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BICOL STATE COLLEGE OF APPLIED SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY

CITY OF NAGA
College of Education
1
Finalto 5

CHAPTER I
Introduction

Introduction
A teacher has always been thought as one of the noblest human
beings. She/he is considered as the central figure in the school and a second
parent to the students, because of the task a teacher must perform in order
to achieve the schools vision and mission. S/he has a number of roles such
as teaching, facilitating, and the most important task is to inspire all of
his/her students (Cebrel, 2005). Teachers are often viewed as the most
important variable in learners 'educational environment. Many professors in
different universities and colleges say that a teacher never knew where
his/her influence stops. Without the help of the teachers we dont have
enough knowledge. Yes we all know that knowledge is everywhere but we
need guidance good motivators and will direct the learners quest of
knowledge. Upon their shoulders lie the futures of our youth. The task of a
teacher is virtually a variety of human traits and competencies. The teachers
job is not only to teach but to influence in promoting the development of
basic skills, desirable work habits and attitudes, values, judgment and
adjustments to the individual learners environment. In many instances

BICOL STATE COLLEGE OF APPLIED SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY


CITY OF NAGA
College of Education
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teachers spend more time with their students than their parents do, school schedules are
demanding so it is important for teachers to be effective in their methods, instead of simply being
the figure head of the classroom. They are attributed to two major categories which are personal
and professional qualities. Personal qualities refer to the teachers personality including the
teachers beliefs, interest, attitudes and his/her interrelation with his/her students, co-teachers,
school administrations and non-teaching personnel. On the other hand, professional qualities
pertain to the teachers mastery of the subject matter. Generally teachers are observed and rated
by their supervisors. In some colleges and universities teachers in the tertiary level are rated by the
students by evaluation sheet the teachers performance was rated. The items in evaluation
instrument are generally similar across all levels of education. The areas usually include teaching
competencies, management and evaluation skills, professional ethics and personal qualities.
Through evaluation the teachers performances are being measured for improved.
The idea of effective teacher for each individual is variable. Students perception, opinions
and/or experiences about an effective teacher are different. An effective teacher has been
considered, sometimes, as a perfectionist, encouraging, approachable and caring, other times as
intelligent, but above all, as enthusiastic, funny, clever, affective and understanding, open, and with
a relaxed style while teaching. In 1964, Holt addressed that learning is enhanced by the teachers
knowledge, enthusiasm and responsibility towards creating a warm class climate enhancing the
students desire to learn and to accept the challenges of thinking and enquiring into all that is
offered by the teacher. Stronge et al (2004) stated that teaching is vocational, and most effective

BICOL STATE COLLEGE OF APPLIED SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY


CITY OF NAGA
College of Education
3
teachers are passionate about their chosen profession. However, he also added that an effective
teacher is always in a constant learning process due to changes in terms of the students
characteristics, the curriculum, the community, and finance among many others.
According to Gibbs (2002) Teachers need to be able to survive the demands, threats and
challenges within the diverse circumstances of teaching He stated that an effective teacher needs
the capacity to be persistent, flexible, and innovative on new teaching approaches and be prepared
in the case of failure. For Stronge et al. (2004) the effective teacher has a psychological influence
on the students, having a strong influence on their achievement. According to Killen (2006), the
effective teacher is the one who has clear objectives and own goals of teaching. A teacher can
provide the students with the answer of a question, which can be effective only if the main objective
is simply to compare and analyses different results. However, if the objective is to make the student
think about the option of providing different possible answers, the teacher, in this case, may be
regarded as ineffective. Smith (1995) stated that teachers and teaching need to be creative to
allow the students learn naturally. He also added that educational institutions should spend more
time on doing and less time on talking about learning and teaching In addition, Gurney (2007)
suggested that instead of reflecting on theory and practice, we should reflect on what we do in the
classroom.
Effective teachers need to focus on students achievement. Alton-Lee (2003) pointed out
that an effective link between school and cultural context is needed; apart from being caring, and
enhance assessment, feedback and evaluation, as well as being responsible to students learning

BICOL STATE COLLEGE OF APPLIED SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY


CITY OF NAGA
College of Education
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process, the curriculum goals, the multiple tasks and the contexts. Gurney (2007) suggested that to
be an effective teacher there should be an interaction among different factors. One of them is the
teacher knowledge, enthusiasm and responsibility for learning. Another factor is that effective
teachers should provide the students with activities and assessment that encourages them to learn
(and learn through experience), as well as having an engaged feedback. Finally, to create a warm
environment and a relationship with the students in which respect will enhance learning. According
to Borich (2000), the responsibilities of effective teachers are to have lesson clarity, instructional
variety, teacher task orientation, engagement in the learning process and student success rate.
Therefore, effective teachers do not teach in front of the class doing a good demonstration
on the extensive and deep content knowledge, they teach to promote and enhance learning.
Besides, they knows how to manage, not only their knowledge, but also the classroom and the
students in terms of discipline, work, interaction between teacher- students-students, how to give
instructions, and how to assess and evaluate activities, the students and their own work. Therefore,
to be effective teachers also imply to have a series of qualities, in terms of professional and
personal skills.
The major contribution of the current study is its focus on personal characteristics of
teachers, such as personality and negative feelings, these are variables that may contribute to the
teacher-student interactions, emotional support and behavior and guidance in the classroom.

BICOL STATE COLLEGE OF APPLIED SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY


CITY OF NAGA
College of Education
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Statement of the Problem


This study aims to determine the personal and professional qualities of the teachers.
Specifically, this study aims to answer the following questions:
1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of:
1.1

Age

1.2.

Sex

1.3

Field of Discipline undertaken

2. What is the level of perception of the students about the teachers in terms of:
2.1. Personal Qualities
2.2. Professional Qualities
a. Commitment
b. Knowledge of the Subject
c. Teaching Strategies and Methodologies, and
d. Management of Learning
3. What are the levels of performance of their teachers based on the students evaluation?

BICOL STATE COLLEGE OF APPLIED SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY


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College of Education
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Assumptions
This study is guided by the following assumptions that:
1. The demographic profile of the respondents varies in terms of age, sex, and fields of discipline
2. The levels of perception of the students about the teaching performance of their teacher also
varies.
3. There are activities that can be proposed to further enhance the Personal and Professional
qualities of a teacher to be more effective and efficient in the teaching practice?

