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E xce p ti o n a l

Wo rk s o n Pa p e r
f ro m t h e
Tri to n Co lle c ti o n
Fo un da ti o n
Par is 25 m ar s 201 5
Eve nin g Sale / Ve n te d u so ir

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SOMMAIRE
3

i n form at i on s ur la ve n t e

6- 7

s p ci ali st e s e t s e r vi c e s p o ur c e tt e ve n t e

114

avi s e t le xi que

115

i n fo rm at i on s i m p o rtan t e s p our le s ac h e t e ur s

117

co n d i t i on s g n rale s

118

e n t r e p o s ag e e t e n l ve m e n t de s lot s

119 s a l l es

de s ve n t e s i n t e rn at i o n ale s,
bureaux de reprsentation europens et consultants,
dpartements spcialiss et autres services christies

120

a bo n n e m e n t s aux c atalo g ue s

121

o rdre dac h at

122

a bs e n t e e bi ds form

125 i n de x

ILLUSTRATIONS
co u ve rt u re :
Lot 5

de u xi m e de co uve rt ure :
D tail du lo t 20 et du l ot 31

pag e de t i t re :
D tail du lo t 10

sommaire:
D tail du lo t 13

pag e 6 :
D tail du lo t 19

t ro i s i me de couve rt ure :
D tail du lo t 17

q uat ri m e de couve rt ure :


Lot 9

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ussi Pylkkanen (JP), Christies Global President, interviews Marijke Cordia-Van der Laan (MC) on
the origins of the Triton Collection Foundation and what inspired her as a collector.

JP : Mar ij ke, do you rem e mber the ve ry f irst wo r k t h a t yo u b o u gh t to ge t h er w it h W illem f o r t h e co llec t io n ?


MC: This is interesting because before we bought our Van Gogh and Monet paintings [in December 1995 and January 1996], we
didnt actually plan to have a collection as such. We were just buying for decoration for our home. But with the Van Gogh and
the Monet, we suddenly decided that we had to be more careful, and to make real decisions about what was going to match the
standards set by these two works. But to answer your question, actually there is only one work remaining in the collection which
we bought together in 1988, and that is the Karel Appel.
JP : T hat would be the g rea t K arel Ap pel pa intin g o f 1 9 6 1 en t it le d Flower in g Hea d s , w h ic h is c u r ren t ly o n lo a n to t h e
CO BR A m use um?
MC: Yes, it sort of belongs there, they didnt have an Appel like that and this is one of the things that we really like to do at Triton:
we want people to enjoy our works; we want people to have the opportunity to admire them.
JP : As you know, I am a grea t bel i e ver in loa ns to p u b lic in s t it u t io n s . D o yo u h a ve o t h er wo r k s o n lo a n els e w h ere?
MC: Oh yes, in fact the Van Gogh and the Degas Aprs le Bain, when they are not travelling or requested for other exhibitions,
are at the Van Gogh Museum. This is a nice combination for the Museum because they actually dont have a Degas like that, and
at the moment they cannot acquire such a work, so it is a win-win situation. Between 40 and 60 percent of the Collection can be
travelling at any one time, with works going as far afield as Seoul or Cleveland.
JP: Can I ask now about the family s outlook on collecting? The next generation is now involved, and you are moving in
new directions with purchases by ar tists such as Sean Scully and Marina Abramovich. The broader family are interested in
helping form the next steps for the collection, how did this interest come about?
MC: Well, my daughter Eliane had studied the Christies Fine Art course for a year
in London, and then my daughter-in-law Marlies did the same thing later in 2010.
Back in 2003 Eliane persuaded us to buy a Martial Raysse, which we still have. My
husband didnt really like it, but I said we had to encourage the younger generation
(and I did sort of like it, it was very pop!). So we bought it, and to Willems surprise it
appreciated rather quickly in value and he said, Wow, she has an eye for this. In the
same year we bought our first Fontana, another of Elianes suggestions and to which
Willem was again skeptical. And then when Waring Hopkins came to us in 2004 with
an Yves Klein also from the 1960s, Eliane and I were able to say to Willem this is so
beautiful you have to buy this and Willem didnt hesitate any more. On reflection,
I think that that is really one of the defining things about our collection, that we
developed a way of choosing together by consensus. Of course we all get a lot out of
working together in making decisions about the collection. And Marlies, who really
takes care of all of the loans, exhibitions, insurance, all of the organising around the
collection really has to be complemented on the job she does. It is such a lot of work!
J P : S o co u ld we s u mm a rize by s a y in g th a t a ro u n d ten yea r s a go t h e co l le c t io n
took a s l igh t ly d if fe ren t d ire c t io n ? A n d t h a t s o me o f t h e wo r k s th a t yo u a re
se lli n g n ow a re f ro m p er io d s yo u s to p p e d co ll ec t in g, a s th e n e w c h a p te r b eg an ?
MC: Yes I think that is true. I would say that the thread that unites the collection
has always been the avant garde. So now we are trying to buy the artists who in the
future will be looked on as the avant garde of today. But the more you look in to the
future the more challenging it is to find something that you hope will prove to be of
high quality, or significant rarity in order to match the demands of the collection.
Frankly, this is easier to do when you know an artist and their whole body of work:
you can immediately say that is very good or that is not so good.
J P : H a ve yo u go t a n ex a mp le, M ar i jke, o f s o me th i n g t h a t yo u th i n k is t h e
e s sen ce o f wh a t yo u a re t ry in g to d o w it h th e Trito n Co l le c t io n Fo u n d a t io n i n
ter m s o f id e nt i fy in g th e a v an t ga rd e o f th e n e xt ge n e ra t io n ?
MC: We bought a sculpture by Ai Wei Wei which is a block of tea, and which has been
on long term loan at the Rijksmuseum since 2012. We thought this was a good idea
because of the long history the Dutch have with the tea trade. So what better place,
Ma rti al Ra ysse , Un t i tled, 196 4.
T r it on Col l ec ti o n Fou nda tion, Holland .
8

in amongst the glowing Rembrandts and other 17th Century masterpieces,


for this contemporary piece?
JP : Won der fu l . C a n I now ask why the fa m ily ha s de cid ed to s e ll t h is
g rou p o f drawi n gs ?
MC: Well, of course there are several reasons. When you start collecting,
serious collecting, it is very difficult to stop! You keep on buying because
it becomes sort of instinct. Collecting is sort of like hunting, and hunting
together in partnership, as I did with Willem before and now with Eliane
and Marlies, means that together you hunt the sort of thing you are
looking for, and suddenly you say there it is you immediately recognise
it. But you have to manage your collection also and not let it grow out of
hand. Another reason for the sale is that Willem loved to be surrounded
by his art, so we had everything hanging, apart from the works that
were in exhibitions. But after the terrible robbery at the Kunsthal [ in
Rotterdam] in 2012, the situation for all of us changed. Now, a lot of works
we cant hang at home are kept in storage. And this is entirely against our
Triton concept: we want people to enjoy the works, and in storage nobody
can enjoy them.
JP : So we c an see tha t you a re sell i ng m ostly cla s sic M o d e rn wo r k s
f rom th e col l ec tion?
MC: Yes. It is important that the collection retains a coherent unity.
Without compromising the standards of the existing collection, I tried
Vi n c en t v an Go g h, St il l L if e w it h W i l d f lo w e rs an d Ca rn at io n s, 18 8 7.
to make a selection that really is a reflection of the quality and the rarity
Tr i t o n C o l l ec t i o n Fo u n d at i o n , H o l l a nd .
of the Triton Collection as a whole. But also there is absolutely not one
work in the sale selection which doesnt have a special place in my heart. I love drawings. And of course they each come with dear
memories of where we bought them. But I hope, and that is especially why we chose auction, that new admirers will become their
owners and that they will enjoy them in turn.
JP : T hat is a won der f ul thi ng to sa y tha t the y ha ve a s p ec ia l p la ce in yo ur h ea r t . W h a t d o es t h a t mea n ?
MC: It means that everything that we bought we chose out of passion. It is really that emotional moment that you must have
when you look at a piece of art. It is not just a question of appreciation, but each work should really say something to you in an
emotional way.
JP : So wi th the sup er b Pi s sar ro goua che tha t you bou gh t b a c k in 9 8 a n d w h ic h is n ow in c lu d ed in t h is s a le, w h a t w a s t h e
es sence t hat ma de you think, This is for us ?
MC: The quality. Of course we had seen lots and lots of Pissarros, because that was the way we taught ourselves, to go to a lot of
exhibitions, and to look and learn. This is the quintessence of becoming an informed buyer later on. This is one of the few pieces
that immediately when you see it, even if you are used to seeing his larger paintings, you say this is something special. If we want
to have a Pissarro, it should be this one.
JP : An d i t i s al so the qual ity of the sur fa ce , it is the ligh t , t h e d et a ils , a nd t h e c a p t u r in g o f t h e immed ia c y o f t h e mo men t .
In ter ms of th e wi der coll e ction, do you f ee l tha t e ver y o b jec t h a s t h a t s o r t o f u n iq u en es s ?
MC: Yes, absolutely. In the beginning we tried to find the perfect picture by the main artists present from 1870 until the mid-1890s.
We had a lot of contact with John Leighton, who worked at that time with the Van Gogh museum. He came often to look at the
collection. And of course in the beginning there were lots and lots of gaps. But he always said watch out for gap-filling. Never fill a
gap just because you find a painting to do that. Wait for the masterpiece, the work that captures your imagination.
JP : T hat is ce r tainl y ve ry sound adv ice . A nd per ha ps s o m et h in g t h a t w ill in s p ire b u yer s in t h e s a le o f yo u r wo r k s to go o n
to b u il d a col l ecti on of their ow n in the sa me w a y tha t Tr ito n h a s grow n s o s u cces s f u lly ?
MC: Yes ! Perh ap s w hen the y rea lise sud d en ly th at th e y h ave t wo fa nt a s t i c p i eces , a s we d i d wi t h o u r Va n G o g h a n d o u r M o n et ,
th e y wi l l sa y He y, thos e two p ieces tell me s omethin g, m ay b e I h ave to co l l ec t . . .
Po ur l a vers i o n fran a i s e,
vo i r p. 1 04 -1 1 1

