Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 20

MAY 23, 2014

HEATING AND COOLING LOAD


CALCULATIONS
COMPOSITE MATERIALS LABORATORY, DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING, COLLEGE OF E&ME, NUST

NS ASAD UR REHMAN | NS BASIT YAQOOB | NS EHTISHAM TANVIR | NS FOUZAN ABDULLAH


MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
DE-33-B

ABSTRACT
This report encompasses the detailed calculations, keeping in mind the ASHRAE standards,
of overall heating and cooling load calculations for Composite Materials Laboratory in
Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of E&ME, NUST. With thoroughly
researched design considerations, it has been calculated that the heating load of the room is
1.11 tons and the cooling load of the room is 1.6 tons.

Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION: .................................................................................................................................................................. 3
IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS: .............................................................................................................................................. 3
Cooling Load: ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3
Heating Load: ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3
Thermal Resistance: .............................................................................................................................................................. 3
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient: ........................................................................................................................................ 3
Infiltration: ............................................................................................................................................................................ 3
Sensible Heat Loss: ............................................................................................................................................................... 3
Latent Heat Loss: .................................................................................................................................................................. 3
Relative Humidity: ................................................................................................................................................................ 3
Humidity Ratio: .................................................................................................................................................................... 4
Cooling Load Factor (CLF): ................................................................................................................................................. 4
REFERENCE VALUES: ........................................................................................................................................................ 4
Thermal Resistances: ............................................................................................................................................................ 4
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients: ...................................................................................................................................... 4
IMPORTANT EQUATIONS: ................................................................................................................................................ 4
DESIGN CONDITIONS: ........................................................................................................................................................ 5
WINTER: .............................................................................................................................................................................. 5
SUMMER: ............................................................................................................................................................................ 5
COMPOSITE MATERIALS LABORATORY LAYOUT (SOLIDWORKS MODEL) .................................................... 6
HEATING LOAD CALCULATIONS ................................................................................................................................... 8
CALCULATIONS FOR NORTH-FACING WALL: ........................................................................................................... 8
CALCULATIONS FOR ROOF WITH SUSPENDED CEILING: ....................................................................................... 9
CALCULATIONS FOR WEST-FACING WALL: ............................................................................................................ 10
CALCULATIONS FOR EAST-FACING WALL: ............................................................................................................. 11
CALCULATIONS FOR SOUTH-FACING WALL:.......................................................................................................... 11
TOTAL HEATING LOAD FOR THE LABORATORY: .................................................................................................. 12
COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS ................................................................................................................................. 13
CALCULATIONS FOR NORTH-FACING WALL: ......................................................................................................... 13
CALCULATIONS FOR ROOF WITH SUSPENDED CEILING: ..................................................................................... 14
CALCULATIONS FOR WEST-FACING WALL: ............................................................................................................ 15
CALCULATIONS FOR EAST-FACING WALL: ............................................................................................................. 16
CALCULATIONS FOR SOUTH-FACING WALL:.......................................................................................................... 16
CALCULATIONS FOR LIGHTING: ................................................................................................................................ 17
CALCULATIONS FOR EQUIPMENT: ............................................................................................................................ 17
CALCULATIONS FOR PEOPLE (Moderately active office work): ................................................................................. 17
TOTAL COOLING LOAD FOR THE LABORATORY: ................................................................................................. 18
REFERENCES: ..................................................................................................................................................................... 19

INTRODUCTION:
This procedure to calculate the heating and cooling load of the room specified, is a mixture of
analytical and practical aspects. In these calculations, ASHRAE standards and practical
measurements of the room were taken precisely to calculate the exact amount of the said
loads in order to determine the tonnage of the heaters and air conditioners for the room and
hence the heating and cooling costs of the entire room.

IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS:
Important terminologies and their definitions are given below:

Cooling Load:
The amount of heat that must be removed to keep temperature and humidity of the air
maintained at a comfortable level during summer season is called the cooling load.
Units: BTU/hr, tonnes

Heating Load:
The amount of heat that must be added to keep temperature and humidity of the air
maintained at a comfortable level in winter season is called the cooling load.
Units: BTU/hr, tonnes

Thermal Resistance:
The thermal resistance R of a material is its ability to resist the flow of heat through it.
Units: hr-ft2-F/BTU

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient:


Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient is the reciprocal of the thermal resistance.
Units: BTU/hr-ft2-F

Infiltration:
Infiltration occurs when outdoor air enters through building openings, due to wind
pressure. Openings of most concern are cracks around windows, doors, edges and open
doors.

Sensible Heat Loss:


Sensible heat loss is heat lost by a body or thermodynamic system that reduces the
temperature, and some macroscopic variables of the body, but leaves unchanged certain other
macroscopic variables, such as volume or pressure.

Latent Heat Loss:


Latent heat loss is the energy released by a body or a thermodynamic system during a
constant-temperature process.

Relative Humidity:
The amount of water vapour present in air expressed as a percentage of the amount needed
for saturation at the same temperature.

Humidity Ratio:
The ratio of the mass of the water vapour to the mass of dry air contained in the sample.

Cooling Load Factor (CLF):


The cooling load factor CLF accounts for the storage of part of the solar heat gain.

REFERENCE VALUES:
The following tables contains all the reference values used in the calculation for heating and
cooling loads:

Thermal Resistances:
0.2 hr-ft2-F/BTU /in
0.2 hr-ft2-F/BTU /in
0.68 hr-ft2-F/BTU
0.17 hr-ft2-F/BTU
0.25 hr-ft2-F/BTU
0.241 hr-ft2-F/BTU /in

Common brick
Plaster material
Air film (still air)
Air film (moving air in winter)
Air film (moving air in summer)
Concrete block
Table 1

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients:


0.49 BTU/hr-ft2-F
1.10 BTU/hr-ft2-F

Door
Window
Table 2

IMPORTANT EQUATIONS:
=
= 1.1
= 0.68 ( )
= 1 + 2 + 3 +
=

= (For people)
= (For people)
= 3.4 (For lighting)

DESIGN CONDITIONS:
We have considered the following design conditions:
Room Location: 33.6000 N, 73.0333 E

WINTER:
Outside temperature
Desirable room temperature
Indoor temperature
Relative Humidity
Month

2.7C (36.9F)
25C (77F)
13.85C (56.95F)
66%
January

SUMMER:
Outside temperature
Desirable room temperature
Indoor Temperature
Relative Humidity
Month

46.6C (116F)
25C (77F)
35.8C (96.5F)
46%
June

COMPOSITE MATERIALS LABORATORY LAYOUT


(SOLIDWORKS MODEL)

Figure 1: SIDE VIEW

Figure 2: BACK VIEW

Figure 3: FRONT VIEW

Figure 4: ISOMETRIC VIEW

HEATING LOAD CALCULATIONS


CALCULATIONS FOR NORTH-FACING WALL:
A. Brick wall and plaster material
Area of wall with window: 13566.875 in2
Area of window: 4719 in2
Area of wall without window= 8847.875 in2 = 61.4435 ft2
Thickness of wall= 10.25
Thickness of Bricks=8.75
Thickness of plaster material= 1.5
Thermal resistance for bricks for specified thickness= 1.75 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance for plaster material for specified thickness= 0.3 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance for inside air film= 0.68 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance for outside air film= 0.17 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Total thermal resistance = 2.9 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Heating Load for wall = 849.49 BTU/hr
B. Beams and plaster material
Area of left hand beam = 5236.875 in2
Thickness of left hand beam = 19.75
Thickness of concrete = 18.75
Thickness of plaster material = 1
Thermal resistance of concrete block of specified thickness = 4.51875 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance of plaster material of specified thickness = 0.2 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance for inside air film= 0.68 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance for outside air film= 0.17 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Total thermal resistance = 5.028 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Heating load for left hand beam= 289.9832 BTU/hr
Area of right hand beam = 1.701 ft2
Thickness of right hand beam = 18.5
Thickness of concrete = 17.5
Thickness of plaster material = 1
8

Thermal resistance of concrete block of specified thickness = 4.243 hr-ft2-F/BTU


Thermal resistance of plaster material of specified thickness = 0.2 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance for inside air film= 0.68 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance for outside air film= 0.17 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Total thermal resistance = 5.29 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Heating load for right hand beam = 12.8941 BTU/hr
C. Window
Area of window = 32.77 ft2
Overall heat transfer coefficient for window of specified area = 1.10 BTU/hr-ft2-F
Heating load for window = 1445.485 BTU/hr
D. Infiltration Losses
i.
Sensible Heat Loss:
Crack length for window = 36.25 ft
CFM value of window for specified crack length = 13.4125 ft3/min
Sensible heat loss through infiltration = 591.62 BTU/hr
ii.