Scope and Delimitation


The 40 respondents were students from Universidad de Sta. Isabel (USI) (a Higher
Education Institution) located at Elias St., Sur Naga City. This school is selected because of its
accessibility to the researchers.

This study was undertaken to assess the personal and

professional qualities of the teachers and the respondents perception on their teachers
performance in terms of Commitment, Knowledge of the subject, Teaching Strategies and
Methodologies and Management of Learning. It does not delve into the relationship or difference of
the teachers qualities to his/her teaching performance.

BICOL STATE COLLEGE OF APPLIED SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY


CITY OF NAGA
College of Education
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Significance of the Study


The study undertaken is of significance and beneficial to the following:
Students. The findings of this study could enhance the students awareness regarding
teachers performance and could lead them to better understanding of how important the efficiency
and effectivity of a teacher in performing his/her duties and obligations in the class.
Teachers. Results of the study will make them more aware of how they show their
personality in the class and these could give them encouragement to enhance more their capacity
and effectiveness in performing their duties and obligations in and out of the classroom.
School Administrators. This study would benefit them by provide them the concrete and
reasonable bases regarding their teachers performance and could help them analyze and do
possible actions to improve the teachers performance.
Researchers. (SLP Students). They can indulge to other studies such as performance of
teachers per subject area.

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CHAPTER II
Review of Related Literatures and Studies

The chapter presents a selection of literature and studies that


has a bearing on present study. Most of the literature gathered
comprises the teachers performance.
Related Literatures
Columnist Fransisco (2009) in one of his columns talked about
the strengthening of teacher education which is initiated by
Commissioner
Education.

Nenalyn

Commissioner

Defensor
Defensor

of

Commission

emphasized

on

her

Higher
personal

advocacy Save our Future-Save our Normal Schools. She identified


the nine original normal schools that started as normal schools and
are now either integrated with other schools and/or converted into
universities. She enjoined the administrators and deans present to
do something to save the normal schools. Teacher Education
program is now in state of degradation attributed to poor quality of
teachers and therefore the urgent need to strengthen it. Chairman
Emmanuel

Angeles

who

delivered

the

inspirational

message

reiterated the importance of teacher education in shaping the

BICOL STATE COLLEGE OF APPLIED SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY


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country and the need to do something to improve the quality of
teacher education graduates. He assured all those present of his full
support to strengthen the teacher education program in terms of
allocating funds for faculty development, faculty improvement,
scholarships, and optimum use of information and communication
technology. He exhorted everyone to do much, much more the
younger generation if only to prove our love country. He enjoined
everyone present to work together and support the effort of
Commissioner Defensor.
Various studies and researches has been made in order to
identify the factors affecting teachers performance and the effect
of these teachers performance to students learning.
Rivkin, Hanushek, and Kain (1998) identify teachers as a major
determinant of student performance, but do not describe teacher
quality in terms of specific qualifications and characteristics. They
show strong, systematic differences in expected achievement gains
related to different teachers using a variance-components model. Their
research identifies teachers quality as the most important schoolrelated factor influencing student achievement. They conclude from
their analysis of 400,000 students in 3,000schools that, while school

BICOL STATE COLLEGE OF APPLIED SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY


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quality is an important determinant of student achievement, the most
important predictor is teacher quality. In comparison, class size,
teacher education, and teacher experience play a small role.
Likewise, Sanders (1998) and Sanders and Rivers (1996) argue
that the single most important factor affecting student achievement is
teachers, and the effects of teachers on student achievement are both
additive and cumulative. Further, they contend that the lower
achieving students are most likely to benefit from increases in teacher
effectiveness. Taken together, these multiple sources of evidence
however different in nature all conclude that quality teachers are a
critical determinant of student achievement. In the current policy
climate of standards-based reform, these findings make a strong case
for gaining a better understanding of what really a understanding of
what really accounts for these effects.
The resource-intensive nature of teachers coupled with the
empirical evidence documenting the critical role of teacher quality in
realizing student achievement implies that teacher policy is a
promising avenue toward better realizing goals of efficiency, equity,
and adequacy in public education. Indeed, recommendations for

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reforming the preparation of teachers have become commonplace in
reports aimed at improving public education (Bush 1987).
The recent federal education legislation, No Child Left Behind
(NCLB), further underlines the importance of having a high-quality
teacher in every classroom in every school. The Bush Administrations
proposal, which specifies what defines a highly qualified teacher, is
based on the premise that teacher excellence is vital to realizing
improved student achievement. This legislation, along with typical
hiring and compensation systems, assumes that years of teaching
experience, teacher certification, engagement in certain types of
course work, and performance on standardized assessments are
indicators of highly-quality teachers.
Effective Teacher -Professional Skills
Effective teachers are distinguished by their dedication to the
students and to the job of teaching, and feel responsible for the
achievement and success of the students and own professional
development. Effective teachers really believe that all students can
learn, although all learn differently. They strive to motivate and engage
all their students in learning rather than simple accepting that some
students cannot be engaged and are destined to do poorly.

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There are many different types of teachers. For instance, among
many others, there are those who walk into the classroom, and some
students do not even notice them; also there are some who seem to be
authentic dictators, and students are even afraid to ask anything in the
classroom. There are those who read from a book, or talk constantly,
during the whole session, while students keep just copying; or even
those who just talk, and by the end of the lesson, students do not even
know what the lesson was about, because the objectives, structure
and/or theme were not clear, even for the teacher.
Content Knowledge
For many, including teachers, the most obvious requirement to
be an effective teacher is the content knowledge of the subject.
Reynolds and Muijs (1999) considered good content knowledge
responses to spontaneous and demanding students questioning.
According to the McBer Report (DFES, 2000) students expect a teacher
to have good content knowledge to be considered effective, which
inspire the students confidence in the teacher. In addition, Ferguson &
Womackl (1993) stated that effective communication of content
knowledge is a hallmark of good teachers. However, having good
content knowledge is just one of many vital factors and qualities, which

