr *:
to effect that' (V.

&c

attributes.

%<rrf? 'suited for

*tf %S3RTHlf *r*7Tf?

sj^favr:

The words formed with the Taddhita

fitted for that

good

rrf^rrr^TS

examples

11

155.
'

srsfr:, srfscrrr:,

in the

Observe

11

3T^rr^r%?f%fS 5*3r*

3?f 'deserving that'

(V.

1.

affix

tf<Trfa^:

64 and V.
is
II

5"

V.

The

I.

1.

= *T

V.

19). rf<T

I.

affix

*?ro?

63

I.

?Z):

'good for

3T?*W 'capable
is

ra

(V.

I.

18)

= TrfanSHT, f?r*TrWw^ where


the avyaya r? retains its accent by VI. 2.
trf>r^r*TfrW

is used and therefore


do we say 'negation of that attribute'? Observe mT*TCT*terr^: =
The word ip* here means the attribute denoted by the
TOripttPfap
Taddhita affix, and not any attribute in general. Thus sr^Frf^njPfi 3*3T '=*.

the negative ft
2.

Why

II

Bk. VI. Ch.

gfnf2W>*ir* T

Observe

*TTrft

ijrfal^l

"Taddhita

5*?^

Observe

added

is

Why

11

*M >tf*W = *TPR?*T

affixes"?

a krit affix

Second term end-acute.

158]

II.

TnrefteTCTT^

do we say 'in the sense of sampadi &c' ?


Why do we say
T <mRfa: = 3T<TTfMfa:
=
=
Here 3^
%T^fR **flNr*r, T #r*T 3T^T*T
II

9^

II

in the sense of 'deserving' (III.

\<\%

II

II

1195

T^Tf^

II

*,

*T<ffr,

3.

169).

^, 3T<T^

||

*PTfall

The words formed with the Taddhita

156.
q-

and *m when not denoting

'useful for that',

affixes

have acute on

the last syllable, after the particle srsr negativing the attribute.
Thus qrcrreisrs?:='*TOrn, *<Tr*3r:=3Trr^:, So also <h<*j4: ( IV. 2. 49);
=
^33, T $^ = 3Tf^J*. 3T3F3* (V. I. 6). Why do we say 'atadartha:
j^j
not useful for that'. Observe <?TsKr5?^= TT*J*, T TTsn*= SPTTO* ( V. 4, 25 ).
This rule does not apply when the affixes are not Taddhita, as vfapt formed

with the krit affix

There must be negation of the

attribute,

otherwise

one without any anubandha and


$5c3T^l^=3T^f*lt The affix | and n
the other with the anubandha ?j being specifically mentioned, excludes all other
affixes

having

*T

as their effective element, such as

^^-iprr^o^U
sT^rasrTfTt

See IV.
11

?vs

11

v^ifk

A word

157.

IV.

2.

thus

9),

sf

srar, ^ft, st snffir n

jtst

ara and *>,


when the

affix
final,

= 3[

Tt T AiaClfrT, so also stopp, stt*:, srfarcpr, ^fcfc4 (III.


do we say when meaning 'not capable'? Observe 3T*rer
A ^Tr%rT and a TRpfH^ do not cook their food, not
TR5ir5T^:
3TT*?

Why

134&C).

tfr%rT:,

'not capable.'

is

Thus
I.

11

formed with the krit


has acute on the

preceded by the particle

meaning

^a &c.

2. 9.

3TW

II

because they are physically incapable of cooking, but because by the vows of
their particular order they are prohibited from cooking.
srnftnft

II

Vv*

*T^rft

158.

11

3tt^t%,

11

word formed by the

krit-affixes gr^r or F,

preceded by the Negative particle, has acute on the


one abuses somebody by that word.
Thus
Here avarice

3TTqr? sq
is

when

rogue des not cook, though he can do so r .

indicated, the fellow wants more pay before he will cook

not his incapacity.

TOrara

5r|rT' 'this

final

?^

So
ll

also 3T<T3TS2[

q^n^

11

~S[\^H',

so also

^nrr**,

3rf%f$rJ:, 3?ffR*sj:

**& ^Ttjk

11

II

and

Second-term end-acute.

it96

*n*

Bk. VI. Cu.

II.

162.

159.
When abuse is meant, a word preceded by
acute on the final, in denoting a Name.
Tims sff^?^: No Devadatta, not deserving of this name sto^TCtK

lias

'

'

^>#r*g^rer^ra
1

q^TR

11

i^r, 3^, ftg^r, ^raf^r.,^r

II

11

After the Negative particle, the words formed

GO.

by the kritva

i\o

11

affixes

by sr% and sr^S^, and the

III. 1. 95),

words

^tps &c. have acute on the final.


Thus kritya: 3T5F%^, STSfirtfta*, TSfP ^T^TTS^, spTTr'ST^SF'r. f^er<wj ,^TR^r^rR:: H The affix f^J^ includes R5TO^C also: ^TSTHSIW^:, 3T?Jii

H rt-*

H*T*TPr*J

tion

11

^ &c:

3T?retf*n"?i;

).

3T*r|:, 3T*mf:,

double negation

STOfn^K *?f*W, BT^TJpiraJ


The words ^fare, ^W?F
),

IF^IH, "sfamw, and ^PTTTT preceded by


acute on the

&

final.

separately).

3Tf^JTC :

it

P>0

3?^?%: and Mft4tK3;P

ST^^fo ^T^T^f^:

3T?TW and

Vernacular they have the accent of

5fi

i.

(f^fiPC

bt^c^t srRranrorsr), 9

gf%^,

3T^TtTTrr:

161.

following
<%,

is

and ^^^r taken jointly


Vedas only. In the

the

udatta on the

^^^rofa^^j^^^rj^R^JTRp (rawr **rwt)


*r***?r (^rnrern:-

double nega-

^WT, ^fWI,

when denoting names have

3T?r|: in

e.

it?^, 10 nfr^r,

first.

8 f^nsrftr

*r*rniT*,

ssre=r

11 *nror*?tflr.

II

After the Negative particle, the final of the

optionally acute

and the words

srsr/rfrew,

a word formed

and gf^r

with the affix

II

Thus g* 3T^r or ST^rri 3T5T &c-SR^ or ^5PT, BTffMfaj or <AjN


The alternative accent is that of the Indeclinable.
ST^jf^ or K^f^T
;

^tt^,
(

VI.

%^k,

ll

2.

*/t?i;,

aSP^

162,

****>

act

"

is

meant.

fo^-1^ (*ww*nr.)

In a Bahuvrihi,

and <Tf, the last


Numeral, has the
; -

T^

syllable

acute,

after

the

11

words 5K,

*&<$

and of a proper Ordinal


when the number of times of an
of

!TO*T

Bk

VI. Ch.

Thus f$
or eating
frrra

165

II. .

qrnt

End-acute Second member.

*n& ^T = St 5WPt3:

*T*Ft

this

is

the

first

time of going

S^W,

^TTfrfr^:, TrHpfHf: rf<*pA, W3$$T% tT?t


f? fl&lk, fk ftfNh,
do we say in a Bahuvrihi? Observe 3T%?r JPT*T: = 5fjnT*T H Here

'.

Why

II

'

1197

'

'

accent by VI. 2. 2. Why do


idam &c". Observe ST^W =^sr*T*T <HT*, here the first term
retains its accent by VI. 2. I. Why do we say 'of prathama and the Ordinals'?
Observe rflFT *ff3re^=rfijf H Why do we say 'in counting an action'?
Here substances are counted and not action.
Observe sr* JT*PT T^T=rT?f snTTP
Why do we say in counting' ? Observe sr sr*r*T ^srr = ?f SPWP e. f% sn?FTP
and the word JPTT means here 'foremost', and is not a numeral.
When the
As %$
9jq; affix is added, the acute falls on the last syllable preceding 3&<r
the

member being

first

we say

in the third case retains its

" after

II

'

i.

II

11

WTO:

The Bahuvrihi governs

II

www *rr:
11%:

11

OTirar: q^:

l&

II

the subsequent sutras upto VI.

q^rf*

II

^rtpit:, *cPr.

II

^rosfr * aftttspriSnarsnffir **nt

la a Bahuvrihi,
the final.
on
has acute
Thus

Observe

?wq*rHr

fiRTrqT

snr

fftfnff,

"^^cHr

Why

do we say

^rfer

s"*^ faro

nr*cPrT,

??

II

3"fsftff

ll

<rerr%

II

^r*TT^r

^cnr^rsfr rearer s^atfrrfr *rera

a Numeral has acute on the

final.

or

ftffcHr,

*rvraf flr*rf*rc*ft:
^TtT. )

ll

^n%

ll

11

the Vedas, the stana after

^''^pff or "#3:*-^

KV\

ll

^rrara,

ll

ftnr, 3rr*R*fr:

(^cn-

II

rrf*ref* u

^rera^

faw

falls

11

In a Bahuvrihi, ending in Oft and

165.

acute

ll

a Numeral

ftrarer, s^affcr, ( 3Fd)4i-d: )

^s

so, in

Thus ft^rf

Numeral, the word

ll

Optionally

164.

II

Why do we say after


'wT? Observe fgftrcr:

II

^rorars

178.

11

after a

163.

i*cFr

2.

on the

last

srnr*,

the

when the compound denotes

syllable,

a Name.
As^rfMf:, srgtfMK fsffrn^:,

Name'?

Observe raqft*p>
Vatt

is

Prohibition must be stated

that of a Rishi.

As f^OT^p which

OTf*Rlr s*r*n
21

^ifa$

11

$wrrftw:

11

Why

do we say

'a

H?rf*FT : U

\\\

11

is

<TTrnt

in the case

11

when

of f^r

governed by VI.

2.

106

^tfrj, *&x*

the

name

ll

srcr^rcra;

)\\

End-acute Second member.

198

Bk. VI. Ch.

II.

In a Bahuvrihi ending in sp^nc, the acute


a word which denotes 'that which

166.

on the final,
between 7

169

falls

after

lies

Thus

4^*1 *3i*I

5?TO.=WWT?cTt

^wsrer

Observe

g%

'through an intervened cloth cr drapery


2JTO

&c Why do we say

3TTc*{FTn:q;= ^rrcJfr re>rrfrs?rHTS JAU<ftq

*&FgK

II

\^3

II

q^R

II

qrr^n,

^m^.

11

ipn*,

<HI#H

In a Bahuvrihi the acute

167.

',

'when meaning lying between'?

^rdl^lTlH

is

on the

II

when

final,

member is 3*3* meaning mouth i. e. the actual bodily


part of an animal and not used metaphorically.
Thus lrM<JK ^TSW* N Why do we say 'an actual part of a body r ?
Observe fH^rr WW Here 5^ means "entrance or door". The word ^rjf means
the second

ll

"a non liquid substance actually to be found in living beings &c". as explained
in III. 4. 54.

f^tr^,
ff%:

11

nt, *t^*,

3Ts*ra

ft^rs?

*^,
*tt i9?c

gfe, to. **%**:


*?* gfe

ig

*rer

s^w

<rt

^rjprrf^- arfpftft sptt%

In a Bahuvrihi, the acute does not fall on


denoting a real mouth, when it comes after an Inde168.

such

gw

and a name of a

clinable,

2$ and

sr^r

Thus:

direction, or after

*rt,

sr^,

The words ^T: and ?fr%: are finally acute


The word srr^ has acute on the
JTc^f3*sP
is
finally
&c
and
acute
*fnj*sr:
by
VI. 3. 139.
TOiF
52,
of
the
and
members
In these the first
^#5??r: n
Sf^F lippsT:

stssrj:

#*T5*5P, m^ftpgr* U

and

retain their accent,

first

by VI.

if^srHTW:,

ll

2,

FgSs*3
Bahuvrihi preserve their respective accents under Rule VI.

*T3T5*3P,

^J^r, Jjre,

ll

>

2. 1

and

in

the

compounds preceded by tit, %(% and ^^r, the optional rule taught in the
next sutra is also superseded by anticipation, though the words may denote
case of

comparison.

t%gt^?rcT?*raTFTrc
^rft ftsr, ^M *4Hi <t sry^n-n^rnsll
fa8Mi4HR?m%T*
5^
srfjfrfr sroraniuNr
^ws^w^u^r
SPft169, In a Bahuvrihi, the word *pr denoting 'an
II

ll

ll

w%

ii

actual mouth', has optionally the acute on the final,

preceded by a participle in
is compared.

<T,

or

ii

when

by that wherewith something

Bk. VI. Ch.

Thus

on

zno applies which

VL

when

the final optionally, and

the

49

End-acute Second member,

JrertfFKTg^ or JTCTTfFraS^: or *$nT%33*Sr

Rule

acute, then

171

II

first

).

member

Thus

ft?9&

preserves

its

or fals^:,

first

that also does not

So

which

also with a

^Hvm^: or sqnhp?P

^aiP^r., 3wr>K?rn^

the final

apply, then

acute

by VI.

that of the gati

is

not

is

member have

2. 1.

( VL

2.

word denoting comparison:

srrft^re^rf^ssft &Hi<4KHrac
<a\i*tor&,

When

makes the

original accent,

there are three forms.

1199

s^^rfirercrawr.

rift

11

3T3r<TfoRrsrfcrwT:

ffffc,

?\so n

qyrft

tt

11

After a word denoting a species (with the

170.

exception of a word for 'garment or covering' ), and after a


time-denoting word as well as after fpr &c. the Participle in

^ has acute on the

a Bahuvrihi, but not so

final, in

and srftw

participles are ^3, W<T

II

Thus ^rr^^:,T?ypiTf^|:,^r4ti:

&c:^T5TT#

[?*rr<r

cies, a

time or

II

*?!

|j?3

&c.

^^STST^, fjnrrf:

word"

placed after the word Putra.

Observe

Why do

when the

gjn*Trenirib, f9^ro#.v sre^'


Why do we say " after a Spe37 ), the participle being
not meaning a garment' ?

^r^TTrTs (II. 2.

we say 'when

with the affixes g^ and fjst respecObserve f m^3%:, fg^'sgvp from the root
Why do we say " when not $rT &c. " ? Observe re$<r rer53:
tively.
^fTJTfsrT^' ^"T is fi rst acute by Phit II. 3 being neuter. These three participles
t

do not stand

a compound

first in

contrary to

In the counter-examples, above given, the

accent

VI.

^<pr, 11

2. 1

5^,

*frs.

^r strt

The words ?^ &c

).

2 5:^, 3 5|h

(|ir rfrpr)

first

II. 2.

36

),

members

as this sutra implies.


retain their original

are given under III.

ffcj|, 5 are, 6 str**, 7

18.
jt^TT, 9 cjreor,

10

12 *\&{.
II

^ft

***

"W*i

After a species

171.

^^^

with the exception of gar-

ment) or a time denoting word, or

after *sr

&c. in a Bahuvrihi,

the word 5TRT has optionally acute on the final.


Thus ^r3rr& or f^^rrr, wr*rr#j or frrnrrrT*, ircrn^

wh

or

and

jrft are first-acute

%^^RTJ;

<?Tirrf or 5^T5Trrf:, 5:?!nfr|:


:

by Phit

or

5:^^:

II. 6; jjtct is first-acute

&c.

or ^rrenrnr, *r^re-

The words

by Phit'

I.

15,

qq H
E

is

*f?S?r^tf*t STJ^rTTO. "words ending in A^v, ^*r, f^


The words
are finally acute", as stfti:, ^*=f?:, snrf?:, f%%<fc *$% 11

finally-acute

by Phit

I. 7.

and *r
by Phit
|J*?r and 5:^ are end-acute
*T?l

1.

st^^ 8

I.

6.

End-acute Second member.

120

^sT^prns

?w N

^ has

^otto,

^dTsiTfH

II.

174

by the Negative particle


syllable of the compound.

W&

The acute here


W&fft, TPT!
completed compound so that the rule ap-r

3TTr<? ;

STpftf***,

syllable of the

last

srsr,

acute on the last

Thus srofffSP,
on the

rests

11

Bk. VI. Ch.

A Bahuvrihi formed

172.

9&t ov by

Tsrft

>

II

>

compounds which have fully developed themselves by taking the


Thus ^^f. ( formed by the samasanta affix af V. 4. 74 ).
Though the word ^rrm and StJTTS are both present here by context, yet the

plies to the

samasanta

affixes.

is performed on samasa.
This is to be inferred, because of the next
For had the present sutra meant that the final of the second member
(^tTCT?) preceded by sn^ and ^ gets the acute, then there would have been no

operation
sutra.

of the next sutra, for the present would have covered the case of

necessity

U^mfa? &c
frut

of the

because snr

is

not a part of the second tetm

compound (Samasa) ^<*hK1; and

sutra,

by saying

fallen

on f

uttarapada

f *nft
>

therefore, if we translated the present

that the end of second term gets acute, the accent wpuld have

even by this sutra.

in nagrofoff:

But

not intended, because

this is

of the accent of the samasanta words arf^P and afl"^:


There is necessity of
the next sutra, because a samasa includes not only the simple samasa, but one
II

ending with a samasanta

Therefore, had not the next sutra been

affjx.

the accent would have fallen pn

35

and not on

f, for the affix 35^

is

part of the samasa and not of the uttarapada spTrcTFcT ^rerereq^rearef

*?ft ijjSh;

II

?\s?

173.
in the affix

the

<shc

^MiM^

II

^r or ^ and ending
(Y. 4.153) has acute on the syllable preceding

the last sutra the accent would have fallen on qr*, this

%thf% F3fl*$$
*3T

sift,

Bahuvrihi formed by

on the vowel preceding

^f%:

11

affix.

By
fall

*><j,

<*ttf%

II

made

considered

ii

^ft S^t ***

<rt srfi sftfT

*rrr%

aftf

Thus

it.

BTfWrtfsfefop, STfq&far:,

q^rft p^r^r, a^sm*,


^Ptr^rcrs ^jtmt *r, ^Farrss^rrr
11

11

makes it
aTSW^^F:, 5^-

^(^itIh

to

^rfq- <re<fr

)ii

^35?

11

When the compound ends in a light vowel,


the syllable before such last, in a Bahuvrihi
on
the acute falls
and U to which *& is added.
preceded by
Thus sriTOi^r:, ^ifflf^ *Pi!w, U^fi n%r:, CTTO: The r e=
174.

>

petition of

in this

sutra,

though

its

anuvritti

was present from the

last.

Bk. VI. Ch.

II 184.

End-acute Second member.

1201

shows, that in the last aphorism, the syllable preceding

3^

takes the acute,

while here the syllable preceding the short-vowel-ending

final

syllable has the

acute and

which

is,

not the syllable

two

at least, of

syllables

Therefore, in st^Nv and

VI.

2.

173, because

when

it

rer

175.
*n*,

fgtjJW:,

the acute

on the syllable preceding

is

3^ by

has here no antyat-purvam.

it

^^H^rR^^

as

This is possible with a word


not counting, of course, |f and zr or 3^ ).

preceding ^pr

11

\*\

<T3rft

11

<*ft: f

11

Bahuvrihi with

*rg,

^crfTRM^^ji^r

11

has the same accent

denotes muchness of the object expressed by

the second member.


In other words a Bahuvrthi with the word
is

governed by

all

as Rules VI.

Particle such

172 &c.

2.

when

as VI.

172.

2.

mg&W f^^
,

TfW

by VI.
Tf^J, WffiPPi
given by Dr. Bohtlingk.

Why

do we say

'

2.

the

Thus

4g4<tr%3T

gnlM 3i by VI.
:

116: these examples of VI.

uttara-pada-bhumni

denoted by the second member


(VI.

in

first

member,

the sense of multiety

this gives

of the objects denoted by the second member,

fah the same

*f

which apply to a Bahuvrihi with a Negative

those rules

is

when multeity

meant'? Observe *g$

jt^tt

*kftT

:
,

Tf-

arg^:,

2.

174.

2.

116 are not

of the objects
sto = arg*RT sra^

2. 1).

nm ^ Mi

^frT: u *j*rT^r

s^t^t:

on the

l*%

II

qrifa

II

T,

j^u^

176.
fall

s^re^rf*r%*|rs* n: arg sftfT TRfHiTT

final

tort

:,

Brewr. (sf^TtTtO

11

In a Bahuvrihi, after ^5, the acute does not


of ?jnr &c. when they appear in the compound

as ingredient of something else.


Thus SfJjwip
W&K VW, *Te^**f *&*& ( VI. 2. I ). ^Trft is
an Akrtigana. Why do we say " when it denotes an avayava or ingredient " ?

r^

As ^^W^^:=3T^2WFr^rT^?nrnTf^rs5r?i^r:
1 ajar, 2 3T$TC,

3-trcmfr*

Tq^,

3*^3, 4

*TtK, 5

w# ^nrrg w
n *

3T?dKlTlH

^fr*rnr. STT^frFT'T.
w

q^n%

11

^<totH ^^to;,

srp*,

II

A word

denoting a part of the body, which


constant (and indispensable), with the exception of qg, has,
177.

after a Preposition in a
Jast syllable.

Bahuvrihi compound, the acute on the


.

End- acute Second-member.

1202

Thus

qr^:, JP^I=;

srjf:,

say 'after a Preposition'

'?

II

'

II

Why do we say
sr snrrer \$<
11

%frP

ii

srercr*n%

33Pfta<*aT?:

II

mm,

11

'

is

used

Why

II

do we

'

is

the

?r

temporary and not perma-

Observe 1<m j
(

*rel<t

After a preposition,

compounds of every kind.


Thus srebf *SS3*, RfW irm>^t>m,

word samasa'

*mr&,

^fa^rTf^^5*sPTft<TCWi $1 *

178.
in

<nrrr%

W$3'-

with the exception of q%


11

*T

Cri. II. . 182

Why

Why

of cursing and not always, so the state of sgrf


nent.

W%

<jg

Bk. VI.

do we say part of the


do we say 'dhruva constant and indisHere the hand is raised up only at the time

Observe

Observe srerntr f$P


pensable' ? Observe ^grrf etffsnir

body

*m

*KH

flTrfrT

:,

3r?t^ren*

f%%fj:

(VI. 2.

1).

ll

11

g^r

has acute on the final

changed to

in the sutra to indicate that all

or

by VIII. 4. 5. The
compounds are

sorts of

meant, otherwise only Bahuvrihi would have been meant.

*pb:

?vW*

II

<T3Tfa

II

After

179.
Thus

when a

11

94*d^iT

^p

ll

*wn

11

the acute falls on the final of r


is made in order to make
oxytoned,

3T?cTT

\\

This sutra

preposition (upasarga) does not precede.

srenST

II

?<So

q^TI%

II

II

3T?cT:,

II

^^^5fwr^^5^^OTfrrf wlr n
The word ar?crr has acute on the
180.
preceded by a Preposition.
Sf^p

11

Thus
jt

ffrfJ

!jfJ

fafes*rro;
ii

:
>

T^
K*\

II

This

II

ll

<*ttr

a Bahuvrihi or a

is

?T,

ll

re, f^Rrrac, (

fa ft f^rrrorg'^rT^rsft ^r^renfr nsra

The word

181.

srrff

final

when

compound.

3T?^TtT:

II

11

antar has not acute on the

after the prepositions re and re


Thus rfccT s3cT> here the first member

final,

II

is

then substituted for the vowel

to svarita

by VIII.

11

ll

182.

After

^ft,

acute,

and semivowel
changed
is

*n5S, Has acute

on the

qreaRffo, <mrfr?<*,

or an Avyaylbhava.

If it is

ll

wz&k

1^:, srnrcr.-mfo,

ll

11

a word, which expresses some-

and that

thing, which has both this side

Thus

its

2. 4.

\<q
<rnre
q^ftrfpfTn^ *<i^ra;
^"^
^i^nm mi*
f r>r: u Ml iqfo %*rppHre

word

retains

then the subsequent 'grave

f,

side, as

well as the

final.

Tfw*sS*

ll

This

is

a Bahuvrihi or jnff

an Avyayibhava, then rule VI.

2,

33

is

compound

superseded,

Bk

VI. Ch.

and the

II

86

End-acute Second member.

member does

first

not retain

original accent.

its

1205

8rfa?f:

= 3>TOflf:

'on

both sides, srfw>TrfrSTOrfttT - arfa^prrri^ 'that which has both sides: namely
those things which have naturally two sides such as 'banks', 'shores' &c.

^TFm*

l<*<rfl*f

\ftT*

?<^

II

q^T^

II

After

183.

STTc*,

II

z^wM wtfz

JTr^rT^T^T^TJf^rN" *r;roi faro

II

*W&H

frqW H
I

II

II

a word, which does not denote a

sr,

when the compound

part of body, has acute on the final,

is

name.
Thus

II

^r

?<a*

11

11

11

q^rft

11

4IMV4l u 4'ril?rTnft

PU*<*M$rPr *T

ft^*>i<ftft

\\

*m%

w^ttTH

*, (

II

The words fn^^ &c, have acute on the finaL

184.

R^^, f^r^r &c.

Thus fa^fo,

Rwfoh

9 fastfbr, 10

S*srfta,

!hr^

jfc^T*,

rS^nrtfft
^frT:

Why do we say 'not denoting a body


Why do we say 'when a Name'? Observe mftgq

w<i*i, ifipifa, mil**.

Observe

part'?

11

R<,i^

These may he considered

12 stf^rc, 13

either as Jnft

M^m^^i^sV

^mfin 14
,

W*W

or Bahuvrihi.

If

they

be considered as avyayi bhava compounds then they are end acute already by
VI. I. 223. The word fWtlrWP = f^FRF <*H<Klffc is a Pradi-samasa with the

The word id#<J is tnus formed: to the


ending in the affix cjj^
have
and
we
affix
the
added
?rft ( Un III. 158) sffa <m% = <TftT:;
root
i
word
to
The
RCTfrfi: ^ formed by adding the affix
$fc^<T ^r^TJ =55TdTJ H
word

3fn^

11

?r is

the Bahuvrihi

R^ft

final after

as,

<rft,

3T*rijp=n*
fTrTJ

II

II

The words

11

qif^:, TKTTf:,

?**

srfir

As, srf^pfb*

bhava, then
177, even

it

H^

II

It is

body even,
ll

\*\

as
II

<tf^tf|:

II

jpsn*, ( ar- d

K HH )

II

jpr has acute on the

a Bahuvrihi or a

5^ would have oxytone

snrpg11

sm:,

would have acute on the

not a Bahuvrihi, when

fr%

and

anb 3?% have acute on the

sfTST

final

when

II

the additional declaration that

part of

II

II

The word

185.

preceded by

<TTC#ftP,

<r^n%

II

3T^Tt|4sl^l^^T

s^T, TTf

it

after

3*3T is

srrR"

final

samasa.

by VI.

I.

If

223

^ri%

11

in

srqn*,

srwFFTt 5*?rc^t^ **n%

an Avyayi-

also.

By

VI.

2.

an upasarga, the present sutra makes

oxytone even when the compound

does not denote an indispensable

was the case

it is

VI.
=sr,

2.

177.

Thus

^d^um

pirt

3TPT5*hT ?XUft

) M

is

of body, or a
II

End-Acute Second-member.

1204

The word g^ has

186.

BK

VI, Ch.

acute on the

II.

190

after

final,

the preposition srtf


The compound is in orie case Avyayibhava
Thus srt^tft, 3fTidf
The separation of this from
also, when rule VI. 2. 33 will be superseded*
II

'

the last sutfa,


vritti

of

sfq-

for the

is

ii

sake of the subsequent aphorism, in which the anu-

only goes.

faM 4d ^farrsft^ $ f$**rffa^ r*r


1

*rr*T

3far, st^j, ^"^rac tf$t, ^ffc tUt, srm,

187.

final

?<s^

sfforr, 3rsr*r,

a plough

M^ift

Ii

Riwi,

ll

*jjt,

The words f^T, ^,

an d a word denoting
when preceded by 3*<T

smr^C

',

span*,

5%,

have acute on the

II

Thus arrrcqf^, srr$?3, 3TT#n^, mrs^:, sfmsfT ( This ordains acute on


the final where the compound apadhwa does not take the samasanta affix a^
by V. 4. 85, when it takes that affix, the acute will also fall on the final because

srr

is

This further shows that the samAsanta affixes are

f*T? affix. )

not compulsory.

(3TFT?Tsr ?JiraF?n)>

*T<T$ftr:, STT^ifc

sTT3

j
,

3Tqr^S, WFtik

II

Some of these
ffif? compounds or Bahuvrihi or Avyayibhavas.
viz. ffm, *rT and rf^: will be end-acute by VI. 2. 177, also when they denote
parts of body and a permanent condition and the compound is a Bahuvrihi.
Here the compound must not be a Bahuvrihi, nor should these words denote
parts of body and permanent condition of these parts.
These are

*riteqR*
ffrTi

II

11

ST^tT^THSWHT

qarrft.ii

11

3T?rfr?TTt

W<T

^:,

s-qftwn,

a^d^NH )

11

188.
After 3TT%, that word, which denotes that
which
thing
overlaps or stands upon, has acute on the final.

Thus srf^f: =^H**ll


ther tooth'.

m ^TS^r^^r mvfa

srre^fap, sTf*T%^f

I'

These are

'a

tooth that grows over ano-

Jnf?

samasa or an appositional

compound in which the second member has been dropped. Why do we say
when meaning 'standing upon? Observe stfHfc'Pt. Here the acute is on ^j, the
krit-formed second member retaining its accent (VI. 2. 139).

anitaraR**lN#
(

3T"dt3lTrH

11

\#<

11

q^Tf^r

3R>:,

stspott,

hftmft,

189.

After

3Tj,

a word which

as well as sj^to^C has acute on the final.


The word 3TJp*FT means a word which stands
Thus sT3*T^r ^^=3T5^S 3T3*re?fr
in a compound.
;

not the Principal,

is

in
II

a dependant relation

These arc

snft

samasa

Bk

in

VI. Ch.

II. .

which the
llHad

ipjPT

End-acute Second member.

1205

member is the principal or Pradhana. ST3T^: 3rftaP*.= 8T33r


second member is the Principal: the word *KH|4|*=r is taken as

first

here the

fofa,,

193

been non-pradhana,

it

it

would be covered by the

sutra,

and there would have been no necessity of

Why

do we

first

portion of the

separate enumeration.

Observe 3T3mt 5^g: = BT3*te:, where 5TO

"STiWt"?

say

its

Is

the Principal.

3^TTT^m%^J

means a man of

it

The word
1

M^lPr

II

SW-STSS*^:

arar^q^

after

\<<\

ll

After

191.

and the word


'

TTT:,

Observe

The*

Vdrt

has been elided.

falls

'

',

= ST3i^

II

st&j,

II

sr^^q^H

II

a word not formed by a krit-affix,

srfar,

on the last syllable.


Why do we
srfW%s^, STfcTT^sr^n-

q%, have acute

Thus 9T^f ?%
krit-word and T?

ti^tf*

II

3T^T5^tTfT% ^Th^

rrf%3T? H

II

on the final of 3**,


mention was already made.

whom

means

but 3T3m: SR*r

5^:, ^, ST^Tf^'.

or
of a secondary importance, inferior
having already been mentioned \
Thus ST^rffSf'-

sr*3Tf?

mentioned again

II

After snj, the acute

190.

when

?^o

II

rule

That

is,

is

II

say

'

non-

3Tf?r^n"C^: M

restricted

when

in

to those

analysing the

compounds in which a root


compound a verb like cF^ is

employed to complete the sense. Therefore it does not apply to intn^r


But it would apply to 3TJ%^TT^^*, which when analysed befruj^STrerTTO
to be

II

comes equal

to

fftf^ft

II

s?rcrgrr5rr : tffngt

192.

II

<TTTR

After

*!, 3TTTOT5t, (

II

r%,

the second

an^TTTrn

member

has the acute

when the sense is of not laying down \


=
word
not making manifest
The
Thus ftg**, rjBTOcffrarcr
fyn*PT
These are either Bahuvrihi or pradisamasa. In the case of
W,
their being Avyaytbhava, they would have acute on the final by VI. 1. 223.
Why do we say when meaning not laying down ? Observe PtaTgr = fttfoqro
on the

last syllable,

'

'

F^H

'.

II

'

as

Ftfntfqw

faT*?;

= f*fi\M4 u S:

srfrt^pTCcTcip^ 11^311
193.

&c

The

force of ft

q^rft 11^:,

is

that o5 ftsrpT here.

stsstf^t:,

^5^,

(st^ttTT:)

In a Tatpurusha compound, the words tg


final when preceded by siftr

have acute on the


22

'

II

End-acute Second member.

i2o6

Bk. VI. Ch.

II.

196

Thus q^T^'', ^M^? sn^^T^sff


In the case of *J5F^ this rule applies
when the Samasanta affix tt is not added, when that affix is added, the
:

II

acute will also be on the


1 Big, 2

10

by virtue of

final

ki^% 4 sg, 5

37

I.

),

Why

srfine, 7 srrar,

106

III. 3.

do we say

11

III.

147

srij

^ added

+ bt^ (

ii

2%q

Tatpurusha*? Observe

st^ts^=q:^-

iifrr*Tcrr

II

the final

011

when preceded by

ffo,

FJ7,

r*r*,

6 rafr, 7

3<Trf5R1.

:,

fjCTT

But not so

ll

(^OTTF) 8

3"% but

cff?srr,

in

9^(5^)

"in a Tatpurusha"? Observe TTTrP STTHTS^ = 3<TCu"*r u

g^n^STT^rt

sren^renr

rr^5^r

After

35,

the

in spite of the addition of

Thus 59

reproach or censure.

when repn

f^m^RS^

II

?^

^s^g^t rr^%
196.

it is

Why

meant

a^.h is

'

II

Ijwf*^

JSTfNST'ft,

verily denotes praise, but

II

111 +

I34) = sr$r; gr +

>ref?r r^q- ^nrr% ^Rr^Nira^r


Tatpurusha,
the words of two syllables
a

Iii

(%T) 3

195.

3TtT:

to srr = 3Tr?t
1.

wt 3t^<t%

second

the final in a Tatpurusha compound,

III.

<Tr3

Why
%Ftp

mg:

^^tt

have acute

iflT,

11

class

:,

cJ?F<T,

8 ,**fj*, 9 ^f^^r,

under the general

<|

with the augment

),

'in the

( STfcftgrTrTRC )

^rr^TTt ststtsft

3TBffi

the affix

not when they are *fn: and the rest.


Thus 3q*mr ^P = 3<nf 3<T?f S<TOtI:, TTfrf
w**m.', s^m* &c.
10

a f^Tj affix.

CT

),

194.

and

is

),

^=re%^cr + r%^=^fT3^(Un

fro

),

to
uw{ is formed by the affix efif?^ ( Un I. 156 3g by adding
(Un IV. 162 f^^ + I^=%?^ arfsfl; is formed by r%r^r (Un I.

53) 3Tr + ?r + 3Tl

11

which

"

'to burn'.

^T^r:,

arsf

^fr ( *nn?f

(srrw 3ttw0
The word irfj is formed by

11 g*

art*.