1
Robert Delaunay (1885-1941)
La tour et la roue
sign des initiales et dat r.d.1910.
(en bas droite)
encre de Chine sur papier
50 x 32.4 cm.
Excut en 1910-12

provenance
Herwarth Walden, Berlin.
Nell Walden, Bad Schinznach (par succession);
vente, Stuttgarter Kunstkabinett, Stuttgart,
25 novembre 1954, lot 1015.
Galerie Hopkins-Custot, Paris.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celle-ci, en 1999).

expositions
signed with the initials and dated
r.d.1910. (lower right)
India ink on paper
19 x 12 in.
Executed in 1910-12
40,000-60,000
US$47,300-70,900
31,400-47,100

Probablement Berlin, Galerie Der Sturm,


Robert Delaunay, texte et pome de G. Apollinaire, mars 1912, no. 19 ou 20.
Berne, Kunstmuseum, Der Sturm, Sammlung
Nell Walden aus den Jahren 1912-1920, octobre
1944-mars 1945, no. 279.
Zurich, Kunsthaus, Sammlung Nell Walden und
Dr Othmar Huber. Expressionisten, Kubisten,
Futuristen, mai-juin 1945, no. 35.
Ble, Kunsthalle, Francis Picabia: Sammlung
Nell Walden, janvier-fvrier 1946, no. 235.
Stockholm, Des Riksforbundet for bildande
Konst, Wanderausstellung 132: Der Sturm,
Samling Nell Walden, Expressionister, Futurister, Kubister, 1954, no. 22.
Zurich, Galerie Suzanne Bollag, Zeichnungen
von 1910 bis heute, mai-juin 1976.
New York, Helen Serger, La Boetie, Herwarth
Walden and Der Sturm, Artists and Publications, fvrier-mai 1981 (illustr).
Rotterdam, Boijmans Van Beuningen Museum,
From Monet to Picasso, Masterpieces on Paper
1860-1960 from the Triton Foundation Collection,
novembre 2002-fvrier 2003 (sans catalogue).
La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, Cubist Art from
the Triton Foundation, mars-juillet 2006, p. 12
(illustr en couleurs).
Rotterdam, Netherlands Architectuurinstituut; Rhein, Vitra Design Museum; Londres,
Barbican Art Gallery et Berlin, Martin-GropiusBau, Le Corbusier. The Art of Architecture,
mai 2007-janvier 2009.

10

Vienne, Belvedere, Dynamik! Kubismus,


Futurismus, Kinetismus, fvrier-juin 2011,
p. 109 (illustr).
La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, Parijs, Stad van de
modern kunst 1900-1960, octobre 2011-janvier
2012, p. 44 (illustr en couleurs, p. 45).
Rotterdam, Kunsthal, Avant-Gardes, De collectie
van de Triton Foundation, octobre 2012-janvier 2013.
La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, Mondriaan en het
kubisme, Parijs 1912-1914, janvier-mai 2014, p. 23
(illustr en couleurs).

bibliographie
Der Sturm, aot 1913, p. 81, no. 173/174 (illustr).
H. Walden, Expressionismus - die Kunstwende,
Berlin, 1918, p. 59 (illustr).
N. Roslund Walden et L. Schreyer, Der Sturm,
Ein Gedenkbuch an Herwarth Walden und die
Knstler des Sturmkreises, Baden-Baden, 1954,
p. 29 (illustr).
P. Francastel et G. Habasque, Robert Delaunay,
du cubisme lart abstrait, Paris, 1957, p. 332,
no. 513.
L.G. Bucheim, Der Blaue Reiter un die Neue
Knstlervereinigung Mnchen, Feldafing,
1959, p. 58 (illustr).
Visions of Paris: Robert Delaunays Series,
catalogue dexposition, Berlin, Deutsche Guggenheim et New York, Solomon R. Guggenheim
Museum, 1997, no. 37 (illustr en couleurs).
Robert Delaunay, de limpressionnisme
labstraction 1906-1914, catalogue dexposition, Paris, Centre Georges Pompidou, 1999,
p. 135 (illustr).
R. Riss, Robert Delaunay, la Tour, catalogue
dexposition, Madrid, Ambassade de France,
2008, p. 3, no. 8 (illustr).
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the Present, the Collection of the Triton Foundation,
Bruxelles, 2012, p. 543 (illustr en couleurs, p. 240).
Ri ch a r d Ris s a c o nf ir m la ut h ent ic it
d e c et te u vr e.

ow e rs - 1 91 0 CA TA ST ROPHIC
AR T Dr amatic s, c atacly sm,
D el au n ay wr ote in Con str uct io ni s m an d Ne o cl as si c i sm , 19 24 , a n over view
o f h is wo rk th us f ar , i n w hic h he r ecou nted
hi s P ass age f ro m O l d Me th ods to Ne w.
T h i s is t he syn th esi s of the e ntire p er iod
o f d e st ruc t i on: a pr oph etic vis ion, h e
d ec l a r ed . Vi si o ns of c ata strop hic in s ight,
p re ju di ce s, ne u ra st he ni a s, ne ur osis , s weep
t h e o l d a wa y; c osm i c sh akings , d esir e for the
g re a t c le anu p, f or b ur y i ng th e old , the p as t
L ig h t d ef orms ev er y th i ng, br eaks ever ything;
no m o re g e omet ry, Eu rop e c ru mble s. Br eath
o f m a d ne ss ( fu tu ri sm be for e the the or y):
d is l o ca ti on o f th e su cc ess ive ob ject. Plane t a ry wa ve s ( i n A. A. Cohe n, ed., T he New
A rt of C o lo r: Th e W ri t i n gs of Robert and
S o nia Del au na y, New Yor k, 1 97 8, p . 1 3 ).
De l a u na y wa s h ear d to ha ve c ommented ,
T h e E i ff el T ow er - ba rome te r of my ar t
( qu o t ed i n G . Vr i es en and M . I mdh al, R ober t
D el aun a y: Li g h t a n d C ol or, Ne w York, 1 967,
p . 2 8) . S uc h wa s th e a l l -c ons umin g imp ort a nc e of th i s su bj ec t be tw een 19 10 a nd 1 91 2,
wh i ch gal v ani z ed a nd l a un ch ed a vis ionar y
st re ak i n t hi s y ou n g ma ns ima gina tio n - he
wa s on ly tw ent y -f i v e a t th e time - thr ough
wh i ch he ex pe ri e n ce d hi s b re akth rou gh
a dv en t ure o f su rgi n g c re ative fervor . The

2 01 4 . P h o t o Sc a la

2 01 4 . P h o t o Sc a la
F i g . 1 R ober t De la un ay , La T our r ouge, 1 91 1 - 1 2.
So l o m on R. G ugg e nh ei m M us eum, New Yor k.

Fig. 2 Robert Delaunay, Une fentre, tude pour les trois fentres, 1912-13.
M us e n a ti o na l d a rt m o d ern e, C en t re Ge o rg es P o m p i d o u, P a ri s .

Towe rs r emained t h e p ri m a ry c a t a ly s t in
his s ub se qu ent wo rk un t i l t he b eg i n ni ng o f
the Fir st Wo rld W a r i n 1 9 14 . H e re vi v ed t he
theme a de cad e l a te r, c as t i n a m o re co h eren tly in ta ct a rc h i t ect u ra l m an n er i n k eep i n g
with th e clas si ci zi n g ret ur n t o o rd er o f
the 19 20s.
As noted in the 1998 Guggenheim Museum
exhibition catalogue (op. cit., pp. 32 and 35),
it was Delaunays practice to date all works
pertaining to a theme with the year of the
series inception - 1910 for the Towers - and
so it appears inscribed on the sheet of the
present work. Alexandra Rudenstine has
determined that several similar studies to
the present drawing were executed in 1913
(ibid., p. 34; illustrated, nos. 34-37), following
the completion of the canvas La Tour rouge
(fig. 1), the culmination of Delaunays pre-war
series of Towers, in 1911-12. These drawings in
fact incorporate the dynamic shapes of things
to come, marking a further quantum leap in
his evolution, as Delaunay increasingly dedicated his efforts to his next series, the nearly
abstract Fentres of 1912-14 (fig. 2).
Seur at p ain te d t h e Ei ffel To we r i n 1 89 9
(Ha uke, no. 1 96 ), w hen i t was n ewl y c o mp leted to s erve as th e en t ra n c e a rc h t o t h e
Exp os ition Un i ve rse ll e t h a t o p en ed th at y ea r
in Pa ris . Wh ile it wa s th en t h e ta l l es t m an -