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an effective teacher needs to have in order to enhance learning and
achievement.
Good Planning
Having good content knowledge is not so effective without a
well-planned lesson. A lesson plan makes the content and the session
interesting and involving. Good planning facilitates clear explanations,
and it provides a wide range of resources suitable to students needs. It
assists with effective use of oral questioning, giving instructions, being
flexible, and having an impact on the students stimulation to
encourage their interest and participation. Effective teachers should
give meaning to the subject by facilitating relevant material to the
students wherever possible, and by finding means to stimulate interest
on it. Besides, they must be prepared to reconsider whether the
material and methodology is suitable to be re-presented in the
classroom. Craig and Dickenson (2003) pointed out that good planning
ensures that lessons include periods where students are allowed to
have discussion in open or close groups or in pairs. Good planning
organizes the material which allows doing more and better during a
session. Gurney, (2007) also pointed out that should allow the students
to give the teacher their feedback in order to improve own knowledge,

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CITY OF NAGA
College of Education
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methodology and learning environment if needed. Cruickshenk &
Haefele (2001) stated that effective teachers are able to qualitatively
do more with the same amount of time However, good planning also
implies classroom management and organization to achieve learning.
Classroom Management and Organization
Effective teachers manage and organize the classroom, in the
beginning of the year, according to the students needs and
preferences to create an optimistic and warm learning environment for
all the students, and enhance learning. Emmer et al. (1980,2003)
stated that effective teachers takes time in the beginning of the year
and especially on the first day to school to establish classroom
management, classroom organization and expectations for students
behavior
According to Sokal et al. (2003) classroom management seem to
be a high priority for novice and experience teachers. However,
management is not parallel to strict rules; in fact, management is to
anticipate students needs, and then prepare a suitable year plan,
procedures, activities, assessment, evaluation criteria, and above all,
clear instructions to the students to promote students motivation,
enthusiasm and learning. Effective teachers use low classroom rules,

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and more routines to maintain a relaxed and warm environment to
enhance learning. Marzano et al. (2003) stated that minimum number
of classroom rules, which tend to focus on expectations of how to act
toward one another, maintain a safe environment, and participate in
learning. McLeod et al. (2003) distinguished from rules, and stated
that is more effective and efficient to use routines in the classroom.
Stronge et al. (2003) also suggested that effective teachers use more
routines

for

daily

tasks

than

rules.

Wong

and

Wong

(2005)

distinguished between routine as what the students do automatically,


and procedure as what the teachers want to be done.
While classroom management focus on instructions which
influences the students in terms of psychological behavior to learn,
classroom organization influences the students motivation to learn
created from the physical learning environment. Effective teachers
organize the classroom to promote learning and interaction, and have
to create an optimal learning environment where students feel
comfortable and relax in terms of decoration, accessibility and mobility.
According to Stronge et al, (2004) part of the classroom organization is
the furniture arrangement, the accessibility of material, and the

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decoration. Kohn (1996) stated that the furniture arrangement
facilitate interaction.
Classroom Behavior
Good classroom management and organization, and a good
lesson plan also minimizes the likelihood of misbehavior. Craig and
Dickenson (2003) stated that almost all classroom behavior is learned
and that students must clearly understand what is expected of them.
The responsibility lies with the teachers to explain how and why they
want them to work in that way, and to give positive feedback when
students respond positively. In the McBer Report (DFES, 2000), it is
stated that students themselves want a teacher to keep discipline in
the classroom. According to Kyriacou, (1998) maintaining discipline is
necessary for learning to be effective. He also suggested that students
misbehavior can be minimized by generally skillful teaching. Wong and
Wong (2005) differentiate between manage and disciple. They stated
that effective teachers manage their classrooms with procedures and
routines. Ineffective teachers discipline their classrooms with threats
and punishments. They also underlined that discipline has to do with
how students behave, and management has to do with procedures on
how students have to work in the classroom. Many ineffective teachers

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use reward stickers, incentive gifs, infractions cards to discipline their
classroom with punishments. They only waste time, and do not solve
the problem, effective teachers manage the classroom with procedures
and routines to maximize and engage learning time.
Misbehavior such as luck of silence can occur. Some seemed to
obtain virtual silence all the time. Others obtain almost perfect silence,
but pupils need regular reminders, while others, seldom achieved any
silence and pupils behavior needed regularly keeping in check. Craig
and Dickenson (2003) pointed out that it is unreasonable to expect
total silence for extended periods. On the other hand, an effective
teacher is aware that some students might prefer to sit quietly and
have low active participation in the classroom activities, although will
know how to make the student participate.
Individual Differences
Many teachers still teach their students in the same way they
were taught. Some because they, erroneously, think that the
traditional teaching is more effective, others because they just do not
worry much about alter their own and bad routine by laziness, and
other because they think that students have to adapt to the teacher
own methods. Wickham (2003) warned that the teaching styles used

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by each teacher can be strongly influenced by their own learning style.
Effective teachers should be able to personalize the leaning for their
students. They understand that students develop as different rates and
that in every classroom there will be a range of student abilities and
aptitudes. The teacher must feel the pulse of a classroom and modify
the teaching methods to maintain a high level of interest, no matter
what the subject is. They also use their knowledge of learning
processed to determine which will be most effective to help the
particular students in their classes learning successfully. Effective
teachers strike the right chord with the students and have a sixth
sense about those who need more help. For these reasons, it is vital to
know the students` needs, their learning strategies and style,
personality, motivation, attitude, abilities, even background to be able
to help them.
In addition, effective teachers use techniques that best serve the
learning needs of their students. They use them to have each student
working on tasks that engage and challenge them to achieve personal
best. There are many things that students can learn themselves
through discovery, and/or in a more direct way. Some students learn by
being exposed to learning opportunities, while others will need

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concerted direct teaching and correction by the teacher before they
master the learning requirements. Effective teachers help students
learn on their own, as well as from others, from outside the school, and
from various sources such technology, (Lowman, 1995) Effective
teachers must be prepared to reconsider whether the material and
methodology is suitable to be re-presented in the classroom. In
addition, effective teachers understand that students learn best if their
particular culture, background and abilities are acknowledged by the
teacher and the methodology and procedure can be adapted to the
students needs, (Zeichner, 1993).
Communication Skills
Communication skills are vital for anyone who has a teaching job.
Effective

teachers

are

always

effective

communicators.