Un

*r, 3

*T*arei% u

member

which denotes

gf^TrTP-arf

has acute on

when reproach

is

meant,

praise.

The word g here

tjsrenfrarrMl

the sense of the whole sentence that indicates

do we say "after *j"? Observe

Observe

^fr*R!J

R-dr^=^br^

<?^7R irfirarsr,

fairer S^f S^tTF H^rfr

Why

II

srere^Trr: )

ll

ii

In a Tatpurusha,

optionally have acute on the final.

^2^#,

fgutflgw:

the

word

^^^3 may

Bfc VI; Cn.

II

198

End-acute Second member.

1207

When this word


3**Frr: OTI=3*3^ or l^^j: (VI. 2. 2)
then
would always
it
from
affix
s^gf^fa^c^iiRr,
the
ar^r
by
is derived
the
VI.
2.
sutra
ordains
final
by
present
option
the
on
144,
acute
have taken
non-Tatpurusha
as,
to
a
apply
not
there also. The rule does
T^^^="
Thus

II

z^

^5^-7*.

ffrP
H^rrt

It

ft Rr serrrrorgTf^ ttt

11

** s^sSf^reffs

^r srfsftft^r fa^rnrr s^r

^t^

11

In a Bahuvrihi, the words

197.

tjrf

and q;^

^i;

and {%
have optionally acute on the final after
Thus fr <jr?mg = ftn?t or ftfat, nrch: or flftrs, rtH or Pf vi> nrl^or
is
ff^, ftfit or ft\*rf H The word <TF is TF? with its 3T elided, (V. 4. 140)
the substitute of fnT (V.

141) and

4.

w^ retains

\\

its

not allowing samasanta

This also indicates that the samasanta rule is not universal.


affix is added, then also the acute is on the final, for the

affix.

samasanta

the Bahuvrihi compound, and

Why

after ft

by Phit

II.

and

19 and this accent

f^rT*

ft?*rT*>

this

is

only a part of

Observe 3^frmqf here the

f%r?

Why

'

is

retained VI.

Bahuvrihi

'

2.

1.

the

here

Thus ft^:, f^pr^

it.

first

When
cjrrqt is

member

Why

'<TT^

Observe ^T*\3T = ft*#

is

It

middle acute

&c

'

Observe

II

( fir^TT^T ) H

The word ws&f has

198.
tionally,

inss

11

STcE*r is

the samasanta

jfrcsrenj: or $&P5*T*, *tS$-3rcr^h or


aiqt

and

>FS$3r

by

a word ending

by q^

13) a PT<^ affix-

(V.

4.

q^n%5c^?^ra

II

form of

s^&k

^T^r^TTTJT^:^

11

^35*r?raf:

(V.

both end-acute.

which

<T3TRt

?j^f?T

The word

^^rera^:

c?r^ (TJn III. 19) are

Observe

in ?$'?

^To

op-

when preceded by any word other than what ends

The word
5^rf?

acute on the final

11

is

113,).

Why

always oxytone as

<rof^:,

*^fn3trT ^*giWlR*

4.

11

Thus

being formed by

^^ftr,

'not after
it is

^^k

formed

\\

End-acute Second member.

1208

The

199.

syllable

first

Bk. VI. Ch.

of the second

II.

199

member

is

diversely acute, in the Veda.


The word qx " the second member " refers to *rarcr, as well as to any
other word in general. Thus ajfr^ ^farefor, but <$m?iq<* qr; so also JT3*T5
In the non-Vedic literative these last two compounds will be
*RFTf^:, fa"<T*fa
final acute by VI. 1. 223, rule VI, 2. 18 not applying because of the prohibition
:

II

contained in VI.

The
first syllable

syllable

2. 19.

" In the Veda, the


is rather too restricted.
It ought to be
and the final syllable of the second member, as well as the final

rule

and the

first syllable of the preceding

acute accent, in supersession of

As
this

to

Vdrtika

where the

In

final

all

member

are seen to have the

the foregoing rules".

of the second terms takes the acute,

the Veda, f^TSfi

&c have

we have

acute on the final of the second

As f*r^r, f%3T*p<T, nrf rfrwr,


rc^r gref^rof
As to where the final of the preceding takes the acute, we have this
Vdrtika
The words H^ljj,^ &c in the Vedas have acute on the final of the
first term.
As H^i<j^ and fa^f
As to where the first syllable of the preceding takes the acute, we
have this Vdrtika
In the Veda, the words ft^nm &c have acute on the
first syllable of the first member.
As fi ^K i^rq *nHliq %

term.

11

11

II

II

BOOK SIXTH.
Chapter Third

^iH<M%
3TT rl\R^*|W

V^lfe

H ? H

3T^S, ^tKM^

II

II

II

In the following upto VI. 3. 24 inclusive is


always to be supplied the phrase " the elision does not take
1.

member

place before the second

The words bt^^


member "

are to

'

there

point whence

that

sutra VI.

24, jointly

commences

',

and S^TCTf

"

while grrrw extends further upto

jurisdiction

the

before the second

Both these words

of

srjf

VI.4.

).

says "the affixes of the Ablative after 'stoka' &c".

3.

3.

elision

compound".

subsequent sutras.

in the

be supplied

govern the sutras upto VI.

no

is

of the

present sutra should be read

there to complete the sense,

e. g.

Thus
The

" the affixes

of

member of the
&c
".
=
Why
do
we say " becompound
Thus Wrm<l S*K* W 3W ^cMI***-*:
"?
Observe r*?fptj: ^rafrr?J=rT-*5frep
The maxim
fore the second member
are not elided before the second

the Ablative after stoka

II

11

of pratipadokta does not apply here.

T3RTT. ^*lf^>"^:

II

T^IR

II

II

T^ETr:, ^T^rf^F^:,

3T97

||

* firU*^8THT Hl*lffa'rr*3r T*TOT' <T>^"**ir ^i^ S^*T^T%


2.
The Ablative-ending after ^JN &c is not elid-

ff^T* H ^rhl Prf

II

ed before the second member of a compound.


Thus
?TTW :

^fefrrwf;:,

VBTrfW

compound
are elided.

is

II

By

I.

STFtCTSJiCT:,
2.

called pratipadika,

and by

Therefore, in forming the

ending required to be dropped.


^TT?K

&c

in

STfareTTTPT^.

46, a case-inflected

The

the dual and plural

this rule does not

apply to them.

words and not compounds,

for not

are

II. 4.

ST^gTT ^I I ^M I rf

-,

gLWW

f%JT^CT-

word when forming part of a


71 the endings of a Pratipadika

compound of ^fr^n^

w^j:,

present sutra prevents that.

the ablative

The words

never compounded, and consequently

Thus

?sfi^rlt ***'-,

*<Tr%**r *?*: are

separate

being treated as compounds, these are not

Non-elision of case-affix.

t2io

one Pada

[Bk. VI, Ch.

one word, and do not have one accent,

fn^TT? ^ or

III. 5

for in one

word,

Thus while ^r^flrJW being one compound word will


have one acute (VI. 1. 158, VI. 2. 144), the word ^rTT^P-stf 5^ being treated as
two words, will have separate acute accents. The above compounding takes
place by II. I. 39.
Vdrt
The word OTSTTrs^flra; should be enumerated in this connection.
Here also the Ablative is not elided. Thus ^rgjoTT^f^ sraT<f = STgrrr-

there

only one acute.

is

*3gf*K

"

a kind of Ritvik priest

3TT3T.

^r.,

".

^|4.'44W4H*<idWn:

^ftptp

sr^p&

II

T^TR

II

II

STR^T, *H^T, 3TOTCT rm-

II

The Instrumental endings

3.

srora and cTJW are not elided before the

after

^H,

3rni%

second member

of a

compound.
Thus

STnTCTPUrT*, ^^TTfvrPT, 3TS*rcmFJrPT, rTTSr^rT*

3T>^FT also should be enumerated.


Vdrt The compounds ^l^pp and
Vdrt

srf*Trp

Thus^TT fg^TT^ = Jsrr^if


another name of *r?*T^ birth

ed.
is

Thus

should also be mention-

*t^ff f^rrs?^:=^5<?r?^:

3T>ircftlrnT "

The word

ll

5T3

'

jt^tct:

&4wm

'.

<T^rr?r h

11

After *r*t

4.

itto:, <h$nih,

sr^s

when the compound

the Instrumental endings are

not elided

before

ll

is

Name,

the second

member,
Thus
Observe

*r%?rrr,

srr^rpTR
fprT:

ii

*FRjiTrrr, sr^rerrgffr,

f TTSHT

Why

tttt%

ll

II

^Tin-farf*,

^,

^rr^rf^'STT^T^ *rst s^reTOrestfrarar 3W>ref?r

*T*re=r

st^k

II

11

Also before sTr^T^, the Instrumental endings

are not elided.

Thus T^nfrna^'^rcttss^ni sjrtto

3TT^T^

II

II

V5J&

II

11

3TT?**:,

% 1?*

The Instrumental endings


when an Ordinal Numeral follows.
6.

elided

do we say 'when a Name'?

11

^ Ml
5.

of

fTSTTOnwr

^^F

) N

after strip;

are not

Bk

vi. Cn. ill

Non-elision of case-affix.

1211

Thus 3TPH HN-^H srrc +H N^


The Instrumental case here takes place
under the Vartika {pffarfTCnT q^arrforrffT^^H (II. 3- 18 Vart). And compounding takes place by II. i. 30, by separating r jHim of that aphorism and
; ,

II

making it a separate sutra or in this way: rnnnm %&'> <f^i:*=3Jl<*MN^R:


How do you explain the form sTftH-^M" in 4Hlfc*t!4lcH Nd*i ^? It is a 13ahuvrlhi compound = 3Trc*ir *T$rqfsTO
The word ^1 is a later addition of the
II

>

>

II

Vartikakara.

*m*i)

11

7.
The Dative case ending is not elided after sttcjhc
when the compound is the name of a technical term of grammar.

Thus

34icHHM3i, 3TIc*R*rrerr

yoga-bibhaga of sutra

II.

36,

1.

The compounding

ll

and the

takes place by the

force of the Dative

here that of

is

tadartha.

q*w ^r
ff%:

tos

11

11

=*r

<

T^rft q^*r, ^r, ( st^sf


rT^r%*r^n:^r^*RT^Hw

11

) n

11

*r ^nj$f

11

8.
The Dative ending is not elided after *rc, when
compound is the name of a technical term of grammar.
Thus toWs, TO*r*rrqT
^^cTR*rcn*TP H^rroro n ^
q^rfa ^st^ctt^, *th**tt:, ^t3T^F
WK, (

the

11

11

*rrr%3Fi

11

^ratrV:
9.

ending

in a

11

11

The Locative ending

consonant or a short

st,

is

not elided after a stem

when the compound

is

Name.
Thus
nant, yet

it

gfvrft?;:,

retains

its

<3T%*nT

ireiS*

Though

ll

*?r

does not end

Locative ending by virtue of VIII.

3.

95

which shows by implication that *ti% is governed by this


ending words: as 3t?%%w-, si^Vrrrerr:, g%r%js&r:, 3R?flff*7:,

^RR^T f^Fnrein^P
:

bt"?

Observe

ll

Vdrt
f?R?P?:

II

*t^ )

11

So

rule.

also

?pfar?3r*rajp,

am-

^fr^F-

Why

do we say "after a word ending in a consonant or


= H^l[?>i^iT, *3T 7OT-- = ]RTOrP
Why do we
Observe 3T^T:

spot jr^3g^gFir

say 'when a Name'?

conso-

in a

(Tf%f?R**T falT:)

The Locative ending

ll

II

is

not elided after g^ and'^g;

as

ff^^r,

Non-elision of ca^e-affix.

i2\2

The

10.

stem ending

Locative-case affix

consonant or a short

in a

of the Eastern people,

when

III. . 12

not elided after a

is

name

in the

sr,

the second

Bk. VI. Cn.

member

of a tax

begins with a

consonant.
All these are names of
Thus fw^, SWW*:, s^ffqf^FT, ?%i%Tf^T
and would have retained the Locative ending even by the last rule.
The present rule makes a niyama or restriction, which is threefold, namely (1)
when it is the name of a tax, and no other word, ( 2 ) when it belongs to the
II

taxes,

Eastern people and no other people,

and when the second member begins

with a consonant.

Why
sp*tffrTT15

do we say when
the

It is

name

say "of the Eastern people

'a

" ?

name

Observe sparr^TU *?
but not of a 'tax'. Why do we
Observe wlpT|j: = a^rT3J
Why do we say
the

it is

of

duty or

of a tax.

VI.

2.

11

II

'

65.

*s*n<f;sr

??

11

II

m&fa

ll

st^k

*rerr<*, ?jfr,

T^I^tRHIM UH*3I ^rirTCTf


NlM*i* 3T5rTI%r% ^Jxfi^H. H
ffrT*

member beginning with a consonant ? Observe 3Tf%37 SOT =


So also T^if ft^ = ?rfrfMl" U For accent of these words see

before a second
erfachiK^:

dues',

S^^TqTfrT

II

11

II

II

The Locative

11.

when g^

As, jf^kj^

Vdrt

3T?ET&, (

case-affix

is

not elided after

jtt

follows.
11

So also after

ST^F

3T*?T

as 3T^?J^J

II

II

The Locative

12.

case-affix

not elided after a

is

word denoting a part of the body (with the exception of


^hj^ and *T^T3f>), before every word other than ^mr
||

Thus

TOp
name
it

wz

^T^rs^ = ^^n^:, ^m^r*rr, ^^rfor:

5FT^rs^l-5^^TT!

II

of a part of the body,

apply when the

*ro

first

xr ftn*r*T

11

When

11

first

member does not denote the


as 3TS*WT
nor does

the rule does not apply

member does

the

t^tt%

But g^ransT, ^rT^r-

11

not end in a consonant or

11

*ro, ^, firmer,

3T,

sr^s

as ar^jf^FP,

) n

BK. VI. CH.

Ill 17

NON-BLISION OF CASE AFFIX.

The Locative

13.

ed after a word ending

in a

case-affix

121 3

optionally not elid-

is

consonant or

3T

before *fv

ll

Thus gfrH-9 or f^rar^:, ^JM- q* or ^^T?^: n This declares an option,


with regard to the last rule, in a Bahuvrihi when the first member is a ^rjf
word, and also it is an option to VI. 3. 19, when the compound is a Tat*

purusha, whether the

When

the

As

apply.

first

*jra*?q:

?f *3^q- 5ff*uiT

||

w.

a vowel (other than

in

is

formed word.
does not

the rule

sr),

ll

cTr^ %fo *$K


ff^ff 5

The word

be ^TT or not.

member ends

first

II

?*

iF&ft

II

cTc*

II

3^,

3JRT

*%&*,

3T^F

II

*W^TO *1H**U ^f^T^f>T^frT H

In a Tatpurusha compound, when the second


a word formed with a krit affix, the Locative end-

14.

member
ing

is

optionally preserved.
As **r^w, qtdHnr*, but also

is

$4rK:,

The Locative ending

15.

5R^, *ra and frf when


Thus mffiN

^frsr:,

;,

*r

fiwrr 353R3RCTJ3

^^?

ffrf:

*$

11

is

3iUM
?$

This sutra

ll

q^n%

11

ll

f^n^r,

W ^ SS^* TtTTOT:

*TRir 5T

3TC

sr^",

^rc,

Thus

11

but an extension

srl, *$*,

St^T? ft^r Sg*I^f<r

The Locative ending is


5TC, and ^: when gr follows.

srshr:

y*i<*d^i
ffrp

is

^nj;,

src,

11

16.
after

retained after snf^,

follows.

:, Rfi^i:
or amplification of the previous sutra.

TJpstt'.

or

^W:,

qnraffircr.

to9% srera w&m*i

ll

$TC*r:

?\s

or

11

<pnrera "^

II

optionally retained

TOP

TOP

srrsr., *re*r:

or ^T5T:,

q^rr%

*ra>, cr^f , ^nra sifep,

ll

sr,

top ctcctot sttctop

or

II

*nrir f^rorr

(sr^)

sp^i

II

The Locative ending is optionally retained after


a word denoting time ending in a consonant or st when cPO* or
17.

cnr^ or the
?

The

word zr&

affixes 5*

and 55 are

5,^> 3*3,** or S*nj,S*

Why

or the affix cHT follows.

do we say

^ :

II

called

sr (I.

^Tf.^flH or

1.

name

Thus q:

22).

^SRR*

II

rPT

^rj?

rf^

: ^frjcT%

or g^r-

or

^rj-

Observe 3J$?k, 3RE3%


The
condition that the preceding word should end in a consonant or 3j applies
here also.
Thus no option is allowed in *u%HTCT*

*p*

11

'

after a

time

'

ll

11

23

Non-elision of case afeix.

X214

Bk. VI.

Cii. III.

20

As a general maxim, an affix denotes whenever it is employed in


Grammar a word-form which begins with that to which that affix has been
added, and ends with the affix
ST^rjpjJ

Thus the word

tl

affix &c.

But

r,

2.

s^r?*;

*cTCf^

*T ptffrT

WS5

144 means a word ending

in tr

so far as the jurisdiction of >jtHH ? goes, an

this chapter,

in

O^ijfbf

itself

ar^ &c in VI.

affix does not denote a word-form ending in that affix, on the following
maxim STrcq^rfwft srBWrc?5r T rTf *4$<n*t ; on the contrary the affix denotes

Thus rf*;, rTT and rTT here do not denote a word ending in these
This rule we infer from the fact that in sutra VI. 3. 50, the author
affixes.
declares " %% is the substitute of ^f^ when the word ?m, and the affixes 3^,
Had the affix ar<* here meant the word-form ending
3Tot, and FSRT follow ".
own-form.

its

in

then there would have been no necessity of using the word

3T<*r,

sutra, as

%^

is

formed with the

means the word-form z$m

ar^r

See Sutra IV.

II

The word

affix.

3.

The Locative ending is


words ?m, wra" and mftrqc when

?j^r in

II

retained

optionally

the preceding word

do^s not denote time, and ends in a consonant or short


Thus

or

the

the aphorism

23 for the affix rpr

18.

before the

3^ in

sr

II

irmTCP or UFRTCP, qm^rr%^ or tTTT^rn%^ n After


After a vowel ending word (other than sr)
a time-name we have s^fjot*
drcra:,

ssrerg:,

II

we have

>rf*rcra

Vdrt:
or the
nq[

affix

The

sfyjr

Locative case-affix

added by treating

is

^Ttt*.

follows.

or it^*

3T<i

?5T^r flrarers? ss?rrar

11

Thus

is

retained

after

sn^pftpn, stosjj:, 3T^H*#

srewir

II

as belonging to the f^rff class

^ <T*rP

ar*

bt^t h^t%

(sr^

when
The

w,

IV.

?npr,

affix

3.

54).

11

The Locative ending is not preserved before


stem ending in ^, before the word j%^, and before a word
19.

derived from srro


Thus wF3<*4iifrat, srarr^trcrer:, ^rfcr^rcrer, ^w^'^Wy *h**w*
The compounding takes place by yoga-vibhaga of sutra II. 1. 40. Some use
II

11

the word ^ras*f as an illustration under this rule


s

The ^r ending

sp* of

III.

sutra

an exception to VI.

is

$r
ff^T:

II

1.

134-

^ m^ran*

W ^TtTW
20.

in the

11

HI TOT

11

3.

in

is

g-?qr

then

is

governed by VI.

derived by
3.

This

13.

14.

q^n%

11

d, ^,

SnTOT 3T^*H HTO"

sthjftps,

The Locative ending

spoken language.

) (

sr^^

11

II

is

not preserved before

Bk. VI. Ch.

Ill 22.

Thus m"*rpr

c^:

11

fi%'.

11

3TT5f7t^t

*r<>

11

Rl

I)

*rgrq^r

?rrn

^ptt fra f^nr

11

:
,

*%*IW
qc[n%

II

f**r*r

fi%

^r

compound

^g^r bt^t t?t^:

The

Vdrt
after

Vdrt

fT, an d

is

and

enumerated

9T3^

II

in

in the T3Tff class

The author of Siddhanta Kaumudi


not elided

devanam-priya

in

"

There

*t% has been

gf^jj,

(IV.

1.

in

is

99) and

takes

q^37

^TS^^S Tr^^STTS^Hran'
the

compound %^Hrf73:
is

II

that of a fool, the

no authority

Mahabhashya or the Kasika. This was the


monarch Asoka, who would not have adopted

?.

the following words arrg-

says "when the sense

in the

%f%

meant

is

the Genitive Singular of the

is

formed by f^ (V. 1. 133) u So also srnjssfrf^n" U


Vdrt
The Genitive affix is not elided

The phrase

insult

As, ^Nrgf^Fr, f^uT'Y:,

II

not elided

affix is

is

hist

when the

not elided after qrsK when followed by

is

forming the Patronymic, BT5^rq^iL=STTS531Pr3P>

is

retained

do we say when

a ft e r q-^r^ before 9*

Pronoun

affix

II

ii

Why

it

an d sTrg^Sfn^rr

II

The Genitive

3T$?r,

3T^^

aTHfirer, (

affront or insult \

'

3nrT:, STTSs^gf^RT

in

the Veda, as in ^'JTT^jt-

11

The Genitive

before

f$*r

in

11

Genitive case affix

expresses an

*ugjui$<4i|>

<T^:.

3t^*h^i%

Thus WTOiTFTO., l^H^^I.


Observe

106.

3.

II

3rn$TC3

12 15

f^q^ntfr a fa>i ^Vi wrcRsawsPra^r

st^tRS*:

*reir

21.

But

by VIII.

3rr^rtr T*?rer% srreq% *rs*ir

*rrPforo n

*rr

5p???t

changed to

g- is

*WW

Non-elision of case-affix.

for this,

either

of the famous Budd-

title

it, had it
meant a fool
added by Bhattoji Dikshit through Brahmani'.

cal spite.

not elided
The Genitive
%q:, ^: ^5":, fjHRT^
not elided
Vdrt The Genitive

Vdrt
*nj^ follow

affix is

it

spf.

jlr
STtP

ii

s^rpc^t*
gw^B^TT^ff
is

11

rr

srr^rtt

ii

q^n^

t^tt^

not meant

sreir:

when

*%*

3%, ^wrcrcwni:,

and

^r

follows

as

) H

is

st^k

11

optionally retained

5^: or ?n=rf^T, f^^T- $*', or fsntfq^:

we have

II

But when

when
insult

srr3Ti?5^r: U

^Fft fesrahfororfiw \\R\w


(

s;*irr*s3f *resir 9Tsf**nrfa

The genitive affix


meant, when j^r follows.

Thus
is

g^

11

22.

insult

*j^ when %q,

after ft*

affix is

Wfarcp

after

II

ifuft

3?n, ftsrr,

*ftft,

*jT^?^r:,

Non-elision of the case-affix.

12 18

anomalous use there being no Dvandva compounding


3r?rcfr^:

\l

II

TTift

11

For 3^*r

31.

^ttht,

3W.,

here,

III. 34.

PTW 'jRHfr

sjrfr

$^Trse*t

substituted

is

Bk. VI. Ch.

II

^rerr in a devata-

dvandva.
Thus

mdiftcK

gqmiJ|1, ^RTRtFT
i

^MiH

is

?f^T:

^^ffani;,

formed by

sncjjr

^ ^*rfa

substitution of the

\\
5?^T f^TT^

farTCPTRtT ff?T

m of

*TT

The

II

II

<*?rfa

II

In the ordinary language

II

fanT,

niruftrrtr

is

is

valid.

is

The Vedic
added to the

3?r

m ir^rr farW-

11

^-tfifors^r^f, ^t^rtt%^^

feror.

fW^,
fW$%

II

the proper form.

derived

*rra*r^

^I%,

*TRTCT, ^T,

by adding sr^ to the first member, and Brr


second by VII. I. 39 and then Guna by VII. 3. no. Thus
is

other form

II

In the Vedas the form ft'cKiuicm

33.
form

11

11

ftcKWM<l
II

fonr,

<*TTfo H Tr^r,

a valid form.

JTrarrfcrcr is

is urarfarreir

According to the Northern Grammarians,

32.

This

11

II

r%*rorjT*jftfa*nf^[

ll

3*

II

11

11

In the room of a feminine word there

34.

tituted an equivalent

is

subs-

and uniform masculine form, when

it is

a word which has an actual corresponding masculine, and


does not end in the feminine affix 3^, and is followed by another feminine word in the relation of apposition with

not

when such subsequent word

ftnr

&c.
The words

nine word',
the
is

spoken

of

the mascul ine",

a feminine word.
i.

e.

i.

e.

but

an ordinal numeral, nor

of this sutra require a detailed analysis

$^ "like

room of

is

it;

fwrr:

'for

a femi-

a substitute like the masculine takes

*TI fa r| ^<^h I <t

= sfrfirayrregfa by which

a masculine

a word which has an equivalent masculine, the correspond-

Bk. VI. Cn.

III.

Masculisation.

34]

1219

ence must be
that

is

in the form (3TT?sr^) and the connotation ( anq H j of the two words;
the words are coextensive in their denotation, applying to
both
when
i

A word which has not the affix


That feminine word which does not end in 3^ and has a
corresponding masculine word, having the same form and connotation, ( of
the

same

3j|F is

objects, but of different genders.

called ar^^F

II

course, with the exception of affixes

word Hri^lt!^^ 2

Of such
form.

ls

vfTT Nr<HH\ l

a Bahuvrihi, the

called a Hil MftJ=M^< ^ffas?

is

fifth

affix

apposition with the

II

The

1^< feminine word, there is the substitution of a masculine


member is a ( SRT?rrfa3iTO ) e. a word in

Provided that, the second

tion of an Ordinal

not elided anomalously.

is

first,

i.

and (f%Rir*) of the feminine gender

numeral

^ror

with the excep-

and of fro &c.

Here *?fat*r is a feminine word


( =**MUir*(W? *TC*1 )
masculine
word
of
the
same form and force, namely,
corresponding
having a
in
the affix 3^, but in the affix
feminine
does
not
end
^nfcfcr:, moreover this

Thus S^rftwS:

by another feminine word *rntf which is in the same case with


nor included in the fw*irR class hence this
it, and which is not a Numeral
word f ^Wim is changed to the corresponding masculine word *%nfa II So also
Why do we say f%rar: 'for a feminine word'? Observe inTPI
qaWi ^m-^
fl fr^s p
Why do we say which has an appropriate maswrgT'T^y OTTOl = WfWUk'*
There is no corresponding masculine
culine ( MriHd^^Fr: ) ? Observe Q15POT&
Why do we say " of the same connotation and form *tHMI4im$;fr" ?
of TgT{
Observe frfiPTRTi the masculine word ypr has not the same significance as fftnfr H
The words *Tpf*rr3P, JTg<pTT2p, and snricrvrR: are anomalous. Why do we say
Why do we say 'both words being
not ending in 3j^? Observe sJg^iJVTrsp
Observe ehr4I u 3Wldl = chr4lin the same case and referring to another person'?
Why do we say f&wz 'followed by a feminine
tjft^rrTT "the mother of Kalyani".
Here the second memword '? Observe ^j?^r^ft sreFRTT = 3^r"fbreRr: ( ?t)
ber srvrpr is a Neuter word. Why do we say 'not being an ordinal Numeral ?
Observe 3?3Fft q>^*ft 3TSTT rTP = %c*U<flr 7*"I*W<I*W, so also <fiem<iu^l*TT M The
Ordinal Numbers must be the Principal Ordinal and not the secondary DerivaSTT

it is

followed

t,

II

II

II

II

II

II

tive

Therefore the rule applies

Ordinals.

samasanta

affix snr

V.

4.

is

does not take

3T<r

Why

II

3 *&?mvft, 4

gwj,

^rr,

14

compound

3VTF?v

is

^1

11

II

The

^km,

6 *n%, 7 srf^rer,

wfu farer)

anomalous.

^ftr^rff jr^r^g^:

a Principal

mr^r, 10 ^rr^Tr, 11 *rrr, 12 ^r^r, 13

1 fsrar, 2 *Rr*rr,

is

and therefore the above compound


do we say not before f^T &c. Observe Qhf4M u flfi<4

used as a secondary word

and not what

here rfjRnWTS^pfNfT: RT

116) also applies to an Ordinal which

Va

^rfarrg^r^rerar t*w<t

^r

error, 16 ar^r

S
11

ii

*&&&

II

^r^rfirf acr^g^r.
,

11

&m > 9
11

The

Masculisation.

i22o

*nr

>rors

11

Bk. VI. Ch.

***w *it *^w* sMrrcr t?r5*:


feminine word not ending in the

srrersr i^nsrnfr

35.

to such masculine form, before the

affixes

3. 7 )

are the affixes before which the feminine

is

affix

gj^
changed

beginning with <T%ar

and ending with f*nr^ ( V. 4. 17


Thus rTTOT: W<WI|: = ?TrP STTOT = rT^, ^E^ft = 3^W ^TT = StfT

V.

36

11

and having an equivalent and uniform masculine,

&c

III.

)
II

The

changed to masculine:

is

*r

following

and

rT*r

fR,^ and fifa ft^


All other affixes do not affect the gender. Thus ^t Wt &c S<H?q <H r,
rfri%?5
#3tatmr, tt^, M^itf)*ii, *fcftotf??r, s&fcretffar, ^rfra^rr, s^Mfaqrerr zmiFg&u
=^?*r* *ror w*^r = *wt, sttot ^srar = sr^r, *rft &c
^ri and %H*,

****, *rr<fcrc., Wi*V%, *53,

Wfal.5TOr <rr^,
,

*pr

II

11

F^r/:

Taddhita

The feminine of *g and

affix

Vdtt:
affixes *%
ctive'?

and

feminine Adjective

As

<rw H

i\ f *rre :

changed to masculine before the

is

= Tg^

II

cff^^r

The feminine word


except 3, when the word

changed to masculine before

=?n%^

Had

is

II

changed into masculine before the


or q^fr
Why do we say 'an adje-

Observe ^f^r HT^ =WpfF% or


Vdrt\

affixes,

3T?q" is

^: as *5*Nf ?ft=*f^frtfS; terror *ft = si*rat ff*


11

gets the designation of

*T

II

all

Taddhita

Thus

^favftrri

become masculine, then ff^cnft having lost


its f (VI. 4. 148), the word ^ of f^fr^ would not be elided be fore the Taddhta
affix, because the lopa-elision being sthanivat, would have prevented the application of the rule VI. 4. 144, ordaining the elision of the final syllable. So
the form would have been something like ?IT%f^f^ instead of frf^T^?*
Why
do we say 'with the exception of s'? Observe $iH^, uf?%3: the masculine being
The word 3TFTO: ( = sr^zft tTT 3T*3 ^Tn^TTT^^ ) is an excep^fcr and uf|sr
*Tf?

II

the word not

II

11

tion to this rule.

Vdrt:

As

(i

The

H^r

masculine-change takes place before the affixes ssf and

>^prr=*n^^fr:,

spr^nf^ffT^'ll \\
fTrP

II

ll

mftov

11

^tr spw
II

*rifMt:, ^r,

II

3W <M HIHH ^ fW3T HTnr^HK4^ j^^TW


A feminine word not ending in
36.
II

ing an equivalent and uniform masculine,

3J^ and hav-

changed into
and
the
affix n\faz
w^,
:
<?;ft<?wra%, *&%33^% irR^
?sftra*Tr*ft 3TCTTOT: " He

masculine before the Denominative

is

II

Thus from
esteems her as handsome ". W^prrf^fta'TTOr: (%Q* 3TTOP " She esteems her as
handsome
The word HJR*^ is employed for the sake of non-feminine and
non-appositional words. Thus non-feminine words: ^fafaf JRffi^fTTT 3*TfTrf=
'.

Bk

VI. Ch.

III. .

^rNtRT ^qi W

ITtT

Masculisation.

swsn

<r*raT*rr.

11

11

wft

11

37.

?T

t,

11

^m

T^ f^T^t

as, ^JsffaT

U5T-

*r, s-trorcr.,

11

II

^^m, u

% rrf^rr^^

5Rr<rwrr*rar

11

^TTOraP f^RT: g^sCr^T

II

qrrrrarc

122

For non-appositional words

II

T:

^TfT=#^RRri%^

39

Feminine word having a penultimate

does not assume the Masculine form.


Thus qrfww, sFrfafprri--, fnrrerprHr, iffamm,

K,

TfysraFTT, Hfg**>rg%

11

ffs^>R%, Tft^RTR^fr, fP^^rfatf, %%q^ (*fa3Trar ***$ ). This rule is an exception to all the previous rules VI. 3. 34 36 and not only to VI. 3. 34.
Vdrt\ The rule applies to the 3FT of the affix % and the Taddhita g?

and not

to every 3?

^ q ^qte
i

$f?r:

ii

ll

\<

Name

it is

rn ^r

3?^

Ts^ftHrf^^r

gHPrra:

TsMtTT*

vsrftarfMl-

39.

w3
is

<sr,

not changed to masculine,

^prrsrr

sspSnrra;

gRTTTOT

Ts^ftarerr

?rrraRr

?w<Trerr

s*ra%
i

*TmiTf*pft

Ts^tfrait

s*tfta%

11

ll

The feminine

is

not changed into Masculine,

formed by such a Taddhita

it is

Vriddhi of the
the

^jr^ft:,

*Ttrr,

11

*r

'action'.

or an Ordinal Numeral.

crf^r^, 3Rrbte*R,

when

<T^rft

11

means "young"; and^^fr means

*rnffr

The feminine

Thus ?rwm'-

^ H iH

The word

II

t^rrar sTa sr* rerar- s^rrfr

38.

when

Therefore the masculine transformation takes place

II

7RPTW, v^nTT^

here

syllable,

first

Taddhitas meaning

affix,

which causes the

with the exception however of

colored

therewith

',

and

'

made

there of.

Thus
and

4t#>tt$:,

*rg(toiR5ft

Why

?rgWb,

sreiffanTT, TrgCTinrr,

m$t*m,

irs*ta%,

In^mf^fr

ii

do we say

'

which causes Vriddhi

'

Observe

T^prvrnJ:

q*%

vrqj

= ^!PTr formed by the affix *{ IV. 3. 8 which does not canse Vriddhi). Why
do we say 'of a Taddhita' ? Observe 5ffrTt*PT*n"^ ($Wt f^rTW==3TF3?5T^r with
Why do we say when not meaning ^olored there
T5 (^W^t) and ^^
OTRT r^r = 3rrqT2ft, mwft f^frnffl" WH =>
with' or 'made thereof? Observe.
The word
f*mmtft $t# i*rr sra *T^=?fr^r ( I v. 3. 134
srnrrafsFrf^,
'

).

mw

).

ff^RFTTT^l should be explained as a Bahuvrihi, and not a Tatpurusha, i. e. a


taddhita affix, in which there is an element like <JT or s* or sft &e which causes

24

Masculisation.

1222

Therefore this exception does not apply to

Vriddhi.