12

m a de s t ru c t ure i n th e w o rl d , th e v ery b ea co n
o f m o d er ni t y , i t was n o t u n ti l D el au n ay f i r s t
p ai n t ed it i n 19 0 9 t h a t t he T o wer at t r ac t e d
t h e a t t en ti o n o f t h e ear l y 2 0t h c en t u ry m o dern i s t a va n t -g a rd e. D u ri n g t h e ye ars 1 91 0
a nd 1 91 1 , t he p o et B la i s e C en dr ar s w ro t e i n
1 92 4 , R o b ert Del a u n ay a n d I w er e po s s i b ly
t h e o n l y p eo p l e i n P a ri s t o s p eak o f m a ch in e s
a nd ar t a n d t o h av e th e v ag ues t a war ene s s s
o f t h e g rea t t ra n s fo rm a t i o n o f t h e m o d er n
wo r ld (i n T he E i ffe l T o wer, A . A. C o he n ,
ed . , o p . c i t ., p . 17 1 ).
W h i le r eco veri n g fro m a br o ke n l eg i n a
ro o m a t t h e H t el d e P a ri s , C e nd ra rs ha d a
c l ear v i ew o f t he E i ffe l T o wer. D el au n ay
c am e a l m o s t ev ery d a y to k eep m e c o m p an y ,
C en d ra rs l a t er rec a l l ed . H e wa s a lw a ys
h au n t ed b y t he T o wer. .. As s o o n a s I was ab l e
t o g o o ut , I a c c o m p a ni e d D el a un a y to s ee
t h e T o wer .. . D el au n a y wan t ed no t h i ng l es s
t h an to s h o w P ar is al l a ro u n d h er wi t h t he
To wer s i tu a te d i n h er m id s t . W e tr i ed ev e r y
va n t ag e p o i n t , fr o m e very a n g l e, fr o m al l
s i d es. . . D el au n ay w a nt ed t o i n te rpr et it p last i c al l y. H e d is a rt i c ul at ed th e To w er in o r de r
t o g et i n s i d e i ts s t ru ct u re . H e t run c a te d i t
a nd he t i l t ed i t i n o rd er t o di s c l o s e a l l o f i ts
t h ree hu n d red d iz z y i n g m e te rs o f h ei g ht . H e
a do pt ed t en p o i n t s o f vi ew, f i ft een p e rs p ect i ves - o n e p a rt s een f ro m ab o v e, a n o t h er

T o us d ro i t s r s ervs
Fi g. 3 Robe rt D elau n ay , Soleil, tour , ar oplan e, 1 9 1 3.
T he Al br i gh t- Kn o x Ar t Galler y, B uffa lo, New Yor k.

fr om bel ow . .. from the heigh t of a b ird in


fl i gh t, fro m t he depth s of th e e ar th its elf
( i bi d., p p. 1 74 - 1 75 ).
The Tower series was the outcome of
Delaunays transformative journey through
Cubism, during which he pushed beyond the
boundaries of this movement - its practitioners essential preoccupation with the
perception and analysis of static objects in
space - towards a new frontier, a dynamic
simultaneity of contrasts in colour forms, the
virgin territory of what the poet/critic Apollinaire called pure painting. The pen and
ink Eiffel Towers, Vriesen and Imdahl have
stated, must be considered Delaunays most
important known drawings. These studies,
they explain, show how Delaunay attacked
the problem of dovetailing the object disintegrating in light - The Eiffel Tower, a giant Ferris wheel - with the emerging new light order.
In their spontaneous, excited line vibrates
something of the elemental power of the action which fragmentizes the visible and lends
concrete shape to the invisible (G. Vriesen
and M. Imdhal, op. cit., p. 30).
D el au n ay pr oj ec ts in the p res en t dr awin g
th e c on tr ast an d cla sh of var ious gra p hic
si gn s - some re pres e ntin g fra gmenta ry a nd
di sj oi n te d as pe cts of th e Tow er an d F err is
w he e l - as t hey g en era te kin etic rh yth ms in

Th e p res en t l o t .

their int er ac t i o n w i th p o werfu l fo rc e fi el d s


of e nerg y an d l ig ht . T o t h e tw i n m o t i f s o f
Towe r an d wh eel , D el au n ay su b s eq ue nt l y
ad de d t he s h ap e o f a n ea rl y bi p l a ne, a nd
- mo st a st o ni s h i ng ly - a c o n ce nt ri c eff us i o n
of ka le id o s c o p i c a n d p ri s m at i c a ll y co l o ure d
c ur vin g an d sem i - s ph eri c a l fo r m s , th e a rtis ts c hr o m at i c p i ct o ri al a na l o g i es fo r t he
man ife s t ra d i an c e o f p u re l i g ht , su g g es t i ve
of th e f l as h i n g af te ri m ag es t ha t bri ef l y l i n ge r
in th e e ye a ft er g l an c i n g a t th e su n . F ro m
thes e el em ent s De la u na y c rea t ed t h e p ai nting Sole i l , t o ur, a ro p l a n e, 19 1 3 (fig. 3) - f o r
wh ich t h e p r ese nt d ra wi ng a n d i t s r el at io n s ,
as r evel a to r y an d p res ci en t st u d i es , l ai d t h e
gr oun d wo rk .
The ulti m a t e o ut c o m e wa s a c o m po s i t i o n al
s yn tax i n p a i nt i n g c o m p le te ly ba s ed o n c o ntra sts o f c o l o u r, a s D e la u na y w ro t e, co l o r
for the s ak e o f c o l o r ( A. A . C o he n, ed . , o p .
c it., p . 13 ). D el a un ay s o n g o i ng s eri e s a t t hi s
junc tur e wa s t h e Fe n t re s, p a in t i n g s wh o s e
tre mb li ng v ei l s o f c o l o u r wer e t he fi na l s c ri m
that se pa ra t ed t he r ea l i t i es o f Cu b i s m f ro m
the inn er s an c t um o f p ur e pa i n ti ng . I n 1 9 13
De la un ay c r eat ed Le pr e m i e r d is q u e a n d t h e
for mes c i rc u la i re s o f h i s So l e i l s e ri es - r ad ic al, r evo lu t i o n ar y wo rk s i n wh i c h, as th e a rtis t dec l a red , P ai nt i n g bec o m es p ai nt i ng
(ibid., p. 36 ).

13

In t h e d o m ai n o f t h e p l a st i c , De lau n ay
s t at ed , I h av e at t em p t ed an ar ch i tec tu r e i n
c o l o u r, i n t h e h o p e o f r ea l i z i n g t h e e nt h us i as m s , t h e s ta t es o f d y na m i c p o e tr y , w h il e
rem a i n i ng u n iq u el y wi th i n t h e p las t ic m ean s
t h em se lv es , s t ri p p ed o f al l l i te ra tu r e, al l
t h e a n ec do t al , t h e de sc ri p t i ve , et c. T hi s effo r t d ep en d s t o t a l l y u po n t ec hn i qu e . . . O n e
m u st b eg i n wi t h t h e s i m p l e, w it h t h e li v i n g
fo r m , wi t h t h e g erm o f t h e m o m en t (ib i d .,
p . 37 ). It w as i n t hi s m a nn er t h at D e la un ay
ex p eri en c ed hi s ep i p ha n y o f p u re p ai nt in g ,
t h e m o s t p o t ent l y m o d ern fo rm o f pa in ti n g
i n t h e ne w ce nt u ry , b y wh i c h h e h el p ed t o
i n au g u ra te t h e br av e ne w wo rl d o f ab s t rac t,
n o n- o b j ec ti v e art .
Po ur l a vers i on f ran a is e,
vo ir p. 1 04 -11 1

3
Pablo Picasso (1881-1973)
Brioche et verre
sign Picasso (en bas droite);
sign de nouveau Picasso (au revers)
fusain et encre de Chine sur papier verg
23.7 x 31.5 cm.
Excut en hiver 1909
signed Picasso (lower right);
signed again Picasso (on the reverse)
charcoal and India ink on laid paper
9 x 12 in.
Executed in the winter of 1909

2
Julio Gonzlez (1876-1942)
Visage cubiste
sign des initiales et dat j.G. 1936
(en bas gauche)
pastel gras, encre de Chine et graphite
sur papier dcoup
21 x 7.8 cm.
Excut en 1936
signed with the initals and dated j.G. 1936
(lower left)
wax pastel, India ink and pencil on paper
cut to shape
8 x 3 in.
Executed in 1936

12,000-18,000
US$14,200-21,300
9,400-14,100
provenance
Gildas Fardel, Paris; vente, M es Le Roux et
Morel, Paris, 1er dcembre 1999, lot 92.
Galerie Fabien Boulakia, Paris.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celle-ci, en 2001).

bibliographie
J. Gibert, Julio Gonzlez, Dessins, Projets pour
sculptures, figures, Paris, 1975, p. 71 (illustr).
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the Present, the Collection of the Triton Foundation,
Bruxelles, 2012, p. 548 (illustr en couleurs, p. 233).

14

80,000-120,000
US$94,500-141,800
62,800-95,200
provenance
Roger Dutilleul, Paris.
Galerie Cazeau-Braudire, Paris.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celle-ci, en 2000).

expositions
Rotterdam, Boijmans Van Beuningen Museum,
From Monet to Picasso, Masterpieces on
Paper 1860-1960 from the Triton Foundation
Collection, novembre 2002-fvrier 2003 (sans
catalogue).
La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, Cubist Art from
the Triton Foundation, mars-juillet 2006, p. 25
(illustr en couleurs).
Seoul, Museum of Art, Picasso, the Great
Century, mai-septembre 2006, p. 46 (illustr;
dat 1909-10).
La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, Pablo Picasso - Ik
zoek niet, ik vind, fvrier-mai 2011, p. 22 (illustr en couleurs).
La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, Mondriaan en het
kubisme, Parijs 1912-1914, janvier-mai 2014,
p. 33 (illustr en couleurs).

bibliographie
c. Zervos, Pablo Picasso, Paris, 1986, vol. II*,
no. 179 (illustr, pl. 90; dcrit comme Dessin
au crayon).
J. Palau i Fabre, Picasso, Cubisme (1907-1917),
Barcelone, 1998, p. 502, no. 477 (illustr, p. 169).
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the Present, the Collection of the Triton Foundation,
Bruxelles, 2012, p. 557 (illustr en couleurs, p. 228).

n October 1909, within a few weeks of


returning to Paris from an exceptionally productive summer sojourn at
Horta del Ebro, Pablo Picasso moved out of
his studio in the bohemian Bateau Lavoir in
Montmartre and settled with his companion Fernande Olivier in more spacious and
upscale rooms at 11, boulevard de Clichy,
near the place Pigalle. The apartment soon
filled up with furnishings and bric-a-brac
that Picasso bought during his walks in the
neighborhood, and many of these new objects found their way into his increasingly
radical cubist investigations. Picasso
integrated the new Parisian environment
into his painting, Pierre Daix has written. He used tokens of a new domestic
reality - a fan, glasses, a melon - to create
a vocabulary of geometric quantities and
curved discontinuities (Picasso, Life and
Art, New York, 1993, p. 98).