They

communicate clearly about course objectives, content and testing,


making sure to provide a rationale for learning particular material and
adapt instruction to their student's level of knowledge and skill. Lacks
of communication mean that the students will not understand key
concepts at all, or they will do incorrectly. Effective teacher can take
something that is complex and present it in a way that can be easily

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absorbed by the students, and through different verbal and non-verbal
communications (Prozesky, 2000).
The Teacher Teachers confidence pays an important role in
effectiveness. Confidence to teach subject matter influences the
teaching outcomes (Bandura, 1997). If effective teachers believe in
themselves, they achieve a lot in the classroom, and students know
who is in charge, and the teacher knows what material to cover, and
how to teach it.
Effective teachers are passionate about teaching and the
subject. If the teachers do not love their job, the students perceive it,
influencing in their low motivation. Besides, if they do not love the
subject, therefore, how can the students are going to love it? Effective
teachers have an energy that almost makes them glow and they tackle
each lesson with a sense of challenge, rather than routine. Wolk (2001)
stated that when the teacher is passionate about learning can create
an infectious classroom environment
Besides, Gurney (2007) pointed out that when the teachers show
enthusiasm, and there is interaction in the classroom, the work of
learning process is turned into a pleasure. In addition, teachers who

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are enthusiastic about their subjects and learning, motivate students,
and therefore increase achievement (Stronge et al., 2004).
Motivation for Learning
Motivating students make them to be more receptive and excited
about the subject, make them be aware of the value and importance of
learning, and have a better attitude to learn. Effective teachers makes
the students increase their academic self-concept, their interest in the
subject and the desire to learn more, and therefore to have a high level
of achievement (NWREL, 2001). It also been stated that students see
the effective teacher as a motivational and a leader when the teacher
encourages them to be responsible for their own learning. Also when
high standards and challenge tasks and a variety of strategies such as
cooperative learning (Fisher, 2003); and when relevant reinforcement
and feedback have been provided during the process, enhancing
learning as a result. Humor can be a powerful ingredient in every
lesson. Effective teachers do not need to be clowns, but it is beneficial
to have good sense of humor, and been willing to share jokes with the
students to break negative-cold barriers.
Respect, Fairness and Equity

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Respect, fairness and equity are identified as the prerequisite of
effective teaching in the eyes of students. Kyriacou, (1998) stated
mutual respect as an essential feature of the classroom to establish
the right climate for effective teaching and learning. He also added
that respect requires the students to know that the teacher is
competent, interested in their progress and is committed. Effective
teachers should avoid situations of luck of respect among students
who do not respect their peers. Fairness is so appreciated by the
students, and effective teachers respond individually to misbehavior,
rather than to the whole class, (Stronge et al. 2004). He added that
students expect to treat them equitably in any situation, either in case
of misbehavior, assessment results, religion, ethnic background, age,
etc. and to avoid favoritism (Peart & Campbell, 1999). Therefore,
effective teacher continually demonstrate respect to their students
(inside or outside the classroom), fairness and equity regarding
individual situations, age, background, ethnicity, religion, economical
status, and so forth).
Teacher Learning Development
Effective teachers have high expectations of students in terms of
both their standard of learning and their behavior, but they also have

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high expectations of themselves and their own learning development.
Effective teachers constantly self-evaluate critique and reflect on how
well they are getting through to their students, and search for better
ways of teaching, new tools, materials and methodologies especially
for those who are not achieving learning as well as others. In order to
achieve some of these skills, many British institutions of higher
education require attendance at a short introductory course on
university teaching and learning, but in many systems voluntary
participation is the norm. Effective teachers are willing to promote their
own learning by investing on training and/or inviting observation and
suggestions from colleagues. Collings (1994) stated that a teacher
should be in constant training-learning process, and have capacity to
reflect upon own practice. Stronge et al. (2004) stated that staff
development is vital to effective implementation, and can help
teachers to learn new strategies to be applied. They also work
collaboratively with other staff members, are willing to share their
ideas, and assist other teachers with difficulties and volunteer to lead
work teams and to be mentors to new teachers, (NETI, 2009). They are
informal leaders who are not afraid of taking risk to innovate or

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improve education. Therefore, effective teachers participate in creating
a collaborative environment of a positive working relationship.
Effective Teacher -Personal Skill
Together with professional skills, effective teachers use their
personal skills with the students as these skills play an important role
in students learning process, achievement, and behavior.
Caring
Effective teachers care about their students in order to bring the
better of each one to encourage learning. According to Gurney (2007),
learning has been considered as an emotional exercise which will allow
the students to get engaged as it appeals to be emotionally. Besides,
Eisner (2002) suggests that teaching is a caring exercise which takes
an important role in effective learning process. Showing care includes
listening to the students, not only when they are in the classroom, but
also about their particular lives and/or personal problems. The role of
the effective teachers, in this situation, is to be good listeners, paying
attention to, and showing understanding through tenderness and
patience. According to Stronge et al. (2004) students perceive
effectiveness

when

teachers

show

kindness,

gentleness

and

encouragement. Effective teachers demonstrate genuine concern and

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empathy

toward

students

through

25
understanding the

students

concerns and questions. Stronge et al. (2004) stated that effective


teachers listen to the students arguments and help and/or indicates
them how to resolve their problems, and are willing to talk about their
personal lives and experiences respecting the confidentiality issues.
Therefore, there is a more effective achievement when the teacher
demonstrates that cares about the students and knows them
individually.
Knowing the Students Individually
Effective caring teachers also know the students individually and
give them individual attention and develop productive relationships
with their students. They treat their student with respect and expect
the same in return, enhancing the students learning progress. It is not
enough to know the students in their formal setting (in the classroom:
their learning strategies or learning style), but also, to know them in
their informal setting (outside the classroom: likes and dislikes,
background, their motivation, aptitude and attitude to learn). These
have great effect on behavior and performance in the classroom, and
in their learning process (Cruickshank & Haefele, 2001). In addition,
according to Stronger et al. (2004) caring goes beyond listening,