Here the affix ^g<i V.


own force, but by VI. 3. 91.

s^q &c).
its

40.

word ^nf^C
Thus
but

39 added to

2.

feminine

part of body, does not

%tffair,

Bk. VI. Ch.

rTR^rSf: STPHtra

^ does not cause

II

?r$%^ft*rHi

Vriddhi by

become masculine, except when the

u$%*iptw, #*%#7renr, >?j^%#Tr^r, #l%tfta%,

><*$<*-

(qg not denoting any bodily member), 3T>ftPTR' (3T%3Tr

q^vrr^.-

11

(rTnTrft *Tt4t

follows.

3T*rrfaf%

II

5TRter

42

ending in the name of a

in f

The exception
not ending in long % ), and ^M^Tlf^'ft
added from the Vartika and is no part of the original sutra.
% frT:

III.

q^TT%

11

ll

^,

str*:,

W%^ f^TT T j^^^ STOTRR T^rT:

41.

( ?r

srorftfa )

ll

II

noun expressing a

feminine

>Trar,

has been

kind

class or

does not become masculine.


Thus efi*prra:, ssf^fare: ^2rfar^r, srf^ttt^t, ^ra%, ^f ^Nw
so when tttpti follows, as g^rf^, ^|^^rr^r
The exception does not apply to ^ritaf **$'< =^TflrT^R

11

But not

II

II

R^ sw^t ^53!
The feminine (unless

^4^>^rCpn 'T u ^
,

srif%3TO.

11

42.

ii

Karmadharava, and before


Thus

it

ends in

is

^TTcftar

enunciated as a

and ^fr*T

prohibition

Jt applies

crre^^rR^r, THT^frsrmrar, Tr^sfiHfar u


feminines which are ordinals in opposition to VI.
STrcftaT,

Srr^ffar,

position to VI.
to VI.

3.

40, as

<T^*Tf^foffr,
3-

39

T^*rsrrrrfar,

SHW^uW,

^uigtsi^rfcfil}

opposition to VI.

3.

the

preceding sutras.
(VI.

ejj

even to

So

have'

gRT3%^fr^rr

37).

Thus

^TTf^lTOiT, StT-

applies

It

even in op-

also in opposition

^^l^^rrrrar and s^anj^sffar


^^TRfar,

3.

Names and the

Thus

38,
lj

shrsffiffar, W?r?tftar U

as ^s^frrc^r,

The /eminine must

3.

T^tffar

in a

ll

to

even to words having a penultimate

applies

having an

sj),

uniform masculine, becomes masculine

equivalent and
This sutra

it

ll

So

also

in

11

corresponding masculine (*rrfad!i^)>

So the rule does not apply ^TTf^TftqpfT, as ?cj?r has no corresponding masculine.
The feminine should not end in 3j as agH-s^iK^n"
;

Vdrt

The words

^EFfJ^r

11

&c become masculine

before 3T CT3"

&c

as,

BK. VI. CH.

STPT.

may

Ill

44

This rule need

11

Masci lisation.

not be made, as the

Vdrt

When a word

member

first

common

denoting words of

be considered as class

formed by an

1223

affix

in

these

compounds

gender.

having an indicatory

ig or
}

rK and <r*T &c ( VI. 3. 43 ) follow, the final long vowel of the first
term becomes short instead of its becoming masculine. As ^r^fTr^TR *T*3%
3rn?^TS*=?*rrfrW3ir (compare VI. 3. 66) ^TCpopTOr. qfjOT. TfJrHr, Tfg^r, TfJ^PTr,
the affixes

Tff^nr, flff^n'

We

rule does not

have said that the

apply to the feminines

in

The words fgf^, ^T, fT and sr%*j are names of countries denoting
gj
Kshatriya clans. The tadraja affix ( VI. 1. 168 and 170 ), is elided in forming
Thus we have the compouud ofsf^f^*
the feminine of these (IV. 1. 177).
When the first words become masculine, we have q T%3", ^NT, & c
ffTR^fr
II

ll

Thus qr^N^^iK^r, ^rfsrsrf^fsn"

^<r 3^7 %fft f^


%&t *rcm

!Ttt: n *r
3?r*fr

Trr ?rr

saras "tot *m^T*f5KF<TU ^r sfrrararer^nreriSr-

11

Before the affixes

43.
(

fr?r

II

5>5<T,

before %sr

gg-, ifrsr, JTcT and ^a", a word ending


becomes
short, when the feminine
^r
of two or more syllables, and has an equivalent and

with the feminine in |

in the feminine

consists

ciT, ere, ^*r,

),

affix

uniform masculine.
Thus

qgrrgjPTrrcr, snwJTrprr sTrgnfot^r,

arernwfar, OTSlFTOrrr and grr^rfrr^r


are words as second
sr,

guna and

ending

in f

<r^r
(

Observe

is

formed by ar^

) ?

are
III.

anomalously.

affixes,

enrnnri^r
-^arcr

&c

134) added to
Why do we say

I.

Observe ^tHcRC gtrnrtr


Why do we say consisting of
Because words of one syllable optioiially become
?
ll

syllable

shortened by the next


line

a=f:

cjr?<T

*T,

substitution being prevented

#r

more than one

members;

srrgif3r%^,

srrgrfSr^rr,

and

^<T

ll

rule.

3TrT33RTcftr

Why

do we say having a corresponding mascu3TFT3lft and fre?ft have no equivalent

gj^frTT, v>nere

masculine forms.

tot: ^rronwrcrcwra;
ff%;

11

top %qrw

^ *&f\r%
7Tf%^

T^r ^fr *^fw


ll

ll

<ncrft

11

srtm,

siarrHssirer

crt

twrw, ar^rarwre,
srer ^ *?r to wvs
11

*w:

11

11

sprsir:

Jifimr

44.

Nad!

qrfts

I. 4.

In

^tK^
all

3 and 4

),

11

the remaining

words called
the substitution of short vowel under

the preceding circumstances

is

feminine

optional.

MASCULISATION.

1224

What

#r

),

long i but consist

III.

46

Those feminines which are not


and are called Nadi; and those feminines which endof one syllable. Thus srgT^'^rm or ff^grTCT ^TOn^-TO

are the %<* or the remnants

formed by long f
in

Bk. VI. Ch!

or frc^rrcr, fwrrer or ^facr, f^rmr or ^rrRr u

Vdrt: Nadt words formed by ^affixes are excepted: as


formed by the Unadi affix f (Un III. 158, 160)

^arsr

11

t^rr%

11

a Taddhita-affix

The

rafsrrrT

is

&c

sr

T2rer?rr*T,

form

is

**ra?s*f

) (

tr'afatf

II

f (^r) added to a word formed

VI.

43

3.

55, is

affix

optionally

).

or ^cTCF, F^r^cT*! or

formed by the Taddhita

first is

one alternative, there

Or

or

%m\

having an indicatory ^ or

shortened before the


Thus

^fncT.,

The feminine

45.

by

11

<*$jfrrrcr>

ffgsfirTtf

or

fs^i, and the second by

masculisation also

when we get the forms

^tHT

^ct

II

In

II

^ra^rffl

&c.

may

be considered to have been evolved from ^srist, to which


added the affixes denoting comparison, and then the feminine affix, in denotthis latter

ing a feminine.

^r^j3OT3Tn:q%

ff%:

11

^r> U

ST^TJ ^TTl^

srnrfa

^ srsro tt^t i^i sr nt ifoT

*n*i%

11

^5^

Tf% T 3^; ZZ*{ 3TOQ3R


3T*
Sf^Sn^lPTO.
46.
For the final of jt^, is substituted

before a

II

II

word which

in apposition with

is

As ^m-, H^arzW',

*r?rerf:>

i?nn*,

sttcj; ( srr

and before

it

T?r5jr<Tfa:

But

11

under that

q-f^r

in this

dokta,'the rule

taught under
the long

Vatt

In fact this

3TT is

As* T^^rr ^rcr

offering

meaning a

two words are

also the

the object of using the word

In

as the sense of

*Tf3;wrP5r??Tr

in

appo-

samanadhi-

= ^mi^ IfP*. WW<,

here secondary.

*r^? is

substituted for the final of

apposition.

Vdrt

when

The com-

This rule applies to compounds

h^

before qnj,

m^ and

flnsre,

may not be in
^srftftrs: = T?rftr%?:

being changed to masculine, though the words

*t?^t

crificial

61.

61 but not to Bahuvrihis.

not substituted

the feminine

is

1.

sutra.
Had it not been used, then by the maxim of pratipawould have applied only to the Tatpurasha compounds of mahat

II. 1.

3?r is

it

II.

Bahuvrihis,

rule, as well as to

sition, as in JT?r3Tf.

karana

takes place under

^rcfPT

s*:*r*<isr:

iifrr:

"the son of the great man": the two words are not in apposition.

pounding with

||

3Tr is
is

= TfRrsn, if ssp

^k-

- *??rett

>

11

when a sado we say when

substituted for the final of srg^ before ^"tr,

meant.

As

sacrificial offering

STS'PfFTn* ^re

R#7rT H

Why

Observe sts^'MW ar^T^^ M

Bk

VI. Ch. Ill

49

Some Substitutes.

1225

Vdrt

'

ing

'yoking'

substituted for the final of srs^ before

3TT is

vn*L

11

*rarf^ sr^s*

47.

sm*f*f SRrN

As,

The ^

not meant.

is

srrw*

of 'yoked'.

that

is

srr is

in 3THJ

is

follows, but

*rfWSr:,

Vdrt:

This rule

flNra*, fljETpw, sTssrrT*,

ir^T:

II

*<

As,

srs^rw*

For f%

ii

3PT^,

substituted

is

^srflrSPt

srafasr, TOlfarcrfa:,

^^Tft^rcsn^

fa and srs^),

But not

11

Thus

The above
is

optional,

Therefore

ll

it

com-

faftfT:,

not here,

snr^r

when another

ll

*<<

%m$v

a Bahuvrihi,

is
:

in

(the

II

t^tt^

^ft^f

second word

(II. 2.

not here, r^TrR

II

25) sqtfifw H

rrcr?TO

II

frwrr, ^c^rfer^

11

sre^fa f^taf

*j^?k rTf**rrar

substitution in the case of all (ft,

when

word ^grrftOTC and the


member.

the

are the second

crewnsr*, faTs^rrsr* or wtswf*, t?t3=^t^ or


as, ff STcP*. and srewX, frcra*
before hundred

rl^rsrrfara' or

This also

II

3^T C^^WMI^a
11

^tp*

numerals which follow

ff>T:

the

follows, but not in a Bahuvrihi or before snrfrft:

49.

c5T%3,

when

II

"^nf^srw m<5*ii*ii^ttw s?*gc?rsT*ft?it:

BTOT^srrwt

do we

followed by a

11

r^W

ffcp

Wnv

'

Observe ffTP,

follows'?

BTCTTTtf

which
not being a Numeral), nor in
This substitution takes place upto hundred

fe*T*r

a Bahuvrlhi or

Why do we say 'when


Why do we say 'not
"

upto one hundred.

applies

<nrrf* H *:,

II

48.

Numeral

not in

*n%^ srerfsr, srafW^:, srerftsr?*

Observe qs^f^T U
Observe $ ?rr<^> ST*Tr3*

a Bahuvrthi, or the word

is

where

srgrTOl.

3T*t#

for the sake of distinctness.

substituted for the fiual of T and stbt

say f$ and st^?

pound

when the mean-

11

Thus frro
Numeral'?

TT,

11

when another Numeral


before sreftfr

But

II

^o

II

^TTTR

II

f^TC*T, CTC,

II

***** sftsro'rivnt

^r% ^sr q* wm

*rm *m$

<n?r:

11

%*sT,

T^,

3TTJT,

Some Substitutes.

1226

55 is substituted
and sttjt and before sn^r
50.

affixes

*re;

5^

Thus
g8?T*T

sws

fror^= siren,

The word

by

derived

%*?r is

[Bk. VI, Ch.

III.

53

and the

for ^r^q-, before &*$r,


II

wwten=?T$r, %$wm

rara=s**i,

from

affix

srar

ra?sr

pxisi^

Before the word

II

does not take place, as f^WsT:


The
inclusion of fH3" in this sutra proves the existence of this maxim " ^rT^T^rSee VI. 3. 17.
f*r*nt sr?rm^r *r tT?53WPt" n

^H!T

formed by

^^^[dt3

^t
fffT:

*T3X affix,

Hrx

11

52T5i ^rr

this substitution

ll

q^Tfa

II

fsrenj q*<rr

51.

^t

srr, sffar, w^r,


^Rc^*nwr H^r%
ll

^3

11

11

optionally the substitute for CT*T,

is

^T

5W*r

II

when

the words *ri%, and ^pr or the affix **r^ follows.


Here sqw is added as
Thus %*$&;: or 5^mr^ STSTCTCL or 'ST^ST*
When
1. 124.
is
substituted there is
class
V.
Brahmanadi
to
belongs
f
U3H
Vriddhi of both the members 5 and 5 by VII. 3. 19. So also gfrrr: or ^rar:

ll

^HT:

have been got from 5^ which

All these forms could

11

generis, having

sutra

the

same meaning

TT^T q^TTRpfnT^^
^T^tf,

II

a full word sui

substitution taught in this

e#

II

q^TR

II

qi^q,

II

3W%,

q<*, STTHT,

*T,

II

tf?to 7?

11

fc^Tiw

52.

^q^

and

5^3:

is

rather unnecessary.

is

If^p

as

The

>r*n% Brrrsr arrFrr

is

*$r%ws?

*t s<r?rr

substituted

before snfa,

for qr^,

srrr^.

II

Thus

T^rnfr*.

formed by

for

changed

*ft

to

qf

from

=Tr^r^m^rf?r
srsr

and

q^rr%

(Un

3T?J[

though required by

= w^rrrrftr

II. 4.

56

before this

srrfsp

and srrRp are

and irregularly

IV. 131),

affix.

So

arsr

is

not

also q^T:=

TTf belongs to Vrishadi class ( VI. 1. 203 )


W**lf *re^f?T qfnw - qiwqftP
and has therefore acute on the first syllable, the q3[ substitute however has acute
ll

on the

final,

(VI.

48),

2.

only in the sq^n (VI.


-

and

have acute on the

q^rere^
?f^r:

11

^TfrRf^

171), therefore in qffqfrP,

final

(VI.

11

1.

While

final.

T^ retains

q^rfsp,

q^ri%

q^,

11

q^rr:

its

accent

and q^p

*rfa,

sttt^,

*nr?rcre3f

11

II

II

53.

q^

is

substituted for

trr^

before the

used in any sense other then that of "suited there


Thus

q^rf%

223 and krit-accent).

wto qf^ro*rrWr
t^ f% ^riqsrwT*

^ststo
II

ll

1.

becomes acute on the

it

<Trtrf^tf?rr

" suited there to "

= q;jjr:

ve have

Sjku-,

Tar

W&K'

qnE^=TT?r*r3*?r H

ll

When

(sec IV.

4.

affix

qr^

to.

^ has

83 and V.

the force of
4. 25).

Bk. VI. Ch.

Before the

Vart:

substituted for qr?; as


in this sutra
is

Some Substitutions.

III. 58]

means

walks there by
q$ is
by g^ affix. The word qr*

affix f^j, in the sense of 'he

*TO^ = qf^f:

qr?r*2lT

of V.

f?t

IV.

4.

10

',

a part of animal organism.

'the actual foot',

not substituted before the

denotes

1227

Therefore q^

because qr$ here

34, as f$qrPT, rqqpJJ*

I.

measure'.

,a

ftjT^rrn^g

54.

11

\H

q^r is

q^rft

11

^rf^, sfag,

ftjr,

11

<*, (

substituted for qr^ before

q?

11

Wf%3[ and

ffJT,

sfaii

Thus
sgrRj,

and

<rgfa'.

3T*;

= qTSra*fm) T^hlft*
(t^t^ &&t)

qfaprw,

= ^^^[^0

as in srq Tf^fTTt^

ll

q^Tr%

ll

^r^

II

*t H

q^ is the substitute for <n^ before the affix 5^,


when the meaning is that of a Hymn (Rik).
Thus q^t *TW^\ *rcn<t = Trt <TT5 ST^rST, the affix *n* being added by V. 4.
55.

Why

43.

srr

ff%:

II

do we say 'when meaning a

sfarfasrcn&'S
qfq

*rrf%3rc

\%

11

R*ir *T? f 9T^5

56.

Thus

q^^rq: or qr^rq:,

ss^rcrs^

11

^TfrT^H

^ Tf^WTT^ft H^rj"

qt^T'sr-

or qntftrep, q-*w: or

fqrsqfj:

as qf^T^R' or qrSPt*3T:

sr*rraT ftq$[

ll

^n%

^ ssTSTrWr

^raTSrrcq^i 3**jtofw s^rWr

11

57.
is

II

is

^PTTT<*t S^TTO

qf

ll

11

II

qrS"

is

qr^^:

optional

ll

So also before

st^j^tt^ ^rT^T^:
^frr

Observe qr$*P

This substitution of q? for

msr and ^s^

F^r/:

^r, tr*, firsr, srsVg, (

11

TTC**

'

11

sftq,

before

q^fa

ll

%tT^TO

p**% %fa st^rs**

11

Hymn

ll

II

t^st^t, ^:,^rFTntOsTR^")ll

*nn1t ^tttt* qr^r;

11

^53*
for 3^q>, when

*rqrr?r%

substituted

11

the

compound

Name.

Thus sffrsp'a, person called Udamegha 3W9 "a person named Uda
The well-known Patronymics from these are afr$%ran and arr^nff H
Why do we say when it is a Name ? Observe ??efifrft:
Vdrt 3$ is the substitute for SS97 when it stands as the second member
of a compound and denotes a Name: as, %f??fr$-, 5ffalT, *ftfts
'

vahah."

'

'

ll

^m^T^rr^ ^
ffrr:

ii

qq

*rcf

II

v*

\\

q^nft

11

^, ^r^, srr^T,*fa3,

Wf re ?^%g Hro*q%3 %&&& ^ f^RRR^ft *rem

58.

and fa

11

^T

is

11

substituted for

*,

11

11

s^ before qq, *ra, stoh;,

Some substitutions.

1228

Thus

**WT

also

II

3m

formed by

fq^Tft

3*sff *fN%sf|rar

H<Nd4

c^^ar^t
^r^cK^rm:,

01515

= 3*rsr

'

by

III.

Bk. VI. Ch.

III. . 61

38; Sferrcn-WTCircm',

4.

so

a water jar \

s^ren^m^ H <^

q*n%

11

h^i^V,

H ***>,

gr^r^^,

il

59.

optionally substituted for

is

before

3*^5?,

a word biginning with a single consonant, and which expresses


that which is filled with water.
The word i?^?rcrfa means
Thus g^ffsvn, or gq^ yvr:, 3TTra*T or ^^m y^
The rule does not apply
a word beginning with a single simple consonant*.
to ^gftsjn** as the second member begins with a conjunct consonant
nor
II

to <KfrT3 fr

^s?

;
,

f*r?s,

TOflwui.

as the T^f:

3ffT*, ^T^,

or Tqqftre^:

^^K:

sffaW

*nr

faff

^#r

II

II

s^hr;

or ^5R>fa^:

<T^ri%

II

4^(1H:

Sffa^: or SfSfrf^

f^rSfcr s?*rr- or

11^?

ITTS

Sfsfrffar, sffaT: or

3^*3 f^?^:,

and

fTT, ^fan*,

irrf

V*'-,

sit

ST53

TO 3^*1

s^ &t(f%, 3f-

3S*ff *TT??T ffrT,

SW,

*W,

IV^V

or

'IIiiWW,

II

i^wi* M*ranre ft ?s*f t^tcJ TMK3iMrfei ^mrr^ra*^*


H

11

<*, n

or gr^^q"!

^37*3 ^N^T, 3*flw

f^rH^t nra^T

ST^TcIT^mi
ffri:

= 3f*TT

*TT:

f^t

filled.

optionally substituted for ^[*f, before

is

f^J, 3^, mr,

*$%T ST*< 3<W*3


to s*ro or **rto:
:

^K: or

be

to

is

II

Thus 3^%f
:

not a vessel which

w, **rc, sre, #hw, nftj,


60.

*Tr*J,

is

11

According to the opinion of G&lava, a short


vowel is substituted, in a compound, before the second member,
for the long $sr vowels (J, 3j, 35), unless it is the long vowel
61.

of the Feminine

affix

In other words, for


g;,

i (#r).
f,

when

it is

a short f and 5 are substituted in a

Thus UWrSlgq': or'wfi^:, jNji|M(gq:


Observe

tsrfraTC'*,

affix #t'?

THSPITf

II

Why

not the Feminine affix % (yr) and for


before the second member.

compound

or Brsmrogip

do we say

'

il

Why do we say $9^ vowels

not the long ^ of the Feminine

Observe irrtfg*:, *rafr3*P The name of Galava is mentioned pujartha


was present in this sutra. It is a limited option

for the anuvritti of 'optionally'

II

Bk. VI. Cn.

64

Ill

pujartha, (vyavasthita vibhasha), and does not apply to

&c which

ctfrtftrnsvftara

are governed by VI. 3. 139.


V6rt : \t does not apply to Avyayibhava compounds, nor to those

%A^ or

words which take

^^ augment in

Vart .It does however


say

* &c

ST is substituted for
***>

<rf^r

11

apply to $**{ &c, as g**r:, $ffr

and

as %J**r:

q^rfr

11

as ^ftf^l, 3p*t,

their declension,

li

Others

II

q^jf?:

crfe^,

<*, (

fw.

) (

srrcq^

ll

The short is substituted for the long of a^f,


before a Taddhita affix, and when a second member follows.
62.

^^r

As

3TT*Trr

fJSRTOF $fK = <J3RTR:*,

word

<{

w<i*i

<r*Fro*,

q^r^r *rpr.=<?3repr, q^rr

The shortening

q^rf*^!!

When

q^r, having the affix 3TT H

$<%

an adjective

is

So

11

also

takes place of the Feminine


(

^joTT^r

then the

above forms could be evolved by the help of the rules of masculation, such as
e. when q^f means the numeral one.
But when it means 'aione',
VI. 3. 35,
i.

then

The word

not apply.

those rules will

without any case-affix

as a

Chhandas

i^r

is

exhibited in the sutra

The examples given

irregularity.

are

feminine which alone can

be shortened, and not of (j^r whose


Nor can the rule of shortening be applied to q of q^,
final is already short.
for the rule applies to the final letter, aud not to a vowel situeated in the body

of qgn" in the

of a word.

^pJf *WT$*^i$4<s*i $\\\ *r^Tft ^rnfr., ^r, *^<Hn, srj^rac, w


fPrf; s^^aw^r^ *r ^j^rs^^nrfpj ?^t *nn^
63.
The short is diversely substituted for the
11

11

*.

11

11

feminine affixes % and

art

#T and

sttj )

in a

Name and

in the

Vedas.
As^rfrnj^C:,

?rr^ht5rn*

So

ll

crftf&nj^:, Htforg^r:

does not take place, as qTrcpftttwrrcit,


f^T?T, fSnrowr; sometimes there

So

also in the Vedas:

there

is

no shortening,

ct <*
ff^T-.

ii

II

yd

^xr?r^

as,

^uiS^MT
II

illustrations,
'25

snreftef?:

w^

The feminine
>rr?r

ll

STT'T

no shortening,

^Rt

^,

<%,

short, before the affix <^


Vedic

not, as TF$)T3ft

'

= ^Wi

no Names

^f?rT

J^TJ
11

:
,

Tr?^t%^T

:
,

sometimes the shortening


in Name:
^^HiKa ^qj
f^reRKTCtli Sometimes

ending words

as, ^PTqjnrrfiT,

3?*r$lf*T sjfmf, ^SfTO^rfqtff

OTtfrirffc %*?t

arsrrar

is

q^Tl%

II

<re<?r

64.

Thus

Sometimes

II

also in the Vedas, as arq r fifRr, JTSf%;

ll

II

affixes

and

arr

diversely

become

II

or

wrsrr**,

dftr*M" or ftftsftasil

can be formed

in **

II

These are

Shortening.

T230

%&K$V%\m&\n\ f%cKJ^TTfiT|
*tk,

ftrer, <sr, *rrftg,

$\

II

T^TT%

II

11

Bk. VI. Ch.

%z

^>r,

%^T

III.

^n",

67

m&\~

11

For the long vowel, a short is substituted, in


before fecr, in %<faft before 3^5, and in *nw before snroc H
65.

%%<$X

Thus f^HTrPI
by

this rule

as

11

first

by an

in

II

is

Thus

The

f&R &c

short

11

of tadanta

rule

are also governed

II

srs^^, ( ^^:

reifa,

11

always substituted for the

is

member, when the second member


having an indicatory

affix

member

<*?rfa

11

66.

the

%$

^2ff

JTTc7*rrRofr

compounds ending

&*3*U<*ri*i> .3cH*ii^*UK u n ^ftr

T^^rf^TI,

f^^TJToq^ni^

and

f*ffa*j**

applies to fg^rr &c, so that the

is

final of

a word formed

but not when the

??r,

first

an Indeclinable.
fRfoTJj^nr

cfiifoqrdu,

shortening, had

done

it

so,

II

The augment g* does not prevent

the rule would have been unnecessary.

But

the
^r?T-

ff^R^nrnr where fr^Tandjt^T are Indeclinables there is no shortening.


The above words are formed by
(III. 2. 83).
The phrase anavyayasya
:

*T?^*Tf:,

indicates

maxim

by implication that the word

enunciated in VI.

Avyaya can never take

3.

%q;

refJ*^3TOW T[K

affix

VS

II

here means

fisnt

3ttWlfW*

17

n^^p, contrary
^af^fa3faEt

which are ordained only

T^Tft

II

W<HW$3i

II

3?W, f|[^,

to the

For an

II

after dhatus.

3T5T?^*T, g*t,

II

augment added immediately after


the final vowel, of srw, fir***, and of a stem ending in a
vowel, unless it is an Indeclinable, when a word formed by a
67.

g**

is

the

fe?^ affix follows.

Thus
*n$*T

and the

Why

3T^p?:, f|MHM
rf

*
f

3>l

fo*MH

&c

See

of f$S<l are dropped by VIII.

do we say

'

of

3TW &c

'

2.

III. 2. 35,

39, 83.

The ^

23.

Observe f%f^F?ir

ll

Why

do we say

Indeclinable'? Observe fr^TT^T?:, fc< *MK rnr: "


Why do
the word 3RrT in srerer, when merely saying 3T3" would have sufficed
*

not an

rule of tadanta-vidhi?

of

we

use

by the

This indicates that the shortening taught in the prece-

ding sOtra does not debar the gq; augment, nor does &{ debar the shortening.
So that .5^ is added after the shortening has taken place.

% =* U/*|xTHm4^*i

II

\*

ll

q^TR

||

^sr:,

q^tt*:, sn*,

y^^d^,

xT,

ll

Bk. VI. Ch.

Ill 70.

68.
than

>ther

3J,

gjT

123:

monosyllabic word, ending in any vowel


when followed by a word formed by a
affix,

m^

augment

eceives the

Augment.

which

sn*,

is

added

the same way as

in

the affix ant of the Accusative singular.


The word ar**. is to be repeated here thus,
qw^FS^, 3T 3M cqq? ^
Thus rfa^:, ^JTT?3:, or fczpro:, fWR^T:, **ff!
By force of the atide.sa

II

II

Brqw^^H^, the changes produced by the Accusative ending are caused by this
augment also viz the substitution of long 3TT, the substitution of a vowel
homogenous with the first, the guna, the substitutes %s^ and s^f; As btt *TT
*Tm: ( VI. 1. 93 ) $&nm as ^nro: ( VI. 1. 107 ); guna, as,^r^: (VII. 3. 1 10)
and jin^ and 3^, as fi|J|*W g^TO: (VI. 4. 81 &c ). Why do we say ending
:

in a

vowel other than

osyllable'

Observe

The

Why

II

do we say

mon-

'a

PHsfT* *RIT. H

affix are

is

siUT^pJ = fsraT^l. or

noun (VII.

elided after a Neuter

when

De elided

3th a i so

this

Observe c^ssmp

(f^O?

3?

*ft

treated as Neuter

is

The second

fsr*T??n^?

is

23), therefore, will

1.

As

the valid form

fsniTTSTR

T^%

according to

Patanjali.

m^
$frr:

11

$*> 11
11
q^rft
;yojr
*tptot sts* f?r#r Fwi&ft n
44

^T^m

69.

Thus ?rrwr: 9TR%

The

shortening of

^r*T

srr%*m, a<r4<l ^,
,

^PC

40?^

s^i^s^j

affix),

takes place by VI.

<H<UHI^T

II

^o

<I^Tfa

II

II

11

ii

2TTO

II

f*T?7 Sf*T?5TO

*TTo

||

S^^^P

?nr

^tr^:

2.

42).

II

II

II

(III.

4. 94.

^R, ^^T, 3T*T^^T,


^rr^Sf^TT^ ST3T 3T*Tf ^rT^iHTW H^I%
ffrP
3H^cmi ^q s?toi% q xh^ ^ u ^r h wto 5*n% ?uft
3iPri*i
3^^^
'w^raf s*^ 5* " ^r n ^^^
^T<>
SETT

ll

and ^tptk are irregularly formed.

III. 2.

and

11

5^tF^:

<xw

gyer-fKsg:

ST*
||

^5^

Pn#T% WrT
g^rqtfW^Rffsr %?
II

m ^iw

11

'

3-rll^ ^RhaI^*:I

ir^^rMr

11

70.

word ^nr
As

;=p* is

the

augment of stst and sm^ when the

follows.

q^hH :=3Erereftrnr

So
Vdrt : So

Vdrt

language wsjrrc:

or st^tosktt- n

also of 3T*3, as

9**3^

also

bw^o

also in Vedas, of ?v% before 9?n::- e.

II

: Of V5 before *m, e. g.
Vdrt : Of ?far before to, e. g.
Vdrt

So

ii

vr^vr^T

m^m

II

II

g.

vftrarre,

in

secular

Mum

J232

Vdrt

but ^r?JFT^

Vdrt

Vdrt

3Tf*JT,

Vdrt

f*raf*r?s, e. g. ftffifJF^Ptt?:

^tit,

%^ precede

it e. g.

e. g.

grrsCr or

is

73

qj^r,

Thus

we say

*&:

q^rf*

11

^r,

ll

11

its

read

vs*

q^rft

ll

ft^\.

%Mm

Saran-

This

II

qrlr, r, n

See IV.

Why

2. 58.

*n%:, sn%, fswrqr, (

ll

or nsg?:

This

11

a krit-affix

JTS?:

vs^

II

II

q^rft

5^ )

do

ll

gn

before a

an aprapta-vibhasha.

is

having an indicatory

*, ftq:, irer,

II

t^t ^rero ^r ^g^rcT?


T^r ''Rrcr s^rerq- rafST*ns*Ri.

11

??r,

As,

4 tH<A

) R

ii

srrfor*

it is

tpfjr

ii

JT^rqt

f nr:

in the

II

As ^riH^l: or ^pr^, m?P&The augment is compulsory before


aftnmp

5^

feminine

ll

*T%:

II

*pr,

3*C3*ft or 3*rf??rr, *nT5*ft

gq d4TWif f%*rnqT 5*PT% *T^|%


72.
The word ^jf^r optionally takes
word formed by krt-affix.
31%:

II

added.

affix 5^ is

Observe ^RqTrT:

firorrr

srfar

^TJ^OT

when the words

Some

II

word has

this

^nrr<frs*qf ^r^rJrf = ^RTTrrr,


*f ?

ftfe*

the augment of the words ?^r and nte,

is

when the

before

also

is

%Fy$5rr H

e. g.

vs?

ll

gn

71.

before

Sr

trret

and then

),

seen in other places also,

s^rft^T

II

it

II

3**T 3R*T,

^^Rn,

or U^flrrr, HT^f^r or Hrsrgf|?n-, %5^5fr or %^ffrTT


1.

3TF?rf*Rqr:

substitute of f?$

is

IV.

74

II

takes gi* augment, unless

frrpy

II

ssur

garavadi class

Bk. VI. Cm. Ill

before f*>v, as *rg1%^:,

So also before
Of anc *? before
$sr^ optionally the

HHT, and

3*T, CT5T,

and

vrrg

A word before

Vdrt
FffTff^:,

Of sr^TO before f^ as ST^rwro:

Vdrt : Of
e. g.

augment.

ii

ii

The *r of the Negative particle


the first member of a compound.
Thus srgrrgnjp. 3Tf<sp*, *mw, vtmnr-

sr^r,

is

elided

when

11

Vdrt

meant

The ^ of

as, 3TT*TRr *

cWtt^f*
ffrf:

II

ll

?r^

is

S[W>, BTTOl%

vs*

ll

qrrft.ll

clWl^tHshHMSj: 5pTT*?f

74.

elided

before a verb also,

^ *&&'

^ura:, 3?, 3Ti%,

WW ST^l^TlTR'Tf

is

3rrcq^

II

II

above ^-elided

After the

when reproach

(i. e.

after sr) is

added the augment g, to a word beginning with a vowel.


Thus

3T?T3t:,

'jfw>, 3T5^2

11

Why

do we use

Otherwise 5? would have been the augment of

?njr,

rTSTrrt " after

such a ?rw"

and not of the subsequent

Hk. VI. Cn.

III.

for:

we have 3T^

ainst
ill
wi:

Nut augment.

I.

1.

Now

46).

sr^+aT^T:

cause the doubling of the

5^

tingency,

is

and not

srsrsT:

3 of sr^

Hence

^ar?,

VIII.

to prevent this

member and

32

3.

con-

not with

^iwr,

^H&<4H^HJM4>H%i4HHiH 4>$ st^tt vs^ n


^%^t,
igfc, **&, **&, Tj^r^, Tgnr, *m,

'iron*,

?TT*5, ST^^TT,
t*t* TTTfi
fnr:

STTsr: for

II

rui uim 1*144 Mi<ur


11

be

will

final

ordained with regard to the second

regard to ar or sja

q^ira

1233

the sutra would have read thus 3T% H


Adding 5^ to ?nT or rather
(granting that 57 is not to be added before ar but after it,

word
to

8T,

77

II

II

11

wn ^rcpn" *nir% ?r^ to h^<*


The Negative

75.

44^,

5TOT3T, TTTr*,

5HK

and

5TT^

Upto
sutra, the

'rare

to

t^>

*?m

^r^r

*n*

remains unchanged in

particle

^r^^TT (dual), *gf%, *$*, 5^, 5*3*^, ^T^T,

II

the words

^RfcErr

are exhibited

in

exhibited in the Locative

rest are

the Nominative case in

the

^jr3T^ = T^T?, formed by f^x

= TTTrt formed by ^rf affix. fr^T = ^r, formed


by stu^h sr?u sTW = sreiP, ^ *r^: = 3T*rerp, *r 3isrerp==5rrcr?n"ui ? ^^fff =sr
gpsr, formed by r% affix (Unadi), m& ^^n% = ?r^:
^r^I <*HRff=TO*
and

composition.