In the present drawing, Picasso has paired


a scalloped brioche on an oblong plate
and a stemmed drinking glass, focusing
on the interplay between straight lines
versus curves and solid versus transparent
forms. The faceted, diagonal lattice that
had dominated Picassos Cubism at Horta
has given way to a rectilinear scaffolding
of overlapping planes, paving the way for
his revolutionary shattering of the closed
form at Cadaqus in the summer of 1910. A
gradual but inexorable shedding of the illusion of three-dimensionality, solidity, and
fixed identity occurred, Elizabeth Cowling
has written, as Picasso pressed on with his
investigation of the limits and potential of
the analytical style (Picasso: Style and
Meaning, London, 2002, p. 213).
Brioche et verre previously belonged to
the renowned collector Roger Dutilleul,
a leading patron of avant-garde art in

15

Paris from 1907 onward and one of only


a few visionary connoisseurs (along with
the Steins and Wilhelm Uhde) to endorse
Cubism during its earliest days. By 1914,
Dutilleul had amassed at least twenty-five
paintings and drawings by Picasso and
almost as many by Braque - a veritable
cubist microcosm, which crammed the
walls of his apartment from floor to
ceiling and bewildered his bourgeois
entourage. A gallery, the artists, and
the owner could survive with very few
collectors, three or four, but only if
they were loyal friends, the Cubists
dealer Kahnweiler later recalled. Roger
Dutilleul was, from the very beginning,
one of these impassioned amateurs (Du
temps que les cubistes taient jeunes in
Lil, January 1955, p. 29)
Po ur l a ve rs i o n f ra n ai se ,
vo ir p. 1 04 -11 1

4
Juan Gris (1887-1927)
Nature morte
sign et dat Juan Gris 1916 (en bas
gauche)
graphite sur papier verg
39 x 28.2 cm.
Excut en 1916
signed and dated Juan Gris 1916
(lower left)
pencil on laid paper
15 x 11 in.
Executed in 1916
100,000-150,000
US$118,150-177,200
78,500-117,800

provenance
Collection particulire, Italie (acquis dans les
annes 1930); vente, Christies, Londres,
5 fvrier 2004, lot 354.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis au cours de cette vente).

expositions
La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, Cubist Art from
the Triton Foundation, mars-juillet 2006, p. 17
(illustr en couleurs).
Rotterdam, Netherlands Architectuurinstituut; Rhein, Vitra Design Museum; Londres,
Barbican Art Gallery et Berlin, Martin- GropiusBau, Le Corbusier, The Art of Architecture, mai
2007-octobre 2009.

n 1916, in the midst of the Great War, Juan


Gris renewed his investigation into the art of
Paul Czanne, the great ancestor-figure in
the development of Cubism from its earliest origins. The pre-war Cubists, including Gris, had not
aspired to Czannes aesthetic per se but rather
had enlarged upon it, reworking and extending
what they saw as the central ideas and impulses
in the Provenal painters vision. Now, however,
Gris took an altogether different tack, producing
a series of pencil studies that are based closely
on major figure paintings by Czanne, reinterpreted according to Cubist geometry but nonetheless left intact and identifiable. Like Picassos
contemporaneous drawings in Ingresque mode,
Griss literal homages to Czanne, which would
have been heresy for a pre-war Cubist, participate in the spirit of nationalistic neo-traditionalism that pervaded wartime French culture.
Gris, in effect, transformed Czanne from a
radical role model into a new old master, a maker
of iconic monuments of modernist art history,
Kenneth Silver has explained (Cubism: The Leonard A. Lauder Collection, exhibition catalogue,
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York,
2014, pp. 196-199).
The present Nature morte, finely rendered in
hard pencil and dated to the same moment as
the copies after Czanne, is a less overt but
arguably more profound manifestation of
Griss mounting engagement with Czannes
legacy during the war years. In the foreground
is a cup or tankard bearing an embossed floral
motif, which Gris depicts with a powerfully

16

La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, Parijs, Stad


van de modern kunst 1900-1960, octobre
2011- janvier 2012, p. 72 (illustr en couleurs, p. 73).
Rotterdam, Kunsthal, Avant-Gardes, De collectie
van de Triton Foundation, octobre 2012-janvier 2013.

bibliographie
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the Present,
the Collection of the Triton Foundation, Bruxelles,
2012, p. 280 et 548 (illustr en couleurs, p. 281).
Qu en t in L a ur en s , d t ent eur d u d r o it mo r a l
d e J ua n G r is , a co n f ir m q u e c et t e u vr e
t a it r p er t o r i e d a n s les a rc h iv es d e
la t el ier .

volumetric, stony solidity. The bottle and


drinking glass behind the cup, by contrast, are
reduced to a series of highly purified curves and
planes, which for Gris represented a response
to the permanence and stability of Czannes
geometric forms. Czanne turns a bottle
into a cylinder, he wrote in 1921 in the journal
LEsprit nouveau, but I begin with a cylinder
and create an individual [object] of a specific
type: I make a bottle - a particular bottle - out of
a cylinder (quoted in ibid., p. 201).
Gris takes particular delight in this sheet in the
exquisitely delicate cross-hatching of the different planes to produce varying tones of gray,
with hints of silvery chiaroscuro at the edges.
Yet the layering of these planes, with their linked
and rhyming shapes, results in an illusion not
of depth but of transparency, integrating foreground and background in a method reminiscent
of Czannes influential passage technique.
Balancing the abstract and the representational was of the utmost importance to Gris;
the difficulty - and the cultural implications - of
doing so became obvious during the Great War,
Silver has concluded. Czanne, an artist whose
sensibility was so firmly rooted in the givens of
perception and yet who freely allowed his own
abstracting tendencies to shape his aesthetic
project, functioned at this moment as a fulcrum
for Gris (ibid., pp. 199-201).

Po ur l a vers i o n fran ai s e ,
vo i r p. 1 04 -11 1

5
Fernand Lger (1881-1955)
Danseuse au tambourin
sign des initiales F.L. (en bas droite)
gouache, encre de Chine et traces
de graphite sur papier
70.1 x 54.5 cm.
Excut en 1954

provenance

bibliographie

Nadia Lger, Biot (par succession de lartiste).


Galerie Louise Leiris, Paris (acquis auprs de
celle-ci).
Collection particulire, Paris (en 1993).
Galerie Hopkins-Custot, Paris.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celle-ci, en 2000).

S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the Present, the Collection of the Triton Foundation,
Bruxelles, 2012, p. 551 (illustr en couleurs, p. 423).

expositions
signed with the initials F.L. (lower right)
gouache, India ink and traces of pencil
on paper
27 x 21 in.
Executed in 1954

Rotterdam, Boijmans Van Beuningen Museum,


From Monet to Picasso, Masterpieces on Paper
1860-1960 from the Triton Foundation Collection,
novembre 2002-fvrier 2003 (sans catalogue).
Rotterdam, Kunsthal, Avant-Gardes, De collectie
van de Triton Foundation, octobre 2012-janvier 2013.

250,000-350,000
US$295,500-413,500
196,300-274,700

18

/ J acq u es F auj ou

A d ag p , P ari s 2 01 5/ Phot o: Ce ntr e Pompid ou, MNA M-CCI, Di st . RMN- Gra nd Pa l a i s

F i g . 1 F ern and Lge r, L e c irque Medr ano, 1 91 8.


M u s e n a ti o na l d art mod ern e, Pa ris .

ernand Lger painted Danseuse au


tambourin as he was working on the
tat dfinitif of his final mural La
grande parade, the crowning masterwork
of his career, which he completed in 1954
(Bauquier, no. 1592, fig. 2). Standing in front
of the movable circus organ and flourishing
a tambourine over her head, this modishly
shorthaired young woman is present in both
the 1er tat of La grande parade, 1952 (Bauquier, Hansma and Lefebvre du Pr, no. 1517),
and the ultimate version complted more than
a year later, as well as in many studies done in
the interim, in which she appears full length
and clad in a ribbon tutu, arm-in-arm with a
second dancer; both girls strut their stuff to
the tune of a clown strumming a banjo.
La grande parade is the culmination of a long
line of circus scenes that Lger executed over a
period of nearly four decades; indeed, le cirque
is one of great themes that threads through the
artists uvre from start to finish. He fondly
remembered, as a boy growing up in provincial Argentan, his excitement when traveling
circus troupes came to town. After moving to
Paris, Lger frequented the legendary Cirque
Mdrano in Montmartre, which had featured
in paintings by Degas, Renoir, Seurat, Lautrec,
Picasso, van Dongen, and Chagall.