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understanding and knowing the students, it is also being patient, kind,
warm, sensitive, human with them. It is to be adaptable to particular
students situations, honest, trustworthy, encouraged, and having and
showing affection and love for them. Sizer (1999) stated that students
cannot be taught well if we do not know them.
Teacher-Students Relationship
Effective

teachers

do

not

only

have

teacher-student

relationship in the classroom, but also demonstrate interest in students


lives beyond the classroom, using a wide variety of strategies to
interact with them outside the class, and the educational institution.
This also encourages students to perform their best in the classroom
(Kohn, 1996). The election on the type of social event can be easier if
the teacher knows the students preferences. Students really appreciate
the teacher who attends social event with them, such as the
graduation, the end course dinner, a visit to a museum, a local event, a
concert, etc. According to Stronge et al. (2004) the social interactions
between the teacher and students encourage students leaning and
achievement. Besides, this helps introvert or low self-esteem learners
to be better integrated in the group. This increases students
participation and motivation, which enhance a more favorable leaning

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27
environment, and challenge the students to succeed. Wolk, (2002)
stated that a strong relationships with the students helps to decrease
discipline problems. Therefore, a teacher who spends more time
interacting socially with the students, working directly with them, and
demonstrates a sense of fun and willingness to participate, in a friendly
and personal manner, is considered to be effective. Knowing the
students and having a teaching-student relationship with them creates
a warm classroom and learning environment.
Classroom Environment
Wang et al. (1997) found classroom climate to be one of the
most important factors to affect students achievement, although, on
the contrary, it has been a strong predictor of students aggression.
However, having an optimal relationship with the students helps to
create a warm and safe classroom environment so that students can
achieve their potential, as they feel safe and confident to attempt new
tasks and participate (Reynolds and Muijs, 1999)
Related Studies
Wilson, Floden, and Ferrini-Mundy (2001) in their review of the
research on teacher preparation conducted for the U.S Department of
Education reveals empirical studies conform to variety of accepted

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methodological approaches and a use a range of measures of teacher
effectiveness are used to ascertain what existing evidence says about
the relationship between teacher attributes and their performance. In
addition, this approach pays close attention to a number of contextual
factors (e.g., level of education, subject area, and type of student) as a
way of drawing conclusions across studies. Clearly, the context of
teaching is important and may affect the impact of the teacher
attributes considered in this analysis. In fact, when existing studies are
considered as a whole(without breaking them down by contextual
factors such as subject area or grade level),findings tend to be existent
across studies; context variable may help to explain the apparent
inconsistency of the existing research. In other words, a particular
teacher attribute (e.g., a subject-specific masters degree) may be an
important predictor of a teacher effectiveness in some contexts (e.g.,
high school math), but may not matter at allows may even have a
negative effect in other contexts ( e.g., first grade reading .). This
careful attention to the contexts of teaching, wherever possible, helps
tease outcome effects that that would otherwise go undetected in
reviews that neglect to consider this factors. The goal off this study is
to sort through the available evidence to draw conclusion about what

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matters, what has been studied but has not been shown to matter, and
what has not been adequately studied.
Marsh and others, 1979 express that student evaluation of
teachers performance, or student ratings, is one of the most of
controversial techniques used to identified teachers effectiveness. Few
faculty members question the usefulness of ratings in providing
feedback about teaching that can result in improved instruction, but
many continue to challenge student rating use in making personnel
decisions.
Aleamoni (1981) offers the following arguments to support the
use of student rating of teacher performance:
a. Students are the main source of information about the learning
environment, including teachers ability to motivate student for
continued learning, rapport or degree of communication between
instructors and students.
b. Student are the most logical evaluators of the quality, the
effectiveness of, and satisfaction with course content, method of
instruction, textbook, homework, and student interest.
c. Student ratings encourage communication between students
and their instructor. This communication may lead to the kind of the

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student and instructor and involvement in the teaching learning
process that can raise the level of instruction.
d. Student ratings of particular instructor and courses can be
used by other student to select courses and instructors, and may
increase the chances that excellence in instruction will be recognized
and rewarded. Based on the literature and other studies reviewed
there is a significant difference between the teachers performance and
their profile. It is a popular belief that age matters. Mans physical,
psychological and cognitive usually weaken and retrogress as a age
progresses. It is determinant in the world of work which affects the
perception of an individual as considered it as a length of time of life.
People

age

differently

because

they

have

different

heredity

endowments, different socio economical and educational backgrounds


and different patterns of living. Normally, as person grows in age, his
physical health deteriorates. But as a person grows older, his
experiences also increase.(Calaramo, 2002)
Conceptual Framework
The proposed study is guided by Bronfenbrenners bio-ecological
perspective (2001). This theory suggests that human development across the life
span is fueled by the complex inter-relationships among characteristics of

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people, the contexts they are situated in, the processes that take place within
those contexts, and the historical and life course time in which the development
is taking place.
Figure 1 systematically presents the conceptual paradigm of the
study. It present the systematic illustration how the research study will
conduct. The inputs or the independent variables are the ways by
which the respondents profile is to be analyzed, taking into account
their personal attributes and insights on teachers personal and
professional qualities.
The process is the strategy to be used such as generating data
through the use of questionnaire. The possible output or the dependent
I.

Profile of
Respondents

variable is the teachers performance that will be based on their


evaluation.
1.1 Age
1.2. Sex
1.3 Field of Discipline
undertaken

II. Independent
Personal and
Variables
Professional
Quality in terms of
Variables
a. Commitment
b. Knowledge of the
subject matter
c. Teaching Strategies
d. Learning
Management

TEACHER PERFORMANCE
Dependent

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Figure 1
Conceptual Paradigm

Definition of Terms

For a better understanding of this study, the following terms are


operationally defined.

Age. Defined as how old or young a particular person is.

Commitment. Refers to the fulfillment of the obligation of the


teacher regarding his/her profession.

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Field of Discipline. Refers to the type of course or academic

discipline being
taken by students to attain a baccalaureate degree.

Knowledge of the subject. Refer to the mastery and

presentation of the
information of a teacher to the students regarding his/her
degree of
specialization.

