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REAL TIME APPLICATION (RTA):

A real-time application (RTA) is an application program that functions within a time frame
that the user senses as immediate or current. The latency must be less than a defined
value, usually measured in seconds. Whether or not a given application qualifies as an RTA
depends on the worst-case execution time (WCET), the maximum length of time a defined
task or set of tasks requires on a given hardware platform. The use of RTAs is called realtime computing (RTC).
Examples of RTAs include:

Videoconference applications

VoIP (voice over Internet Protocol)

Online gaming

Community storage solutions

Some e-commerce transactions

Chatting

IM (instant messaging)
Software developers employ MDD (model-driven development) to obtain optimum RTA
performance using UML (Unified Modeling Language). MDD allows people to work together
on a project even if their experience levels vary. UML is a standard notation for the modeling
of real-world objects in object-oriented design.
REALTIME BUSINESS APPLICATION:
Real time business intelligence is the process of delivering information about business
operations without any latency. In this context, real time means delivering information in a
range from milliseconds to a few seconds after the business event. While traditional
business intelligence presents historical information to users for analysis, real time business
intelligence ("BI 2.0") compares current business events with historical patterns to detect
problems or opportunities automatically. This automated analysis capability enables
corrective actions to be initiated and or business rules to be adjusted to optimize business
processes.
Contents
1
Latency
2
Real
Time
3
4 References

in

real
Business
Application

time
Intelligence

systems
Architectures
areas

Latency
in
real
time
systems
All real time business intelligence systems have some latency, but the goal is to minimize
the time from the business event happening to a corrective action or notification being
initiated. Analyst Richard Hackathorn describes three types of latency:
Data

latency;

the

time

taken

to

collect

and

store

the

data

Analysis latency; the time taken to analyse the data and turn it into actionable information
Action latency; the time taken to react to the information and take action
Real time business intelligence technologies are designed to reduce all three latencies to as
close to zero as possible. Traditional business intelligence and business activity monitoring
by comparison only seek to reduce data latency and do not address analysis latency or
action latency since both are governed by manual processes.
Some commentators have introduced the concept of right time business intelligence which
proposes that information should be delivered just before it is required, and not necessarily
in real time.
Real Time Business Intelligence Architectures
* Event based Real time Business Intelligence
Real time Business Intelligence systems are event driven, and use Event Stream
Processing techniques to enable events to be analysed without being first transformed and
stored in a database. These in- memory techniques have the advantage that high rates of
events can be monitored, and since data does not have to be written into databases data
latency can be reduced to milliseconds.
* Real time Data warehouse
An alternative approach to event driven architectures is to increase the refresh cycle of an
existing data warehouse to update the data more frequently. These real time data
warehouse systems can achieve near real time update of data, where the data latency
typically is in the rage from minutes to hours out of date. The analysis of the data is still
usually manual, so the total latency is significantly different from event driven architectural
approaches.

* Real time Server-less Technology


The latest alternative innovation to "real time" event driven and/or "real time" data
warehouse architectures is MSSO Technology (Multiple Source Simple Output) which does
away with the need for the data warehouse and intermediary servers altogether since it is
able to access live data directly from the source (even from multiple, disparate sources).
Because live data is accessed directly by server-less means, it provides the potential for
zero-latency, real time data in the truest sense.
* Process-aware Real time Business Intelligence
Also known as Operational intelligence, this allows entire processes (transactions, steps) to
be monitored, metrics (latency, completion/failed ratios, etc.) to be viewed, compared with
warehoused historic data, and trended - in real time. Advanced implementations allow
threshold detection, alerting and providing feedback to the process execution systems
themselves, thereby 'closing the loop'.
Application
Algorithmic
Fraud
Systems
Application
performance
Customer
Relationship
Demand
Dynamic
pricing
and
yield
Data
Operational
intelligence
and
risk
Payments
&
cash
Data
security
Supply
chain
RFID/sensor
network
data
Call center optimization

areas
trading
detection
monitoring
monitoring
Management
sensing
management
validation
management
monitoring
monitoring
optimization
analysis

"
Real-time systems are dened as those systems in which the correctness of the system
depends not only on the logical result of computation, but also on the time

At which the results are produced" [STA 88].