Latent Heat Loss:

Through psychrometric charts we have calculated the following vales of humidity


ratios with relative humidity 66% for inside and outside:
Wi=92 gr W/lb
Wo=22 gr W/lb
Latest heat losses = 638.435 BTU/hr
Total heating load for the wall = 3827.9 BTU/hr

CALCULATIONS FOR ROOF WITH SUSPENDED CEILING:


Area of roof = 338 ft2
Thickness of roof = 13.5
Thickness of concrete = 13
Thickness of plaster material = 0.5
Air-gap between roof and ceiling = 21.5
Thickness of polystyrene ceiling = 0.5
Thermal resistance of concrete for specified thickness = 3.316 hr-ft2-F/BTU

Thermal resistance of plaster material for specified thickness = 0.1 hr-ft2-F/BTU


Thermal resistance of polystyrene ceiling for specified thickness = 2.5 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance of air-gap = 4.176 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance of air films of roof = 1.36 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance of air films of ceiling = 1.36 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Total thermal resistance for roof = 4.776 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Total thermal resistance for ceiling = 8.036 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Heating load for roof = 1415.41 BTU/hr
Heating load for ceiling = 420.607 BTU/hr
Total heating load for roof with ceiling = 1836.02 BTU/hr

CALCULATIONS FOR WEST-FACING WALL:


A. Brick and plaster material:
Area of wall without plaster = 259.25 ft2
Thickness of wall=10.25
Thickness of Bricks=8.25
Thermal resistance for bricks for specified thickness= 1.75 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Area of plaster material = 266.267 ft2
Thickness of plaster material= 1.5
Thermal resistance for plaster material for specified thickness= 0.3 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance for inside air film= 0.68 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance for outside air film= 0.68 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Total thermal resistance for wall without beams = 3.41 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Heating Load for plaster material including air films = 1565.59 BTU/hr
B. Beam and plaster material
Area of beam = 7.018 ft2
Thickness of beam = 11.25
Thermal resistance of concrete block of specified thickness = 2.71406 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Heating load for beam= 51.715 BTU/hr
Total heating load for the wall = 1617.302 BTU/hr

10

CALCULATIONS FOR EAST-FACING WALL:


Total heating load the west-facing wall = 1617.302 BTU/hr
Heating load for the beam of west-facing wall = 51.7185 BTU/hr
Total heating load for the wall = 1669.02 BTU/hr

CALCULATIONS FOR SOUTH-FACING WALL:


A. Bricks and plaster:
Area of wall = 135.68 ft2
Area of door = 24.62 ft2
Area of beams = 3.4 ft2
Area of wall without door and beams = 107.66 ft2
Thickness of wall= 10.25
Thickness of Bricks=8.75
Thickness of plaster material= 1.5
Thermal resistance for bricks for specified thickness= 1.75 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance for plaster material for specified thickness= 0.3 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance for inside air film= 0.68 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance for outside air film= 0.68 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Total thermal resistance = 3.41 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Heating Load = 634.6 BTU/hr
B. Beams and plaster:
Thermal resistance for concrete material for specified thickness= 1.99 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance for plaster material for specified thickness= 0.3 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance for inside air film= 0.68 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance for outside air film= 0.68 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Total thermal resistance = 7.3 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Heating load = 9.36 BTU/hr
C. Door:
Area of the door = 24.6 ft2
Overall heat transfer coefficient for the door = 0.49 BTU/hr-ft2-F
Heating load for the door = 241.08 BTU/hr
11

D. Infiltration heat losses:


i. Sensible heat losses:
Total door area = 24.6 ft2
CFM value for the door = 24.6
Sensible heat loss = 527.67 BTU/hr
ii.