In a s equ enc e o f p a i n ti n g s do n e i n 1 9 1 8 ( Bauq uier , n os . 1 0 8-1 1 4 , fi g. 1 ), L ge r f i rs t t r ea t ed


s ubjec ts from t he C i rq u e M dra n o , a m o s t
s uitable way to c el eb rat e t h e en d o f t he Fi rs t
Wor ld War a nd a ret ur n t o l ei s ur el y p ea cetime p ur su its. H e c o ns i d ered t he c i rc us t o
b e the ep itome o f c o nt em p o r ary sp ec t ac le
an d pub lic enter ta i n m en t , av a il ab l e to
p eop le fro m a l l wa l ks o f l i fe . T h e B i g To p
of th e Ne w Circ us i s a n a b so l ut el y m a rv el o us
wo rld , he wro t e i n 19 2 4. W hen I a m l o s t i n
this as tonis hing m et al li c p l a net wi t h i ts d az zling sp otligh ts a nd t he t i n y a cr o ba t wh o ri s ks
his life e very n i g h t , I a m d i s tr ac t ed .. . Th ere
ar e more p las t i c p a ss a ge s in t en m in u te s
of a n a cr ob atic s p ec t ac l e t h an t he re ar e i n
man y sc en es of ba l l et (q u o t ed in E .F . Fry ,
ed ., F er na nd L ge r: Fu n c t i o ns o f P a i n ti ng,
New Yor k, 19 73 , p p . 39 -4 0 ).
The c ir c us wa s i n Lg er s v i ew a g e nu i n e
ar t of the p eop l e, a fab l ed wa y o f l i f e wi t h
es tim able trad it i o n s o f i t s o wn . H e c l o s el y
id entifie d with c i rc us p erfo r m ers ; e ac h
wa s an artis t sk i l l ed i n hi s o r h er ac t , o f t en
d efyin g d ang er , j u s t as t he m o d ern a rt i s t , i n
his a va nt-g ard e c a l l i ng , ri s ke d t h e p eri l o f
failur e. L ge r m ad e a m us c u l ar m al e ac ro b a t
an d his b evy of fem a le p a rt ner s t h e su bjec t of Compos it io n a ux d e u x p e rro q u et s,

20

1 93 5-3 9, hi s l an d m ar k m u ra l o f t h e i nt er -w ar
p eri o d (Ba u q ui er, no . 88 1; Mu s e n at i o na l
d a rt m o d ern e, Pa ri s ). In t h i s p i c t ure Lg er
c rea t ed t h e p ar ad i g m fo r t h e s yn t h es i s o f
p i c to ri al i d ea s t h at wo u l d do m i n at e h i s
a rt f o r t h e r em ai n d er o f h i s c a reer. S t ro n g
vi s u al c o n tr as t s , i n hi s i m a ge ry, fo rm s a nd
c o l o u r, wo u l d hen c efo rt h i n te ra ct o n a h ug e
s c al e, fi n di n g ul t i m a t e fru i t i o n i n L a gra nd e
p a ra de.
During his war-time exile in New York, Lger
became a fan of the dazzling three-ring
Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus,
which today still advertises itself as the
greatest show on earth. He painted several
circus pictures before departing America
(Bauquier, nos. 1205-1207) which presage the
Grande parade compositions of the 1950s.
Having returned to France at the end of 1945,
Lger felt the subject of the circus to be an
ever more compelling calling; the French
cirque represented a grand, popular national
tradition in which he and his countrymen
took great pride. The circus was an apt symbol of French esprit and joie de vivre, calling
attention to the nations desire to excel in the
face of daunting post-war challenges, and to
take pride in its skills. He believed that the
popular arts of entertainment incorporated

A d ag p , P ari s 2 01 5/ The S ol omon R. Gug genh ei m Founda t i on/ A rt Resourc e, NY,

D is t r. R M N -G ra nd Pa l ais

Th e p res en t l o t .

F i g . 2 F ern and Lger , L a gra nde pa rade, tat df initif, 1 95 4.


T h e S ol omo n R. Gu ggen heim Mu seu m, New Yor k.

within the spectacle of the circus provided


a gateway to the wider enjoyment of the
serious, classical arts as well.
In 1950 Lge r de liver e d Cir qu e, h is maste r g raph i c wor k, a ma gnifice nt folio of 34
co lo ur a nd 2 9 bl ac k- an d -wh ite lith ogra p hs ,
to T ri ade f or p ub lication ( Sa phir e , n os . 44 10 6) . F rom t hi s c ompen d ium of th e ar tis ts
ci rcu s su bj ec ts, pa st a nd p res en t, s ome of
th e i ma ge s wou ld in s pir e oil p a intin gs to
co me. T h e f i gur es of th e two dan c ers a nd
cl ow n f ea tu re on p ages 84 -85 ( Sa phir e, no.
9 0) . In hi s p re fa ce to th e c ollection , Lger
e xh or te d hi s re ad ers , Go to the c irc us .
Lea ve yo ur re cta ngles , y our ge ometr ic
w i nd ow s, to t h e c oun try of c irc les in a c tion.
It i s so h u man t o brea k thr ough res tra ints ,
to spre ad o u t, t o grow towa rd freed om. .. T o
e scap e f rom th e gr ound , to leav e it, to touc h
th e t i p as l i t tle as p oss ib le, the far th es t tip
( qu ot ed i n i b i d ., p p. 173 - 174 ).
B oth t he fi rst an d definitive sta te s of La
gr an d e p ar ad e are ba se d on the d ra wn
co nt ou rs o f t he figu res , p rop s an d sta ge
se tt i ng. In t h e e a rlier v ers ion of th e comp osi t io n co lo u rs f i l l in the forms , wh ile in the
fi n a l st at e t he artis t la id d own his c olour s in
bol d ly rh y th mi c swa thes tha t giv e th e illusi on of ly i ng bo th on top of a nd b ene ath th e

b la ck co n t o u rs . Th i s la t te r a p pr o ac h , Lg er
jud ged, wa s b es t s u i t ed t o t h e m o n um en ta l
d imensi o n s (30 0 x 4 00 c m .) o f t h e fi na l
mur al. H i s a p p ro a ch t o p a i n ti ng t he p re s en t
Da nse us e a u t a m bo u r in co n fo r m s t o th at
in th e l at er v ers i o n , wh i c h wa s un d erw ay
wh en he p ai n t ed th i s st u d y. Th e c o nt r as t o f
c ur vin g li n es ag a i n st a s t ru c tu re c o m p o s ed
of r ight an g l es i s b o l d l y g ra p h ic , a s ig na tu r e
as pe ct o f Lg e r s wo rk si nc e t he C o nt r as te s
de f or me s p ai n t i ng s o f 1 9 13- 1 4. H e wa s
p ond er i ng a n ew e p o ch i n p ai nt i n g : Lar g e
volumes o f c o l o u r c o v er a l a rg e s u rfa c e. W e
ad vanc e t o wa rd th e fu t ure , an d i t i s a c o l l ective fut u re, Lg e r de cl a red . W e a re o n t he
b rink o f a r ena i s s an c e o f m u ra l a rt . M o numen ta l a rt m u s t a n d c an am p l i fy t hi s n ew
c onc ept i o n ( q uo t e d i n W . Sc h m al en b ac h,
L ger, N ew Y o rk , 1 9 7 6, p. 16 6 ).
Po ur l a ve rs i o n fra n ai s e,
vo i r p. 1 04 -1 1 1

21

6
Frantiek Kupka (1871-1957)
Etude pour ou daprs Amorpha
sign Kupka (en bas gauche)
gouache et graphite sur papier
27.9 x 32.3 cm.
Excut en 1912
signed Kupka (lower left)
gouache and pencil on paper
11 x 12 in.
Executed in 1912
30,000-50,000
US$35,500-59,100
23,550-39,250

provenance
Galerie Cazeau-Braudire, Paris.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celle-ci, en 2000).

expositions
Rotterdam, Boijmans Van Beuningen Museum,
From Monet to Picasso, Masterpieces on Paper
1860-1960 from the Triton Foundation Collection,
novembre 2002-fvrier 2003 (sans catalogue).
La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, Cubist Art from
the Triton Foundation, mars-juillet 2006, p. 18
(illustr en couleurs).
Rotterdam, Kunsthal, Avant-gardes, De collectie van de Triton Foundation, octobre
2012-janvier 2013, p. 22 (un dtail illustr en couleurs).

22

La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, Mondriaan en het


kubisme, Parijs 1912-1914, janvier-mai 2014,
p. 31 (illustr en couleurs).

bibliographie
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the Present, the Collection of the Triton Foundation,
Bruxelles, 2012, p. 551 (illustr en couleurs, p. 239).
Pie rr e B r u l a co n f ir m la ut h ent ic it
d e c et te u vr e.
La n o t i ce d e ce l o t
es t d i s p o n ib l e s ur c hr i st i e s. co m
T he n o te f o r t hi s l o t
ma y b e v ie wed a t c hr i s ti es . co m

7
Alexander Calder (1898-1976)
Je suis surraliste jusqu Woodbury
sign Calder (en bas droite)
et titr Je suis surrealiste jusqua
Woodbury (en bas au centre)
encre de Chine sur papier
57 x 78.5 cm.
Execut en 1944
signed Calder (lower right)
and titled Je suis surrealiste jusqua
Woodbury (lower centre)
India ink on paper
22 x 31 in.
Executed in 1944

provenance:

bibliographie:

Klaus Perls, New York (don de lartiste).


Collection particulire, Connecticut.
Galerie Hopkins-Custot, Paris.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celle-ci, en 2001).

S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the Present, the Collection of the Triton Foundation,
Bruxelles, 2012, p. 541 (illustr en couleurs, p. 329).

expositions:
Rotterdam, Boijmans Van Beuningen Museum,
From Monet to Picasso, Masterpieces on
Paper 1860-1960 from the Triton Foundation
Collection, novembre 2002-fvrier 2003 (sans
catalogue).
La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, Alexander Calder.
De grote ontdekking, fvrier-mai 2012.

50,000-70,000
US$59,100-82,700
39,250-55,000

23

Ce t t e u vr e es t r ep er t o r ie d a n s l es
a r ch i ves d e la Fo nd at io n C al d er, N ew Y or k ,
s o u s le n um r o A1 9 1 6 4 .