5*31

?r Trf^T

II

i^tT ^^=^5^^111 ?rw^^ff^ ^r=i^m^n

by t

?r^mfrr=5ra

affix.

?t

srfw* 3T3TC= ^rercu

q^T%^r^^ ^Tf^

II

VS^

II

The Negative

76.

a word which begins with

augment argy
Thus
compounds.
so.

that

^^1%:, ^, *z&&,

particle remains

and of

^7,

we have

^r,

3?^%

unchanged

^,

this

fNrR; = M*Mfatff<T trshisUtf^nJC H


The augment btt^^ is added to the

q%?r

there

is

11

in

the

These are Instrumental


of the first member,

?r

optionally two forms

snf&wwTcrnpnn
5T^s?*^rr ^nr

5T*ft
11

C 3*?)-

4. 45.

STtT:

q^TR

II

ij^rq;

q^if^r

11

fk^f^'

II

final

and

w.,

<rsfip*

srarfars,

nr*rf%

by VIII.

^?^^?:^ni:,

II

11

77.

unchanged

in

The Negative particle is optionally retained


it does* not mean a living animate
*r*T, when

being.

Thus

move

'.

The

^*U'.

or STfrn

affix

is

'

trees

added to

',

or

it*

ll

mountains

Why

',

literally

'

what do not

do we say when not referring

Some substitutes.

1234

Observe

to animate beings.

^qw

3Tt:

No

sft^T M

Bk. VI. Ch.

form

alternative

is

III. 80.

allow-

ed here.

*r^i
fnr.-

^tt^t^:

*r.

q-

^r^rsf^i

11

v9<^

11

q^nSr

11

t^recriwt *r^r%

78.

*t*rrai

5r^^t, w. 9

f^ra

substituted for

^T is

^tfttc

11

^,

in a

Name.

Why when it is a Name ? Observe


srrwr*
The word f has acute on the first syllable, because all
Particles have acute on the first syllable.
The substitute *r coming in the
room of the acute q- and the grave $, will have an accent mid- way between ^
Thus

*rre?*pr, *mv*ui4r,

STW^p^r, ST^*<tfl

II

II

acute and f grave, namely, it would have the svarita accent. But, as a matter
These are Bahuvrihi. In
of fact, it has the acute accent. As InpT, %*rr^
:

Avyayibhava, the samasa-accent

wworranfa*

79.

11

vs^

will prevail

q^rft

ll

ll

II

(VI.

I.

223

5r?nra, stto*,

the substitute for ^;,

^r is

),

^rq^pl^li

as%?g-,

ll

when

it

sense of 'upto the encV ( in connection with a literary

has the

work

),

or 'more'.

Thus

(^OT^FSpO

^R

(II.

So also *rg|fo=( ifrTFrT^ )


*T %*T?
Avyayfbhava compounds by 3T?cfword, denoting time, is the second member,

*rerP5=2ffP5R3 5%rrrsr^r%

sjjr^"nrlV%

"

when

Therefore,

1. 6).

ll

These are
a

11

all

would not be changed to *T, because of the prohibition in VI. 3. 81. The
present sutra removes that prohibition by anticipation, with regard tc timeof the end of a book
denoting words even, when the meaning is that

ST?

When
TTTJ

the sense

is

that of

'

more

',

we have

*rgT<JTT?sflr(r>

'.

*TTTq:

^NTTW:

41 hi ))<#(%

II

fkafr ^n^qr^r
ffrP

ii

f$<ffa

ll

s^tp^t srsro

*r

fk$w,
vim h

q^rfa

ll

fcroiresfr

11

**,

sr^qpsq,

ctrtct.

11

^r is the substitute for ^5, when it is in conwhich refers to a second object, which
word
nection with a
latter however is not directly perceived.

80.

Of
principal

or

is

what

is

known
is

two things which are generally found co-existing, the nonThat which is perceived, observed
called the second or ftcffa H

the

is

called

wwm,

to be inferred.

the presence of the


1

'

'

first,

That

is

that which
is,

3T3TT "

Here the

fire,

their existence

is

not perceived

the second object

is

added to such second word.

a pigeon whicri points out that

srmrHTT

when

&c
to

is

3T3TTOC,

t.

e.

be inferred from

Thus

conflagration has taken place

^rrra

fatfta:)

some where

'.

srerereffajr STFST
a storm-wind which announces the Pilachas
the Pisacha or the Rakshasas are not directly perceived, but
".

is

inferred from the presence of the pigeon &c.

II

Bk. VI. Ch.

III. .

84

F3TS*T*ftTT% -c||*l5i
81.

*\

II

3T333tf*rf^ ^ ^jtrt

11

r:

Some substitutes.

M<*lA

II

II

s?ifr^it^pw

3Tsq^fnTT%, ^T, 3T^T&,


*t?to

the substitute of

^r is

when the second member

is

1235

*r^*TO".

>t^i%

^,

an Avyaylbhava

in

11

not a word denoting time.


^rcvrffpni the second member being

Thus ST^^fl, T^t JTT5P, but


denoting
word (II. 1. 5).
time
sfrrcnfrrer

<^

11

82.

*ST

compound

the

is

q^T^

11

ll

srr,

^uj^srer

optionally

is

ll

fsrorrWr

11

the substitute

^%

of

when

a Bahuvrihi.

That compound in which all members are secondary 4W<j*H is a


*r#rcrsfT, and the Bahuvrihi is such a compound, because in it all the memThus *nr*T: or *T9S*
bers are secondary, the Principal being understood.
:

Why

do we say of a Bahuvrihi ? Observe *rfg*<n, *T?^r H


The substitution does not however take place in a Bahuvrihi like ^Tf^^fiT^: or

*rnr or <ftj-qffW

ll

The word

83.

*r^ retains its original

the sentence denotes benediction, except


or

^5

form when

when

it is ifr,

^r

II

Thus

wfa ffSTrra ^Tfi^ra,

^ssrr^rni, STSTinsrn*

ll

But optionally

wX ^^^m

here,

or 3ft?*rRt *T?^HT, or ^?tr


The phrase
pn%T *TC% S3*H or
sprnrar?^ is no part of the original sutra, but has been added by the Ka^ika
from a Wrtika.

as

m^ ^*5,

ll

^^"^^^snjr^*!

Igki

ffrT

JHjfcT,

11

<&

i^rf*

ll

ll

smnrcr, ^F^ftr,

SWRW *T %?TW^TT WrT S??TCT f^ft 5^ JT^R Sf^ fZtrn^rW^ffa <fes|R|Uir

II

84.

but not before

the substitute of

*C is

snjfo

ij^ta;,

and

3^

M?I

in the

as

SPIRfaffr

mw,

II

Chhandas,

This substitution takes place

*TP*fa, SrWrffa:

&C

in secular

sinf^

literature

*T*TPT-

also,

^
5

11

*pTP?r

^TiTd^H m^ <n%rrwTnT nr'si ^<w m n 5m ^t^ERsr^jif


ffrr

II

II

Thus ST3*mT SPT>^, vt&sm tfaw, $Fr> ***&'> (See IV. 4. 114).
it$: 5m$: rHT
~sr*TO formed by 3* affix IV. 4. 1 14. But SR^T^,
fffrT^:,

st,

II

*nrT?

*n%

?ttpt Trcrai

*ra

^r

ll

<z\

11

q^ift

ii

wr ^ *ro^ t*r *^s ^wstttt^i *rf-

1236

Substitute.

sr

This substitution of

85.

before s*nr%**;

*mm^,

rtfk,

^r for

tr^,

^nfir,

Bk. VI. Ch.

*fhr,

$ 89

III.

quu< takes place


^r, ^tr

srur,

snra;,

^R and sf^j in the common language also.


Thus

ffrT:

II

*3TC% *Tl*IR

STW,

STWPTi,

11

tf^lK^TTW SWTTO

^1%

fSHFTflW

*T

II

substituted for *etor before BfR'^Tfci; when


persons engaged in fulfilling a common vow of

86.
it

KG*,

TOilffi:, *T5R<T?:, SHinT:, ST^rf*:, SFTPTT, STTPP,

*nrar, 5ett^t;, w&g'>

denotes

^T is

studying the Vedas.


Thus

S3HTrar = *Tagl^l(r

srenff

studying the Veda,

ance of that vow

also called

is

common

studying being

to both

^^t

ing to Bhattoji Dikshit

He who

Vedic study.

sr^i

agT^TK<

called

is

i.

ll

e.

in the

means the Vedas. The vow of


He who is engaged in the perform-

Sg?

ll

sutra

STglfa

means a

brahmchari.

<M ^

11

*$

q^fa

ll

^ is

87.
affix *Rt is

Thus

added
QTcfrut:

fe*rT%3[T

m%,

<HJ4H

<: )

smrrerc

Mg3

*\

<tHt

mm (IV.

4. 107).

R*rn*r,

ll

89.

the

q^rfr

11

s% %ra *R^*i

affix sr;

^:,

a fellow-student

'

smR^ra:

WTR

The

^5

affix

is

sfr ^*rirercmq

for

a%*

*r^

^R,

II

The

which give
II

$T is

affixes

as the

ii

S%

^>J and f|p^ are added to


Vdrt
3Ff and ^r

forms

formed- by

gj^r affix

II

under

III. 2. 60.

and

53T

?^r

under

So

also

Vartika.

taken for the sake of the subsequent sutra.


ll

h#

ii

optional

is

11

11

before

^fajfafapflr * H i^fft 5T*i, r%rft:, to, tfr,


s^cst^
sPff
%i fw^rT^rtr^T qft f?r#r 3*Trcm*rfNiT
*rrf%^* ?% ^fn *r;^i. u
ii

^rcr^ )

) (

^, ^r, ^33, ( ctitoto:

substituted

':

as ^$r.

when the

II

Vdrt

before $T

11

*rr& u

ii

^T is

Thus *T% ^n^P


III. 2. 60.

a sa-

is

11

The substitution of ^f for


88.
before 3^; when the affix *RC is added to it.
Thus ^fai: or *ror%** (IV. 4. 108).
**;* *

a department of

^r^l" or

it.

q^TR

11

^,

Accord-

branch (charana)

substituted for cttr, before <fpl

to

= OTR

ll

11

prrTO^STsrSPTrft

common (samana)

has a

vow of

vow, the

to the

refers

STTPT

SPTR

ii

mjrasgs

II

Bk

VI. Ch.

III. .

90.

.e

words

92

Some Substitutes.

is

substituted

TO and -the

c*r,

Thus ft*, iw- and

affix

for

1237

f^n and

?rt

nro before

II

and flF^TT^
fa* and qfa* are
40 and the long f is elided by VI.

f^r*, stefv gftOT

changed to f + fr?C and eRT + ni'T by V.


and we get %n^ and rer^ "
4. 148

for

2.

II

Vdtt
*?r

So also before

^4hw

ll

ll

as ijM-

Off>

<TTif*r

11

*tt,

and zftm-

jiiti:, (

!l

^n^i^31

II

*rf%i?*u w^t%iTf^HLii

91.
(I. 1.

substituted for the final of the Pronouns

3TT is

27) before these words to, i^t and the affix


Thus rn^v, ;itop. rfr^r^, ir$a?> *TnFSP, sjr^rrac.
Vdrt
So also before $r, as rny$'> and iircw

mi

\\

11

II

faM^<w hg d<iui^rfi

92.

^gr, is

11

In the room of the

sonant that follows

and

( arc ) grsrsi^

it,

substituted

q^rrft

11

f^ro,

^rcft: f

vowel with the conof a Pronoun and of the words favijK

srftr,

when

arsy

last

with the

affix

follows.

Thus fqMMvq fjT^reSfgfg, This form is thus evolved. T^ + f^^=+ 0=3T>^+5!:( VII. 1. 70 ) Then there is elision of the final conjunct
consonaut sv, then the final dental is changed to guttural because of the f^T^
s^ is changed to 3F and we have st? which with nwfc
affix (VIII. 2. 62 ), e.
gives the above form. V^ajf nm^, 321^
arrj? and *m* ( VI. 3. 95 ) have acute
on the final irregularly (nipatan) in order to prevent the krit-accent. and when $
Why do
is changed into *i the following vowel becomes svarita (VIII. 2. 4).
wesayoff^nand %^ ? Observe s^r^ft = 3TSPT3*Tra, the feminine sfri being
added by'IV. 1. 6 Vdrt. The 3T of snar is elided by VI. 4. 138. and the final of
ST** is lengthened by VI. 3. 138. Why 'when ars^ follows? Observe Rn y g<*
Why do we say 'when the affix ^ follows'? Observe fa^TS^?t The * is totally

**>**

i.

II

11

II

by VI. 1. 67. Another reading of the sutra is *\\\<u~n (3T o--<=HMH^q ).


It would give the same result, the meaning then being when no affix follows.
The word toetSi or 3T5TCR1 indicates by implication that in other places where
simply a verb is mentioned, it means a word-form beginning with that verb
which ends with some affix. For had STJpara not been used, then the rule would
have applied not only when anch followed, but when afichana ending in rg*

elided

also followed.

26

The maxim >m^^r

<T*TT?

PTPTTC^

is

illustrated in *nrc^rt

and

Some Substitutions.

1238

Bk. VI.

C11. III.

96

VIII. 3. 46 teaches that visarga is changed into s^when fj follows.


There the gj denotes not only the root 35 but a word derived from ^, therefore
which begins with >, such as ^jrC: and ^:
Therefore the rule applies to forms
3ra^TN;:; for

11

3T*rc^ which

like

3TO*?SP

In the

^ frTT^t T"

and then

11

but

thus in

3ff#W there

in

Then

II

is

this

added

is

ll

V*

before

for ^n*,

this

sr^f

11

<T3TT%

II

fclK

affix (or

II

affix) follows.

sras^f, ^^>=q

*rf*r,

94.

ftw:,

11

substituted

is

foft, raft,

II

before this srs^

for TcHST

provided that the

affix) follows,

st

%&%

of

not elided.
Thus f*mw, Rt^4li

sion

'

in the
(2)

*nr:, *rft,

II

substituted

is

(or

fawferSrrtr

when no

i^tM

II

^rfxr

affix

Thus

in ffJHTt,

derived from fsF^+srs^^rff + s*^

is

93.

when no

no substitution

is

like sr^peft H

*ro: srfo

is

as well as to forms like

Vedas, diversely before the feminine nouns

there

^fNr

substitution.
#T<j

II

Vdrt
"f^rqrsft

followed merely by the verb

is

i%?;wr,

sutra

ambiguous.

"Where

is

there

is

no

^TCBJ *rf& *A
:

ffrP

11

fq&

Observe

fcRS'sp

Here

The

I^Tft

lowed by no
Thus

affix (or

spsaptr,

snsara*.,

there

no

is

The word

eli-

3T^TT

where 3T is elided" or
meaning should be taken however.

^Tfk:,

ar

when

4. 138.

II

srsrer^^f*

substitute of ^rs,

the

is

^rBr

by VI.

'

elither (1) "

latter

H^T,

*%&m srrarc3raTrfr ^r^n^^r


95.

do we say

3T is elided

may mean

It

elision".

II

Why

II

before

%&%

fol-

affix).

^Twwt:

and

tftfh*:,

See VI.

srcfNru

3.

138

for long vowel.

*ra m^ritags^ftr
fTrr:

OT^f

11

s?tflr

and

f%^

*ir^ **r

96.

*re

ll

^n^

11

mw

f^Trr^Trrr^r:

snsr, *ttt,
*rer

substituted for

is

*ffr>

ssrawiw

^r%,

in the

ll

"

*r*rfir

Veda, when

^^r follow.

Thus ^Wft*I*
3^mr, sr^fnny srwfr

SFFcTOnEnhsft

I^FH'^rTr:, *Tvre*IT :

^3 (Rig

s<T

fe

ll

II

<^\s

11

I. 3.

Another example

7) ^*rrnF?rr ^rr srfaraL

q^rft

11

fie,

bt?cTt,

is

arr^T

f^r 9TOT

11

^TO%q:,

srq:, fee,

II

Bk. VI. CH.

III. .

99

After

97.

substitute of sn*

By

ST**T(t<r, *ft<T*,

F^r/
S^TiRI.

11

1.

I.

WIT and

fe,

1239

Prepositions, long $

is

the

Thus

5TT:,

II

% replaces the first-letter of

54,

#T*,
:

SOMl sri.sTITUTES.

tf*fri*

II

The samasanta

Prohibition should

btt.

only.

viz 31

added by V.

st is

be stated with regard to

4. 74.

WW\

^TTT*T

;TTH

long f substitution does


word upasarga strictly speaking denotes

Others say after a Preposition

in bt,

the

not take place. Thus JTTT^, qTFP* II The


adverbs, and cannot be applied to nouns like stj; here however, this word

used

in a loose

s^r^fr

II

sense in the sutra.

\<

<rrrf?r

II

ll

It

means

^, ^:,

is

&c.

it

^$r,

II

After srg, ^ is substituted for (the ar of ) sm,


when the sense is that of a locality.
Thus arijTr^:, but 3T5#T^when locality is not meant. The long 3? is
taught for the sake of showing how the word is to be analysed; as 3T3 3JT - 3T^q".
The form 3T^<T- could have been evolved with a short 3 also, as 3Tf + ^q = sr^T:
98.

11

ll

But

this analysis

is

not intended.

OTOT^fhn*rwrre* 5^r^ a^Tr^TftrcrTr^^it^T^*<i k^% iivui


q^rft n w*w, ^cj^r^^^^r, st^t^, 5^, srr^fr:, srrsrr, sttcsit, surrey,
*

3t^^t, 3rra, ^rc*F,

*i*t,

^5

11

^#rf rft^^R?

srrtffcrfts

^*

11

when not used in the Genitive or the


Instrumental, gets the augment <j?ir (5), before srrfsrac, srrsrr,
srrcsir, 3Tn%TcT, st^j ^ 3 n%, 3TC5? and ?:ft, as well as before the
99.

sTfq-,

affix

(t*r).

Thus sror

'"srrcftj

= srosreftj

ST^^R^TJ, 3T?% ?FT = 3T?^sTrT:


takes g- because it belongs to
:

II

So

sjan"

3Tr^r=3T^^rw

also with

T$rf! class

S",

IV.

2.

as

btt^tt

3T52TRT^

138.

arr^^T-sr^i^Twr,

W=

3T?2T$ta-

II

It

138)/ Why do we say


Observe 3T?3^r 3?T5ft. == BT^rsft:,
st?5FT 3TTf^rT = 3T^rTC-*Trn &c.
With regard to the word knst and the affix g-,
the 337 augment is universal, though 3T?Jf may be even in the Genitive case

The word

when not

375^

in Genitive

belongs to

or the

TTfriT class

(IV.

2.

Instrumental?.

&c

as ar?^?!

^rc^ = 3T*3ri;

HRIT3P*,

rence of two negatives in the

3TO^rc*= 3Tll?<mi

sCitra (awst"

and

arfrftar),

ll

The unusual

implies this.

occur-

Some Substitute.

1240

aro Bransrr
^n?r:

ii

^oo

II

q^rf^r n st$, ftnrrer,


STr^r T^nt h

t:

5*7

As it^*}:

or

*^q^

sf^r

when a word
member.
As
Observe
a vowel

" ?

ii

\o\

II

g 106

li

3TT** :

^KWl"

^HBpi

Why

ll

do we say

"

^
II

?*

T^TI%

II

102.

fjnr ^r

cfiytr:,

*tf&

l\

ll

II

<**3

II

8rpto

?o^

qft:,

^frg^, *rfe,

ll

Why do we say in a *,Tatpurusha ?


when the second member begins with

\*v

as 37TO =5f^^TTlR:
:

^^ft:, ^,

^f^wrrWr

T^rft

h^t%

II

II

ii

$:

But

II

<&,

before

**, srraV,

frf Sftd flr

*i^nft

ll

x& and

ll

^r,

fr,

when

wm* = iff*rrfa

*u%

sr^rot:,

?jor

<mw

ll

ll

qfsFJC

f*^-3T
^IHWlt >r*nt

*r is

the substitution for :,

II

II

II

ii

when the meaning

ll

may
3.

begin

101

as

3^

11

* v<

106.

word 33^

andsis?

Ff: ^TT

ftror^r

also.

follows de-

Though the second member


As ^PTtj**, ^rn^rwr 3> *W4
with a vowel, yet this substitution takes place, in spite of VI.
^rwnsni

ll

the substitute of $;, before

q^TT%

f^^f *^RTTOI

ll

substituted for

is

*jr is

and

||

105.
a small \

T*T,

II

*PT

substituted for

ll

^ficj

104.

Thus

#r.

is

noting a species.
As e^orr 5TTT infer*
qwr^pft:

ii

when

***v

103.

II

q^nfa

ii

u?*t

is

*^K

to ** f^rT^rwn:q^r:

Thus

*pt

Observe fwrSTT:, $3*r


is substituted before
Vdrt

gqMq^igr

is

III.

substituted for ^ in a Tatpuxusha,


beginning with a vowel follows as the second

qftSP)

figr CHIT

'

(^^r^)

augment of

optionally the

is

r^W

101.

ff^T*.

Bk. VI. Ch.

8T$rer*?3Trc<f$ srarro fairer

100.
z{$ follows.

ff%r:

follows.

^r

11

is

v^rfa

ll

f^rr^r,

optionally

j^,

ll

substituted for

5:,

when the

Bk. VI Ch.

Irregular Compounds.

This

Thus ^T^TJ
of

little

or fjg^T! II
substitution
the
far',

107.
f:

when ^nr

*?T

is

In the sense

an aprapta-vibhasha.

compulsory

is

1241

as

rr*

2W-

ajjr

yi*r

II

and *s*^are optionally the substitutes of

follows.

As *wiwi*, ^^r. or *$wni H

This substitution of *>r, and *^ for $ takes


before <w
place in the Veda,
and 5W:
_
WW",
Thus *WW,
_^
^qftro,
t^t^t,
?o^
n
*v&
*irtfft
ftfrir t*% * Sift ntr*M
*
fSMnwrtftwn
n*nf**S
108.

II

^^

ll

**t^w

^ Jw*
*^T

11

ii

ii

ffSTfn

OTgPT

Pi
,

109

III. .

KaHH-^^m ******* 5T ^TW y*T**ilT*


The

09
1U

SL
treatises

m0 de

augment and mutation of let& c though not found taught in


v*. ."that extent and in the

elision,

^_.

ofTm^e
01

as taught

t*tT

^ ^^^

of the ga

wmn^T- = TOT3P, here


Here there is
here *r has
TOH IW-I^WW'
9r:-*f>,
laces , of TO **,
by **
for
"TR IS re P laCed
and
TO
**
w;
replaces
here
elision of T

II

So

also

and ^ replaces ^
^"^tirhTreT-eTE^ affixicj" the
"""^

^^
^^n^^^
before

is

replaced bv ,*, and the

optionaUy

^ X-The

after

of

is

changed to

and J, is replaced

final

of

is

elided

a word denoting d.recfon, as

^"^

final

l^***"

locative,

ll. Hereto takes the

ifJSj fS2

<m

, before

become;

nr,

** as>

and

"T

* (meaning

Some substitutes.

1242

and the first letter of the second member


STTO = qT^; so <sft;g"5T qi[qT or qtsr 3^11

'location'):

Thus

q"?

?|??rr

The

The

number

putting of *frg in the plural

w%

= T>rr

and the

first

q? Wffi or

letters

of these are changed to their corresponding cerebrals.

of gt

3 =*f^TO

?TTO%, 5**RT

changed

is

v^franr

preceded by the upapada


Vdrt:

Vdtt:

5:,

f$*

f*TTCP,

'

Here

f^i'

*TTO^t fr?r# (frfT^

The

wrarTprre.

to s, before

by

is

final

of

<ffatf

is

^TPST,

and

W5j

In the last (^>T) there

added the

^r when

Imperative

q^sr &c.

^T,

affix

3fj

is

to the root

III. I. 136.

substituted for the final of

is

qf^

the Vedas: as

is

the verb

^ follows in

Pers. Dual).

1st.

elided in the Vedas. as

ft%<r

qq-

3?^, arorcn^rnr,

*tft, <re*, ^Tf ft,

110.

st^j;

in the Locative

cedes

m has

has the

final

elision of the nasal also.

jtrt,

these:

it

The

5%^ ?T**%,

iqT ("E%)

In fact

II

is

11

Vdrt.

Thus

addition of ^

indicates that

many parts or ways" (^RTfasnCT).


The rule therefore does not apply to

here the meaning of "in


force of an affix here.

III. 112.

changed to ^ or 7

is

optional here.

Bk.VI. Ch.

may

be substituted for

optionally

when a Numeral,

singular,

or fk or

srf

^re pre-

it.

Thus fsfrcspfa^gj?

1
,

5?i3:

II

The Locative

singular of these are gjf|

So also gfs?, T*i1r


With nr sstfg, 5^1% or s^S
H
are
These
and this very sutra is an
traits,
*rnjT?R,
?HTfr|
^iTTOPJra
^rm
indicator that ar?^ may be compounded with other words than a Numeral, or
Thus we have ^Tr}| = *TWTo'. (II. 2. 1). But <vH and arwf, only.
fa or ^rra
or gjfPT,

or 5?^f?r H

>stf|

II

:,

11

qraft

Ftt:

11

^^r srteft sor:

s^nf^nsfqT sf^*

s^ft, <re s^r^fr

*t

or t

^ and 3" a corresponding


Thus rft&l, tfte*, ST*TS*l

f^W, T^r

*5CT *TO

*rarr

tnre^:

for the elision of C see VIII.


it is

3. 14.

II

*frer H*rffi

is

ff%:

11

*rf? *tf|

But

3TP|SJ:,

ii^tt*

II

3?t

When f

for the sr or

3TF*T*

W=

II

the
is

is

formed with the

*n%, ^r:,

3.

3Tffc*T,
13,

and

not lengthened because

srta;,

ofarf ^

sr^Sr^,

qru

||

or t are elided, there

stt

preceding

For the elision of 5 see VIII.

it

I)

substituted.

is

*^-R^TK* = *fkTKT,

i&%*nww\*K arf^fr *nrr?r s%>

112.

tution of

II

^rir:, srnr.

11

for the

elided,

not included in the pratyahara 3T^ which

^fe^TH^rer

^^r,

f<?5ft,

Long vowel

II

q^rf?r

11

When ?

111.
ST,

\\\

11

of the verbs

?s?r

and

is

the substi-

II

Bk. VI. Ch.

Ill 115.

Thus
8T or 3TT

^TST,

Observe

also?

The

to btt

by Vriddhi

rule

ed only short

^ft^n

3ft-.,

Why

do we say

Why

il

do we say of

which includes long

3?==^

3? of

^ and

q%

*rr

changed

is

Tf^TI, 3?4re*l n Had merely 3? been read into the


coming after the ? of 3?^, it would have denot-

as

then

(mm Vi'-^WIK-

3?

1243

and ?t&ZFi

%'s 5*.

apply even when the short

3T^

W<k WT
ft'lft

W5^, ^T,

^P5*,

will

sutra, instead of

Some Substitutes.

<HltfM ftnfr

I.

II

I.

75)-

11$

q^r/ifc

II

^T^", ^TfT,

II

*TT3T,

ffir,

II

tfw-

ii

^rw

^r^r

*i%

srrcr

mzk,

113.

f^Ti^

f%<nfa

and ^t^t are

^rrfT

irregularly

formed

in the Vedas.

Thus 5IW smmfc


*ft

OTST

II

is

STTjr

ST^

formed by

h^ affix.

II

The

latter

is

formed by wit

In the other alternative w*tT

not taking place.

Tf substitution

^T

In the secular literature

the

affix,

changed to
and
are

is

^r

the proper forms.

^ferrer*

II

<T3TT% ll^fedMIH,,

II

II

upto the end of the


" In an unpada, are to be supplied the following words
'\
interrupted flow of speech
In the following

114.

sfttras

Thus

sutra VI.

3.

135

declares "*r at the end

of a two-syllabic in-

Thus ^rrfl^r SP^nr ^t rh^r*


The word ^f^rTnTT^ should be read into that sutra to complete the sense. So
that when the above words stand separately, we have FTO,f?, ^n/, fl"c*Tr%, *JT,*TRPIU
flected verb

becomes long

in

the

Hymns".

^t ^TnT^rf^^sq^^f^m^r^^f^^^^rnEcr^^^r H f ?mi q^rr%


*tff ^rt^t, 3T r%s, snj, q^, *rftr, fire, f^sr, fese, *&t, ^f^F^r (sft^r:) u
,

31%:
sr

11

^^rm ttt^ wwR-ft

^mrs^rf^TT

*hff >refir r?e

Before

long vowel for the

qsur,

there

final of the

notes a proprietorship

is

the

substitution of a

preceding word, when

it

de-

mark on the ears of cattle, but not when

the words are ft^, sjs^, <T^C, *rm,

fvrsT,

f^r,

'

1%^,

^ and

II

Thus sranfi*r
here means any
:

pj^Tjt

hfa r*r fssr ray spt ^tfrr-

11

115.

^ftd^

3re^ t*

11

on the ears of

The word
3^pwk*p
mark showing the proprietorship, put or made
Why do we say when it denotes such a mark ?"

rlnpTr^rn:, f%*joTrer*:. Kt3ttrarf:,

peculiar

animals.

11

i*44

Sanhita-changes

.Observe trTWWJT

Why

II

*f*r.

Tf* snr

11

fa*fi

119

do we say 'with the exception of faS&c'? Observe

^ft

*fetfasfas*fairf^^rfa5 ** "*

ftmuT

Bk. VI. Ch. Ill

*fk, *fa, ffa, rf*.

f wws fa* totot%$w%

tf*r rf^r *f*r *rff fff^r

s*wi #4t *ro?w ir-

11

116.

long vowel

substituted for the final

is

vowel of the preceding word, before the verbs i(W,


^^r, ^nr and ^[, when these roots take the affix fyr

f*r,

f?j f

II

(3<TPT^ Nom. S.), so also, qCNfl(, 'ft**, ^TTf^, (with vrt)


v
sh
with
) WT**, CWHT*, Mlf*H,(with vyadh) sft*, iT<faF% (with
f
JTTf^.^rf^, (
(with
sah)
The nasal is elided after ip* before
trffrRr (with tan).
ruch) qnftaki

Thus TTFT*

f% (VI. 4. 40), by an extension of that rule,


do we say when ffc follows ? Observe Mfl'JTfl*
sptfrrcf:

*mn;,
Hfw

f*rft

^mfligg tmCmm

fw>goJ*i^HiH,

^t**:,

1*

11

tfinwf

ll

elided after

it is

Why

also.

II

\V*

ll

q^rft

II

nr, foft:,

tf-

11

f^*frcapcTW^*n%*ni

tii*M^T^f flfJipwrrffTf *r

fNf warn ^rwit faro

11

For the final vowel of ifcK &c. a long vowel


substituted before ^r, and so also of ffcgprwr &c. before faft:,
117.

is

the compound is a Name.


Thus 3KT*T!T>tw, f%"tr3KT^jrw f**U<nHL, WRwrfPI
So also !%3pp|fTfitft:, T*-l*lll*lR:, &c
The ^ is changed to or in ar by VIII. 4. 4. But n f^lM^*! and

when

II

ffrft

as these

words do not belong to the above

1 cRter, 2 F*srer, 3 rerwar,

faaa*

7fff?

srrffore.

4 s*r

2 friFf

(f%ipwr),

ll

??*

ii

<^n%

n *ra, ( <jfo*r tftfh )

The

final

affix *FZ

Thus ingtftw, itfrW,

11

fftt^ir.

ll

of the preceding word

is

leng-

II

WW

ll

These are'formed by the

affix *nrr

112).

Vdri : Not

terror)

far***?), 3 snr*, 4 ****, 5 wi*pr, 6

aTj^trr^win J"ih fir

thened before the


2.

(star), 5 *rrrc*

ll

118.

(V.

fwj-

classes.

^vron*

) n

so,

of **OTS,

W*

and ftw

as **frrj*w:, *rw*w:

and

foww

II

Bk. VI.

Cii. Ill 122

Samhita-lengthening.

124

The final vowel of a word consisting of more


119.
is lengthened before the affix jt^, when it is
syllables
two
than
a name, but not of the words stt%?: &c.
Thus

affix

do we say

'of

Why

^^rrerfr ^t^rr^fh Ss^Rrft,

s^n;r^rfr,

ed by the

(IV.

2.

85)

The

changed

is

These are formby VIII. 2. 1 1. Why

9T*rcPTrft

to f^,

11

a word consisting of more than two syllables

? Observe cftf^Trft
&c\ Observe srfire^ft, <JriWTcft, sfPFTOfr, ?^^7Rthe word is not a name, there is no lengthening,

II

'with the exception of 3TPtt

<T^t, ^nr^raf^ft
as 3r?^<ft

When

II

1 srr^rc, 2 *?rf^, 3 ^f^T.

srcnftar =*
^frr

II

11

'^

q^TT%

11

grr^T^

As

vimft, %*TPKft

The

ll

But not so

2. 11),

*t

^rerrr^ )

sroCRra:, ^,

11

^ H%t #TT WrT ^H^f f^TO


The final vowel
120.
when it is a Name.

OT^faT

fore jr*
(VIII.

?^o

^^^^.

fa:

of sre &c.

lengthened be-

is

is

&c

as these belong to

*rf9r,

7 3ft, 8 |jf^-, 9 53.

of

after pfrff

II

II

changed

Name

*nrrr% class

(VIII.

? because

to

it is

2.9).
1 w:, 2

3 **, 4

srer,

^t s^r^:

r*ft

srfrr^*

ii

ir\

11

^ri^

11

srft^rfRffafa ^rjsto.

121.

srft, 5 ?tfft

The

w*,

srir,

sfilret:

11

11

jand

final

the

3:

of a word, with the ex-

ception of cft, are lengthened before


Why do we say 'ending
Thus s^qr^*, sfrifa?*, g^ffa^C
||

ll

Observe fq^f*
Vdrt:
*re*?*

ffrf

II

Why

11

not of ffg? Observe <ft^f*

in js* vowels' ?

ll

should be stated "with the exception of 7^ and the

It

rest."

As

ii

S7tfTTO

^JtRtT^ S^^tf^W *% #ff

The

*3I%

II

vowel of a Preposition is diversely


lengthened, before a word formed by the krit-affix sr^, but
122.

final

not when the compound denotes a


Thus
It is

5ft?:, 3faRf:, STTPTrtf:

lengthened

J?r^>R5,

otherwise

nRlfn*5 or

before
5*rf?s

frfi^t?:

f*TOr?ri3i:

27

11

*rr?

and

and i^TR:

When human

S&n:,
ll

human

It .does

II

being.

not take place, as q%^:,

when building

Optionally

is

in %*[ &c. as

beings are meant, there

jf^-.

\\

meant, as rotT?: and


is

qfwT:

or

STrfV%^T: f

no lengthening, as

Samhita-lengthening.