Latent heat losses:


Through psychrometric charts we have calculated the following vales of humidity
ratios with relative humidity 66% for inside and outside:
Wi=92 gr W/lb
Wo=46 gr W/lb
Latest heat losses = 769.488 BTU/hr

Total heating load for the wall = 2182.21 BTU/hr

TOTAL HEATING LOAD FOR THE LABORATORY:


PART OF ROOM
Roof with ceiling
North-facing wall
South-facing wall
East-facing wall
West-facing wall
Total Heating Load
Total Heating Load with 20% additional load
(tons)

12

HEATING LOAD
1836.02
3827.9
2182.21
1669.02
1617.302
11132.452
1.1132452

COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS


CALCULATIONS FOR NORTH-FACING WALL:
A. Brick wall and plaster material:
Area of wall with window: 13566.875 in2
Area of window: 4719 in2
Area of wall without window= 8847.875 in2 = 61.4435 ft2
Thickness of wall= 10.25
Thickness of Bricks=8.75
Thickness of plaster material= 1.5
Thermal resistance for bricks for specified thickness= 1.75 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance for plaster material for specified thickness= 0.3 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance for inside air film= 0.68 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance for outside air film= 0.17 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Total thermal resistance = 2.9 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Cooling load for wall = 826.31 BTU/hr
B. Beams and plaster material
Area of left hand beam = 36.37 ft2
Thickness of left hand beam = 19.75
Thickness of concrete = 18.75
Thickness of plaster material = 1
Thermal resistance of concrete block of specified thickness = 4.51875 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance of plaster material of specified thickness = 0.2 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance for inside air film= 0.68 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance for outside air film= 0.17 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Total thermal resistance = 5.028 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Cooling load for left hand beam= 282.08 BTU/hr
Area of right hand beam = 1.701 ft2
Thickness of right hand beam = 18.5
Thickness of concrete = 17.5
Thickness of plaster material = 1
13

Thermal resistance of concrete block of specified thickness = 4.243 hr-ft2-F/BTU


Thermal resistance of plaster material of specified thickness = 0.2 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance for inside air film= 0.68 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance for outside air film= 0.17 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Total thermal resistance = 5.29 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Cooling load for right hand beam = 13.2 BTU/hr
C. Window
Area of window = 32.77 ft2
Overall heat transfer coefficient for window of specified area = 1.10 BTU/hr-ft2-F
Cooling load for window = 1405.833 BTU/hr
D. Infiltration Losses
i. Sensible Cooling loss:
Crack length for window = 36.25 ft
CFM value of window for specified crack length = 13.4125 ft3/min
Sensible Cooling loss through infiltration = 575.39 BTU/hr
ii.

Latent Cooling loss:


Through psychrometric charts we have calculated the following vales of humidity
ratios with relative humidity 46% for inside and outside:
Wi=62 gr W/lb
Wo=210 gr W/lb
Latest heat losses = 1349.834 BTU/hr

Total Cooling Load for North-Facing Wall = 3837.273 BTU/hr

CALCULATIONS FOR ROOF WITH SUSPENDED CEILING:


Area of roof = 338 ft2
Thickness of roof = 13.5
Thickness of concrete = 13
Thickness of plaster material = 0.5
Air-gap between roof and ceiling = 21.5
Temperature of air gap = 86.75 F
Thickness of polystyrene ceiling = 0.5
Thermal resistance of concrete for specified thickness = 3.316 hr-ft2-F/BTU
14

Thermal resistance of plaster material for specified thickness = 0.1 hr-ft2-F/BTU


Thermal resistance of polystyrene ceiling for specified thickness = 2.5 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance of air-gap = 4.176 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance of air films of roof = 1.36 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance of air films of ceiling = 1.36 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Total thermal resistance for roof = 4.776 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Total thermal resistance for ceiling = 8.036 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Cooling load for roof = 1380.025 BTU/hr
Cooling load for ceiling = 410.1 BTU/hr
Total cooling load for roof with ceiling = 1790.12 BTU/hr