La n o t ice d e ce l o t
es t d i s p o n ib l e s ur c hr is t ie s . co m
T he n o te f or t h is l o t
ma y b e v ie wed a t c hr i s ti e s. co m

8
Fernand Lger (1881-1955)
Femme nue couche
sign des initiales et dat F.L. 12
(en bas droite)
fusain sur papier
32.5 x 49 cm.
Excut en 1912
signed with the initials and
dated F.L. 12 (lower right)
charcoal on paper
12 x 19 in.
Executed in 1912

provenance
Buchholz Gallery (Curt Valentin), New
York.
Vente, Sothebys, New York, 12 novembre
1987, lot 121.
Collection particulire, Paris.
Galerie Cazeau-Braudire, Paris.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celle-ci, en 1997).

expositions
New York, Marlborough-Gerson Gallery
Inc., Artist and Maecenas, a Tribute to
Curt Valentin, novembre-dcembre 1963,
p. 84, no. 155 (illustr).

250,000-350,000
US$295,500-413 ,500
196,300-274,700

24

Rotterdam, Boijmans Van Beuningen


Museum, From Monet to Picasso, Masterpieces on Paper 1860-1960 from the
Triton Foundation Collection, novembre
2002-fvrier 2003 (sans catalogue).
La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, Cubist Art
from the Triton Foundation, mars-juillet
2006, p. 19 (illustr en couleurs).
La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, Mondriaan en
het kubisme, Parijs 1912-1914, janvier-mai
2014, p. 15 (illustr en couleurs).

bibliographie
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870
to the Present, the Collection of the
Triton Foundation, Bruxelles, 2012, p. 551
(illustr en couleurs, p. 234).

A d ag p , P aris 2 015/2 014 . D ig it al ima g e, The M u s eu m of M odern Art, New Y ork./Sc a l a F l orenc e

A d ag p , P aris 2 015/ Ch ris t ie s I mag e s Li mi ted 2 007

Fig. 1 Fernand Lger, Dessin pour contraste de formes (Composition II), 1913.
Christies New York, 6 November 2007, lot 41.

uring the years 1910-14, the period


immediately preceding the outbreak of the Great War, Cubism
had opened windows on alternative visual
realities. Pure painting then became the
next new frontier. The poet and art critic
Guillaume Apollinaire had witnessed the
subject dissolving and becoming nearly
indecipherable in the cubist paintings
of his friends Georges Braque and Pablo
Picasso during their hermetic, analytical phase. Verisimilitude no longer has
any importance, for the artist sacrifices
everything to the composition of his
picture, Apollinaire observed. The
subject no longer counts, or if it counts, it
counts for very little... An entirely new art
is thus being evolved, an art that will be
to painting, as painting has hitherto been
envisaged, what music is to literature. It
will be pure painting, just as music is pure
literature (On the Subject in Modern
Painting, in L.C. Breunig, Apollinaire on
Art, Boston, 2001, p. 197).
Fernand Lgers boldly configured drawing
of a reclining nude woman foretells the
advent of pure painting. This study is
related to the painting Le modle nu dans
latelier (fig. 3), which Lger began in late

Fig. 2 F e r n a n d L g e r , C o n t r a s t e s d e f o r m e s , 1 9 1 3 .
The Museum of Modern Art, New York.

1912 and completed early the following


year (Bauquier, no. 40). The painting, vertical in format, shows the unclothed model
- one arm raised above her head, her other
hand resting on her abdomen - seated
upright at a slight diagonal in Lgers
cubist and semi-spherical studio space. If
one turns the present drawing - also dating
from 1912 - counter-clockwise ninety
degrees, and then reverses the positioning
of the models arms, its connection with
this painting becomes readily apparent.
The existence of Femme nue couche
suggests that the artist may have also
considered in 1912 a painting intended
to complement the upright, seated nude,
showing the same model reclining, in the
time-honored tradition of the orientalist
odalisque, on a divan within a horizontal
pictorial framework. Lger exhibited the
newly finished painting Le modle nu dans
latelier at the Salon des Indpendants
in the spring of 1913. He soon thereafter
embarked upon the great adventure of
his early career, a daring expedition into
pure, non-representational painting,
in the landmark series of Contrastes
de formes, which occupied him for the
remainder of the year and into early 1914.

It is evident in both the vertical seated


nude painting and this reclining drawn
study that Lger had already developed many of the elements that were
to characterize the Contrastes, those
pure, rudimentary forms that interact to
generate a brashly dynamic and dissonant
counterpoint. By the beginning of 1913
Lger had basically formulated and was
in the process of perfecting his graphic
framework for combining these forms,
employing black linear curves and jutting
angles that jostle and collide on the flat
picture plane. To create the illusion of
spatial give-and-take, he distributed white
highlights across the canvas, like the
reflective sheen on polished mechanical
parts - an effect simulated in the showthrough tone of the paper in the drawing
Femme nue couche.
Lger sought to counter the increasing
impact of Italian Futurism, whose attraction stemmed from its use of modern, cosmopolitan subjects, depicted in motion,
by supplanting their illusory dynamism
with a true pictorial dynamism. He also
wished to move beyond the influence of
Paul Czanne, whose work had made an
overwhelming impression

A d ag p , P aris 20 15/ T h e S ol o m on R. Gugg e nhei m Founda t i on / A rt Resourc e, NY, Di st . RMN -G rand

P al a is / Th e So l o m o n R . G ug g e n hei m Fou nda t i on / A rt Resourc e, NY

Fig. 3 Fernand Lger, Le modle nu dans latelier, 1912-13.


Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York.

The present lot rotated counter-clockwise 90 degrees.

on him and his colleagues during the


masters memorial retrospective at the
1907 Salon dAutomne. Lger had shared
with Czanne an interest in static subjects
and a constructive means of composition,
based on the latters fabled insistence on
employing the cylinder, the cone, the
sphere. Lger now believed, however,
that the accelerating pulse of modern life
required a newer, more radical approach.
[Czannes] grip was so strong, Lger
recalled in 1954, that to get free of it I
had to go as far as abstraction (quoted
in C. Green, Lger and the Avant-Garde,
New Haven, 1976, p. 52).

non-descriptive forms. Regarding the oil


Le modle nu dans latelier, Christopher
Green has written, The fact is Lger did
not abstract this nude, extracting from
the model simplified forms and qualities,
rather he translated it into a range of
forms abstracted from other subjects
- the movement of smoke and foliage in
landscape and cityscape... The model as
necessary starting point was now totally
redundant, for his vocabulary of contrasting forms had been purified to the extent
of all-embracing versatility... Descriptive
form had finally been removed from his
repertoire (ibid., pp. 53-54).

In a lecture delivered at the Acadmie


Marie Wassilief in 1914, Lger remarked
on the presence of the studio nude in his
work of 1912-13: With the most commonplace, the most banal of subjects,
a female nude in the studio...you can
advantageously replace locomotives
and other modern machines, which are
difficult to take home [here alluding to
Futurism]. Everything like this is a means
to an end; there is nothing of real interest but the manner of representation
(quoted in ibid., p. 56). And to this end
Lger devised his pictorial syntax of pure,

As he was drawing this reclining nude,


Lger was on the verge of pure painting it only remained for him to dispense with
his subject altogether - and during early
1913 he indeed took this plunge when
painting the Contrastes de formes (fig.
1-2). In his first lecture at the Acadmie
Wassilief, written at this critical juncture,
he stated that pictorial realism - by which
he meant the absolute integrity of the
picture as an object in and of itself, and
not as the representation of something
else - was the simultaneous ordering of
three plastic components: Lines, Forms

27

and Colors. He went on to proclaim,


From now on, everything can converge
toward an intense realism obtained by
purely dynamic means. Pictorial contrasts
used in their purest sense (complementary colours, lines, and forms) are hence the
structural basis of modern pictures (in
E.F. Fry, ed., Fernand Lger: The Functions
of Painting, New York, 1973, pp. 4 and 7).

Po ur l a vers i on f ran a is e,
vo ir p. 1 04 -11 1

9
Gi no S ev e r in i ( 1 88 3- 196 6)
L a m o d iste
s ig n G Severi n i (en ba s ga uc he )
et t it r m odis te (e n ha ut au c en t re)
f us ain , pie rre noire e t e st o mp e su r p a p ier
64 .8 x 48 cm .
Ex cut en 1 915
s i gn e d GSev erini (l ow e r l e ft)
an d t it led modi st e (up pe r c e n te r )
c ha r coa l , b lack cha l k a n d e st o m pe
o n p aper
25 x 18 in.
E xe cuted in 1 91 5
400,0 0 0- 60 0,0 0 0
US $4 72,600-7 08,900
3 1 4 ,000-4 70,950

pr ov e n a n ce

bi bl io gr ap h ie

Sac hever ell Sitwe ll , Lo n dr es ( ac q u i s d a ns


les an ne s 1 9 20 ).
Philipp e Dave ri o Ga l l ery , M i l an / N ew Y o r k.
Galler ia Sp ro vi eri , R o m e.
Collec tio n p a rt i c ul i re, E t a ts -U n is
(a cq uis au p rs de c e ll e- c i, en 19 8 9); ven te ,
Sotheb ys , L ond re s, 28 ju i n 1 99 9 , l o t 2 8.
Triton Collec ti o n Fo u n d at i o n , P a y s- Bas
(a cq uis au c ours d e c et t e ven t e).