1246

f^r: *ft$t

?^

II

before

As

*ft*

\\

:,

w^x
CMi ren

do we say 'ending
end in %&

^ Ww

^:,

II

^rr,

A Preposition

123.
its final

<icprft

ll

III.

127

II

ending in

$,

^ lengthens

or

II

^Wcftr ^ t

formed by sr*

sfiTO is

II

Observe

3' ?

% or

in

f&x

Bk. VI. Ch.

(III.

1.

134)-

Why

where the Preposition does not

Ji^TO:

ll

fnr:

ii

sr

q^R

II

ll

its final
<T

say

'

is

^r

^t,

when

lengthens

the latter

is

changed

(VII.

sr^r:
II

11

ll

changed to

substitute of

<T

Observe

'

beginning with a

fT,

4. 46).

*iwlH

'

Rcfi^*

Why

II

Observe Uf tTt here

^3m%

II

i^NlH,

st^t:,

do we say fa

srm^r

the substitute

is

^: )

II

substituted for the final of

is

member, when the compound

3rm*f>:, STST^p::

'

II

before the second

Thus

<r

f^rffar^

^PST #*ff H^r%


long vowel

BTffH^lrl^'fn^

125.
3T^j[

See VII. 4. 47 for the change of ^r to rT II


T^tfr
where the prepositions do not end in f or ^
Why do we

Thus %tT*> #tT^,

fPT:

11

II

JHT^r, 3T^tT^,

*r

*?cf?r

II

Preposition ending in 5 or

vowel, before the verb

But

of

srwr^ )

^:, ft, ( 3ff: **&:

i^ <TO^^^wsr*re<T s^wtsptto tr3r


124.

to

II

But

3TS5^r:, 3TC*Tr4:

is

a name.

vvhere the

com-

pounds are not names.

W^ ^f^l
II

II

\R$

*$fa

\
*rf%^*
frf:

11

<nrc *r

3^"

V^lfo

*rrsrrarTE^T

^^ftr, ^,

II

S^ff tf 3f

S??T

T^r%

^3f

*t^t?i%

In the Veda

126.

( sfHt: )

also,

stt^*

11

the long vowel

for the final of st^j; before a second


the feminine

elided in a Bahuvrihi

Vdft
lar,

The

),

is

&&: ^rt

?^\9

\ f%:

NfrTOS^

the

affix *$;?

II

1.

8) of areqi^CV.

being substituted for

qrrj;

^cfii*i

^tt% ftm:,
TOr *Nf WrT
II

II

substituted

ffrrr g*icft

11

The form

138 the 3? of qTf being

4.

by VI.

of ars^is lengthened before

meant. Thus 3T5rFT^

3ffq"

127.

3^7 (IV.

T5I

final

when yoking
(I

in

is

member.

Thus srFwrereFTR f^^i, srerf^w vwm, 3T5tt#


9T5T<TfT is

II

11

tr

4, 130.

even

in

the vernacu-

II

^ft,

^:

ll

11

The

filial

vowel of fefe

is

lengthened before

Bk

VI. Cii. Ill

133

Thus q^fMtap,

fexfw

sr^rrr.

Samhita-lkngtiieming.

f$r%?ffap,

ll

The

RrfMt'T
<rrift

II

1247

11

^,

fe****r,

ntr:,

^Nh

II

vowel of fir*ar is lengthened before


and ^7 (the form assumed by tt*t).
Thus nw^f RPJT^U The rule applies to the ?x* form of ?r*T in
128.

^j

final

not when

the Nominative singular, and

f^rrsp

retains

it

MgN IH

?R

?^

II

**&$

II

II

^OTTO,

5T^,

The final of f^
compound is a Name.
129.

when the
Thus

when

it is

ftit

ff%:

frar?rc:,

tt

sr^r,
ffrr*.

11

^n%

II

II

ft%, ^,

^,

?rc? *n*m

the
As f^rrm^i

it is

'the

^,

*TCT

*^

lengthened before

is

frlr. ;

l\\

II

q^TFT

II

are lengthened

fa*HMUHWWIH

*mrarn, (
sffafa^TO
ffrf

II

^T,

*H%,

3TT,

TCBt ^?^t *rai%

when the

11

^ffar,

affix *Tg<r

3r*sr,

follows.

fTO^r^t

?jrir^fV, 3T**raft, srfspktt,

**%

II

In a Mantra, the final vowels of

f^r^T

first

II

i^f^i ^nr 3r^r ?f^? f^ra^s* s^faqf Tg^^

*CT*5r

) H

fti%srer, *#r,

and

*Kh

sage Visvamitra'. But fr^TTO* a boy called ViSvamitra'.

^Rn^rfepifal^nCT TT^

Thus

II

11

The final of f%sgname of a Rishi.

131.
gft %qr

t^TRR: (the son of Vishvanara). But ff*TK: = ff%

%wf*ifo fw^r

f*r% #nreTf

JT5%

*(Nh

lengthened before

is

130.

when

form: as f^**Hft,

not a name.

ii

own

its

11

^TT%

II

II

3Tt^:,

*,

ft?F$r,

3TST-

) n

II

f%*HfraiPITnif TOT*

^Nf *nt%

II

In a Mantra, the final of sfnrRl is lengthened before the case-endings, but not in the Nominative.
132.

Thus
fore

sfns^rfarfPTrr^,

case-endings

'

W>

W>

"jn-n^

Observe STPTfwt

sfrawsT

Why

"

Why

do we say

do we say
'

'

be-

but not in the

Nominative

'

Observe fwfcrc*fc8*n*

^r% g^wgcr^s^s^inirw
ar^, $*, grwuuin*,

^ra-

ll

11

II

l\\

ll

irrft

ii

^1%,

3, 3,

*rg,

Samhita-lengthening.

1248

In the Rig-Veda the

133.

^ ^ie

3 3> ^>

3^\q- are

tense-affix cT^,

*T^:*TT

WP5RIII
rf

when

substitute of m",

^r% *3*
^ RTmr 5ra

nr.
11

the ending

sr

and the word

II

II

?T^

treated

it is

ff >*Rsr
qsrrR

II

R,'g IV 3 2 x ) 5?: ^f
: ^T ^rRPTOP* ( Rig X.

F? f^L (

TfPT5<pftjf?

here, ^ofr^ srrfFT: (1.2. 4;.

ff^j

of the particles

finals

lengthened
o

Thus 5 :3TT 5
the

r,

[Bk. VI, Ch. III. I37

^jtito gftr

as fw<l, therefore

^sr^r

^fsr,

s*>:,

ll

<r*;rfr

*TP

*Fami

176. 2

^^
3<T

rT^ is

).

does not apply

it

3*<an" off*!

( qfNfc

II

II

fr*ff *rcrer u

In a Mantra, the finals of the preceding


member ending in % or ^ are lengthened before the particle
134.

Thus

The

*r is

3T>ft

changed

SpretafenF*.

II

*n#TT* (Rig- I V. 3 1.
by VIII. 3. 107: and

or:

to q

?V*

135.

^rf?f

II

tense

II

&4 3* ^t 33*

*T

changed to

sr*:, 3T3:, fa^:,

affix

ending in

or

st is

( Rig I. 36. 1 3
by VIII. 4. 27.

3T% sfHh

).

II

lengthened in

the Rig-veda, when the Verb consists of two syllables.


Thus ftot f?
*T*<Tlt fn: *rr;rr^&c. See Rig III. 42. 6, ffsr,* f?

<TTO

fa^TO

&c. But not here f^r *TTrT llT^R-, as the verb consists of more than two syllables:
not also here 3jr f%T^
3T3T ^as the verbs do not end in 3?

faqTcn*r
%v*t'<

11

^ n ?^

rtht^ *

iif^<ra

136.

thened.
Thus

Sfirfel*

^rr%^f*r

11

^rr%

BrrWr

11

fa<rnrer,

w?r

^f%

) (

^Hh

) n

11

In the Rig Veda the final of a particle

X&\ %, 3?=^%,

sT^mfa ^^r%
*R

II

11

II

BT^T

??vs

II

gtflSK* f R.

<r^rfr

ll

I. 2.

is

leng-

).

sr^^rrq;. srPf,

c^^r,

sfHr:

II

II

3T*r

^'tr^^f^^r^^"'^
The elongation of the
11

137.

final

is

to be found

in other words also.


Here we must follow the usage of the Sishthas. Where the lengthening
by any of the rules of Grammar, but occurs in the writing of
ordained
is not
standard authors, there

we should

accept such lengthening as valid.

Thus

Samhita-lengtiieninc,.

B. K. VI. Ch. III. 139]

Vdrt:

^f,

The

T^>

=?*T?.

^ V
*

II

ffrf:

of *j^ is lengthened before the following ^r,

and *V as
V^rfo

II

*#r t^t:

11

fin.il

1249

II

**TW
^T,

^#Tf^i tf^f ^f?T

*3T?%->, **&?%', *?rff*T,

<j^fT%:

^T^r?:,

^rT^, *XWV

II

^reis^%#re^r*re7rcT *m?r

11

^gr, ^pJr

11

The final vowej. of the preceding member


lengthened before 3^, when it assumes the form
having
138.

is

and the vowel.


Thus swfa: ***' ?**Nt> 3 ft% T^s 7**, l^rr, **%
The nasal of
is elided by VI. 4. 24, and the ar by VI. 4. 138. In sfa + ar^r the f is not

lost its nasal

>

8T*T

changed to

its

II

semivowel, though that

is

an antaranga

rule,

because the present

sutra ordains specifically long f and so also yft + *T^C and *n* +
,

VI.

3.

sr^

ll

See also

92.

^M^ KUl^

?^

II

II

T^T

II

WUHKUU:^,

^rRq^

fHt:

11

The vowel substituted for a semivowel is


when
it stands as the first member of a compound.
lengthened,
139.

As ^1*1*1?%^:, ^rfrspT^rrnt:, ^rs**iwft<Tfip u See. vi. 1. 13. sitfrqw*


T?^tS^=^qTf?^: {j oeing added as samasanta by V. 4. I36and 137). The optional shortening ordained by VI. 3. 61. does not apply here, for that option is a
definite

and

restricted option; moreover,

superseding a precedent/ rule VI.


rule VI.

3.

is

is

on the

61

61 can not be revived by the

formation of a particular form


rule

3.

is

maxim of q?c^, 'a subsequent

superseded by VI.

maxim

5^:

jrcrjf

n^r

3.

rule

139; and the

"occasional ly the

accounted for by the fact that a preceding

allowed to apply again, after

subsequent

rule. "

it had previously been superseded, by a


For here the following maxim will prevent the revival q $fl;n

f%sn<TO*Pl*rfarr TOPfcrfa' "

when

two

rules,

while they apply simultaneously,

mutually prohibit each other, that rule of the two which

is once superseded
superseded altogether, and cannot, therefore, apply again, after
the latter rule has taken effect.

by the

other,

is

BOOK SIXTH.
Chapter Fourth

ST^T

II

<T^TT%

II

3^*T,

II

Whatever

1.

II

be taught here after upto the

will

end of the Seventh Adhy&ya,

consequent upon the stem

is

(anga).
This

an adhikara

is

Thus

sutra.

ing of the vowel of a samprasarana

VI.

in

taught the lengthen-

4. 2 is

as |rp, ^fa:, Spffa:

That means that

II

the vowel preceded by a consonant belonging to the stem

Therefore in ftr + w>T + tR = ffi^T*, the vocalised vowel 3


f^c

is

So

upasarga and not stem.

thening of the
q^I, as

f*r

and

*r

<TFFTr

'a female

forms

f%fif mri

having

and

must be the

or TPT^',

fjffjf

Similarly VI.

R*[

is

3? final

formed by

changed into 7tct

an anga or stem

in

^t^TPT^T^T, the fan does not follow an an ga. fn^T

means

-ff%i

4. 3,

affix

?r

As

II

lengthened.

is

not lengthened, as
teaches the leng-

But rafanTPJ T5$, Tr^RT


The stem is f^iRTr and

ST^TP* H

Accusative Singular.

qr*RPl. are

ar,

^^

as STiftiri'

?rpqr,

the end-portions of a stem.

are not

teaches that after

the 3T

before

final

is

(V.

The

100).

2.

Similarly VII.

f%:, g%:

hence not here

means boiled

I.

There

II

also,

grrgwftrcCT,

rice

and

f*rer$r

II

The maxim of

3Ttrc<t*145i

srFpq^TO does not apply here

for

had

it

been so, there would have been no necessity of making this sutra. For example, in the sutra ?mH (VI. 4. 3), the affix ^r^ having a meaning would have
been meant, and pot any other ?TP
II

The word

3Tp3T must be read in the following sutras, otherwise there


would arise incongruity first; sutras teaching the lengthening of the vowel
:

when

or Samprasarana

follows, thus

of vowel before ^^, as nr^taf?T


of anga.

So

VI.

4.

but not here ?fa

also in Samprasarana, but not in

16 ordains the lengthening

^u%

f?ts<T

&c

for \ of ^nr is not that

as

shown above.

BK. VI. CH. IV

2ndly

change of
jn ?! or
-

For
into

air

qf

LENGTHENING.

purposes of qc#

the

rrust refer to anga as

1251

sutra VI.

in

r^m\

The

4. 68.

or 'rTlWrt, but not

optional

here

f^raf-

f^^Tft, for here ^is not part of the ariga, and so 3 cannot be consider-

ed a conjunct part of anga.


Jrdly

For the

change of 5

to

hot here

tsffa

phly
not here

For the substitution

fq& aud

of

For the sake of ^augment

For

But not

And lastly
change of 5 into ?j

here, ^TTft

or

here

in Sanskrit

3T3fTO

I.

11

II

s??

*r

13 or-

II

48 ordains the

4.

anga, as 3Tf$:

It refers to

11

4.

the ahga-vowel,

^T = ^K|ch

Thus VII.

^!^^

W&?i

^rersrarari7

But the

may
II

2.
st,

Thus

in

II

**

force of Genitive

9%^, where

sr***>?: in

(VII.

3T<Tf PT*T q*T

f*W< Ijw

3T4VKI-dll WfiFZ

st^WS*

the whole of

in sutras like

3^T^Rr

^R^T (VII.

I.

1.

9) arjf

The Genitive

ll

*TT?:

Or

i).

is

replaced

(VI.

4- 89).

the Genitive

be changed into any other case, as already shown.

tT3Ti%

II

^r:,

sT^r^q^rg^r vgrft ^Jrern^r

half-vowel

before

require.

It has the force of

Thus VII.

rertt

should be read with proper case-affixes as the

it

may

has the force of RfaTrfHfar%

%&:

But not here

It refers to

II

or $m|f:

*r*jrcnrw

case has force of '^TR^'&i' in sutras like

ffrp

Therefore

4. 77.

1.

should be read in the ablative case

case in arjfTO

but

49 (BTR %*t), but of mere relation-ship.


be considered as a mere pratipadika, without any case-affix.

may

4. 36).

VI.

54.

1.

Genitive case.

in the

STjfTO is

exigencies of each sCitra

It

FTT^,

11

In the subsequent aphorisms,

(VI.

not ahga.

is

here not only that taught in

Or

^ ^^m

3?

substitution.

rf

in the case of st*

ST^rvnr:, for 3T<t

w$&&w&tf* jrarsnr
The word

in

3^3?

VII.

in

vowels before

3T<w

for rT^r

To sum up

is

^fMd or

the sake of shortening of vowels.

dains the shortening of

But not here

There also 5 must

35.

11

$t/ily

as H|R*I H

1.

5, therefore,

<^* H

^*fa and ^qir

6thly

VII.

in

rTT?i;

be portion of the ahga, and not the particle

3T^*t

The long vowel


% and

3"

#f

is

and

is

wx

3fr: )

II

substituted for a vocalised

at the end of a stem,

ed by a consonant which
Both the words

wmHKum;

rr^wps fm Wet

when

it

is

preced-

a portion of the stem.


from VI.

3.

Ill,

and

^PTcrrrr

from VI.

3.

Thus 5T from JgT, ^fa: from "5gr, tf^fcT: from sgr


Why do we say 'preceded by a consonant' ? Observe Srp and Srrep*. from %>ril
Why do we say that the preceding consonant should be a portion of the stem?
139 are understood here.

II

LENGTHENING.

1252

BK. VI.

ClI. IV. 5.

Observe Ft^T^ here is not an integral part of the stem, but a portion of the
upasarga R!^ and therefore 3 is not lengthened. Why do we say 'at the end
?;

Observe rt^ W^rf: from sajtJ and zq% here the vowel % is in the
middle of the stem. Why do we say *3T, \ and 3 substitutes of semivowels' ?
Here re has been vocalised into f % being substituted for ^
Observe ^<fN:

of a stem'

II

(V.

2.

of lengthening in H^fa

is

before the affix

sCitras like II.

11

The S

Or the absence
an irregularity countenanced by Panini himself in
55).

The word

30 &c.

1.

word

to qualify the

*rfa

<fra

srjf

should be repeated in this sutra,

and then to qualify the

$3;,

^rrfo, (

**?m%

T^rsre

^^ ^

srsnRjf*

The long vowel

3.

not be lengthened.

will

letters 3T,
:

$ and 3

first

11

% r>?rar^ ^wpcnt u
t

substituted for the final of

is

the stem before the Genitive Plural affix

jtph;

(having the aug-

ment

gs).

ceases.

Thus sr^frTT*, *TS*TO, 3F*T0TT*, ^pTP* H The anuvritti of 3T*J (VI. 3. 1 1 1


The augment ^(VI I. 1. 54)in^n^is for the sake of the subsequent sutra;

like

V I.4.7.

affix 3TPI.

anc the lengthening takes place


*

For

II

would be no occasion
5T

fa^^^

II

3^ which comes only after short stems.


JT, fa^, xT<^,
<nrrft
( mfa <p|: )

for
11

II

The

4.

after the addition of 5? to the genitive

the lengthening took place before the addition of 3*

if

and

finals of fcr^;

before TT^
As f^prp*, ^a^uii^

^-^

there

11

are not lengthened

II

plication that the final


plural, VII.

2.

The very

II

fact of this

m of these words is not

100 notwithstanding.

In fact 3?

to that rule, and thus the preceding rule VII.

the subsequent rule VII.

s^^sgprarar

5.

11

2.

1.

is

^^rftr,

In the Veda, the

added before scope

In

some

wt
finals

*tt

3w

n * J

<j^h%

11

is

given

ii

of fcf^ and ^TrT^ are

mm

II

places they are seen as lengthened, in others not.


H

imf-

54 prevents the application of

found in both ways, before the Genitive plural


ipsqf^ or f%f TP* *T^F?%

by

* before a genitive

100.

q^rPi

prohibition proves

changed to

So
3:,

also

II

=^rT^T^Tr*lL

and ^rf JfoiTI

As fa^T

Bk

VI. Cn. IV.

10

Some Mles of ?r

1253

So also 3 before the Genitive Plural *TR

6.

leng-

is

thened optionally.
As

r^

^ goif -J?^

and

^T^",

?r*rf

srtarrarr: n \s n
ffrT:

q^rfa

TrerTOrgwrerar ^rfr

11

vMi

it^t

lengthened before the

h^Rt

affix ?rn*

some

( snftr *fHfc )

^, snrararn,

11

to

this option

extends to secular literature

it

is

con-

also.

11

:i

In a stem ending in

7.

7);

According

fined to the Vedas, according to others,

the preceding vowel

j,

is

II

Thus n?ep*+ ire (VII. 1. 55) = T^rraL+?pi(VI. 4. ;) = M>^Hig (VIII.


Why do we say 'ending in t( ? Observe
^ HMIfr., T^RT* SSIRr*

But not

in *q"*H<TP*.

^htt:
ffrr:

sflrtr:

11

affix is

<

not

q^TFf

ll

but sin? without

?rri
11

^tht^^r,

j?

ans*^

^r,

I!

11

3m-

II

srtTPremt

11

where the

^i^r

q$umsi3

2.

^3^

ll

qrc<fr

s^f^r

^t<T*rrar

#S *^rft

In a stem ending

8.

in

11

the preceding vowel

is

lengthened in strong cases, with the exception of the Vocative


singular.

As
^HTT^, the

So also
tors, ^rsrr^ *nrrlr
was elided by VI. 1. 68, and 3^ by VIII. 2.

*njr, Tnrrfr.
*J

strong cases

'

Observe

*T3TT^

(Loc-Sing); CTlft (Loc.

Observe 9

'but not in the Vocative Singular'?


srr trjtfcq-

fHift n

9.

11

q^ifa

ll

ll

3T,

The lengthening

r,

xr^fH

srFrrPr f^ef?rir u jtsit

cTspj;

ijter, fa*T*r

11

of the penultimate vowel of a

stem ending in ^, before the affixes of the strong-case,


in the Veda, when * precedes such a vowel.
Thus

Why
tT$!TT.

is

optional

*r rr^r^r or rrer% fag^sT^


m^wi or smprarfa^
do we say 'in the Veda'? In the secular literature we have
1

11

?r^r, rTCTpfr

always.

^TRTJTW.
ffrr

was

Why do we say 'in


Sing).
Why do we say
7.

11

^#^T

II

\o

||

sranrRra ^OTf ar ^r tor:

qRTTft

II

*TFtT, *Tf<r., tf*rt*TOr, (

*r?tf*T rr*tr<r*rror

^Nf

wlr

#J:

^r^R tot

II

s^rfsrr n

In the strong cases with the exception of Vocasingular, the penultimate vowel is lengthened, in the case
10.

tive

of a stem ending in

and

of-*!V3

28

with

a Nasal consonant preceding

it

Lengthening.

rz$4

That

is,

a stem ending in the conjunct consonant ?H, elongates

timate vowel before the affixes of the


%*rrft,

T*m%,

T*,

*rcril%

ll

^^ ^^,

^f

**f ,

by VII.

inserted

is

SHJ,

But %

I*

12

penul-

its

*srif^, *5P*ntr, V[FEP,

*ra^,

% *m^

Vocative

in

70.

1.

<*>L

Thus

cases.

first five

T^*^P, W^r, *W&

The Nasal

Singular.

Bk. VI. Cn. IV.

snm^orro

11

In the strong cases, with the exception of the


Vocative Singular, the penultimate vowel is lengthened in
affixes, and in ^^, yp^,
WT, in stems formed by *g% and
11.

ancl srere^

^1, WPr tfo *&!

*?,

Thus
H^ls*M.lH

3TTI' fayfnf

II

The Samas&nta

ll

ft

Some would have

it

even, in

compound's; as ^rf^?

applied here, because

rule is not

it is

anitya.

If

it

be coosklered nitya^ then also there is lengthening, but without the addition
of the nasal . ^T SHRH^ ftfarft?* ffa ^ir^T5# H fam fa^HTH ^ 5^^c^T
f

ffem^

m$mh ^nTTT^rfr^i ^rifc: f^t 3*rfrtr 552-^1 ^ttr: ^rnfr *ns?i, s^fc
*w *^r ^mti &m*'< Tcf thi t^wrfr *w ^| %srf %sr: ?^s: ^eto ?^R*.
*?V ^rfT^^T^

stt*

st^rtr

^rrtrc:

ftf

?trnfr

If the

V| &c.

words

then their enumeration

is

wnv <stf q??TKt $mrr.


f^i^ sg^rfrn^i faw^r*

f^f#fi ^"P^^f^rr^r
wiih\ #3f w *f$m f^ri^r fa<T*t ir&

JT^rRrTRs

*rar*

srsrrs*

srcff^Flrm r%^

jr^n^frrfV

t
*
t

q^^rnTn^^^t ^tf1

s^tt*

l^rcr

11

be considered as ^f%, not derived from any root,

here for the sake of Vidhi (injunction)

if

they be

considered as derivative words formed by Unadi affixes, then their enumeration is for the sake of
larly are not to

niyama

(restriction), so that other

be governed by

this rule.

As

fqrKT, W*t*',

do we say 'not in the Vocative Singular''? Observe f


above examples sr^ is substituted for sg by VII. 3. no.

^?TTT4*aTi
12.

sft

II

IR

*&ft

& VH, ^C,

<J*r

The penultimate vowel

is

words formed simiHl^T, m^K' U

^rf:,

^ *TO

ll

Why
In the

spftorf, zt, ( cfpj: )

||

lengthened before

the affix ra (Nominative and Accusative PL), when the stem


ends in s^, or %% or *%&*, or srq?^
According to the maxim (See VI. 4. 14 also) that "3T^, ?^, 3T3[> *\H
in this sutra
WlWWrtf ^TT^rT ^T rTSnT mrT ^I^raPrT ", the employment of
includes and means "^ords ending in the syllable f^"
As regards the rest
(f^&c. ), the affix ftr (Neuter PI.) is never added to them alone, but when
II

11

they are parts of a compound.

Thus f^

is

a noun formed by the addition of

Bk. VI. Cn. IV.

the affix

n^g

when

is

it

12

to the root

^;

and the

affix

preceded by another word like

Similarly the words


Plural affix

f^r

^q^and

ara*n* are

1255

Kvip
"

added to

is

Brahma"

Though

result could

this

^g*"r?Tf*T

in

^g^

ffr

^^prrrSr

the special

4. 8,

Accusative and

Nom.

As fpT%,

lengthening does not take place in other strong cases.

Kdrikd :

have been obtained by VI.

mention of these words shows that except

the

PI.

gfarnt,

^T-

Regarding the rule of lengthening taught about f^ &c here,

the wise reader, after

making a

affixes in general,

f^T in

particular, (i e^

(Loc.

sin,)
2.

III. 2. 87.

They must be parts of a neuter comHence we have used words " when the stem ends

this affix.

f^ &c."
Thus *f fgfft and qg-^sftpr s^f^rf^r

namas th^na)

<5nly thea,

it

See

masculine and cannot take the Neuter

let

&c.

in their original state.

pound, to admit
in

Lengthening.

with regard to

restrictive rule

make again another

make a yoga-bibhaga).

By

g*

(sarva-

rule regarding the affix

so doing, the form

%nr^

of the Ach&rya, will not be found fault with,

(But

if

yoga-vibhaga be not made) then

rule that the anuvritti of

made with regard

fj* being dropped, let the rule be

to

fa

affix in general

Sarvanamasthana affix). And as the rule of


lengthening applies to penultimates, there would arise no fault, if the vowel
of
is lengthened before the demonstrative affix q (in words like
% ?TfR%=^r?l

(without regarding

it

as

%%

This refers toVII,

3TT^*nT,
3.

Or

if

4. 25).

the anuvritti of

g? (Sarvanamasthana) be taken

Sutra, because of the context, then the mention of

ftr

into this

(would be

in this Sutra,

Sarvanamasthana includes it, so far as the


would find scope and utility in preventing
the lengthening in those cases to which the context of Sarvanamasthana does
not apply. That is, the Sarvanamasthana will be restricted with regard to

redundant, because the word

strong cases are concerned) but

f^ &c

to the affix f%

Note
It it a

. ftT

is

and not to ^?

the

affix

Sarvanamasthana by

into this sutra

it

of the

I, 1,

42.

from the preceding VI.

affixes generally.

Nom. aud Ace. PI. in Neuter (VII. 1. 20.)


But the word Sarvanamasthana may be read
4. 8.

What

is

then the necessity of employing

The above karika answers this.


ending words, the subsequent rule VI. 4. 15,
In the case of
which required the lengthening of tfre penultimate vowel before an affix
having an indicatory ^ or sr, is however debarred by trie present restricHow do
Thus the Locative Singular (fw) is f^SH, and a^fa
tive rule.
you make this ? By splitting up the present sutra into two parts, the first

f^j

in this ?

II

part being ^^L^TT^wiri.i and the second being

II

It

would then mean

Lengthening.

1256

The penultimate vowel is lengthened, in strong


when the stem ends in 5^ or ?^ or in <rqr^ or

(1)

lengthened before the strong case

would debar

therefore,

f^r

all

and no where
But a

3^

yet this

anuvritti,

may

not only with regard to

which does not

re-

II

the sutra

into

be considered a Restrictive Rule in general, and


f^r

considered a Sarvanamasthana or a Neuter affix

the Sarvanamasthana affix of the Neuter

f^T is

rule

not debarred by this restriction, but does take

is

Thus f^rg%, ^f^ra^ denominative verbs in


Or even though the Sarvanamasthana may be read

effect.

by

else.

(2)

other rules of penultimate lengthening

which would otherwise have been applicable.


late to penultimate vowel,

no where
So also it is
These two restric-

cases only and

sr^rc^H

else,

tive rules

Bk. VI. Ch. IV. 14

which has no other Sarva-

namasthana, therefore, it is a general Niyama and not only a Sarvanamasthana or a Neuter niyama. Therefore in this niyama the word "^rj^Tcfft^

"

"

of the Neuter "

For

fH &c

not

is

to

be taken.

be taken, then the Sutra would mean, the neuter stems

if it

are lengthened

that in examples like

in

only and no where

f^r

^TfR ar?R^%

(loc.

The

else.

in

would be

result

there would be no lengthening

sin),

at all (i.e. we shall never have the form |[aTfrffi in loc. sin. by force of VI. 4. 15);
moreover, by so doing, there wou'd arise this anomaly also, that words other

thanJMeuter would also not be lengthened.

The

of the definition

force

also in certain cases, therefore,

any

namasthana would apply to Neuter

^T

^ ^
II

13.

%%

^C>

T^

<T^TT%

II

or

*ft,

II

of Sarvanamasthana applies to Neuter

rule (niyama)

^,

made with regard

<STOFTP

ifHt:

tl

The penultimate vowels of a stem ending in


swr * are lengthened before the affix g[ of the
5

Nominative Singular but not in Vocative Singular.


The ^ is elided by VIII.
Thus ^r, f^fr, I^T, 3T&TT
II

case-affix

by VI.

1.

68.

ii

3*3 3*^

l*

qcrrr^

II

II

srg,

Thus
and

vr^Pi (with ^Tg<i

2?^*rr^

70, after the

**fra

^,

$j?^<%

srvjRft:

II

11

penultimate vowel

lengthened in a stem ending, in st<j, and


nant (3^;) does not belong to a root.
vc\H\^

and the

In the Nominative Singular (with the excep-

the Vocative Singular) the

of

stsfcTPT,

s&w^ sRmr^Tvrror: ottoi^ t*^ iiw

14.

tion

II

2. 7,

we have % ^r%^, %

In the Vocative singular

3rero?cr^ ^PSRft:
fPf['<

to Sarva-

also.

(with

^g *
1

elongation has

ll

Un

I.

63 from

The 3*

fa)

taken place, for

sr^j;

when the conso-

to shine), ?i<T^ (with =?fr^)


added to the above by VII. 1.

vrr

is

is

if

added

befote elongation, the

Bk. vi. Cn. IV.

16

Lengthening.

vowel no longer being penultimate,

Why

not be lengthened at

will

do we say

1257

^n

all.

not belonging to a dhatu

as

Observe
STOP, srerp, QxtmThe
fan^T where ^ belongs to the root ?j?t (fa^t 1^%), so also ^rfo: (^ to)
wn^. having no significance as an affix &c is also included here, on the strength
of the maxim "whenever 3T^ or $^ or stct or *r^, when they are taught in
Grammar denote by I. I. 72, something that ends with these, there they rell

'

'

II

combination of

present these

The word

rT^rn^r^ R^raifaT) U

ST3 whether

when

iTPF*, ?

73:

sq^r

grammatical

this rule

they possess, and also


aT*hrrfr

^RsfarT

^r

),

such as ^^j, s?^g &c, or which


such as srg<i which in upadesa

inflection,

$rar*r

In Vocative singular

or application.

not applying there.

lengthened before the

is

far as

(srPRfHt tf^TR

The penultimate vowel of a

15.

a nasal,

in

but becomes arg in

in 3Tg<J,

we have 9

in so

the sutra indicates whatever ends in

BT'rf in

enunciated

first

assumes the form srg


ends

both

letters

are void of a meaning".

as they

in so far

affix r%,

stem, ending in

and before an

affix

having an indicatory a> or ^f, which begins with a consonant


other than a semivowel or a nasal.
Thus

and sraR from the roots SP* and rT? by VIII. 2. 64. So also
beginning with a ^w consonant (any consonant but a nasal

xreTPl

before an affix

As

and a semivowel).

and

SirrRT:

affixes

(with

^tPtT:

These are

(with Rf^).

we have OTRP and

jhaladi affix'

Observe

*T?cTr

5fP*HTR; (with

formed with

formed by

rR*T<j),

srr^r (with g^r),

As

f^q; affixes.

to

fi^

3rd Person Dual added to

<tct

Why do we say 'endrFT


*r*r is fi^r by I. 2. 4.
Observe srr^TT^, 7ff T^r^ll Why do we say 'before f%: and
Why do we say a fs^ or a f^^ affix ?
Observe *T*3%, 1*2?%
II

II

and

*?rTT

3T>^FTTTT *JT%

II

\$

II

II

1^

BT^rTRr^RT ffa*T*3T^
nHf^f^3lcT
^TfrT^I.
ffrT;

all

tr?rTFcp

the Intensive roots ^n; and

ing in a Nasal'

xff),

II

^^1

II

16,

II

**% ^C, TOP*.

^T ^rfV

it ?T

Htf *&fe

*rfr, ( err

<$*:

II

II

II

The lengthening

the case of astern ending in

vowel takes place in


as well as of
and jjn,

of the

a vow.el,

when the Desidcrative affix ?^ being


augment ^ar) follows.

jhaladi

(i.

e.

not taking

the

Thus

T^Y^RT

(VII.

of roots
i.

100)

ending
of

in

vowel we have

5^ and *\% nrcmfcf, and

fNfafrT,

3Tfan*lTra%

3?5fiT,
ll

Rf^fr^R,

Lengthening.

2f 58

Vdrt

The rule

applies to

that *th which

Therefore, not here,

(II. 4. 48) 'to study'.

Bk.VI.

srf*T*T?H%

the substitute of

is

3^t

*TniT (cf.

VII.

In the

Veda we

is not,

therefore, the substitute of %%[, the lengthening takes place

VI.

137-

3,

Or

read ^rf rfr^

*r*Tf5T*irar,

where though

the word bt^t should not

be added

Cii. IV. 19.

*r?

means

'

to

go

and

'

by the

in the sutra at all

%"%

58

2.

rule

which

should be read as f^prar STR meaning " There is lengthening of the stem when
the Desiderative SH^ follows ". This would apply of course, to vowel-ending
stems, because the sentence would

This

of a consonant.
in a

vowel

mean

apply to n

will

that, for there

cannot be lengthening

way

this

also, in

"

stem ending

lengthened in the Desiderative, and so also of i\n which

is

substitute of the vowel-stem ?" u

In this way,

we may

is

no

see, that there is

necessity of the Vartika.

cwraf^srr

ll

<r^n%

ll

It

atfr^:, f^rr<*r

II

The lengthening of the stem of ^rq; is optional,


Desiderative ^, when it does not take the augment

17.

before the

oil
Thus raaTORT or f^snlr

^is added
sirro

sr^by VII.

to

r%

\t

It

Thus

=E?srr or mT*&n
r^spr

maxim sr^^^ft

in ftcTftTOT

no alternative

is

allowed, as

11

sir*:,

^fe

f%r, (

11

ed, before the


replaced by

But

The penultimate of ?&% is optionally lengthenwhen it is without the augment


affix

18.

is

q^n%

it

ll

49 Vart: optionally.

2.

but ^f%^r only, with

the rule does not apply

fMK *ft*ft^

^W^ H

as sr9TO>

II

But when sp?rr


This is on the

augment.

f<r

arnw a bahiranga substitution of &%* superc

sedes even antaranga rule".