CALCULATIONS FOR WEST-FACING WALL:


A. Bricks:
Area of wall without plaster = 259.25 ft2
Thickness of wall=10.25
Thickness of Bricks=8.25
Thermal resistance for bricks for specified thickness= 1.75 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Area of plaster material = 266.267 ft2
Thickness of plaster material= 1.5
Thermal resistance for plaster material for specified thickness= 0.3 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance for inside air film= 0.68 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance for outside air film= 0.68 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Total thermal resistance for wall without beams = 3.41 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Cooling load for wall without beams = 1522 BTU/hr
B. Beam and plaster material
Area of beam = 7.018 ft2
Thickness of beam = 11.25
Thermal resistance of concrete block of specified thickness = 2.71406 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Cooling load for beam= 50.423 BTU/hr
Total cooling load for the wall = 1573.06 BTU/hr

15

CALCULATIONS FOR EAST-FACING WALL:


Total cooling load the west-facing wall = 1573.06 BTU/hr
Cooling load for the beam of west-facing wall = 50.423 BTU/hr
Total cooling load for the wall = 1623.483 BTU/hr

CALCULATIONS FOR SOUTH-FACING WALL:


A. Bricks and plaster:
Area of wall = 135.68 ft2
Area of door = 24.62 ft2
Area of beams = 3.4 ft2
Area of wall without door and beams = 107.66 ft2
Thickness of wall= 10.25
Thickness of Bricks=8.75
Thickness of plaster material= 1.5
Thermal resistance for bricks for specified thickness= 1.75 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance for plaster material for specified thickness= 0.3 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance for inside air film= 0.68 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance for outside air film= 0.68 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Total thermal resistance = 3.41 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Cooling load = 615.65 BTU/hr
B. Beams and plaster:
Thermal resistance for concrete material for specified thickness= 1.99 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance for plaster material for specified thickness= 0.3 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance for inside air film= 0.68 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Thermal resistance for outside air film= 0.68 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Total thermal resistance = 7.3 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Cooling load = 9.08 BTU/hr
C. Door:
Area of the door = 24.6 ft2
Overall heat transfer coefficient for the door = 0.49 BTU/hr-ft2-F
Cooling load for the door = 235.053 BTU/hr
16

D. Infiltration Cooling losses:


iii. Sensible Cooling losses:
Total door area = 24.6 ft2
CFM value for the door = 24.6
Sensible Cooling loss = 527.67 BTU/hr
iv.

Latent Cooling losses:


Through psychrometric charts we have calculated the following vales of humidity
ratios for inside and outside:
Wi=62 gr W/lb
Wo=136 gr W/lb
Latest heat losses = 822.188 BTU/hr

Total cooling load for the wall = 2032.447 BTU/hr

CALCULATIONS FOR LIGHTING:


Lighting capacity for the room = 180 W
Type of lighting = Fluorescent lights
Cooling load for lighting = 765 BTU/hr

CALCULATIONS FOR EQUIPMENT:


Heat emitting equipment in room = 1 x Personal Computer + 1 x Photocopier
Heat gain for Photocopier = 2600 BTU/hr
Heat gain for PC = 400 BTU/hr
Total cooling load due to equipment = 3000 BTU/hr

CALCULATIONS FOR PEOPLE (Moderately active office work):


Average number of people in room on design day = 3
Sensible heat gains = 750 BTU/hr
Latent heat gains = 600 BTU/hr
Total cooling load due to people = 1350 BTU/hr

17

TOTAL COOLING LOAD FOR THE LABORATORY:


PART OF ROOM

COOLING LOAD

Roof with ceiling


North-facing wall
People, lighting and equipment
South-facing wall
East-facing wall
West-facing wall
Total Cooling Load with 20% additional load (tons)

18

1790.12
3837.27
5115
2032.47
1623.483
1573.06
1.5971403

REFERENCES:
Air Conditioning Principles and Systems, Edward G. Pita
Non-residential cooling and heating load calculations, ASHRAE, 1997
http://www.myweather2.com
RICOH Manual for AFICIO 2045e Photocopier

19