Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 17

IM Telkom

Introduction to
Research Methods
for Business

Indrawati

IM Telkom

Research is the process of finding solutions to a problem


after a thorough study and analysis of the situational
factors (Sekaran & Bougie, 2010:2)
Business Research is an organized, systematic, data-based,
critical, objective, scientific inquiry or investigation into a
specific problem, undertaken with the purpose of finding
answers or solutions to the problem (Sekaran & Bougie,
2010:3)

Indrawati

8 Characteristics of Scientific Research

IM Telkom

1. Purposiveness
A research should be started with a definite aim or purpose
2. Rigor
Connotes carefulness, scrupulousness, and the degree of exactitude in research.
A good theoretical base and a sound methodological design add rigor to a
purposive study
3. Testability
Has certain hypotheses that can be tested by applying certain statistical tests to
the data collected for the purpose.
4. Replicability
The result of the tests of hypotheses should be supported again and yet again
when the same type of research is repeated in other similar circumstances.
5. Precision
The closeness of the findings to reality based on sample.
Ex.: The estimated number of production days lost during the year due to
absenteeism at between 20 and 40, as against the actual figure of 35, the
precision of the estimation compares more favorably than if the estimated
number was somewhere between 20 and 50.
Indrawati

9 Characteristics of Scientific Research

IM Telkom

6. Confidence
The probability that the estimations are correct.
Ex.: The researchers can confidentsly claim that 95% of the time their results will be
true and there is only 5% chance of their being wrong
7. Objectivity
The conclusions drawn through the interpretation of the results of the data aalysis
should be objective, based on the facts of the findings derived from actual data and
not on subjective or emotional value.
8. Generalizability
The scope of applicability of the research findings in one organizational setting to
other settings.
9. Parsimony
Simplicity in explaining the phenomena or problems that occur, and in generating
solution for the problems.
Ex.: If three variables in work situation are identified, which when changed would
raise the organizational commitment of the employees by 45%, that would be more
useful and valuable to the manager than if it were recommended that he should ten
different variables to increase organizational commitment by 48%.

Indrawati

IM Telkom

The Research Process


1.OBSERVATION
Broad area of research
interest identified

3. PROBLEM
DEFINITION
Research problem
delineated

4. THEORETICAL
FRAMEWORK
Variable clearly
identified and labeled

5. GENERATION OF
HYPOTHESIS

6. SCIENTIFIC
RESEARCH DESIGN

2. PRELIMINARY DATA
GATHERING
Interviewing
Literature Survey

7. DATA COLLECTION,
ANALYSIS,INTERPRET
ATION

8. DEDUCTION
Hypothesis
substantiated?
Research question
answered?
No
Yes

(Sekaran, 2003; Sekaran & Bougie, 2010)

Indrawati

9. Report
Writing

10. Report
Presentation

11. Managerial
Decision Making

Tips for Choosing Research Topic

IM Telkom

1.

Manageable and Controllable :knowledge, cost, time, and supervisor.

2.

Obtainable Data: collecting data and availability of data.

3.

Significant: academic and business practice

4.

Interesting

Indrawati

Prevailing Knowledge on the Topic

IM Telkom

Our research should be structured on work already done and


built on the foundation of prevailing/existing knowledge.
Literature review is important to ensure that the research is
structured on work already done and that it builds on the
foundation of prevailing/existing knowledge (Sekaran &
Bougie, 2010:38)
Preliminary interviews with the business people and
prospected users should help the researcher to identify and
highlight the important variables that probably exist in the
real business problem (Indrawati, 2012).

Indrawati

Literature Review

IM Telkom

Literature review is a step-by-step process that involves


the identification of published and unpublished work
from secondary data sources on the topic of interest, the
evaluation of this work in relation to the problem, and
documentation of this work (Sekaran & Bougie, 2010:38).
The purpose of the literature review is to help the
researcher to develop a good problem statement (Sekaran
& Bougie, 2010:43).

Indrawati

A Good Literature Review ensures that:

IM Telkom

1. Important variables that are likely influence the problem situation

are not left out of the study.


2. A clearer idea emerges as to what variables will be most
important to consider (parsimony), why they are considered
important, and how they should be investigated to solve the
problem.
3. The problem statement can be made with precision and clarity.
4. Testability and replicability of the findings of the current research
are enhanced.
5. One does not run the risk of reinventing the wheel that is,
wasting effort on trying to rediscover something that is already
known.
6. The problem investigated is perceived by the scientific
community as relevant and significant.
Indrawati

Conducting the Literature Review

IM Telkom

1. Identification of various published and unpublished


materials that are available on the topic of interest,
and gaining access to these.
The quality of a literature review depends on a
cautions selection and reading of books, academic and
professional journals, reports, theses, conference
proceedings, unpublished manuscripts, and the like.

Indrawati

10

Conducting the Literature Review

IM Telkom

2. A good literature review needs to include references to

the key studies in the field. For this reason, articles and
books that are often cited by others must be included
in your literature review, even if these articles and
books were written thirty or even forty years ago. More
recent work should also be incorporated in the
literature review, since the recent work will build on a
broader and more up-to-date stream of literature than
older work.

Indrawati

11

Conducting the Literature Review

IM Telkom

3. Documenting the literature is important to convince the reader

that (a) the researcher is knowledgeable about the problem area


and has done the preliminary homework that is necessary to
conduct the research, (b) the theoretical framework will be
structured on work already done and will add to the solid
foundation of existing knowledge, and (c) preventing from doing
plagiarism.
There are several accepted methods of referencing:
a. The publication Manual of the American
Association or APA style (2001)
b. The Chicago Manual of style (2003)
c. Turabians Manual Writers (2007)
d. Harvard style
Indrawati

Psychological

12

Problem Statement

IM Telkom

A problem statement is a clear, precise, and sufficient


statement of the specific issue that a researcher wishes to
investigate (Sekaran & Bougie, 2010:45).
There are three key criteria to assess the quality of the problem
statement: relevant, feasible, and interesting.
Relevant, if the problem statement is meaningful from a
managerial perspective, an academic perspective, or both.
Feasible, the researcher is able to answer the problem statement
within the restrictions of the research project. A frequent problem
in term of feasibility is that the problem statement is too broad in
scope.
Interesting, to researcher, supervisors, and also to readers.

Indrawati

13

What is a Problem ?

IM Telkom

A problem does not necessary mean that something is seriously


wrong with the current situation that needs to be rectified
immediately.
A problem could simply indicate an interest in an issue where finding
the right answer might help to improve an existing situation.
A problem is any situation where a gap exists between the actual
and desired ideal states.

Indrawati

14

Symptom is not a Real Problem

IM Telkom

Do not write symptom as a real problem statement.

One way of determining the problem, rather than the symptom


is being addressed is to ask the question.
Is this factor I have indentified an antecedent, the real problem, or
the consequence/symptom?
Ex.:
Symptom/consequence is Low productivity
Real problem is Motivation
Antecedent/contribution factor is non recognition of employees
'contribution

Indrawati

15

The Iceberg Principle

Decreased
Market
Share

Decision Maker

Unhappy
Customers

Decision Problem Definition

Loss
Of
Sales

Low
Traffic

Obvious Measurable
Symptoms

Researcher
Marginal
Performance
Of Sales Force

Low Quality
Products

Inappropriate
Delivery
System
Unethical
Treatment of
Customers

Real Business/Decision
Problem

Poor Image

IM Telkom

The General Link


Thesis Statement
Problem Statement
Research Questions

Research Objectives

Research Concept
Research Concept
Research Model
Research Constructs
Opertionalization
Measurement
Hyphotesis

Indrawati