^- ^3*u%* ** ^
II

For

19.

tuted

?t,

and

for

is

II

i^nft

fh, ^5, si-prfe^, ^, ( fegrat:

(including the

augment

II

g*r) is substi-

substituted 3^, before an affix beginning

with a Nasal, as well as before

fgj

and jhaMdife^ and fip^ affix-

es (VI. 4. 15).

Thus

jtct,

faST from

eg being replaced by
1

fa%+* (Un

III. 9).

^j H

sr^ and

f%e^,

with the affix sff

Similarly from the root

= RT + 3? + ?f = ^H-?r = ^R5

(VII.

to the stem prior to the scope being given to the

wise the

form would be fa* + ^=%* + ^ -**-- 3H

3.

fsr*

84).

guna
5!

we

III. 3.

90

the

have ^fa: thus:

Here the

rule of VII.

3; is

3.

added

86, other-

Having thus added

3>,

Bk. VI.

Lengthening.

20. ]

+ 3; = ^, because semivowel substitution

maxim

wider scope than guna, and the


"

here.

An

which

operation

taught

is

combination of

letters

(i.

is

J.

of ^T'ftfT^ 3Hf*ir

is

and of

has no scope

*T^fFF

the AngAdhikara, and

in

taught in a sandhi

the

affects

which concerns a

operation
rule)".

STafiTrsr formed with f|pr ( Un


no vocalisation of the semivowel *, and there

With r^ we have
there

we make sandhi of

86,

antaranga operation

is

force than an

possesses greater

anga or stem,

1259

be given to the guna rule VII.

scope could

before

IV

Cii.

II.
is

57 ) added to jiw,
lengthening of sj,

changed to 5T. So also *rrf%fT


Of the change of ^ into 3; we have the following : arerzn, f^qfi:
Here the 3; substitution is Bahiranga, and ^ + 3^ = 31,
(far + f|!J = ft + 3J = ^ )
the change of 5 into q is antaranga, therefore on the maxim of srfarer *f?*3fand

eg-

II

q?rvq$ (a

bahiranga

II

non-existent for the purposes of an antaranga), there should

is

be no change of f into 3, for 37 is non-existent. That maxim is however set


aside by srnTFFcft IHJf TO*nr " A bahiranga operation is not regarded as
bahiranga, and consequently asiddha, when an antaranga operation is to take
effect,

which depends on the immediate sequence of a vowel and something

else".

So
here

egr is

also before a jhaladi affix; as

changed to

Tby VIII.

So

5T,

changed to

is

Some do

II

>lace

IK,

ff

11

VIII.

indicatory

*T*U*

indicatory

rfrT;

16,

1.

and

fa^rr);

changed to

|J<reP*,

t%?,

^ran

II

the rule dees not apply: as srornr,

1.

36

2.

131

3"

the letter

5T is

and

short being substituted for ^ of ft^

I*

should not be taken, because

ordained to come every where

in

the

II

The
ftras like
[so

3T as, fi^:,

force of the present sutra,

of

by VI.

the anuvritti of f^nj and fwri into this sutra,

by VI.

sifa:

In "grsrr q-"

5"

Jr^ + ^^^B-:, $CTP*0^3), IfT

vocalisation

M^or

are not

not read

explain spsrj^ and

by the

is

2. 36.

also

When the affixes


sf>t:

there

2T

s^rr%%

in 375;

(VI.

1.

is

psrf%

sake of distinguishing this

m% 3J^

In the sutra

89).

20.

fogeft:

^^T

sre w*

%m% *r

%&imxH%m\
^Twf^

(VI.

4.

132)

3C

ir>

there is

II

?m*w 3<T>*raT*T

**n% 3jf^r^rft^r

*r^rr%

sir

11

In

mentioned affixes

Sct?:,

(ft^T,

^TrR,

aro,

and

*ra

before the above-

a Nasal or a jhaladi T%<T or r%^) there

the single substitution of


ing the final

the

for

11

^TSTRT:, ^,
sit ***

?r

consonant.

3*5. for

the

^aud

the vowel preced-

Lengthening.

!26o

Thus
$?fOT,

^r, ^:, ^f%:


8^3;*, iir, 3?P,

ft*

II

371%:

II

g:,

t*t, ar*:, arf*r:

*T^: :, g!t,

Bk. VI. Ch. IV

22

S^g*

l%f*: $*, ^r,


grT^, gm? S^TCr

II

5*:, *rf :,

II

^m

s^ft h
toht<i w, fas*
In f^T and ^x.the 3J replaces 5 as well as the

*<rer

fa*,

^rfrf:

II

BT^r

and

?i*

it

Another reading

f fri:

11

3j

which follows^ and

replaces the s and the vowel f and


is

r%*

ar

in

which precede \

II

II

tot srsrfr ^fi7% ^ q^r? n


After t there is the elision of

wrsTTOirefp^hfr *t^r sir

2i.

and ^ before

'ffe and jhal&di T%^ and 't%^' affixes.


Thus from qm |T, ^r, g*:, *$: 33^, *f^:, the ^ of Nishtha is not
changed into ?t by VI I \. 2. 57. So also from gv&f we have jr, gfr, f*:, ofr:, gnSo also the ^ is elided, as from *3f : h^ gfr, 3*:, rrof:,
*T^: "
*rr^, |f%:
g : ^T, W-> * **!*> gr%
7

II

II

II

>

srfH^^TTSS
Frf:

^IrJ:

||

3Tf^lf^ra*rf^?rrcr

*jrf%35* n

^T%

i^r^w
22.

||

q^TT^

^3^,

||

?rftrT 3v<piI^fTS3ir*T ^Tr

fsreh" *t?t<t

?fa

^s^

3HT, 3TTOr<*

aT^I^TR^HmWl

The change, which

a stem will undergo by

the application of any of the rules from this


129,

any other rule of this very section VI.

to apply

This

is

an adhikara

rule.

The'above translation

upto VI. 4.
when we have

stitra

to be considered as not to have taken effect,

is

II

3Tfll^fsftrTS3* H

is

4.

23 to 129.

given according to

Bohtlingk. According to Kasika the 3TRF5Tfq; extends up to the end of

Prof.

Dr. Ballantyne translates

the chapter.

it

thus

"The

rules,

reckoning from

one to the end of the chapter, are called Abhiya, because the chapter ends
with a series of rules dependant on the aphorism 'bhasya' VI. 4. 129. When
this

that

(i. e.

one of the abhiya

same place

rules)

is

to be brought into operation, having the

coming into operation as another abhiya, which has already


that one which has taken effect, shall be regarded as not having

for

taken

effect,

taken

effect".

129. in which last


e. upto VI. 4.
3TPTr? means 'up to *'
e. in applying the rules taught upto VI. 4. 129.
word *T occurs
The word 3HT shows that the two rules must have the same 3?!^ or place of
operation, where their places of operation are different, they are not asiddha to
each other. The word 3Tl%3f shows that an utsarga or general rule must take
that an 'aclesa' or substitution
effect, as if existing in spite of a special rule, and

The word

sutra the

i.

i.

taught by another rule should not be considered to have taken effect in applyThus in forming qfa and W*J ( Imperative 2nd person)
ing the special rule.

BK. VI.

IV

ClI.

22

ABIliYA-RULES.

126

for ^H by VI. 4. 35
q is first substituted for 3T*T 'to be' by VI, 4. 1 19 and
and then is fa added by VI. 4. 101. The latter rule says that rSy is added in the
Imperative, only after those roots which end in a consonant of #?* class. Now snj
:

and

^rr^

end

jrr

end

present rule
tution of

taken

a jhal consonant, and can take

in

fa,

but

their substitute

and not a consonant and should not take fa


helps us here, and for the application of fa (VI. 4. 101) the

a vowel

in

for srs^or

^rf

from

The

(Vedic Imperative,

arrirf?

substi-

should be considered as asiddha or not to have

for *rr^

Similarly in

effect.

and

ff

II

and 9^, the nasal being elided

being elided by

*p*

in the

case of

1 1.

4.

73)

and ^rf?
4. 36
and sr being substituted for 5^ ( VI. 2. 36 ) we have the stems sircr and
But since
*T, which ending in st would require the elision of f| by VI. 4. 105.
the change of 5f &c is not regarded as having been accomplished, the elision
of

*TJT

VI.

it*,

does not take place.

ff

Why

do we say

STPTT?l

'

U P to VI.

129'?

4.

In applying

any other

rule

the changes ordained by abhiya rules would not be considered as asiddha.

Thus

sRlf^T

and

*rr:

from *rs^ and

have been elided by VI.

cs^T

Here the nasals of

\\

rafij

and

bhaflj

27-28 and 33 before the affixes q^r and fr* respechave the stems c*r, and *T3T to which rule VII. 2. 116

tively,

applies

4.

and we
and we have Vriddhi of 9? preceding the

consonant.

final

Had

the

been considered as non-effective for the purposes of VII.


could not have taken Vriddhi, as it would not then be 3<T*TT or

elision of the nasal

116, then sr

2.

penultimate.

Why

do we use the word spr

aphorism

in the

The

rules are asiddha

common place of operation and not otherwise.


Ace. PI = Ttt + tf + 8T3" ( VI. 4. 131 vocalisation

to each other with regard to a


'hus tt +
>f

q). If this

I.

4.

^fj
3"

64, then

+ st*t

).

substitute be considered as asiddha for the purposes of sutra

we cannot

elide the stt of

vowel (3 being non-existent


iing thus elided,

we have

).

qr,

3 however

because
is

srr is

not then followed by

not considered as asiddha, and

stt

+ ^+3T^=f*TfN"
qr5sr: q^i
asiddha,
and
we apply rule
considered
not

T^sr: in

II

Similarly

f^r

Here also 3 is
Similarly w + ^+sth
I.
4. 82, and substitute q for 3 as fq^P T**l
=
considered
asiddha, and we
Here also 3 is not
^q:
fa + 3H + sr?T
the
above three cases,
:hange the 3J of $ into 3* by VI. 4. 77. In all
3*r

+8T3MI

II

II

the elision of
reference

to

srr,

^?t,

or of 3J to ^, takes place in
or change of % to
while the samprasarar^a of^ takes place with reference

to the Accusative plural case-ending st^. which makes the stem Bha. So
they have not the same stpto II Nor does the maxim of srftrer ari^jpi^Jf

apply here, because the special maxim of Abhtya governs the sutras of this
cannot be the relation of Antaranga and Bahiranga among
these sutras, simultaneously with their being asiddha to each other.

section, so there

29

AbhIya-rules.

1262

Vdrt: The

*g*,

Thus

^^5: ^5:

VI.

4. 63.

%^

VI.

88

4.

and

in the case of fr^>

with

far,

and ^rf^fr,

art in STPTCl

srrensta:
11

11

11

seventh class
there

is

ll

After T,

23.

as

sqftShlRT, STf^fffeft with

3* of

addition of

3^,

has the force of limit inclusive, so that, the asiddha

q^rfit
^3
sprap^nFrcr t?i%

??rftm

4.

*r,

by

rule applies to the stitras governed

ffrr:

24

and 57

),

when 537 is added, there is not the


when 5? is added, there is not qorf^r H

In the case of

The

( VI. 4. 63 ) should howteaching


33^ and VI. 4.
77
substitution should not be applied simultaneously with them.

substitute

ever be considered as not asiddha, and rule VI.


$2, teaching

Bk. VI. CH. IV.

srr<*,

*t

ll

^rr:,

II

*w Wrf
added to the roots of the

srnra t^r^t

rTrr

which

is

a characteristic

(i.

the elision of the following

*r

11

the

e.

vikarana snj),

||

Thus ar^rrfj and vprfrR from srs^r to anoint and *rs*r to break
Thussn^r + l^+^caqR3^ + f^ (I. i. 47) Fn5+fa (VI. 4. 23) = sraf*IMl So
also f^r^cT from f|f% (ftsw) to injure \
Why do we say after n and not
merely after st', without the indicatory^? Observe SR^r*, araTFtt*, where
the 7T of ?rrT is not elided after the ?r of q^ and q^, the lengthening of st by
'.

'

',

ass

'

'

'

VII.

3.

102 being sthanivat would not have prevented the

In the

elision.

case of f^nrrs; and snTPTT* (formed by ft* + tot. and JT?T + ?rr*) also tne T of
qr* is not elided after ?r of ft?r II
For the ?r of the sutra is the technical *
>

not any combination of the letters ^r and ^


padokta maxim applies here. FKjTWff <T ?FK*U TRTTfTTf^ 1?^*

the vikarana, and

srft%ri

^fer%

m;:,
Iftr.

11

^5

3"<rareT:

^r%i%

ii

?M

ll

M^ift

ii

The

II

prati-

II

srMRdns, *&';

^rvrr-

ll

3Tntf?rrPTjFrei

s^hi^tpit h^uw

^rcr

wW gsf^fa

*rera T^rr:

*if%ro u 3TRf|rrf 5f<*nr ?5^irw^r^^r^?rCireft^Rtr^OT^ sR^m


^5%^- ^n:inr^q^5qr?r ^r^arac. u ^ro u f^jftrr -et *>%^r^53r*r
err*

11

ii

11

24.

ceded by

5^,

having an indicatory % (VII. 1. 58) the


an affix having an indicatory ^ or ^ follows.
Thus from

^^%

CTfoTC3KT,

11

In a root-stem ending in a consonant prethis rr not being added to the root owing to

its

with q^,

3ffiszpi

?twt

and

^p^rP^
tne ^ ls

s^FST are

with

g; is

elided

when

formed ^cT: and rw. with t?J, ?f*q%, s^fa


the ?ft being added by VII. 4. 84. But

not elided, the root being written in the Dhaand 5TR*3ffi,


tupatha asTTirft^^r, and *r being added by VII. I. 58. Why do we say
ending in a consonant ? Observe 4faw, ^rtfaRf from ^r which has a penulti-

BK

VI. Cll. IV 28

ends

nasal, but

mate

mm, imim

with i3^

rw, SftfsT

in

Why

>

roots

penultimate'

'

or

Observe

Observe

*?

mean-

are exceptions where

* (m) and *(ft)

These, though

and 'a disease of the body'.

indicatory f are treated as exceptions


n the Dhatupatha with an
above
and***,:, when not havmg the
,

riof^:
leanings
leS

do we say

do we say having an indicatory

pain or difficulty'

no fee
libted

Why

a vowel.

11

Vdrt :-The
nr

12(3 3

ELISION OF NASAL.

*.M>*

we have Rr^TffrT and fW*TcT


w ._The^usative of the root
II

to hunt deer'

as, onifft

***

closes

when meaning

nasal

its

m. mm*

'he hunts the deer', but

he

'

;olors the clothes

'.

<s* loses
Wr/
Krfr/.-*$*i
yfirt
i-Vip

its

The words

nasal before the affix


csntf.,

,,

as *nft U

from

wii.> anu ^^* a

elision of the nasal.

r^.

The nasal of *n,


** of the roots of
w
th vikarana
25.

fe
f0re

the

^isi

** .

- '. raRall

IS r^uent

-^^TeSrate

speed'.

elided be-

^to , see

nasal of
it

""

**

is

elided before

expresses a state

or an

^ r^

Thus 3Tns^f
The ^is added by
instrument.
Snores
,

S^^
rr^ndtiL^dr?b
^V

of

by

yvii.,

ff

52

*,,.-****.**;

^"^^rThe^oTUTis formed
of

<

of the

^ ^Tr^' "1 -sr^qrar ,cKm* writ *rara

instrument.
ThUS
I

the 1st class.

also elided before


preced.ng
The separation of this from the
anuvnti of ranj only runs
sutras in which the

formed with
i when the word

is

^ yZZZZTZ
.

ft for

^^

and

ThIstr^and *n* for the change

* .

T;

r^r,

by

**

in the

sense

Elision of Nasal.

1264

[Bk. VI,

This word"is derived from &&$, the nasal


Though the ardhadhatuka

elision of a

portion of the root, viz of

apply here.

That

here the Vriddhi

Vriddhi

is

rule prohibits

Guna and

and not governed by

I.

1. 4.

I.

The

Thus

?*

vowels,

prevention of this

ifft^:'

sr**^: meaning

^r^^: meaning

"cow-speed," "horse-speed." butl^g??:, and

here the

4 does not

1.

Vriddhi, only in case of


11

32

and the Vriddhi

affix Er?i causes

of W<, yet rule

prevented with regard to st

is

irregular

elided,

is

prohibited irregularly.

Cii. IV.|

"dripping of

or ghee".

oil

^^1%>lr^rsr^rrf|TTniT: irji

29.

*T^rft

ll

and

sr^t^, <ra> sfar, sisra,

formed by the elision of ?r


Thus 3^ srw + 'J 5 T + ^^ = 8T^tf

srsft^,^, srnr, s^ra, foreran


forer*j are irregularly

||

for

?ro +

!
J

^jrtr+

?TT^: 1*TPin*
ffa:

sts%:

11

s^ram^

is

by VII.

to honor.
Thus srf^RTT
2. 53.

When

"the water was

^TM

TStfrero

$wt t

The

30.

ing

?o

II

btto

ffrT:

II

t^ITO^

\\

II

ir*:,

the guna

irregularity).

3T5%:, ^TraTfl;,

is

irregular,

(Unadi mj.

So

jt

also f^psrcr:

II

II

11

is

not elided when the mean-

HKT ?%f$

The f* augment is added


we have ^Kg^r ^Tr?J

II

not that of 'honoring',

is

Here the f*

well."

fa>,

15ft

**F$ ^'i^H^hK^t'ft

^^?^ and

31.

H*rfcr

*J^T:, stfs^Rrfirar

drawn from the


II

?T,

nasal of 3T3J

the sense

% ^n^^^t:
T^ ^^

II

^=

3^ + *T^=3Tm

4 applied here, and prevented guna.


q^=jnjrtr: (The want of Vriddhi is the

I. 1.

*T

is

prohibited by VII.

**% ^^^,
*T^%

* sto

2.

15.

II

II

^qr?T retain their

nasal before the

affix i&r H

Thus **^r, and tot?^

or

considered as having an indicatory


is

no longer

for

no

r%<l

by

virtue of the rule

rule of elision

would apply

m*cM*af n7r*r

^H" in a root

11

The

32.

*3F*srr,

gj in

nasal

ending in

I. 2.

^r

18,

and

elision

When

when pp^

$?

place,

11

may

and

in

3rr?<r,

jtopi, finrr^T (

* sftq:

11

be optionally elided before

^r

||

11

1.

60

for the

II

11

11

is

added, ^F

would not take

Thus TSf&tt or *rRrr, H^rF^r or Ht^TT, ?TfT or ?r^r See VII.


When f? comes, we have ^r%^T
augment ^ in ?r^
^ri^ ^r^:, ^, f%f*r, ( Bram *
srsSter r%f*r
\\
11

is

in that case.

**&&

11

the $? being added

the dhatupatha.

11

sJfa: ) n

Bk. VI. Ch. IV.

36

Amiiiya-rules.

The

33.

nasal

may

1265

be optionally elided in

sr^r

before the third person Passive of the Aorist in fen^(


Thus sr>rrnT or aqnrf^sr
This is an aprapta vibhasha, and teaches
ll

the

time the elision of it

first

STf^sn

srra
ffrP

5TTCT 3<T*Trar

II

^rani

^riW

11

in a certain

3* H <*rn%
^JRlWt H^frT ^ffc

srrcr

?**

*T*nfrf%

contingency.

srra:, ct, hj, %&t:, ( *$r%ft

ll

ll

<FC3T

Thwm

11

f^ff ^ 9FjT>frT
*tt*

11

flp^r

jp^

ll

II

sftv^

<r*srf<T *T^rfrr1t

Before the Aorist in sr^ and before an affix

34.

beginning with a consonant having an indicatory


the substitution of % for the vowel of ^rr^r
Thus *TCT?ft(ft 3T?wsnTr* and ^T^ftn^; so also ftrs:: ( with

there

for

is

w;

or ^,

11

m%

tk

),

ra?3rai

T3 fir*T: ( with the tense-affixes <(: and it: which are rf^
by I. 2. 4 ). The *r is changed to q by VIII. 3. 60. Why do we say 'before the
affixes of ar Aorist and consonant affixes'? Observe srrcrra, STOr^Tg, sremj:
Vatt: There is the substitution of f for the vowel of *rr*J before the
with

?tf^j),

<fr

ll

As 3TR#: = 3Tr4r^ ^rrflrT


fa
OT^+f^ = ftr*T + o = ftrc+o = #:

affix

ed,

II

So alsofrrifr

II

II

The form

is

thus evolv-

(the short f being lengthened by VIII.

2. 76.

The root ^m^ is that root which takes 3T1F aorist; namely the second
Adadi sttct (^3T3T%tr),and notthe Bhvadi and the first Adadi 5TTCT (sn^smj

f^WR.)

Therefore not here STTOret, 3TRTT^itr:

II

Vdrt\ But before

Or

this is

VIII.

2.

5TT

0M-

11

fyq^, this ?orr^also is

&

II

\\

^1%

II

srraT ft t^t- srr

5TT,

II

i&AHikvb

^,

*ret%

II

Before the Imperative

affix r%> 3JT is

word

is

^rr^

not f>q[

1.

11

for the

not here.

is

by VI.

(I. 2. 4).

Thus infa

is

when

also found in the

which can only be when fa

II

3$

II

*3Tr%

II

^:,

?nTC*?^r4 (<u4iR4tr *rent It

*r., (

<re<T:

11

4.

is

See VI

01.

room of
The anu-

substituted in the

penultimate vowel of ^rrw


Therefore,

11

this f? is treated as

Vedas

fqr<j

as'

t?^

Sarvadhatuka

having acute on

ft^and consequently anudatta

4)

5r3:
lf%:

is

to fa

then too the substitution takes place, though a

first syllable,

(III.

and not only

of f%^[ and ft^ also

(III. 4. 88),

the

substituted

ll

The f| is changed
Thus srs^rrfa, srerrfa
The anuvritti of ST^RT: ls not here; so *rr

full

used in

11

ll

vritti

f%3refr :

104.

for stro;

the

srrftnfr, srrr%^r*ll

an irregular form indicated by the author in the word

35.

4. 22.

II

changed, as srriffc,

II

1266

Abhiya-rules.

36.

Thus

3rf?

3T is

m%^

substituted for

Bk. VI. Ch. IV

before

ff[

38]

II

11

^^^^^^f^^^i^T^m^HiT^^^ivri srfe ^T% n 3vs


T

fprT:

11

3Ti?rTffTf^RnT3f^rf *r%*cRr?rr#ff ^r^rflr^r^r *Rf*T sRrfr

The

37.

<*ttt*t

11

ll

^f^m srera 7^

11

nasal of those roots which in the

final

Dhatupatha have an unaccented root-vowel, as well as of gqand cR &c, is elided before an affix beginning with a consonant (except a semi-vowel or

catory 3^ or
Thus 215 ives

m^)

when

nasal),

these have an indi-

II

us *rar (with tRT), *&: (with

fff),

RraT^(with

^:

^^),^ %
r

Similarly *g gives us ^^t, *<?:, ^r^T^,


II
and
**, T* *T*
*I^ which end in a nasal are to be considered as unaccented roots, though taught
(with

as accented in the Dhatupatha.

nasal

is

not elided as ^r%;

So

VI.

also of

4.

39

^:

i.

e.

qfi:

withf^; with

and before other jhaladi

):

f%r?r the

affixes

3",

augment f^
The rTTrrf roots belong to
the eighth class. Thus ^^:, rnren* The Tanadi roots are ten in number,
Of these ^rqr takes long 3TT also
*Pl, ST*, r%^, ^t^, pr, fl., *R, T^and ^it n
(VI. 4. 45). $r* $TcT:, ST^RU mi mt'-, 5*t<T^; $<* ^> **PTP*;
fcf:
retains q^as all those affixes take the

II

rT^T^;

**Wj

Why

^*prP*;

TrP,

TrT^

II

do we say before a r!^

these affixes are rf^

So

Observe

affix ?

^T^, not being anudatta in the Dhatupatha.


nasal, the rule does not apply, as in tr^:, q <fr

If the root does not

H^
l

not

f^rqr

f??j

the rule does not apply:

"anudatta by upadesa"

So

that the rule

as,

*isq<t,

?i?cn",

may

2.

I.
:
,

end

t 1

^r^T-

in

If the affix does not begin

11

with zjhal consonant, the rule does not apply: as


or

3TtKT, ST^TT: (

also not in *TRp, STRnTP*, <TFcP, rTr^P*, ?PrT

?&&

q^oq^

apply to

Why

tjt

If the

11

affix is

do we say

root, as Tfrr,

but

STInMHLM For ?rnT is formed by f$&^ affix and is accented with


udatta on the first, but it is a secondary udatta and not of upadesa or dhatu-

not to

^r?r,

as

?rr; cT:

patha, and does not prevent the elision of

upadesa though

in srrer

it

has become

of Tq

btj*TtT: H

II

Similarly ^ni

is

udatta-

The former though taught

in

the Dhatupatha as udatta, has been specifically mentioned above as anudatta,

and

?Tjt is

taught as udatta in the Dhatupatha, and no where

else

taught as

anudatta.
srr

*rft

ll

\*w

33.

v^ri*

The

ll

5*rfa,

err,

of the above roots

nasal

and

ending in a nasal, and

^T

fore the Absolutive

5to

affix

I)

ll

(i. e.

cRT?^") is optionally

anud&tta
elided be-

BK. VI. CH.

This

is

42

AlilllYA-RULS.

1267

The option

a vyavasthita-vibhasha.

applies to roots ending in

w. In the case of roots ending in other nasals, the elision

H*m or wspq, JH3T or

%f% <frfer

*
trrP

11

f^nr

or inra,

src*3, jtoret

11

T*<?r s^fr-nt

II

<Tm

ferj, the

affix

is

Thus

compulsory.

but no option

5T, f^r^r, cft:,


mprft
ift^i <rr tfw h **n%

11

wi

Before the

39.

3TTT?T 3TT*TI,

in arr^ST, JPT?T,

11

above roots neither

drop their nasal nor lengthen their root-vowel.


The above
rFTfft,

do

roots

anudattopadesa, ending in a nasal, and

e.

i.

nasal before

not lose their

f^FT^.

thening would have taken place by VI.


that also

*m:
^rrrNr

is

and

4.

prohibited.

wtr

11

3FT

Thus qf?#, rfN?, sf*^ H The leng15, when the nasal was not elided

11

^n%

roRfarftf<r *r?r^i*

The

40.

Thus
F#7/

It

*rr<

11

nasal of

wrjfirq[, 5jrf%*T<|,
:

^^fa*^

tot:, ist, (

II

1*

**

s^ ^ *r^?rrf*n%^rF^i* "
*rq[ is

spspT^f ?^J

should be stated of

*tw

always elided before


The qr is added by VI. 1. 71.
and the rest. The elision takes
II

place here also *f^, ^(fart H

F^r/

The nasal of

fef*rt^Tft{*^i<t
41.

11

it* &c. is elided before

TfTR

11

stem ending

11

in

37^

as, 3T*T*rt,

STW

f^^: "*3 nfa*Jw


J

a nasal,

II

stt^

ii

and followed by

the affix fk* or ^, always substitutes long srr for its nasal.
Thus 3TS*rP, Tf5u-', sk^HTP, 3Tf?5Tr Tfm: (e. g. *w s*fr^rr 9rf% Rig V. ),
*I3UW, #nEP, WIT 3^rT3Tr*UI The affix fa? (which is totally
fjWST'-, Alri^l
The 3T of
elided) is added under III. 2. 67.
is changed to q- by VIII. 3.
With
the
affix
we have the following: f%5fr^T, arsnrrer
108. in *rrqr H
( III. 2. 75 ). The repetition of the word 3T3*ri%37 in this sutra shows that the
:

limitation of anudattopadesa &c.

which applied to the

3|$HIHfef cf sutra

VI.

4.

37 does not apply here.

*m*m<sMI <<):
ffrr?

11

^nr

^t^t ?5ft

42.

II

fdRtmgFff

II

tttt%

*tft irr*rfr

The long

sir is

II

r^r

5FT-H*-*?Rra; SP*rSn3t:, (srn*)


$F*rtt srera

<rerT arrern:

srff ^r *r^r%

substituted for the, final of

II

sn*,

and ^RC before the consonant beginning Desidcrative affix


^, and before any other affix beginning with a jhal consonant, which has an indicatory ^ or ^

*F*;

II

1268

AbhIya-rules

Thus 3TrrT:, ^TrRR, "3Tn%:,

STR:, STtPTP*,

Bk. VI. Ch. IV

*m%,

r%STOSrra; isTTrP,

^rf^T^

44.

^if^TMl

In -5^ and Jsn^the Desiderative does not begin with a consonant, but takes the

augment f? the ^
,

of the root sr*


fq^rfaqrf?T

(VII.

not therefore elided, as HnrRqfcT, fsnsrt^Tf^ II


In the case
%, so we have two forms f^rrcrra an d

is

the Desiderative takes


2.

The

49).

Desiderative has, therefore, been mentioned in the

aphorism, only for the sake of the root ^*H


If the phrase *r^%: be taken to mean 'the Desiderative beginning
with a consonant

',

then we should read the anuvritti of

from the pre-

frfo ^fsfrT

ceding sutras, to complete the sense of this and if the phrase means " when
the Desiderative of a jhaladi affix follows", then we should qualify the word
;

Or we may

Desiderative by the word jhal from the preceding sutras.

the sutra into two (1) Before a f^fr^or ftnj jhaladi affix long
the s^of

tute of

'jan

'san

',

'

and 'khan'.

(2)

And

so

3?T is

when the

the case,

is

divide

the substi-

Desiderative affix follows, not having the augment f for then also the ^ of
jan ', ' san and khan is replaced by long wrr II
would have required elision by VI. 4. 37, beThe ^ of the root
,

'

'

cause this verb belongs to Tanadi

class,

the

still

3TT

substitution taught in

on the maxim of HHl5f%W Tt ^n^wUI. 4. 2).


In fact, though in this section of asiddha (VI. 4. 22) one rule is considered
as asiddha for the purposes of the operations of another rule, yet one rule
this sutra takes place,

vipratisedha.

That that maxim applies

be inferred from the employment of the term f^ in


which
supersedes
the lopa of 3TT taught in VI. 4. 64, and substitutes
66,

in this section
4.

also, is to

instead the long f

^
ffrr.

preference,

by the maxim of

supersedes another

VI.

by

II

firmer \v*\
11

srernrffr

ffra

43.

ll

^ q^rf?r

srarai <tc*tt

There

Thus

^, ftviraT,

sttohww

ariWr

h^

f^^rrer

stt<* )

II

optionally the substitution of long srr


*$P* before an affix beginning with
with an indicatory s? or ^
is

for the finals of snr, ^JC

^ and marked

11

*rwreHMi*K

and

II

snvfa or spOrt

with ufr') *4|*uq% or

^>^^H

with

**TO% or *RRf, CTCrrai', or *r*Ri%, mzfrt, or *sF3%, '*TOnrcf or sr^<jirg%

the vikarana
is

>^ of the

always substituted

<Hftfrfa
fTTp

ii

II

cMIH^i* <mt

Fourth

for

II

q^

f%*rrqnr

II

which

class,

sr^by VII.

3.

79.

is

gRt^:, *!?%,

sthktc srf^rr

Wcr

f^rj

No
(

according to

option

is

So

I. 2.

also

Before

11

the

*rr

allowed there.

fiwm 3TR* )

II

44.
The long srr may be optionally substituted for
the final of cT^ before the Passive characteristic
Thus rltarar or rF3%; but no option is allowed in r r -H with

sr: f%f% ^tq^R^T^r^r^TT^


xT,

st^t, 3T?q<TC^W*,

fr%;

ii

ll

II

q^Tnr

II

II

*r:, fof%,

11

*Hra*ffTO fajrq- spare q*rr ^j\^k

arfssnr

H^m ^rr^r^r^^^ri

II

ftq:,

Bk

VI. Cii. IV.

final of

46

1269

Lengthening

The long 3?r is optionally substituted for the


45.
optionbefore the affix for*; and there is also elision

ally of the Nasal.


Thus we have
optionally' has been

three forms

employed

*n%\ f* and

afif: M

The word

*T^r^*

clearness only;
in the sutra for the sake of

by annvritti. Lest any


43 could have been read into it
ceased with the last aphorone should doubt, that the annvritti of fir*WT had
for the

f%W of

VI.

4.

word ^^d<^l*i

ism, this

is

employed

here.

ftOT,l

From this upto VI. 4. 68 inclusive, is always


46.
called ardhadMtuka ( III. 4.
to be supplied "before an affix
114 &c

)."

exclusive). In
an adhikara sutra and extends upto VI. 4. 69 (
an affix
"before
phrase
the
68 should be supplied
all the sutras upto VI. 4.
end of a
the
at
standing
a*
Thus VI. 4. 4 teaches "the
called ardhadhatuka".

This

verbal stem

is

is

dhatuka affix".
ardhatuka affix
sarvadhatuka
roots of

complete the sense we should add: "before an ardhabefore the


Thus the final * of the verbal stem fWft is elided
as
fe#t* but the final * is not elided before a

To

elided".

MM*

?,

affix, as

it# class,

the sr of

in *nn%,

implies that there

is

***:

The /^-elision
^r

never lopa of

of

**

after

II

by this sutra, i. e. an ardhatuka


changes (1) a^TlSTF The elision of 3T of a
affix causes the following special
*RW, The elision of by
stem, as shown above, in frftffer, fWWf*, (2)

The

following purposes are served

Wrf*ir,W*flm, irf^^from <ftii the


^5<n% (3) f^rw ff^ra^, The eliBefore Sarvadhatuka, we have %T*^%,
qroar (qrm + **+% = *P* + *+%), *n?*cr u
sion of pr by VI. 4. 51, as ^vm ?rc<*r

VI

4.

49,

Intensive stem.

50: as

11

In Sarvadhatuka,

VI 4. 64
The substitution

TTW, #. **> **

as TT^:, T3-.

of long

**3

i for

Sarvadhatuka^*, WIWH.
as

&m.

(7

Aorist Passive in ff*

T
'

**->

in

^ *^''>

the

In Sarvadhatuka, *rRT, *rr*r (5)

some

roots,

(6)^-The

VI.