D . Fo n t i , Gi n o Se ve ri n i , O p e re i n e d it e e
c ap o l a vo r i r i t ro va t i, c at a l o g u e d ex p o s i t io n ,
M i l an , 1 9 99 , p . 68 ( il lu s t r).
S. va n H eu g t en , A va n t- gar d es , 1 8 7 0
t o t he P re s e n t , t h e C o ll ec t i o n o f t h e
Tr i to n Fo u n d at io n, B rux e ll es , 2 0 1 2 , p . 56 3
(i l l u st r en c o u l eur s, p. 24 5) .

e x po s i ti o ns
Rotterdam, Boijmans Van Beuningen Museum,
From Monet to Picasso, Masterpieces on
Paper 1860-1960 from the Triton Foundation
Collection, novembre 2002- fvrier 2003 (sans
catalogue).
La Haye , Ge meen t em u seu m , C u bi st A rt f ro m
the Tr iton F oun d a t i o n, m a rs -j u i l l et 20 0 6 ,
p . 2 9 (illus tr en c o u l eu rs ).

28

Ro m an a B r un o r i- Se ve r ini a c o n fi rm
la u t h en t ic it d e ce t t e u v re .
D a n iela F o nt i a c o n f ir m l a u t h en t ic it
d e c et te u vr e.

e mu st forge t exterior
re al i ty, and our kn owled ge
of it to cr eate th e new
d im e n si on s, Gi no S ev erin i d ecla re d, the
o rd e r a nd e xt en t of w hi c h will be d isc over ed
i n ou r ar ti st i c se ns i bi l i t y in r elation to the
wo r l d of p la st i c c re ati on (in Th e Pla s tic
A na l o gi e s o f Dy na m i sm- Fu tu ris t Ma nifes to
1 9 13 , U . A po llo n i o, ed., Fu tur ist Ma nif estos,
B o s to n, 2 00 1 , p. 1 18) . T h e d ra win g L a mod i ste i s a re ve a li n g w i nd ow into the p r oc es s
b y wh ic h Se ve ri ni tr ans for med e xte r ior
re a l it y us i ng t he p re ce pts th at he a nd his
c ol l e a g ue s i n la b an di er a fu tur ista h ad d evel o p e d as t he y ex ami ne d th e s ocie ty of their
t i m e, w h i ch t he y pe rc ei v ed to be a n ep oc h
o f d y n ami s m a n d simu l ta ne ity (ibid., p . 1 21 ).
Drawn in 1915 - the current year now
marking the centennial of its creation
La modiste reflects aspects of the transcendent futurist style, virtually abstract,
which Severini achieved before the outbreak of the First World War. At the same
time, by re-introducing one of his pre-war
belle poque subjects, likely a response to
the tragedy of the conflict and in contrast
to his cold steel treatment of such military
themes as the famous Train blind en action
(Fonti, no. 242; The Museum of Modern
Art, New York), Severini was about to move

A d ag p , P aris 20 15/ 2 014 . Mu se o Thysse n-B ornemi sza / Sc a l a Fl orenc e

A d ag p , P aris 20 15/ 2 014 . Di gi ta l imag e , The M useum of Modern A rt , New York . / Sc a l a Fl or e nce

Gino Severini, Expansion de la lumire (Centrifuge), 1913-14.


Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid.

F i g . 1 Gino Severini, Geroglifico dinamico del Bal Tabarin, 1912.


The Museum of Modern Art, New York.

into a cubist phase, more in the manner of


Picasso, Gris and other painters in Paris
during the war.
Sever ini ha d been s tr ad d l i n g t h e tw o r i v al
c amps of Par is ia n c u b i s m a n d It a l i an fu t ur is m sinc e the em e rg en c e o f b o t h m o v emen ts in 1 91 0 -1 1 . H a v in g a rri v ed i n P a ri s
d ur ing th e fall o f 1 9 0 6 , at t h e a g e o f 2 3, h e
kne w n ea rly eve ryo n e o f i m po r ta n c e o n t h e
c uttin g e dg e o f t h e n ew a rt , wh et h er in M il an
or Par is. In 191 0 Se veri n i was a s i g n at o ry t o
b oth the M anif e st o o f t h e Fu t u ri s t P a i n te rs
an d th e Futu ris t P ai n t i n g: Te c h n ic a l Ma nifesto, ke y d oc um en t s wh i c h a l s o bo re t h e
na mes of Balla, Bo c c i o n i , C ar r a n d R us s o l o .
He be came fr ien dl y w i th b o th fo u n d in g
father s of Cubi s m - Bra q ue i n i t i a ll y, t he n
Pica ss o - an d th r o ug h th e m t h e l ea di n g
wr iter on mod ern i s m in P ar i s, t he p o et an d
jour nalis t Ap ol l i n ai re. S ev er i ni w as ad ep t at
ar tic ula ting th e ai m s a nd m ean s o f ea ch s id e
to the oth er, w h il e d ra wi n g ke y l es s o ns f ro m
b oth move ment s t o war d t h e de vel o p m ent
of h is o wn wo r k. A m o n g al l t h e av a nt -g ar d e
ar tis ts at th at t i m e wh o ca l l ed th em s el v es
eithe r cub is ts o r f ut u ri s ts , e ac h fa c ti o n
often de nigr ati n g a nd eve n d i s m is s i n g th e
othe r, Seve rini a l o ne wa s m a g n an i m o us l y
b ip ar tisa n in hi s o u t lo o k a nd a ffi n i ti es .

30

Th e s ub j ec t o f un e m o d is t e, a m i l l i n er ,
fi r st a pp e ared i n S ev er i ni s wo rk d u ri ng
1 91 1 (Fo n t i , n o . 95), j u st as h e wa s em b ark in g o n h i s se ri es o f f em al e d an c ers , t h at
p h eno m eno n o f m o d ern co s m o p o l i t a n l if e
wh i c h i n h i s v i ew m o s t ex c i t i n g l y em b o d i ed
t h e c h a ng i n g s o c i al d yn a m ic s o f t he e ra ,
c o m b i ni n g c o nt em p o r ary st yl e wi th p ub l i c
en t ert a i nm en t , w hi l e m a n i fes t in g t h at e s s ent i al c o m p o n en t t h e fu tu r is t s m o s t eag er l y
s o u g ht t o de p ic t i n t h ei r wo r k - m o ti o n. A n d
t o t hi s sc en e o f n i g h t c l u bs an d d an ce hal l s,
t h e w o rk o f t h e m i l l i n er is i n di sp en s ab l e:
fa s h io n -c o n s c i o us an d wel l -h eel ed w o m e n
d ar ed n o t b e s een i n p u b li c wi t h o u t t he
a dv an t a g e o f a s h o wy h at . Seve ri n i fe at ur ed
s uc h ac c es s o ri es i n n um e ro us p o rt ra it a n d
fi g u re p a i nt i n g s d u ri n g t he p re- wa r p e ri o d .
H e m ay ha ve ev en c o n si der ed t h a t t he v is u al
a rt i st a nd t h e m o d i st e w ere i n t hei r p r o fe ss i o n s c u t fr o m th e s a m e c l o t h, a s i t we re,
i n so far as eac h i s e ng a g ed i n t h e d es i gn i ng ,
s ha p i n g a n d a s se m bl i n g o f co l o ur fo r m s to
c rea t e a d es i red effe ct .
The drawing La modiste is the outcome of
a transformative phase, which commenced
during 1913, as Severini moved from a style
previously inflected with the dense faceting of Parisian Cubism - as evident in his
carnivalesque Geroglifico Dinamico del Bal

A d ag p , P aris 20 15/C h ris ti e s Ima ges L imi te d 2 0 1 4

Gino Severini, Study for Autoportrait au canotier, 1913.


Christies New York, 5 November 2014, lot 6.

Th e p res en t l o t .

Tabarin, 1912 (Fonti, no. 107; The Museum


of Modern Art, New York, fig. 1) - to a more
freely expansive synthesis, more resolutely
futurist, in which rhythmic forms appear to
unfold and open out from the central axis of
the figure. Here, as in his dancers, Severini
has pared down his subject, eliminating most
details, until only the most essential active
forms remained, ostensibly approaching abstraction, which the artist termed his plastic
analogies of dynamism. In the catalogue
introduction to his 1913 exhibition at Marlborough Gallery, London, the artist explained:
An overpowering need for abstraction has
driven me to put on one side all realization
of mass and of form in the sense of pictorial
relief... Each drawing is an objective study,
an effort in the direction of synthesis and the
absolute (quoted in J.C. Taylor, Futurism,
exhibition catalogue, The Museum of Modern
Art, New York, 1961, p. 69).

togeth er wi t h t h e j ut t i n g c o rn er o f t he
tab le -to p , i n te g rat e t h e fi g u re wi t h in it s s p atial en vi ro n m en t . S ev er i ni s t at ed t ha t o ne
of th e f o rm a l a i m s he p u rs ue d i n hi s wo r k
is Sim ul t a neo u s co n t ra s t o f l i n es , p la ne s
an d vol u m es , a nd o f g ro u p s o f a n al o go u s
for ms i n sp h eri c a l e x pa n s io n . C o n s t ruc ti ve
inter p en et rat i o n (q u o te d i n U. A p o ll o ni o ,
op . ci t. , p. 1 23 ).