Properties we look for :
Functions must be predictable : the same data input will produce the same data output.
Timing behavior must be predictable : must meet temporal constraints (e.g. deadline,
response time).
=Predictable means ... we can compute the system temporal behaviour before
execution time.
Different types of real-time systems :
Hard (or critical) real-time systems: temporal constraints MUST be met, otherwise
defects could have a dramatic impact on human life, on the environment, on the system,
Hard Real Time Systems A hard real time system guarantees that a job will complete within
a specified time period. This system must ensure that all delays on processing, input and
output are bounded. The system cannot wait indefinitely so the hard time systems are
usually very limited. There is generally no secondary storage such as disk drives as a disk
request
can
take
a
variable
time
Lo
process.
Some examples of a hard real time system are the software that run the autopilot in
an jumbo jet
or
the
imaging
software
on
a
missile.
Soft (or non critical) real-time systems: temporal constraints cannot (sometimes) be met
without
any
dramatic
impact.
Soft
Real
Time
Systems
A soft real time system is a much less restrictive version of a hard real time system. A soft
real time system does not guarantee that a job will complete within a specified time period,
however it tries its best to finish the job as soon as possible. If a critical real time job enters
the system, the operating system may assign the highest priority to that task and execute it
continuously
until
it
completes.
The lack of a guarantee makes a soft real time system more limited in itsapplication
for industrial activities. Soft real time systems are used in multimedia,, virtual reality etc. The
operating systems that provide soft realtime support are Windows NT/2000, Linux, Solaris.

Opened or closed real-time systems: tasks/functions can be launched/created at


execution time?
Embedded systems: An embedded system is a computer system designed for specic
control functions within a larger system. Often with real-time computing constraints. It is
embedded as part of a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts
(e.g.mobile phone, aircraft, automotive, ...)
Distributed systems: "A distributed system consists of a collection of autonomous
computers, connected through a network which enables computers to coordinate their
activities and to share resources." Coulouris
Distributed systems are required:
For dependability (redundancy).
Due to physical constraints.
For efciency (resource sharing).
Problems raised by embedded systems:
Difcult to update/correct when a software failure is
discovered (e.g. mobile phone, spacecraft).
Problems raised by distributed systems:
Heterogeneity.
Timing behavior.
Have many different resources.
Real Time System vs Online System
We are all used to real time systems as we deal with them in all walks of life. We also know
what an online system is as surfing is a particular example of online system that is all
pervasive today. There are online systems that are almost real time as RTGS which is
online system of transfer of funds electronically. When there is so much similarity between
online and real time systems, there is bound to be confusion among the minds of readers
pertaining to their differences. This article attempts to highlight these differences to remove
all confusions.

Online has just one meaning and that is when one is logged on to internet. Whether you are
playing a game online, tracking movement of share prices, or talking to your friend via
instant messenger, you are effectively dealing with online systems. There are systems that
update automatically after a specified time and there are systems where you need to refresh
the page manually. There is some time lag between the event that is happening and the
time when the web page refreshes. If you are watching a live telecast of a cricket match
online, it is not real time as you get to see a wicket falling or a ball being bowled after a lag
of a few seconds.
A real time system changes its state as a function of physical time. Some examples of real
time systems are command and control systems, defense and space systems, air traffic
control systems, automated electronics. Real time systems are not dependent upon just
logical results of manual computations but also on the exact instant that the events happen
or take place. One example of real time system is when you are chatting with your friend
online. You see the reaction of the system as soon as you type in the messenger. Because
of advancements in technology and increase in the number of users, many online systems
today are almost real time.
Railway reservations systems are one example where you get immediate booking as soon
as you press the button confirm and thus it is an online system that is also real time.