4.

n of

eiis

r^-

ffiMMr

65 as

substitution of 7 for

w,

VI.

4.

in
;

68

This is confined to the


*3*ni;in Sarvadhatuka, wrar* 'arar*
the treatment of the Precative like

Precative'(asirlin).

)(WnwW
,

by VI.

4-

62. as ifrfe, *rf*fte U

^Sfcd :-Wt Wt S^* i***

30

*W

In

Sarvadhatuka,

Ardhadhatu-Changes

127a

Bk.VI. Ch. IV. 491

In the room of the t and the penultimate letter

47.

the root g-^r, there is optionally the substitute ***, whera


an &rdhadhgltuka affix follows.
The ^ and ^ cease to exist and r takes- their place* The substitute
having an indicatory ^ comes after the final vowel ( I. r. 49)*. Thus *re5T + 5 =
*T^ + t = *m the ^t being changed to 1$ by VIII. 2. 36, and ^ to z by VII
The other form will be ym; so also *3C&1 and h*t 3^33. and HessWU
4. 41.
; of

The
and ^srp* by VI. I. 16, in spite of this. rule.
word 3<f^r (VI. 4. 37). is understood here also. The rule therefore applies ten
the simple root bhrasj as originally taught in the Dhatupatha, and not to any
Derivative root from it. As the Intensive ( qw ) is ^hf^r

^^FR or >t^T^

But

11

^S":

11

The z* standing
an SrdhadMtuka affix.
48.

before

at the

end of a stem

is

elided

Thus fspfift^r, r3ra ffl gC, and ^refrf^rT^, from the Desiderative stem
So also f^5rT and ^Jjrr: from the roots f^* and %p%^ thus, re* + S (I I FJ
l%?tffcf
=
1
80) f%^+ sr + 3 ( 1 1 1 1 80 ) = fa* + T (ar being elided before the ardhatuka
*) 1%f5 tne 3 rcl Personal dual of it is f^cP It The addition of arby III. 1. 80
and its subsequent elision by the present sutra,. may appear a redundancy,
but the elided sr being sthanivat, prevents guna of fa
So also #uj<n:
>

ir

11

II

See sutra III. r. 80. Why do we say "the aqris elided' ? Observe ^TT, ^TrTT
here f and s have not been elided. Why do we say "3Trf with an"? The
long 3TF will not be elided as ^rTT, ?\m H Why do we say before arr Ardha:

'

dhatuka

'

Taddhita

?
:

Before a Sarvadhatuka there will be no

f$r*^ and

as

f^TrfT

elisiorr

of a* nor before a

Vdrt
The elision of such 3? takes prace even to the supersession of
the subsequent rules relating to Vriddhi and lengthening. As fa*l&*i
fM*
:

ifes*,

and

f^FTO W

nm ^jt:
fr%s

11

II

<*>

w* 3ttc*s

it

^1%

II

^^T^rskrf%

49.

verbal

n$ro%

When

stem, this

lis

II

q-^r,

3r$r

w&*

>r^m

It

a consonant
elided

also

precedes the final


before an

in

Srdhadhatuka

affix.
Thuslrprnrrn',

the sutra q&i


ters

3i

ll

is

By

^rf?<^, ^prftrT^ 1* from the Intensive stem %pt*j it


which is the Genitive singular of 3 namely of the

given,

the rule of 3^t^?rei

(I.

1.

52), the

3* of

3 ought

to

In
let-

be elided

Bk. VI. Cn. IV.

52

Ardiiadhatu changes

1271

and not ^ but that rule is evidently inapplicable here, since the elision of *r
would have taken place by the preceding rule the present rule therefore
teaches the elision of u (ya). Or the word $<*: may be considered as in the
ablative case, and then by I. I. 54, the first letter would be elided namely q
;

\\

Why

have we taken [the two

Observe

conjointly

(qqm )

letters

from the simple roots

{Ffewr, Tfarcrr, 3jr**rTC

w?
and fj^ail Here
Why do
546).

viz.]

fs*, Jjs?r

q and

by *r, is not elided (see Bhvadi 541


we say * when preceded by a consonant ? Observe PjrafarTr, qr^fsrcrr
being followed

not

'

<**n?r

ftsrm

not

u^u

q?n^

ww, f^ir*r,

snlrenj*

II

The elision of *r of the Denominative stem


optional, when preceded by a consonant and followed
50.

(^t) is
by an ,rdhadh,tuka
The

denotes the affixes

spj

$qfRf or $qr?^T meaning

for, is

*$% and

sf*TW** fS??T

The * of the

51.
affix

affix.

Thus

and

4.1

do we say

guna, Vriddhi and the long

the

snfe^,

llflWRl>

cf,K^r,

wrr,

^rn^r

:
,

$TCK\

shortening of the stem of

for the

not having the augment

f^r ?'

the

Observe

II

<

11

52.
rR^rjj

WWf,

(see VII.

Why

srcfarTT

fogrnri %fa:

and

formed with the

fi

STSTrW^,

^FSrfsr

Aorists in these).

and

Thus <sf*rf^l*TT or srfafw,


f^r^Tm &c.

verbal stem

This debars f qy, the semi-vowel


substitutions.

^rrcf^TT

*rf%>*

elided before an ardhadh&tuka affix which does not

take the augment %z

^fra%,$rirar

m^ n

or

when

q^rfa

The

affix

Etewm
for is

these take the

^rc

before

elided

augment *f

the

affixes

rff

||

Why

Thus

do we say " before an


*kiR>th, ^rreni., iffaPli WflHWt. "
ardhadhatuka affix having the augment f*"? Observe *rfrf3rcp q^r:
This
11

is

the

part

By VI I.

2.

two

with VII.

15 read

in the Nishtha.

applies to

causative, the $ being the sign of the

participle of the

It

may

verbs of one

syllables

will

syllable

foj

49, SH;

is

in

The word

should take place.

which takes no f* augment

a root

15 preventing j^ augment
and the causative %fq being of
the Nishtha, and so it is useless to use

(VII.

always have f^

the word %fz in the sutra.


the elision of

2.

be objected that VII.

causative.

2.

2. 10),

%f* in the sutra fixes the time

Namely,

first there should

when

be added the

Ardhadhatu changes.

1272

augment j* and

we

have

shall

Bk. VI, Ch. IV.

should take place the elision of far

then, there

this difficulty ^nrc

+ W, here

let

us elide the

for

11

first

56

Otherwise
and we get

now we cannot add 5? to ^, for m* being a verb of one syllable will


not take f^ by VI I. 2. 10. Therefore, the reverse process must be adopted.

grr^+?T,

We

must

*n%

II

by the

gularly

ment *?

27.

2.
II

the word

iMa

elision of fa before the

mr ^rpr^r

in H'

an exception to VI.
i

<riMdl , *T??T

II

affix

formed

is

irre-

with the aug-

Thus
*ifad

<T^TT*

II

In a Mantra,

do.

s%

Otherwise oHUWI

11

11

qnft

^rftdr

is

*ifadi, *r%

literature.

It is

II

formed irregularly by the

an %* augmented

before

in secular

4. 51.

\H

11

54.
ror

For 9fq<r see also VII.

elide fT first.

srffRTT

affix,

when meaning

of

elision

a sacrificial

act.

Why

Thus ^pj
do we say

See Satpatha

fn?r

11

?n* : STPTrT
'

when

srra. aT^" srrqj 3TP2J

srrq:, st^t,

affixes

st**"

4 and

formed by
to a

referring

Br. III. 8. 3,

55.

It is

11

3tt,

sacrificial act

tpt r

is
?

'

src^rrtsfr *r*i$

for the

substituted
sn^r,

and

in the Vocative case.

^ ^:

See

qiH

^H

II

5.

t^ f5^ f^^i

is

^r

^3, and **3

* of pr, before

the

II

Thus 4\\m\ -M*K, ?TTOT "M^K, rj ^3ri:, *FTS~t: ( formed by the Unadi
affix SPl- ?T = 3T^, added to the roots ttt and *rr) stt^
*^<h^ stt^, <-"J*3l^
Thus sutra could have been well
yti\W r"3 HIS*3'- U x**' qmfoug:
dispensed with; for the f of f^ would take gun a q which will be changed to
era by the rules of Sandhi, be fore these affixes. This substitution of era for f
i

is for

11

11

the sake of the subsequent sutra however, because there x could not be

changed to arc by any sandhi-rules.

^tr

n
c^Pi <*U1'^ C* n
ear? TTrfr ^^TiiHiiw

ffrr^

11

do.

Absolutive

affix

Thus !Wi<4

aw

is

Skfliitfr

11

**rfq,

5^m

np, *MlU|

preceding the f being long.

^m

for the

substituted

5^, when

5*5

( ft:

arc

11

* of fa, before

the vowel preceding the f

ir*:,

srVpT^ai, H

Heie VI.

4.

51

mm

II

But

applies.

srqrsr ir?r.

The

the

is light.

the vowel

shortening, the

Bk. VI. Ch. IV

q and the

elision of

place of operation

ed by VI.

as asiddha, for

this elision

is

is

the Intensive

not considered as asiddha,

this stt

shorten-

is

not to be considered

is

is

by VI.

elided

4.

49,

were asiddha, the f of f*r would


irr which is a root which ends in

not considered as asiddha for similar

is

309),

root, its

if it

Similarly the elision of ar in

Dhatupatha Churadi

(see

This shortening

ll

*n*fa

asiddha, there being no laghu purva, the present rule would

if

not be laghu.
sr,

Thussru+pir^^^rrfa

not the same.

Similarly %nrl

not apply.

1273

should not be considered as asiddha, as their

elision of 3T

is

and we have

92,

4.

Ardiiadhatuka changes.

Co. ]

reasons.

f^TTTT, SST.
ffrT:

V*

II

<T^Tft

II

f^TTTT, 3TTq:,

II

3W* ^WlR qw f^TTTT S^TfflT *T^f%

STTT

It

57.

optionally

sr*ris

||

II

substituted

for

the * of

before the affix sq^, after the verb srfa h


This however does not apply
Thus q Mm or irn^r T<T

to the 3TT*

II

(VI.

substitute for f, as Bregra Tfl:

48, VII.

I.

3.

36).

for

The maxim of

Prati-

padokta applies here.

a^<ffcU*^fa
ffrT

II

In

58.

3-^5*:, fHfc, sf^t%,

Chhandas'

Observe

*r3?T,

m ^fl

srcrrr

qil^

II

ll

II

As

long

11

sr*ffa

iptffa,

Nm

ff

ll

substituted

is

for the

% of

long

rfr,

is

before

The

force of

ject (passive).

?fj

lengthened.
is

added

<j^

When

is

it

has not the sense of the future

II

to denote

condition (Impersonal action) and ob-

the Past Participle .has not the

Thus

)
i

% before

when

Passive Participle in *nr^

is

RrawiR. st-^t^, ( ^t:


rreri i%m #3t t^h
substituted for the ^ of

irrrft n

11

"^ s^rcsnff M ^uft rrraiH^H *t fror


60.

The

the

11

50

11

the Participle in

of rt

say'in

II

ft a

inr;

do we

before

II

ll

59.
5*T*

Why

11

3-,

in the secular literature.

i^rf* %*:, @Hr: wfq)


%*:
FSTC' <TOP
H*mt
#3fr
faW
ff%
:

II

II

rer

s*ft)

R*A ^Hf H^frT


and c, long is substituted for

the Veda.
Thus 3 ^4 95 f&q

5*ni in

^T^

II

'gtWIsfawift qTcT*<}f<i

srreffar:,

to the Intransitive

JTCffar,
f$T

qfc^fNn

all

force of wjp^, the

used

to denote the agent

vowel

in the active

sense.

(III. 4. 72).

Thus

Here tU is used
JWT'TPT? ^f^T^ 'this is the spot where Devadatta perished
with a Locative force (III. 4. 76). Why do we say 'not. having the force of
'.

Ardiiadiiatuka changes.

1274

Bk. VI. Ch. IV. 62

Here *f is added with the force of condiObserve STr^Rf^TTroWP


and akshitam means 'imperishable'. The vowel not being lengthened
the sr is not changed to q- (VI I L 2. 46).

*%rl

II

'

tion,

ssta%?sr*ft: n $ ?

err

The long

61.

of

%,

before the Past

the Future Passive


i

imprecation 'or

When

^n%

11

'

11

is

m, 3TTstor4^ft:

(r%*r:

^Hr. fa*rr*r)

optionally substituted, for the j


not having the sense of
<3r,

Participle

when the word means

Participle vq^,

a miserable plight \

Thus facugefa or tfNrgftfa, raws* or ffws, fa^R wwft, sfNrs* rrr^r h


not having the sense of cursing or miserable condition, we have one

form only, as sat^r^:

f^snt, **,

<*,

11

11

Before the affixes s^ (First Future and Condi-

62.

tional), fag; (S-Aorist), *frg? (Benedictive)

rastic Future),

Passive

(*f*r)

and

<rrfe (the

when there are used in the Impersonal

Priph-

(srrer)

and

Voices, (1) the verbal stems endingin a vowel in

the Grammatical system of instruction ( mfo^ i), as well as the


verbs (2)
(3) srs and (4) sar are treated optionally in the

same way
and when

as in the third person of the Passive Aorist in


so treated, they have the

The augment f*
STrm'

is,

aphorism

They

of course, added to the affixes

What

and not to the stem.

augment *?

Kdrikd

f$WZ ffar*r

First

The Vriddhi

secondly, there

tuted

for the

is

and

this atidesa

11

takes place as in fer* (VII.

3. 54),

f%"^, sft^*

by

the addition of g*F augment (VII.

f of f^ (VII.

to,

T $%*r q**

ffo*rr*r WTf*HTrsR[STRft
:

II

are the special objects served

are given in the following verse

feijr,

fourthly,

the

3.

2.

116, VII.

33), thirdly

roots

is

3.

34),

substi-

having indicatory w

Bk. VJ. Ch. IV.

CniN-VAD-BriAVA

6$ }

(VL4.

their vowel

(Bhuadi 809 to 873) optionally lengthen

augment f^ being considered

addition of the

1275

95),.

and

the

lastly

as asiddha or not to have taken

by VI. 4. 22, the rule VI. 4. 51 applies and the causative affix for is
and this f? is added irrespective of the conditions and limitations of
elided
effect

VII.

r:

2.

35 &c.

Roots ending

(1)

r,

3T?Tf^irT or

In

mn

in

a vowel

%^, areulMrl or

*TTT3lrr or

3T^2HT

the f*
class,

the sr

is

considered as asiddha

is

lengthened optionally by VI-

when not

are given

treated as

the

and

$f,

as,

wn

affix

pr

as,

*rfa*^ or

being a root of

The forms

4. 93.

f^r*r,

the causative

is

*r*lfa3j^

and

retained, the

r%^^Mlfa^fMIH.
With
affix tfrg^ *rn%fte or %fre, *ITO*fte or ytftz and write or W*nfte H
With
affix <jrf*T
The fan* aorist
"srrfarTr or %rfr, ^rnrrrr or ^rar, WfaW or SHIrtf
With the

4. 92.

aTfrfamrrP*, or ajfftiM TC,

3T%*TRrP*,

the

with

also

two wft^m or ^rf^T%, arqtfim d and


of the causative ending by VI. 4. 5* r in spite

penultimate being shortened by VI.


>r

So

II

augment which

mmfamd

Dhatupatha with the

there are three forms, the

being given by the elision


>f

the

in

3T-*(^H W

and

affix

STOTPrerrfPl or STOfaqjrfr*

II

lodel of these

(VI.

ll

roots

snrrfg,

is

^m

(VII.

3.

33)*

and srer%

VIL

3.

34) or

4. 93)-

f^ : Fut. niRtmm or ^t^%; Con. gr mnm rior <H*flH, Aor. ajqfHmrTIHl


ST^rWrfr^ and iT^rcrr* (II. 4. 44); Ben m-prsftg: or ?rfSpfte Per. Fut qfTHrTT or
(2)

>r

The f%oi model is arcrf% H


(3) *%' Fut. nrf^WRir or *$**& Con. Wfmfam

II

mn or 3i*r?tarrrr* (sraf^rrm)
or irf^TT

11

isarerT?

II

(4)

or sTSSFrar*
Is

sr^f%

The lengthening

$ takes

of

place by VII.

?T: Fut. ?f%tfr or j$m, Con.


;

Ben

or 3TO#oi<r; Aor.

Ben. infers: or (^f^fte)

STfffpajrT or

^Ifafte or ftftsr; Per. Fut. fffmr or rer

am n?Mtmf%m

^rqte, Per. Fut.

?
2.

The f^* model

37.

3Ty^r Aor.
U The
;

(m) ?

ST^hlTrrr*
f^r?r

model

11

Why

? Observe ^Tfssrc, ^FfT^TH I*


Why an the
Observe %<*% and ^TTO% I* Why in Upadesa? The
rule applies to *rRM also, though ^IT (after guna change) ends in a consonant, but in its original ennuciation it ends with a vowel.
The atidesa

do we say before to &c

Impersonal and Passive

rule

being enunciated with regard to stems

titutions of

^ and

or 3T^rrol?T

11

The

and

?qr

Thus

it

substitutes

according to the Kasika,


s(t#r g^fir **feRT

when
\\

\\

ahga

),

prevents the subs-

fPT^iT, qTfa<si%, q^% or 3rrfawtfr,

W m
or

(II. 4. 42,

43, 45, 50)'

these roots are treated as r^T*


11

qr^rft

rr

^:,

3s,

b^^RST
do not come

ll

~<x\% **fei%

\\

Ardiiadhatu Changes

1276

___*63.

dh&tuka

Thus
by

I.

after

of an

5fte,

ftrdha-

II

m^

TTf^fam and TTMrftrc II The Personal ending is


being in the Ablative case, the augment is applied to the affix.

^rfffra,

%w

2. 5.

augment

the

g?r is

66

beginning with a vowel and having an indica-

affix

^ or ^

tory

Bk. VI. Ch. IV

This augment, however,

not to be considered as asiddha (VI.

is

purposes of semi-vowel substitution under VI.

were allowed, the augment would become


having ^ or ^ ? Observe 3q$RH,

4. 82.

Why

useless.

22) for the

4.

If that substitution

before an affix

II

3tt*t 5?pt sfe

64.

ardhadh&tuka

V*

The
affix

<ttti%

11

final

3TT

smn,

ll

Jta:, %fz, <*,

of a root

with the augment

ll

as well as

se?

an

before

elided

is

when

begins with a vowel and has an indicatory a^ or ^


Here the affix has the f? augment.
Thus qf*r*T and zftim

it

ll

*TTsF,

ll

^J, HPT3
affix

*&Q

>

Here the

So

(III. 2. 3).

also

by

affixes are re?^

im

(fern;,

JTfT

(fern)

I. 2.

*frf:, cfiMr!f:

by 3T^

with the

III. 3- 106.

Before

Sarvalhatuka affixes, we have trfor, ^TfH *Q&i and s^isre II The two latter
are the Imperfect 1st Pers. Sing. Atm. of *r and ^r with the affix 1 (??) When
vowel, we have *$raSr, W$m H
it does not begin with a

ivfa

11

%\

<T3rft

\\

The

65.

fore the Krit-affix

Thus ^wl,
tO VII.

3.

84.

fee, *rf?r,

11

final

*T<*

of a stem

is

changed into $ be-

II

^RWLi 93*,
-

3?r

11

and *^re

_.

II

The Guna

takes place according


.

-,

^OT^mnTrsT^mTCn" ^te

%\

11

11

<T3Tfa

ll

g,

*tt,

wr,

m,

qr,

-i*iid

form of ^T
^T
and vtt (3)> as well as for that of the roots m, *W, *TT,
there is substituted before an ardhadhsl(sreTRf) and ^TT (^t)<
tuka affix beginning with a consonant, which has an indicatory
66.

For the

final of the roots of the

*r

or

II

Thus $v&, $WR with ^^,

M^,

WNwr

with

II

%*torcr, sr^tfte, sr^tftorcn-*, ^arfWrT,


*tfta^, altera, *fte^

The

Tt

'

to protect'

of Adadi (47)

is

So

also ft^r

<fot%,

not meant here,

Tfta%,

^^^
#*%,

become

the

Bk. VI. Ch. IV

vikarana *r*
tjT

is

So

taken here.

also

Its

1277

form

gr- faj i fl is

will

be

Bhvadi

It is

qrsfiT.

not to be taken here. Its

^ra%

is

Why
had

AniiiYA-RULES.

elided in roots of that class.

is

*to drink' that

form

69

Here
do we say 'before a consonant'? Observe ff^:, ^5:
srr of fr would be replaced by ? by the
11

not been used in the sutra, the

$?*

present sutra, even before a vowel-affix srg: o

for the lopa of 3TT

taught in

prevented by this subsequent sutra teaching f substitution. In fact,


4- 64
in the aphorism is a jnapaka that the rule of
the employment of the word

VI.

is

vipratishedha (I.4.2) applies in this section of asiddha (VI.

of

superseded by

is

3TT

and

**rar

before non-f^t and non

nj&
%frf:

%*

II

<*mft

II

flf<t affixes.

*:, feftf,

gUWHimi4l4lfltaM]rlii fefr

II

67.

f^,

Thus

mood

'iftirfj,

<ttrT

m^

lf^

^jr?l, WtT<t, t^?t, >3T?t

or the Precative

ardhadhatuka by

of the above

roots

mood

**refte H
;

By

f^

Before non-

11

is

here meant

the Personal endings of which

More-over by

III. 4. 116.

and st^^T*
the word

III. 4.

mood

are

Parasmaipada

104 the

does not apply

Atmanepada

to the

m TO wftmfr
( smr.

^rft*^ S?3TO

II

\*

i^rf*

ii

*rr,

^rer-%^T,

^:,

fefe

11

mentioned

in

<ji||lfeU<Mll-tiPt Sf

For the

68.

VI.

4*HlWl

final 3TT of

4. 66,

the Benedictive active,


.

II

stt

only of the Benedictive are ftg, so the present rule


affixes of the Precative.

affixes

ifrf:

<J*KlWt wt%

Active.

fa?l and non-f^t we nave Vft* anc*

the

II

substituted for the

is

in the Benedictive

and the lopa

4. 22),

the present rule substituting f instead. So also fren

<S

may

*T3fa fofl* T^T:

II

any other root than those

optionally be

substituted, in

when the root begins with a conjunct

.consonant.

The
ed by

this

**TT

was the only root of VI.

rule.

It

4. 66,

which could have been

affect-

has been, however, specially exempted by the word

Thus 3tanjor *7TOt?t, &SWI or mq&L, but only wirq[ (VI. 4. 66\
wtoto
and q q l (not commencing with a double consonant). The phrase f^TfT U
understood here and therefore the rule applies to Paras maqpad a affixes (III.
Thus *?*refrff in Atmanepada. The root considered as an anga, should
4. 104).
11

consist of a double consonant, therefore in Rre?3rq[ (from Rr*

be considered as a root having a double consonant, for

+ *r ), $ is not to
c is no part of the

ahga, but of the preposition.


51

*rfa

11

31

11

q^ri%

11

*t,

^tPt, 3*TTWTPTn^ifd^i*i

11

Augment

127S

f 1%:

ir

Rifa

^CT, IT,

^^

when the

<*T,

Thus

^T

and

^r, is
9Wc)ft4Krc**rraC ^
II

under rule VI.

stt

absolutive

may

Thus

4.

5^ follows 5

affix

M^lft

11

I.

1.

and ar^mi

W&:,

The

1*

affix

56.

^,

3i^d<W<IH,

*rft )

II

optionally be substituted for the sn of

ri

arqFTc^ or srrara

S^^^iSTO:

by

a f^[ affix

II

before 5*m

WT, (*RlRr)

72

11

snra, iron*, jptto, *rc*rra, jftpt, *nra, *r?nr

70.

IV

Bk. VI. Ch.

537 R

the substitute of

F3<J as

ir

qrw ^TC^Tirprrwf^sri
rr?r
69.
The t substitution for

Jisrar

66, does not apply


JTT,

st

11

q^n%

vs? n

^, ^,

^,

aj,

^ttt:

(,if*v)i
71.

^Tff

acutely accented

the augment of the

is

verbal stem in the Aorist, Imperfect and the Conditional.


Thus STc&nffit, 3T?NT?fr ^f^^y **&*l and ^T^f^I^, SH^R^
I*

aT

l^l^HIH H ^*

^FR

II

ffrP II.3TF3TW >T^nTT^rf

72.

3?nr

3TT?,

II

ST^KMIH, (^RrO

g^^cSf^

<TCrT

acutely

accented

S^TtT^

*T

T^

the

is

II

It

augment of a

verbal stem beginning with a vowel, in the Aorist, Imperfect

and the Conditional.


Thus

qr%s,

STT*>ft<t, 3TFvr?ft

The
srrsra

qsTrr,

^rer*^;

and srff**^

II

^rssffffc arrs^it,

The Vriddhi

u <rf??, <&<t

and %fi

90.

I.

^and

Passive Imperfect (<*f) of ara,


^f? are ir*^, 3TRirr and
First, the affixes of the Imperfect are added
3TT* and not 3T? II

formed by

and then the Passive

characteristic qas

the vocalisation of the semi-vowels, and


(VI.

^n%5T^ft

takes place by VI.

I.

15).

is

which causes

3 c 3rT, and ssicF stems


which they begin with

ll

tion precedes the addition of augment.


^ar,

the latter being

being nitya,
-so

which we can add


following

to these roots,
f"53<T,

The stems having now assumed a form in


The addition of tense-affixes being an antaranga opera3TT*

a vowel, take
the vikarana

added

we have

maxim

is

far

anitya; after

3^

3TT?

Why

is

11

After the affixes have been added,

added and precedes


srf?

addition the roots

reference to which a rule teaches something

would be

augment,

assume a form

in

considered anitya depends on the

^ww fT^P* ftraWr W?T

rule that applies simultaneously

in order the

"

when the word-form

after the taking effect of

different

that other rule hajd taken effect, then the former rule

from what
is

it

not nitya."

in

another

was before

IV

VI. Cii.

15k.

76

The Augment 3th

The

73.

is

found in the Veda

also.

found there before the roots beginning with a vowel as well as

It is

Thus 3TT*:, 3TFT3?, anc snS^ H *TO is the Aorist of


by II. 4. 80. ^M* from ?jst (II. 4. 80), and sTrgr^

before consonant roots.

fr, the afTix being elided


is

augment

3TTff

1279

the Imperfect of 3*^M

In connection with the prohibitive particle


m, the augment ars or srr? is not added in the Aorist, Imper74.

and the Conditional.

fect

m *rer^3Ttffc, it w*?rfffi, it w srcfci,

Thus

W^W, IT W
srfa

T^pftWT

H^nftfrT, TT *T

*n

*^,

**r

it **Ftfffs*rr,

II

II

There

75.

is

diversity in the

added even with


even when there is no *TT
sns

s^r or

is

Veda

augment

the

and sometimes not added

*rr,

II

Thus
the augment

^Ttt: n

II

the

^ izmw

augment
T^jft

II

s^fr%

rlr<Ts

76.

Thus

73.

is

is

4.

is

back to

is

first

**fn,

I.

53. 3)

?-,

votf;

*, (

*$$&%fa

fyr 3ttt:

(Rig X.

by VI.

4.

ffr**&r<i;

m is

added.

II

11

^ in the Veda.

mm

In f, the arr
qftfyr 11
the
substitution
being consid*
64,
82. s)

22) for the purposes of the elision of

added to

and

$r% qr^niP^^p^:,

as q**rrar fWF*tffcr

Sometimes
Here f?
thus becomes ^,

3TT

II

^iwk

II

%^ roots and the affix


by this sutra, thus the* affix is brought
To show this repetition ^-i-^J^ the sutra

* after the

substituted again for this 5*


its

original condition.

has exhibited the word

srfe

11

*& t fsrwt^iT ^rt

the substitution does not take place,

then ^

^m^r^ (Rig
no m
In m

diversely substituted for

* fa*$ to*

of qr is
ered as asiddha (VI.

is

not elided, though the particle

elided before the affix ft

augment

1),

not added though there

STf*TWJT : , IT 3TT^ : ,

srxt ^

(Rig X.

in offerer 3*:
is

?w

in the

33^3^ ^iK^f^#r

^^ ^^#t,

11

dual number.
11

vas

11

^fr

n srr%,

33, >sng, g^m:,

3^

f^and

1280

^ifrf^l

^^^*i"lc|5^r#ft 3^T% *g*i4OT3R

II

Before an

77.

3tJoW

II

beginning with a vowel, there

of g, the characteristic of the roots


for the final %> %, 3" and 3J of a root, as well

are substituted for the

of the

affix

Bk. VI. Ch. IV. So

it

fifth class,

g-

(for ^ or g^).
as for the 37 of H, the $;r (for % or %) and
Thus su^fa, cr3^f5^, 41f>44Rr> from roots of the 5th class. Nr{^

%$V* H*> * ^, *: and gfr and wr>


Why do we say before an affix beginning with a vowel ? Observe
Why " of *3 &c." ? Observe $[, <*w, ^, **r:
STT^nt, Sl grfr, *r^*r?*
Why "off and 3" ? Observe qiEj|:, ^: where the vowel is *t
F^rt: The Guna (VII. 3. 84) and Vriddhi (VII. 2. 115) however
as from f%rr^HT^ and ^|<W,
take place to the supersession of f^ and 3^

m?Z

II

'

>

'

II

ll

II

wpj^th and

with eg? and

ttf^j:,

<*ff$

II

In the Chhandas there is deversely the substitution of $*n?


Vdrt
&c. Thus <jr 3%*r or ^^ ^h
and T^rW in the case of
ft^c gq?r, ^*rf
**fa[:, g^T? <*fap, >3*^5R 3T5TFIf f^T^ 2T3TT*I?

ll

II

WUM*qimflr

q^Tf^H3TWTra^T,^,^^{

1)^11

11

and ^r^ are substituted for the % and


of a reduplicate, before a non-homogenous vowel.
78.

Thus 5^*, ^r<?, 5*tf%, ( VII. 4. 77


homogenous vowels and fmq and

before

ferer:
fRT:

^r^:

ll

^rr%

vs^ H

ftC^(3HU4U?r

II

^rf

79.

11

JT?T?I <T*<T:

is

but

and

^srg:

f^:,

supersedes this

ll

5^1^ W?T H
substituted for the | of

The making

rule.

3v$:

3^ before a non-vowel.
f&w, ( snfe ^^)

beginning with a vowel.


As ^r, fwf, fw*:; but wnTT* the ^ being added by

affix

3^3: and

g-

this a separate sutra

is

^r before an
a subsequent rule>

for the

sake of the

subsequent aphorisms.
srr

f Ptf

II

si*w:

ll

*o

3?ft STfa TtrT

\\

q^rft

f^^r fT

ll

err,

an*, ^erot:

^T3TW H^

**r^ fenrr:

II

II

The

substitution of ^r^? for the fofstriis


optional before the accusative endings s?q[ and -rj^ (sra) II
Thus ^fif ?*q or f^j q^, ffr: T>3 or f^?: q^:

80^

II

fnft ^jt

||

fpcf u s^rr^s;
:

*\

||

q^rfif

||

wWr *t^i% arre

q^ (

^jr :>
re<r:

^^

g? r

) u

Bk

VI. Ch.

IV

83

Semivowel Substitution.

For the % of the root

81.

1281

substituted

*s

(^Rr)

*Tff

a semivowel (q-), before an affix beginning with a vowel.


This supersedes f^ substitution, and is itself
Thus ?if?fT, 3^5, stri^
superseded by VII. 2. 115, and VII. 3. 84 which ordain Vriddhi and Guna
on the maxim qti( STOTCP **H f%*fK *P*%, ^rrnr?t H " Apavadas that are surII

rounded by the rules which teach operations that have to be superseded by


the apavada operations, supersede only those rules that precede, not those
follow

that

So we have

them."

m^4>M> s^ftn^^r
( VTRTt: ST^f ST3rc

ipirXrr h*t%

II

<R

3T*nP* anc*

*Wtt

<*?n%

II

II

^:,

sh*m:,

st

^4l*i

i4<r!4,

II

11

82.

semivowel

is

substituted before an affix be-

ginning with a vowel, for the final % or t of a root, not preceded

by a conjunct consonant forming part of the


stem is not a monosyllable.
The word

>rofr:

*s

root,

understood here, and the word sratT

is

when the
qualified

by

the f or f which is not preceded by conjunct consonant forming


Thus ftsTsJ:, f*F3 S??qt,
part of the root is called an asamyoga purva 5 II

that

i.

e.

All the above examples are of the soot

SFar, iTPF^T,

MR3

by the

prepositions ft and 3^, or a Karaka-upapada

gati

ll

;ft

preceded

The

irrf H

rule

word is neither a gati nor a


Karaka, but an adjective, as Witft, its dual and plural will be T in fa ^T and qcWhy do we say of % or f ? Observe ^^3 and 3^: from 3?
Hpra** by %n&
which ending in 37 takes s^< substitution. This is also shown in the next
sutra.
Why do we say the stem should be of more than one syllable ?
Why do we say
Observe ht; its dual and plural are fMft and fw by 53^
consonant
conjunct
Observe anft d.
preceded
by
a
?
be
the 5 or 5 should not
"
forming
part
of
Why
do
we
the root " ? So
say
qFVSf&n pi. sreraw by %qw
Here though f is preceded by a conjunct
that the rule may a Dply to 35ft a so
not apply however

will

if

the preceding

II

'

'

II

II

5^, yet the latter

is

not part of the root, one

^ being

part of the upasarga

The phrase 34<h4hi^4 should


and &*r>
qualifying the letter f, and not as qualifying the word 3?y

Thus we have

gpaft

II

in fact

be taken as

11

sft:

st^t)
H^ft

gfqf

II

*\

II

i^rft

11

aft:,

gfo, (*nq;,

>*r#r.,

sm^i^w,

st^ept.

II

11

83.
follows,

When

a case-affix, beginning with a vowel

then the semivowel

is

substituted for the final

Semivowel Substitution

t285

[Bk. VI, Cm. IV.

87

stem containing more than one syllable, if the stem


ends with a verbal root ending in & not preceded by a conjunct consonant forming part of the root.
3; of a

As no
mentioned
so also

Thus j^*

in the translation.

and

sirrelr

^^'

and

end of a stem end

roots at the

and *r$?

*TrT^:,

before tense-affixes, (non

one syllable

and

only),

^??ff

member

is

w^tera
fm-.

11

II

<r

3f2nrfr,

3T?g^

^t^t

II

gfa

*ref f^rrr^ir^rtr

^Tf%3P* 11

II

<rc^r

#r,

^:

(because

The

not a Gati or a Karaka word

**

'

dual Sffj^r and

junct consonant forming part of the root).


first

short s, the latter

in

a sweeper

'

as

d. igPF^r,

srs>FF?r:

is

But <$

II

(because consisting of

preceded by a con-

3; is

the

if

qrTsjtr and w<g4


^q *nir

mn *

not

tsr^:

pi.

rule does not apply

**:, <*, srf%

twwai *mft

II

ll

11

s^srrar^^T* u
84.

sr is

substituted for the

of ^fr w also,

when

a case-affix beginning with a vowel follows.