Management of Learning. Refers to the teachers managing

ability in the
classroom.

Performance. Refers to the capability of the teacher in

performing her
responsibilities in the class such as delivering the lessons,
managing the class,etc.

Personal Qualities of Teacher. Refers to the teachers

personality including
his/her beliefs, interests, attitudes and interrelation with
his/her students,
co-teachers, school administrators and non-teaching
personnel.

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Teacher. Refers to the second parent of the students in the


school. The one who imparts/shares knowledge on the
students and also the one manages the activities in the class.

Teaching Strategies. Refers to the technique(s) used by the

teacher in
delivering the subject matter.

TCP Students. Refers to the students taking a special


program for Teacher Education. Also known as Teacher
Certificate Program (TCP).

Professional Qualities of a Teacher. Pertains to the teachers


mastery of the subject matter and his/her duties and
responsibilities as a professional.

Chapter III
Research Design and Methodology

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This chapter describes how the study was conducted and the
instrument used in gathering the necessary data for the completion of
the study. This includes the research design, the population and
sampling, sampling procedure, data gathering procedure and the
research instrument used.
Research Design
In this study, the researchers used the descriptive method of
research to know the Personal and Professional Qualities of the
teachers in USI and also the perceptions of the students on their
teachers performance in terms of the following variables: (a.)
Commitment, (b.) Knowledge of the subject, (c.) Teaching Strategies
and methodologies, and (d.) Management of learning.
Population and Sampling
This study was conducted at the Universidad de Sta. Isabel, Naga
City Academic Year 2014-2015. The respondents of the study were
from USI who came from different courses and belongs to age 17 and
above.

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Instrumentation
The researcher used a survey questionnaire and evaluation form
to gather information of the students related factors such as age,
gender, and Field of Discipline.
The tool applied in gathering the data is the questionnaire.
Questionnaire. The questionnaire has a two parts. The first part
consist of the data asking for the respondents demographic profile
while the second part consist of the level of perception of the students
on the Personal and Professional quality of teacher.
The study utilized a five point Likert scale questionnaire on the formulated
factors raised in the statement of the problem. The Likert scale was used to
quantify the respondents responses on the level of their perception on the
personal and professional quality of their teacher the factors ranging from a
maximum of 5 presenting

Strongly agree, 4 agree,3, uncertain, 2 disagree,

and minimum of 1 representing strongly disagree. And in the level of


teaching performance of the teachers was measuring using likert scale of
which interval scales were 4.21-5.(Outstanding);3.41-4.20(Very Satisfactory);
2.61-3:40 (Satisfactory);1.81-2:60 (Fair); 1.0-1.80 ( Poor)

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Data Gathering Procedure


The researchers chose 40 respondents who were readily
available at the time of data gathering and interview. Quota sampling
was used to determine the subset of the population. In quota sampling,
a population is first segmented into mutually exclusive sub-groups,
after then that convenience sampling was used to pick out the readily
available respondents at the time of actual data gathering. Accidental
or convenience sampling is a type of non-probability sampling which
involves the sample being drawn from that part of the population
which is close to hand. That is, a sample population selected because it
is readily available and convenient.
Data gathering tools was done last March 10, 2015. A letter was
sent to the respondents who were the subjects of the study. The
research instrument was personally administered and retrieved by the
researchers. The respondents were given the questionnaires to answer
it. Administration of the questionnaires was conducted in one day. After
the questionnaires were retrieved, the data were collated, arranged

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and classified according to the different variables and factors as
required this study.
When all questionnaires were collected, responses were tallied
and treated through appropriate statistical tools. Quantified data were
placed in tabular forms to facilitate discussion.
Questionnaires for the respondents were given with two parts to
gather the necessary data. After which, frequency distribution and
percentage techniques were used to determine the demographic
profile of the respondents. Weighted Mean was used to know the level
of the level of perceptions of students about the Personal and
Professional qualities of their teachers and the level of performance of
their teachers.
Statistical Treatment
The results of the statistical computation guided the researchers
in the interpretation and analysis of the data. The statistical tools,
which were used in this study, are as follows:
1.

Frequency

and

Percentage

Distribution

is

used

to

determine the proportional part to a whole such as a given number of


respondents in relation to the entire population.
Formula:

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P = f/Nx100
Where as:
P=Percentage
f=Frequency
N=Total no. of respondents

2.

Weighted Mean is used to analyze the perceptions of the

respondents. It also refers to the over-all average of responses/


perceptions of the respondents. It also used to determine the level of
the teacher Performance.
Formula:
WM = (f1x1 + f2x2 + fnxu)
N
Where as:
fxm=Sum of the product of the frequency and the
unit weight

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Chapter IV
Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
This chapter presents the results of the data gathered from the
respondents of this study. These results are presented in a tabular form
and with narrative interpretation.
Demographic Profile of the Respondents
There were three attributes for the profile of the respondents
that were determined in this study. This refers to the age, gender, and
field of discipline Frequency and percentage technique were utilized in
analyzing these attributes. Results are presented in Table 1.
Table 1
Demographic Profile of the Respondent

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Attributes

Frequency

Percentage

17-20

26

65

21-above
Total

14
40

35
100

Male

16

40

Female
Total

24
40

60
100

13

32.5

Math
Education

5
8

12.5
20

Management

15

Art and Sciences

12.5

Computer

7.5

40

100

Age

Gender

Field of Discipline
Science

Total
Age

The highest percentage rating falls under 17-20 years old that
has 26 or 65% out of the 40 respondents, 14 or 35% are stated that
they have an age of 21 and above years old. This implies that most of
the respondents are adolescents and this age group is really for college
years.

Gender
The table shows the distribution of respondents according to
their gender, and we can see that most respondents are female with

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24 or 60% of the total respondents and followed by male comprises of
16 or 40%. This implies that females commonly engage in teaching
profession and it can be based from our culture that mothers are first
teachers.
Field of Discipline
Sciences course outnumbered other courses with 13 or 32.5%;
next education course with 8 or 20%; followed by management with 8
or 15%; math and art and sciences were the same with 5 or 12.5%;
and least is computer studies course with 3 or7.5%. This implies that
most of the students appreciate the wonders of science; they are more
inquisitive of the different phenomenon happening in the society thats
why do they want to share knowledge to their future students.

Table 2
Perception of respondents according to the Personal Quality of their
Teacher

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Indicators
Mea
n
1. Commands respect by example in 4.88
appearance, manner, behavior and
language
2. Communicates
effectively
with 4.9
students
and
demonstrate
appropriate interactive skills
3. Approachable, cheerful
4.93
4. Engages
and
sustain
students 4.88
interest
5. Teacher should come to class on
4.93
time, well groomed (Punctuality,
neatness
TOTAL
4.90

Remar
ks
Strongly
Agree
Strongly
Agree
Strongly
Agree
Strongly
Agree
Strongly
Agree
Strongl
y
Agree

LEGEND:
4.21-5.0 : Strongly agree
3.41-4.20 : Agree
2.61-3:40 : Uncertain
1.81-2:60 : Disagree
1.0-1.80 : Strongly Disagree
The table shows that the among the personal qualities of a teacher,
being cheerful and being punctual and neat are the strongly agreed qualities
which has a mean of 4.93, while the while the least qualities are commands
respect by example and engages/sustains students interests. This implies
that teachers can really perform well in class and be respected by their
students if they are always well-groomed, punctual in coming to class,
cheerful and approachable.

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Table 3A
Perception of Respondents according to Professional Quality based
on Commitment of their Teacher

Indicators

Mea
n
6. Teacher should always demonstrate 4.9
sensitivity to the students ability to
attend
and
absorb
content
information
7. Teacher must be sensitive to his/her 4.83
learning objectives

Remar
ks
Strongly
Agree

8. Teacher must make self-available to


students beyond official time
9. Teacher must maintain professional
competency
10.
Teacher must always keep
precise record of students
performance and prompt submission
of the same
TOTAL

Strongly
Agree
Strongly
Agree
Strongly
Agree

4.87
4.88
4.88

4.87

Strongly
Agree

Strongl
y
Agree

LEGEND:
4.21-5.0 : Strongly agree
3.41-4.20 : Agree
2.61-3:40 : Uncertain
1.81-2:60 : Disagree
1.0-1.80 : Strongly Disagree

Table 3A shows the indicator that Teacher should always


demonstrate sensitivity to the students ability to attend and absorb
content information having a mean of 4.9 and interpreted as Strongly
Agree; Teacher must be sensitive to his/her learning objectives
having a mean of 4.83 and interpreted as |Strongly Agree; Teacher

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must make self-available to students beyond official time having a
mean of 4.87 and interpreted as Strongly Agree; Teacher should
come To class on time, well groomed and well prepared to complete
assigned responsibilities information having a mean of 4.88 and
interpreted as Strongly Agree Teachers must always keep precise
records of students performance and prompt submission of the same
information having a mean of 4.88 and interpreted as Strongly
Agree. With an average mean of 4.87 and interpreted as Strongly
Agree. This implies that teachers of USI are strongly committed to
their profession.
Table 3B
Perception of Respondent According to Professional Quality based
on knowledge of the subject of their Teacher

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Indicators
1. Shows mastery of the subject matter

2. Teacher should draw and share


information of the state of the art
theory and practice in his/her
discipline must be sensitive to his/her
learning objectives
3. Integrates
subject
to
practical
circumstances
and
learning
interest/purposes of students.
4. Teacher should explain the relevance
of present topics to the previous
lessons, and relates the subject
matter to relevant current issues
and /or daily life activities.
5. Teacher should demonstrate up- to
date knowledge and/ or awareness
on current trends and issues of the
subject.
TOTAL

46
Mea
n
4.88
4.9

Remar
ks
Strongly
Agree
Strongly
Agree

4.93

Strongly
Agree

4.93

Strongly
Agree

4.88

Strongly
Agree

4.90

Strongl
y
Agree

LEGEND:
4.21-5.0 : Strongly agree
3.41-4.20 : Agree
2.61-3:40 : Uncertain
1.81-2:60 : Disagree
1.0-1.80 : Strongly Disagree

Table 3B shows that the indicator Teachers should demonstrates


mastery of the subject matter (explain the subject matter r without
relying solely on the prescribed textbook) having a mean of 4.88 and
interpreted as Strongly Agree; Teachers should draw and share
information on the state of the art theory and practice in his/her

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discipline having a mean of 4.9 and interpreted as Strongly Agree
Integrates

subject

to

practical

circumstances

and

learning

intents/purposes of students having a mean of 4.93 and interpreted


as Strongly Agree Teachers should explain the relevance of present
topics to the precious lessons, and relates the subject matter to
relevant current issues and/or daily life activities having a mean of
4.93

and

interpreted

as

Strongly

Agree

Teachers

should

demonstrate up to date knowledge and/or awareness on current


trends and issues of the subject having a mean of 4.88 and
interpreted as Strongly Agree. This implies that teachers have
knowledge towards the subject matter they were teaching.

Table 3C
Perception of Respondent According to Professional Quality based
on Teaching Strategies and Methodologies of their Teacher

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Indicators

48
Mea
n
teaching 4.85

1. Teacher
should
create
strategies that allow students to practice
using
concepts
they
need
to
understands( interactive discussion)

2. Teacher Should enhance student selfesteem and/or gives the recognition


to students performance/potentials
3. Teachers should allow students to
create
their
own
course
with
objectives and realistically define
student- professor rules and make
them
accountable
for
their
performance.
4. Teachers should allow students to
think independently and make their
own decisions and holding them
accountable for their performance
based largely on their success in
executing decisions.
5. Teacher should encourage students
to learn beyond what is required and
help/guide students how to apply the
concepts learned.
TOTAL

Remar
ks
Strongly
Agree

4.8

Strongly
Agree

4.85

Strongly
Agree

4.9

Strongly
Agree

4.76

Strongly
Agree

4.83

Strongl
y
Agree

LEGEND:
4.21-5.0 : Strongly agree
3.41-4.20 : Agree
2.61-3:40 : Uncertain
1.81-2:60 : Disagree
1.0-1.80 : Strongly Disagree

In this table, the majority of the weighted means shows an


indication of teachers who teaches and allowing students to be

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independent; followed by the indicator 1 and 3 with a mean of 4.85
this reflects that teachers are student centered and interpreted as
strongly agree.
Meanwhile the last statement is also interpreted as strongly
agree that clearly seen that teachers used to encourage the learners to
be existential in knowledge and skills. It is important to note that a
student centered should accumulate the learners surroundings and
that will determine the goal of teachers in teaching.
Table 3D
Perception of Respondent According to Professional Quality based
on Management of Learning of their Teacher

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Indicators
Mea
n
1. Teacher should create opportunities for 4.9
intensive and/or contribution of students
in the class activities.