As
This

is

^f*T*

srsrp-ff,

*^i

ll

what

'

born in the

is

kind of herb.'

rains, a

an exception 0 the subsequent rule.


Vdrt: The semi-vowel substitution takes place when

t^TT

precede

as ?*fr, 37*^, 3T#f, 3T*J:,

* qgftpft:
ffrf:

II

**

ll

q^TR

ll

The

85.

*,

11

^t f3TCT#$wNnr T H^ffT

5fiTC*tr (37TCT*fr)>

*& gfipft:,

ffrf:

II

S^fflT

fa*R

t$

*ft

tttt%

ll

gyre

and

II

ll

semi- vowel substitution

fore affixes beginning with a vowel.


Thus STHTHSTRnpt. *fa>pP >#TW,
ll

^,

(3JTCP*0

II

place in the case of stems ending in

^^3?ftot

^,

3?rw

ll

^rfo

^ret^TOSTT T5$% TO

does not take

or the word ^pft, be-

f*ra*

ll

VI.

4-

srnrar, Jjgftrar:

77ll

II

In the Chhandas, in the case of a stem in w


are found sometimes the 5W> 3^^ and sometimes
86.

and

gvir,

the semivowel substitution.


As fa*ro,fa3TCl** and ^faq.; *R$
:

I^t:

^T#*T3*

*par:, sr^rapf,

^^r.

87.

and
,

*V9

II

*rf^r

ll

II

^3TT?T

II

f**i fa**

fS3

The semi-vowel ^

for that of

is

W,

fair, fair

fa$**,

^TTTOTrJ

57,

^*f S^SH^T

ST^q*, 3?*-

substituted for the

g-

of

(the characteristic of the fifth class roots),

Bk. VI. Ch. IV.

89

Substitution.

before a sarvadhatuka affix

when the stem

vowel,
the

3T is

beginning with a

113)

(III. 4.

consists of

1283

more than one

syllable

and

not preceded by a conjunct consonant.

Thus g^f?T,
3?^^^, so also with 5 as g^fo, ^3, K^H< 1
"
Why do we say of f and 33 formed stems " ? Observe ^rg^Rr, OlMR, from
Intensive bases, by the elision of the *r; affix.
The
is elided in the secular
literature also, by the implication ( jnapaka ) of this aphorism, for no counterexample can be formed of a root consisting of more than one syllable and
ending in 3, not preceded by a conjunct consonant and followed by a Sarva-

^3

dhatuka

unless the Intensive roots with the elision of

affix,

be taken.

Nor

can we get examples from the Chhandas, for the preceding rule applies only

Why

to ardhadhatuka affixes.

^*3

^fl

:
>

(VI.

So

77)<

4-

do we say before a Sarvadhatuka? Observe


in siF^rfnT and *TC&4ftf as the T is

also not

preceded by a conjunct consonant.

gtr a'^fedl
ffrT:

H^T gMHTHt

II

II

*T^T%

<*
^Mf

88.

'TTrf^r

ll

gen,

it

f?fe ^Hlllr TCrf

the

gets

tense-affixes of the Aorist

f% ^f

ffc$i, ^f^r,

ll

II

augment

and the

Perfect,

(lf) before the

when beginning

with a vowel.
Thus 3T*^,

STJWPTT

*ftc. IK^II

*^:, **f: H
T^n% 3J<*, ^rq^raT:,
3pJ?:,

II

For the penultimate

89.

jfr^(from

Wg%]

ger),

there

is

substituted

3>

nN;:,3Tl^T, 3Tf^,5T^II

of the grtnated stem

art

before an affix beginning

with a vowel.
Thus

ft *?ft,

rule to cases

f^HWct

1
,

where

PT5?Jf

ll

It

Why do
any where

in the sutra to prohibit the application

as

asiddha (VI.

4.

^r^t
ffa:

of>

ll

say, the

ar^r

substitution of

nr before

56 not applied), the


22) would have brought
4.

having a light vowel for


tution, however,

Some

f^nrt^T, f^fr^,*^

as fn? in order to prohibit the

f%1?r (VI.

is

^o

ot vwmi

*T?r

of the

Therefore not here,


*j^ does not assume the form *?r? ll
This change will not take place before the affixes begin-

ning with a consonant


rSfT =

^m

that the substitution should not apply

RiT^:, ^njR'Tfi^, FTI?*, FT^Rf,

we say 'penultimate'? So
The form rt^ is taken
else.

its

penultimate.

3; substitution
in 3*21

*ts

word
?3<i

It

is

exhibited

As Rifn?

being considered as a word

According, to Kasika 'the

3; substi-

not asiddha, as their places of operation are different.


11

q^rfa

3^*rc srrWi

11

Ttr,

*w%

*i

oft,

i^

^qrwrr.

f-

being considered as

tt

Some Lengthening

1284

The

90.
causative far
Thus fq-qf^,

of ^r^

sfr

is

Bk. VI Ch\ VI.

replaced by

93

before the

3;

II

far,

we have
*tt

ff^r:

^rW

ftqT

II

ftrafas&ra^

frr

when

tional,

^?

in

q^TRT

II

I!

^T,

^reror nx ajsureMt

&

The

91.

Similar reasons as in

n
^psr

When

the sutra.

ifr^,

may

be given

not followed by

feRrfsTCm

11

^rf^T

fearer,

being exhibited as

for the root ^q-

the

f^T-f^Ft,
^mn *ft tot:

<y<reT*TT: oft,

substitution for the

sense

II

ii

3ft

of

^fhr is

op-

that of the disturbing of the

is

mind.
As
agitation

or

f%Trfr

f5*l% or ffTORr

Jf^rf

Otherwise

II

srr*Pf

frofrt

when mental

not meant.

is

twtm, i^:, *ft, ^ m mn t:,


ufavifamw&wtm ?*fr mft ^r <ro*
having
an indicatory **, retain
The roots
92.
their penultimate short vowel before the causative fir
firat

1?%:

ii

jw:

f^r

II

^Rrtr

q^T^r

II

mum

II

II

f^r 5*reTrfst 3

11

II

The

firl

Bhwadi (800 to 873), and all


Thus ^ifa, saiq^r,
Some read the anuvritti of the word optional-

roots are ^Tft a subdivision of

other roots that end in 3?* as ST* and tTH of Divadi class.
sprafa, rsranr,

ly'

from the

sTOrf^ U

sprofrir,

last

sura into

This

this.

will

then be a limited option only

The forms 3*W*llif and ^2fjprar?T are thus explained.


Optionally a long may be substituted for the

(vyavasthita-vibhasha).

93.

penultimate of the causative of 1^ roots, before the third


person of the Passive Aorist in

urg^ ( an* )

lutive affix

f^mpjig^rfrof

HT^rni,

vft, ftrcr:

Thus

The

rule

sm<:^r

does not

short only,

this difficulty

there would
tute of

5i

<rg;*

teach

of short,

so that there

optional

II

^rw

II

is
i.

Why

II

merely

we have

long.
e. it

when the

II

f^nff, uijj<*I*., ^rtr:,

ar^-

II

3T^Tf% or 3T*rrfa,3TrTft or 3T<rrfa

the alternative
siTTTfa,

||

^t^ptt:

?THrPTlor Hra<rml with

and before the Abso-

fer^r (%),

with

f^r<*

and 5PTOT*, and

*rr*rcrre

have we used the word fre

in the sutra ?

the

So

3T*rf*T

optional

and

in the

shortening.

other alternative

that

in

we have

For had frtr not been used, it would have taught


would be a ^etf^ffeq-ftnr only, and there will be
causative of causative

is

not be lengthening in the alternative.

would be sthanivat

therefore, the fa

taken,

as in ^TTO^rT *T3^>>
Because the lopa substi-

which would be followed by

Bk

VI. Cm. IV.

93

Lengthening

1235

or org*, would not

have in it the faqr anga, because the first for intervenes


anga
the PT71 and org* affix, and that for which is precedand
wx
by a fa?j anga is not followed by fsrTr and org*, because the second for
e
(though elided) intervenes. Therefore, there would not be optional short here,

Prn

bit ween the


1

The

but compulsory short, by the preceding sutra and no lengthening.

For there

therefore, teaches the optional substitution of the long($\k).

rule,

arises

For taking this rule to be a frqfafa, the lopasubstitution of for would not be sthanivat, by the express prohibition contained in I. 1. 58, and so we can get forms of double causatives. But if we take
it a ^F^^TRP*, then the lopa-adesa of for being sthanivat, would prevent
no such anomaly

in this view.

Therefore the word f\

getting the alternative long form.

used in the sutra

is

Thus take the


by the labt sutra. Take its Intensive with
37, *TR + 37 which causes doubling by VI. 1. 9 = *TR 5TR + 37 ==?nriR + 37 (VII.
4, 60 ) = *r *n% + 37 ( 3^ or nasal being added to the abhyasa by VII. 4. 85)
= STCTR +- 37 = ism + 3 ( VI. 4. 51 ) = 5TCR3. Add fop** to this ie. make the causaThen the sr of 3 is elided by VI. 4. 48 = ^
tive of the Intensive. *reR+3+f "
Then 3 is elided by VI. 4. 49 = *rcR + ?=*rcrR
This *r*rR is
*P* + + f.
Now add f^!L or
the causative root of the Intensive of the causative 5P*
org* to this root; and we get two forms short and long sro'ftft or srsfsrrR with

to

make

this

causative of

a ^qRHT, and

rule

$T,

which

will

be

prevent sthanivat-bhava.

STT%

II

tl

r%^and ijwi or

The long forms

trSTRI. with org?$ H

obtained had this not been a

N Nre,

for

The

vat would have prevented the application of f\$ H

Divadi) ending in

VII.

The

The

34.

3.

udo

(the % of

BTSTFR or st^TR)

4.

otherwise the sutra could have been


'

optionally

JT?J7%

'

would have brought

is

(I. 1.

58)

made without

both

'

quiet,'

word, for the word


and long'. Thus in wppfr
we add for (the Causative sign.),

short

^4- 5

+ for

$sf implies as much,

this
'

'

(VI.

4.

51) = ^rrf^T, the

lopadesa

purposes of lengthening (?rVr?nr) the 3T of sp*


with f*T* we get bt^TR, and with orgs? we get

11

From

this

^R

But we cannot get the short forms, by taking the other

STR**. "

lopades*a will

$t4 in the sutra.


sative

srfa

*TR rR3R, option-

tT*Trt%,

not sthanivat for the

here

as the

in

make

he causes another to

to the Causative root ^wR, as

by

Thus

affixes.

mention of the word

In fact the

and org*

5i)

This rule applies

takes these affixes.

f^ror

^R + r^T^^R+f^ni
= qrrR or srre (with the augment 3T =
when the Causative of the Causative root

penultimate before these

II

being sthani-

roots sp^and *jh (both

apply to the simple roots.

therefore, does not

being elided by VI.

for

not have been


for^r

not ever lengthen the root vowel before

present sutra,

derivative causative roots of these, namely, sir

ally lengthen the

could

then the lopa-adesa of

(i.

e.

then be

Thus the

sthanivat.

fr*

alternative,

word
and org* forms of the Causative of the Cau-

the double Causative) of

5R

and from the form ^TCR3R> we have

32

Hence

the

necessity of the

are ststr or 3T5T1R

3T*r?tTR

5R5R**. or *tr*trh

or STSTOrR, ^ra/rcTCR*. or STSTR3T-

Causative shortening.

i?86

?IPT1

The

These

it

are from

latter

1^:

v*

II

^rrf?r

II

*$tt%, g***:,

II

The penultimate

94.

shortened before the


Thus ff5RTT

s^r^r Frgrcre;

>

affix

<?t?TT

v^

>

*?rsr

SW

if

Intensive root.

49) as shown above.

4.

grq^rw ^^q"

of the

tl

stem

Causative

is.

fl

See

^jxk

Bk. VI. Ch. IV. 5 97

the Causative stems of the

sign *fW of the Intensive has been elided (VI.


*srr%

it

III. 2.

29 and 41.

^np,

^twptp

ftei^ip*, ( frer..

ST^r^T ) r

is

The penultimate of the Causative of


95.
shortened before the Participle affixes xff and rirag
Thus vgfT'M ^jprep*, but q-^rf^m before non-nishtha. The
when

also

into

two

This

ll

is

done by

splitting

$u%)

II

rule applies

up the aphorism

(1) stf; (2) r%gror*ui

gi^if

h=f^ follows as ffgi%:

sg^q^rftw

ll

>$

II

^rfa

II

9?n%:, %,

s?

&^nmU<i,

faqrawr.

) K

The penultimate of the Chur&di ^r is shortened


v ( III. 3. 118), when not preceded by two

96.

before the affix


prepositions (or more).

As

(VI.

4.

W^Vt ^rT^ST H But ^5T^JTf with two prepositions.


preceded by more than two prepositions, as STSTTm'ST? II
of ssrff &c., by VI. 4. 51, should not be considered as asiddha

3R38T.,

The same when


The elision of for

22) or sthanivat

(I. 1. 57),

otherwise there would be no penultimate

to.

be shortened.
Vdrt:

The

prohibition

with regard to \% should be extended to

numbers more than two.

*w*af?53

*z

a$

we,

jt^,

The penultimate
*rac> ** and fifr

of

11

ll

<tttRt

11

^, t%3,

% \v

^rar^r;

w)il
97.

the affixes
Thus
are

Unadi

^5
^h

^nT

shortened before

is

II

^q.

(neuter), ^sr*,

affixes.

tto^sft^stctt 3it. ^fe^Fffe

ll

W^* and ?T*^

ll

^qrrrf^r

ll

II

to,

The
s*t,

first

three

*ft,

^t,

Bk. VI.

Cfi. IV.

101

Kit and nit changes,

The root-vowel

98.

of *ra:,-^,

1287

5F*,

elided before an affix beginning with a vowel,

^C, and

when

src^

has an

it

or ^; but not before the Aorist affix ^T^


indicatory
Thus Sf"^:, ^3: ITSTf W%1, ^|T, *r*TI%, *?jft ^3^, ^T*^, ^T^Tf:,
||

*T$:,

:,

*r*nr,

s*m

11

Why 'having indicatory as or ff


Why 'beginning with
3TT1?^, bt^^U
'?

See

ssre:

ffa:

ii

trf%

See

fTTfff,

a vowel,

Why

fTT^L H

See

and

*T*q\T

'not

$*rlt

elided before an affix

an indicatory
As

bt?

farrfsrc

or

WW,

II

srstrfi- RfryfSr sr?rr tot


root-vowel
of cP* and
In the Ohhandas, the

tRt f?hratsFtflr faT^ 3<rerar srfr *frW

99.
is

is

ii

beginning with a vowel, when

it

<T

has

ii

*T$TT t*

<TRtP n

In secular language rlwf%>, >ft*

qftnrchife ^ n?ooii q^rr% vm, info sfo, **, ( srfe *i%ft )


**fa hs ?^rr%^s"'?r% 3<rcrar 3rft *w?? ? *rfr**r% ^ f^fa vara tot*
100.
The root-vowel of si^; and sr^C is elided in
11

fr%;

ti

ii

whether beginning with a


vowel or a consonant, which has an indicatory ^ or ^

the Ohhandas, before any

affix,

||

f^

Thus m*q*$t *T#?fsr%, s^^rra fff **PTP ST***: is thus derived


is
added to the root 3TI then by II. 4. 39, ? is substituted for sr?; thus q^ +
= sra + f^ ( ^ being elided by the present sutra ) =s^ f icf ( w being elided by
Then
VIII. 2. 26), then rf is changed to tj, and *| to *r and we have f?*r:
changed to *r VI. 3. 84 ). The word srs-Tr^is the Im*WPH F*:-af**s (
II

11

WR

perative of *w, thus *fr + *s$

+ <rrqi=H*T3+?Tr*=*

*CT + sr* (VI. 4. ioo)=>


This rule of elision being a nitya
and a subsequent rule ought to have operated first, but, as a Vedic anomaly,

WS + 3Mt(VIII.

2.

26)=*ar + >*r*=*rv:rr*.ll

first. See VII. 2. 67


do we read "before an affix beginning also with a consonant "?
Because the elision takes place before a vowel affix also, as %^ft = h^ + 5 +
(VIII. 4. 55).
+ Bm (VII. 1. 4) =
f|T = *

the reduplication takes place

Why

*^

Why

having an indicatory 8for f? Observe


has been added into the aphorism by the .Vartikakara.
Iflr:

straws;

f
Iprss^
ff^r

11

II

?o?

^*ri?cT

II

The

=er

'
II

qfrft

ll

J-*****:, fc,

far*,

^V^ttcto ^*f# *m% Rrc$& *r?rr%

101.

3T|t;t

II

After and after a consonant (with the ex-

Certain substitutes.

128S

Imperative

ment ^z

affix

sffofhi?

4.

Why do we

?T^ consonants

r^TT

f^sf^T? r^ 1%(d

Why *f| only' ?

113) not ending in consonants.

104.

As

by m<i (VII.

^f?ff,

S^riw

and because

while they apply

sjfrTPl

I*

does not begin

theruledoes

y?,

when ff is replaced
beause flT^ fe a later rule

^tfiq;, f*T?trr?

1.35) this substitution does not take place

rules,

f$

whenittakestheaugment

In the case of

rr

the order of Ashtadhyayi,

When two

e.

i.

^Mh%

But

If

Observe

When

read the anuvrittiof fi% into this sutra?

not apply.

"

$.

II

with a consonant, but with a vowel,

in

VI. Cu. IV.

Bit.

nt when the latter does not take the aug-

Thus g *lfa;
(VI.

f%fff^r% ?flt^t *rfrr%tf*HF

*ri sftr

simultaneously mutually prohibit each

two which is once superseded by the other, is superseded


is added by V. 3. 71, f% substitution takes place, as
The maxim 5^: J?^rf WsBrrcnt faWl applies here : OccafWrar, fe?^r%
sionally the formation of a particular form is accounted for by the fact that
a preceding rule is allowed to apply again, after it had been previously superother, that rule of the

When sr^r

altogether".

'*

II

seded by a subsequent

rule."

*Pihsiot^*i%
% f%5

II

^?

*,

^ and

As
In

VI.

ra

f
?iwy,
^^r, the f|

ing takes place by VI.

*jj*fr,

is

3.

being added diversely by


11

\o\

not nF<^ by

Why
irregularly

fa

gf% s^^*rcf5 fa and

i*\v,

The forms

137.
III.

is

not nf?

^r<j

I.

III. 4.

88

it

other than

^t^-^t:, ^, ^?%r.

11

*5R

11

was

required

The

it.

substituted for

fit,

by

lengthen-

are irre^ulir;

and then elided diversely by ar^S^r%

85,

1.

f? is also fqr^ in

Thus

2. 4.

II.

$r<*

4.73

II

when the

it

11

vmr* vl

is

P**l

11

^
h

gsijfq'

not fl^'?

is

tense-affix

and when

The

^ is not

ST<* is

elided

Observe

elided,
:

^H^fcl

n
II

fxror:,

jfruftrl?

^,and

by VI.

4.

^, srew*i a

fafj,. ft

^r*TUtf^

crcfa? is

the red 11 pi i-

37 as the affix

and g^fa from 3

ti

q^rft

is

it

in the following

the ^tt being replaced by

from qn, the

^
^ 3^3 q^^W
feuft

Vedas

the

ari^ and

(rcf^W,

do we say 'when

Parasmaipada of

being replaced by

II

srerfre,

as

^r,

aphorism specifically mentions

catejengthenedoas a Vedic form.


is

Vedas, after w,

r%ci; n

Under
is

in the

not elided after the 3 of

q^Tft

11

103.

not

is

fi

&W

II

^*fr

srr%<ra

^far,

$-*aK3-s-^-s-*r.,

11

substituted for

is

106, since the present

4.

tr^rft

it

TS 1 ^ f f*3h*3 ZrKW %fScRr?fr *TTT% Soffit


102.

*3

?or

ii

4tt%

),

the

Bk. VI. Cm. IV

10;

r%?f

and

changi.s,

i$tj

The personal-endings

104.

12^9

arc elided after

r%w,

the third person, singular Passive of the Aorist.


As Bj^jft, 3T^rT% *T*>rR, vmr*f
So also ^T^TRrHJI, 3*?m:?T*TP*, here the
l

Hsion of the personal affix


siddha, the affixes

be

?tc<t

and

<r

?t*t<t

(III.

60) of the Aorist being considered as

I.

1%^%

though

are not elided:

literally interpreted, every affix after f%r>T

the sutra were to

if

ought to be

elided.

Or

word

the

understood here; so that fe\ and fw?i affixes of f%rn are elided and
not every affix.
is

3Tcft fc:

\o\

II

q^rft

||

Thus
113, should

^<n*

*rrf%^*

11

in short st

cpq-, T5",

we say "short

affix, in

Observe

But

stt*t srswrf*?**

affix

elided after a

is

fi

\*\

II

^fsr %1t

stems ending

^f^, ^f? after

(^r

;tff?, <p?rf?

be considered asiddhd), here

sKq-qr^^^j;

II

II

T5i5, tjrc U

"
3T ?

106

ST^^T

%:,

The Imperative

105.

stem ending

3?cT. ?

II

-!-

rf,

^rft

*r?K*

II

Tcr:, **,

do

by VI.

not elided after the long

f$ is

II

Why

in s.

the f substitution

3TT

4.

II

3T*rom

u<?wr<i,

11

The Imperative

is

elided after the

g-

of an

the vikarana with which the Present-stem (special

conjugation)

is

made, provided that the ^

not preceded

is

by a conjunct consonant.
The

affix

3 with which the Present-stem

is

made

is

3 and 53
Thus
do we say " ^
11

after 3 ? Observe ^frf|, g^ffrf H


f^5 U3> f5 II
being part of the vikarana or affix " ? Observe ^f?, gff, here 3

Why

Why

'

'

is

part of the root

'not preceded

by a conjunct

and not of the vikarana. Why de we say


consonant, ? Observe srrcsf?, *r3f?, <T$*jf?

itself,

II

Vdrt
al in

the

*ren,
$ftp

The

Vedas

as

elision off? after the

sn^r?

3"

of the vikarana

^r^WT^T^, fa^rl? 3^71%*, 3PT

*TT

g-

and 53

^rf^R fjgf?

is

option-

II

II

11

sras^rcr

s^r^Tl^ri^r^ jmrararwra^r

107.

The

3T

?w mft

of the vikarana

3"

11

and i^, 'where not

preceded by a conjunct consonant, may be elided optionally


before a personal ending beginning with K or ^11
Thus *P

or 3=*:, Q*H-,

3*, ***,

<t^'>,

a*S rT^

The s must

be-

fet and

1290

long to the

*re#r

*Tf3?

:
,

ii

in g^:, g*p

II

'

indicates that the final

*ft<i

It is

of the whole

ClI. IV. lit.

do we say not preceded by a conjunct consonant'? Observe


only. Though the elision word g* was understood in this sutra,

the mention of
affix

BK.VI.

and should not be part of the root Therefore not

affix,

Why

f?t-C RANGES

maxim

a general

affix,

while

whole

lopa

'

will

'

is

only to be elided, and not the whole

that the words gar,

^ and

cause elision of the

we could

^qr

cause the elision

final letter

only of the

&c, Moreover, in tf
and tf formed by guna of ^, there would have been no guna, had the word
<3r been used, for L I. 63, would have prevented guna
but by using the word
If the

affix.

affix

be elided,

not get

fj?f:

firT

we have such guna

f frr

I.

I.

62.

3^rW3^ ^rc*T3rrcrtr jt^ mm ftii* mm wW


The elision of t is invariable before ^and
108.

^rtsttcto

11

11

the case of ^ (
Thus ftf: and %m

** in

by

also

3FrCrr%

Thus $ + * + *:= $* + * + *: (VI. 4. 110) = ** +


o-f^ (VI. 4. 108). Now the lopa being not sthanivat, when a vowel is to be
lengthened (I. 1. 58), 3 of *> should be lengthened by VIII. 2. 77. This contingency is prevented by VIII. 2. 79.
II

^^
ff%n

^rft ^r, **, ^tr. fa***^: n


^^rrerffr ^ *&w mm qrcr%*Trerarcrron*re* pt^ mm *r^f?r
The affix ^ of the stem 5^ is always elided
109.

?^

11

11

11

before a personal ending beginning with a *T


The augment ?KfJ*
Thusf:^- spfcTT^and frg:
||

ll

an

affix,

and

it

beginning with
stct

makes the personal ending


*\

to

which

it

is

is

treated here as

added, as an affix

II

TcHT^rg^

??o

<r^rr%

ll

stcp,

^,

Before a Sarvadhatuka

110.

ory Ror ^, short

gunated.

11

3T is

substituted for the

^rrferg

affix
sf

of

$r,

srfeft

ll

with an indicat3>

(^+^) when

= ^T + ^frr^(VII. 3.84)-^+^ + rT^=^rT5 (VI. 4.1 10)


Thusfj + ^ +
Why do we say before a
The h*t is ft^ by I. 2. 4. So also $3|f2$, ?;$
Sarvadhatuka ? So that the rule may apply to what was once a Sarvadhatuka,
though no longer existent. Thus ^5 where the personal ending f| is elided,
shows that this s is not to be
but it leaves its effect behind. The ? in
gunated by VII. 3. 86. When the affix is not RT^ or r^ we have 9fCnw, ^r^
'

ll

'

and ^rfc

(I. 2. 4),

*roNfr*s
bi%j

\\\\\\\

?ren^rsrra?r3

T^rft

II

*T-w=ft:,

*Etr$m:9 Cfl$qi3% ^ffcft

mm *ret srrwg% wiTt mm

II

BK. VI. Ch. IV

114]

of

and

and

itself.

arffrT

291

fq^or

fg:^ affix, the

st*t is elided.

the characteristic of the roots of the Rudhadi class, while 3?^

5?T is

root

AND f^t CHANGES.

Before a Sftrvudhfttuka

111.
53?

r%?T

Thus

Prp, fn^rT; So also of st*t

^vj:; ^aqftf,

non r^andnon

before

we have ^sr

instead of that

The

^:,

^+

fsTj affixes.

in the sutra.

ar*T

the

is

But f*RPT
ought to be ^pr,
*tf<t

11

<T^<r single substitution

an

is

irregularity.

sRn*T*crsfteRr:

3* ^t%t%

??*

ll

q^Tfa

II

Before a SsUwadh&tuka

ginning with a vowel, the long


Thus

Why do we say
Why 'of long sir'?

srfar

Observe

ar^TT?!,

$ ^rsft:

'

9TT%I%)

arw?l

H\

II

'

Observe

R^ft

firsRr

11

Why

f,

II

'before ft?^ and fy^'?

sr-^t (tptt v4^w1<m :

5^,

Before a S&rvadMtuka

re*r%,

wfift>

J,

fT*ffc>,

WW

Observe $w>,

ll

stt

or

fift<j

mJM g
I

J^frq"!,

^n#%,

S^HT and 5^7%

^nrr?r%,

be-

affix

fsFrj;

of srr and of the reduplicate

except when the root

^ftr:,

g^fa;,

gyffrr:,

ginning with a consonant'


of 5

elided.

replaced by

Thus

we have

is

ginning with a consonant, the


is

be-

affix

feci;

II

113.

stems

or

f^jrj;

m*m, f*m<rr*, srfaTrr, ^r#, ^nj^ri. and


of ^r and the reduplicates ? Observe sjtt^T,

st^t?t

^Tfrr^,

*nr,

ll

11

^TT^T-

of vt (the vikarana of the

stt

and of the reduplicate stems

class)

^PTT^T

S1TCT:, 3TCT.

11

112.

9th

^rr-3T^^cnu:,

ll

^f^fh%

ll

is
ll

Why

^x or

Of

>*t

(^)

||

reduplicates

do we say

'

be-

Observe $^for, f*nm


Why with the exception
So also ^rrf^ and sr?Tra before non-f^>q[ and notill

fy affixes.

wft^w
Kdrikd

*jr*

11

?r

ll

IV*

src?rs%

3TSKr?*ir

%ft

Thus
(VI.

4.

TO, fftac**, (^^rr%rrg%^fiF^r)

substituted

ffej or fe?<j affix

ffcyrfrf

ll

11

is

^K\jr[:, srcftr^,

112) and

<w frc?r*r ** ^?r

^pss.

114.

S&rvadMtuka

*?*{*

for the ^r of

beginning with a consonant.

*ftf|* J . ^f?*T:

.before a

$f<%T before a

non-f^

11

affix.

But

fftsftr

before a

vowel

affix

1292

PJ^r

AND

CHANGES.

f^T*

BK. VI. CH. IV

Il8

Vdrt: The final of ?jxyr is elided before an Ardhadhatuka affix.


Vdtt: And this elision should be considered as siddha, in applying rules
Thus sfryr by loosing 3?r becomes $f*y, and we should
relating to affixes.
apply those affixes which would come after a form like
daridr
and not
what would have come after a form like 'daridra
Thus or comes after roots

'

',

'.

ending

long

in

srr (III.

141)

I.

the general affix st^t (III.

but this affix

Thus

134).

1.

would not be applied

?R?rf?T

= $fty:

here, but

11

The elision does not take place in the forms frryr^ and
Kdrikd
the
Desiderative
and
may be either ffsreffrcrfrT or ff?ftf?qfrr
Sidiftzm,
dhanta Kaumudi gives the following rule "srr of ^ftyr should be considered
as elided when applying an ardhadhatuka affix, but optionally so before 1P
(Aorist), and not at all before g^ (Desiderative), <*f?5 and eg?"
:

II

II

Vdrt

^^yr^Yqr
The form
tfty

Optionally

The

|l

$rc3F*l

the Aorist (adyatana-past)

so in

latter

form

is

in the

sutra

is

evolved by VII.

as, BTff^ftrj

or

73 and elision of f%=^ 11


Vedic, the root being shortened from ^fcyr to
2.

11

ftrft s?*ra?^Tro;

II

\V\

^ft

II

ll

fir*:,

^Hhrrg %)
51% tfr s^^ff^^^rrwrer?*fr w?r ?^tr

st^^^tto, (f$^&

s^fa

ll

^flFft srrt*rr3%

ii

1.15.

is

<rerr

11

optionally substituted for the $ of

*ft

before a Sarvadhatuka affix beginning with a consonant and


or ^
having an indicatory

Thus ftpw

But
and

or

II

f**fr<r:, farPT^T:

or fatffa:, f*f*t*n or

frvffa:;

frrw

or f*tfre

ll

f^sffa before a vowel-beginning affix and f^nf^ before a non-|?q[ affix


vfrair

before an ardhadhatuka

sr^r^aj

\l$

<r^n%

11

11

affix.

st^t^,

*%,

(%

^fe st^t^^tr; ^%faHHc-

VTT3%)II

\(w

11

^%w nrrcftsfr *t^ht ar^rrc^r ?^rtr ^f^i% ^^3% TCrP

(5T^TI%)

116.
% is optionally substituted for the stt of ^T
before a Sarvadhatuka feft. or fe^ affix beginning with

a consonant.
Thus ^f?<r:

or

*rCr<T:

and

sref^ before a

vowel

fW3% before

an ardhadhatuka.

is for

affix,

11

^^

\V*

^rft

ircnftrarrrwRtTf *Jr

117.

stt

for the final of the


ft:

11

(VI.

4.

ir?TrrT

The

113)

^q":

or

^q": (VI.

4. 113).

But

before a non-ri^ affix, and $fa% and

separation of this sutra from the

last,

the sake of subsequent aphorisms.

3tt

? r%

11

ll

srr, ^r,

^t, (%

ww *^wr^rr^i

arwrcrcwro)

?r <T*rr

ll

as well as % may optionally be substituted


^T before the Imperative ending

stem of

Bk. VI. Ch. IV

Thus
ft<Tt

^f%:

affix

ii

3T?rf?,

fa

3T3T

q Substitution

swm

??*

II

or *t$f% (VI.

TTTT%

II

w*mH
The
118.

>rem

^,

1293

13).

(&*?& SrHbjTg^ s^feft)

3rw3% 3*3:

|)

stem of ^t

final of the

is

elided before an

being a S&rvadh&tuka f%^ or r%<*

q-

3n3T?, srSTTrTPt

M4Hi<!<N

4.

&\T., ft,

II

^fer>r

r|r

beginning with
Thus

Jhr.,

120

^m^M^

and

srsj:

affix.

II

q^rfa

11

3-3^:,

11

qac,

^, srs^ra-

11

a^^Hi TgfHPff%y <r?rrciw 3313 $ 3*3r s*3ra3T3*r


For the final vowel of the roots ^j and vir
119.
(g), and for the *T of st^, is substituted ^ before the Imperative ending fe; and thereby the reduplicated syllable of ^t
and >*T is elided.
ff^f:

11

ii

^,

Thus
sutra,

and

and

^, of 5, and

being elided by VI.

3?

of

ijfa

3?sr,

the

being elided by this

This <33 of the present sutra should

4. Ill,

be considered as having an indicatory sr so that the whole of the reduplicated


final letter of the abhyasa (I. 1. 55) is elided.

and not only the

3RT 1***311^ SSH^^iT^fd

SHI^tfR:,
ffrf:

3r?%3i*
||

U*KlWl

3*3

ftf?

II

?Ro

q^n%

II

3Tf^5T

^-s^,

STcP,

II

JTW,

33ft3*3rp3 33%. 3*3 g3Tf?3S3, 3T<^i qqifr?rfo3[

33f3, a^zn^r^rT^T f3f Sjf^frT 3*3:

3*3**3 3=3^3*

II

II

II

Kf^ftftT333

II

3f SchKW*3

3T*

fi&fe

gr^ft^K^ftR

120.

||

3TO3*3f*f3^*3 3r|^33L
zrf^Tcrc^
3T
*P3 3tKS33
3T

II

II

II

||

substituted

is

II

11

for

the

short

3T

standing
o

between two simple consonants of a verbal stem, before the


personal endings of the Perfect which have an indicatory

provided that, at the beginning of the root, in


no other consonant has been substi-

(I. 2. 5),

the

reduplication,

tuted

and when

this

<*

is

substituted,

the reduplicate

is

elided.

Thus

*org:,

the f

serve **T3, **r*33, **33*

sonants
for

by

'

I.

Observe

2. 5,

consonant.

**$rg;:,

not replaced.

is

Why

II

^t, ^:
Why 'for
Why do we say short 3* ?

3^, T3g:, q^:,

*^:, Sing:,

WW-

Observe ftft^,

**^:

II

11

following

is

then

more appropriate

Why

do we say 'which has no substituted consonant


Observe =33i<3 *33i^, ^3^3 ^13^*, 33'3g:, 33*T
,

33

'

'

the Perfect affixes are not for* here, as they

The

sr'?

Obdo we say standing between two simple conSome say this example is not appropriate,