2. Teacher should assume roles as


facilitator, resource person, coach,
referee in drawing students to
contribute
to
knowledge
and
understanding of the concepts at
hands.
3. Teachers
should
design
and
implement learning conditions and
experience that promotes healthy
exchange or confrontations.
4. Teachers
should
structure/
restructures learning and teachinglearning context to enhance of
collective learning objectives
5. Teacher should use of instructional
materials (audio/video materials; film
showing, computer aid instruction
and etc.) to reinforces learning
processes.
TOTAL

Remar
ks
Strongly
Agree

4.83

Strongly
Agree

4.85

Strongly
Agree

4.93

Strongly
Agree

4.8

Strongly
Agree

4.86

Strongl
y
Agree

LEGEND:
4.21-5.0 : Strongly agree
3.41-4.20 : Agree
2.61-3:40 : Uncertain
1.81-2:60 : Disagree
1.0-1.80 : Strongly Disagree

Teachers structure/re structures learning and teaching


learning

context

to

enhance

attainment

of

collective

learning

objectives play an important role of teacher. Attaining the second

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weighted mean teachers used to design based on the learning needs.
Meanwhile, it is clearly seen teachers act also as facilitator and
provides adequate materials which are stated from the three least
indicators. And the total correspondence is that the assessment for
teachers performance is dominantly strong and positive.
Table 3E
Perception of the Respondents of Their Teachers Performance

Indicators

Mea
n
1. Perform the principles of instructional
5
materials preparation
types of learners.

for

different

Remarks
Outstandi
ng

2. Perform different teaching methods,


approaches and strategies

4.95

Outstandi
ng

3. Apply social realities


in the
community
to
make
learning
relevant
4. Exhibit vividness and clarity in
delivering the lesson
5. Demonstrates the subject matter
accurately

4.98

Outstandi
ng

4.98

Outstandi
ng
Outstandi
ng

6. Make the room comfortable for the


students

4.90

Outstandi
ng

7. Explain the topic in accordance for


student level

Outstandi
ng

8. Know the different characteristics of


students

4.98

Outstandi
ng

9. Value every students concrete


performance (e.g. project)

4.95

Outstandi
ng

10.
Apply knowledge on social
learning in dealing with students

4.93

Outstandi
ng

TOTAL

4.93

4.96 Outstan
ding

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LEGEND:
4.21-5.0 : Outstanding
3.41-4.20 : Very Satisfactory
2.61-3:40 : Satisfactory
1.81-2:60 : Fair
1.0-1.80 : Poor

Table 3E shows clearly that the teachers performance as they


evaluate their teacher were interpreted as outstanding due also to
their level of self reflection. As we can see both mark the perfect
assessment number one and seven partly explains that they perform in
accordance to the principle and explains the topic in accordance also
for students level. This implies that teacher is consistently adhere to
allow students to create their own course with objectives and
realistically defined student professor rules and make them
accountable

for

their

performance

as

basically

Copico

(2004)

supported that teachers believe to be enhancing performance in


adherence to the attainment of students level of maturity.

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Chapter V
Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations
This

chapter

presents

the

summary,

conclusions,

and

recommendations derived for the purpose of the study. The discussions


were arranged according to the problems presented. The main
problems of the study were to determine the personal and professional
qualities of the teachers and also the perceptions of the students on
the teaching performance of their teacher in terms of the given
indicators.
Summary
Specifically it sought to answer the following questions;

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1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms
of:
1.1

Age

1.2.

Sex

1.3

Field of Discipline undertaken

2. What is the level of perception of the students about the teacher in


terms of:
2.1. Personal Qualities
2.2. Professional Qualities
a. Commitment
b. Knowledge of the Subject
c. Teaching Strategies and Methodologies, and
d. Management of Learning
3. What are the levels of performance of a teacher based on the
students evaluation?

Conclusion
To conclude, to be an effective teacher is not an easy task. In
fact, it is a complex process. It is not only concerned with success in
short-term, but also with appropriate values and success of long term
achievement. Effective teachers need to have good professional and
personal skills. Content knowledge, together with good planning, clear

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goals

and

communication,

good

classroom

55
management

and

organization, and consistently high and realistic expectations with the


students are essential factors to be effective teachers. Besides, they
need to feel responsible for the students learning process, regardless
the students aptitude to learn. The teachers, as well as having
effective personal and professional skills, serve as example of lifelong
learners, and are investors of their own education.
Moreover, the effective teacher will combine professionalism with
care, understanding, fairness, and kindness. They also have to be
passionate, enthusiastic, motivated about teaching and learning. They
have to create a warm classroom environment where students feel
comfortable, and have a sense of belonging, as the environment is
conductive to learn. Effective teachers are innovative, invite students
to approach and interactions, and also values diversity. To finalize, it
can be said that those who have the capacity to inspire students to
reach their fullest potential on learning through their qualities and
professional and personal skills are effective teachers.
Recommendations
Based on the findings and conclusions made in the study, the
following recommendations are hereby presented:

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1. Professors and Teachers should maintain in fulfilling their duties and
responsibilities;
2. Institutions must provide training program for teachers designed to
integrate knowledge, social, skills, and values development so that it
creates a stress free environment.
3. Teachers of should have an active involvement in creating a healthy
psychological climate for learning, like knowing the concepts and
principles of democratic expression of ideas.
4. Teacher should always demonstrate sensitivity to the students
ability to attend and absorb content information;
5. Extend the scope of the study to provide further analysis on
teachers performance.
6. Teachers personal traits should be developed in the pre-service
training to prepare them for the challenges in the real world of work.

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