T he rep et i ti o n o f e lements imbues L a


mod is t e w i th move ment, e spec ia lly in th e
mi ll i ne rs a rms and han d s, the s te p- wis e
u nf ol di n g o f t he ma te ria l sh e is man ip ulati n g, g e ne rat i n g r hyth ms w ithin the c omp osi t io n w h ic h S ev er in i fu rthe r empha s ized in
th e f an -l i ke sp re ad of th e p leats in h er d res s .
T he bro ken , d es ce nd ing c u rvilinea r for ms
th a t p ress i n f ro m b oth s ide s of th e sh eet,

The fir st o wn er o f La m o d i s t e was S ir


Sac her ver el l R e res b y Si t wel l ( 18 9 7-1 98 8 ),
the you ng es t am o n g h i s s i b l i n gs D am e Ed i th
an d Sir O s b ert , a l l o f w ho m wer e di st i ngu is he d fi g u res o n t h e Bri ti s h l it er ar y s ce ne
b etween th e t wo W o rl d W ar s , wri ti n g p o et ry
an d havi n g ed i t ed th e W hee ls a n t ho l o g ie s
of c on t em p o ra ry p o et s b et ween 1 9 1 6 a nd
1 921 . Si r Sa ch er ver el l b ec am e b es t k no wn fo r

Ec ho es o f t h i s p h as e w o ul d co n t i n u e t o r es ona te in S ever i ni s w o rk i n to 1 9 1 5, i n c lu d i ng
his r ailwa y t ra i n p ai nt i n g s a n d o t h er s u b je ct s
r elated t o l id e e gu e rre . H a v in g re vi v ed t he
s ubjec t o f l a m o d i s t e i n th e p re sen t dr awi ng ,
the ar ti s t ag a i n m o v ed cl o s er t o war d C u b is m
as h e to o k u p t h e mi ll in e r a s a t hem e d ur i ng
later 1 91 5-1 6 , em p l o y i ng a fl a tt er, m o re
s ch emat i c s t y le w hi c h d i s p l ay s t h e i nf l u en c e
of Pic as s o s s yn t he ti c C ub i s m (Fo n t i , no s .
26 3, 263 A- C a n d 2 6 4 -26 5; a ls o a l i t h o g r ap h ,
M eloni, no . 1 1 ).

31

h i s a rt an d m us i c cr i t ic i s m , i n c l ud i n g b o o k s
o n M o z a rt an d Li s z t; h e w as rec o g n iz e d
a s a n a ut h o ri t y o n Ba ro q u e a rc hi t ect ur e .
In 19 2 1 , t hr o ug h t h e a u sp i c es o f t h e P ar is
d ea le r Lo n c e R o se nb erg , S i rs O sb e r t an d
Sa c h erver el l c o m m is s i o n ed Seve ri n i t o p a in t
fr es co s t o d ec o ra te t h e sa l o n o f th e f am il y s
Tu s c an vi l l a, t he C a s te ll o d e M o nt eg u f o n i,
n ear F l o ren c e. S eve ri n i s p en t s ev e n m o n t hs
a t t h e ca s t l e wo rki n g i n s i t u , co m p l et in g t h e
c o m m i s si o n s i n 1 9 2 2 (Fo n t i , n o s . 3 9 0A - D ).

Po ur l a vers i on f ran a is e,
vo ir p. 1 04 -11 1

10
Pablo Picasso (1881-1973)
La boija (La folle)
sign -P Ruiz Picasso- (en bas droite)
encre, lavis dencre, gouache, pastel
et grattage sur papier verg
14.1 x 10.2 cm.
Excut en septembre 1900
signed -P Ruiz Picasso- (lower left)
ink, ink wash, gouache, pastel and grattage
on laid paper
5 x 4 in.
Executed in September 1900
300,000-500,000
US$354,500-590,700
235,500-392,500

provenance

bibliographie

Atelier de lartiste.
Maurice Rheims, Paris.
Galerie Hopkins-Custot, Paris.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celle-ci, en 2002).

Catalunya Artstica, 6 septembre 1900 (illustr).


A. Cirici-Pellicer, Picasso avant Picasso,
Genve, 1950, p. 55-56 (illustr; dcrit comme
Fusain).
A. Cirici-Pellicer, El arte modernista cataln,
Barcelone, 1951, p. 401.
C. Zervos, Pablo Picasso, Paris, 1954, vol. VI,
no. 271 (illustr, pl. 33).
W. Boeck et J. Sabarts, Picasso, New York,
1955, p. 114.
A. Blunt et P. Pool, Picasso, the Formative
Years, New York, 1962, p. 7-8, 10, 29 et 47,
no. 41 (illustr, p. 46).
P. Daix et G. Boudaille, Picasso 1900-1906,
Catalogue raisonn de luvre peint, Neuchtel,
1966, p. 21 et 113, no. I.25 (illustr, p. 113).
A. Fermigier, Picasso, Paris, 1969, p. 16, no. 5
(illustr).
J. Palau i Fabre, Picasso vivant (1881-1907),
Barcelone, 1980, p. 197, no. 462 (illustr).
J. Richardson, A Life of Picasso, 1881-1906,
Londres, 1991, vol. I, p. 155 (illustr).
A. Baldassari, Le miroir noir, Picasso, sources
photographiques 1900-1928, catalogue
dexposition, Paris, Muse Picasso, 1997, p. 36.
The Picasso Project, ed., Picassos Paintings,
Watercolors, Drawings and Sculpture: Turn of
the Century 1900-1901, San Francisco, 2010,
p. 56, no. 1900-202 (illustr).
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870
to the Present, the Collection of the
Triton Foundation, Bruxelles, 2012, p. 557
(illustr en couleurs, p. 277).

expositions
Paris, Muse des Beaux-Arts, Laquarelle
franaise, 1900.
Francfort, Kunstverein et Hamburg, Kunstverein,
Picasso, 150 Handzeichnungen aus sieben Jahrzehnten, mai-septembre 1965, no. 6 (illustr).
Paris, Galerie Knoedler, Picasso, dessins et aquarelles 1899-1965, novembre 1966, no. 4 (illustr).
Barcelone, Museu Picasso, Picasso and Els
4 Gats, the Key to Modernity, novembre
1995-fvrier 1996, p. 313, no. 114 (illustr en
couleurs, p. 124).
Rotterdam, Boijmans Van Beuningen Museum,
From Monet to Picasso, Masterpieces on Paper
1860-1960 from the Triton Foundation Collection,
novembre 2002-fvrier 2003 (sans catalogue).
Seoul, Museum of Art, Picasso, the Great
Century, mai-septembre 2006, p. 38 (illustr
en couleurs, p. 39).
La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, Ttes Fleuries,
19th and 20th Century Portraiture from the
Triton Foundation, juillet-dcembre 2007,
p. 13-14 (illustr en couleurs, p. 13).
La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, Pablo Picasso - Ik
zoek niet, ik vind, fvrier-mai 2011, p. 10-11
(illustr en couleurs, p. 10; la reproduction
parue dans Catalunya Artstica illustre, p. 11).
Rotterdam, Kunsthal, Avant-Gardes, De collectie
van de Triton Foundation, octobre 2012-janvier 2013.

32

Taille relle

he present drawing in ink, gouache,


and pastel - a haunting image of a
solitary woman by the seashore,
her face an elongated, mannerist mask of
pain - is the most powerful and inspired
of a group of magazine illustrations that
Pablo Picasso created during the spring
and summer of 1900, in the months
leading up to his first trip to Paris. The
previous year, at the age of seventeen,
Picasso had returned home to Barcelona
after a brief stint at the prestigious but
stiflingly traditional Real Academia de
Bellas Artes de San Fernando in Madrid.
Catalan Modernisme was then in full
swing, and by the start of 1900, Picasso,
ever more forceful and independent, had
been welcomed into the inner circle of
avant-garde artists and writers who made
their unofficial headquarters at the cabaret El Quatre Gats. For the young prodigy,
the twentieth century - which he more
than any other single artist would come to
personify - opened most auspiciously.
In January 1900, Picasso moved with the
fellow painter Carlos Casagemas into his
first proper studio, on the top floor of a
dilapidated building in a raffish quarter
of the old city. Shortly thereafter, the

P h o t o : Bri dge ma n Ima ge s 2 015

Su cc es si on Pi ca sso, 2 01 5/Phot o : t ous droi t s rserv s

P a b l o Pi cas so , Au t op ort r ait, 189 9- 19 00.


M u s e u P i ca ss o, Ba rc el ona .

Ed vard M un c h, A sh e s, 1 89 5.
Nas jo n al m u s eet f o r Ku n st , A rk i te kt ur o g D es i gn , O s l o .

admired senior members of the modernista movement - Santiago Rusiol, Ramon


Casas, and Miquel Utrillo - offered Picasso
a solo exhibition, the very first of his
career, in the Sala Gran of El Quatre Gats.
Recognition by them was recognition
indeed, John Richardson has written.
And how propitious that the dbut of
Picassos great career should coincide
with the start of the new century (op.
cit., p. 127).
For this inaugural exhibition, which opened on 1 February 1900, Picasso showed
as many as 150 portraits on paper of the
painters, poets, and hangers-on who
made up his tertulia, a veritable gallery
of Barcelonas bohemians. With their
bold strokes and loose rendering of form,
the drawings represented a direct, even
cheeky, challenge to Ramon Casass virtuoso charcoal portraits of his contemporaries, which had been displayed
to great acclaim the previous year at
Barcelonas most stylish gallery, the Sala
Pars. Picasso, it would seem, was ready
for a bigger stage. Almost as soon as his
exhibition closed, he began plotting to get
himself (and the ill-fated Casagemas) to
Paris, wearing down his fathers staunch

34

resistance and persuading Casagemass


parents to provide the lions share of the
funds. To raise additional money for the
trip, he made a series of readily saleable
bullfighting pastels, which were exhibited
at El Quatre Gats in July, and he took on
a range of commercial work, including
posters and magazine illustrations.
La boija (La folle) embodies this moment
of youthful ambition. Unlike the other
illustrations, Richardson has proclaimed,
this one hints at the greatness to come
(ibid., p. 154). Picasso produced the work
on commission to accompany a morbid
short story of the same title by the young
writer Ramon Suriac i Senties, which was
published on 6 September 1900 in Catalunya Artstica, a short-lived weekly of literature, art, and theater. Around this time,
Picasso also drew a charcoal portrait of
Suriac i Senties framed by a Gothic arch,
of the same sort that distinguished the
elaborate modernista faade of El Quatre
Gats (see exhibition catalogue, op. cit.,
1995, no. 115). The story La boija tells the
tragic tale of a woman named Madrona
who goes mad after losing her husband,
her house, and her son, and Picassos
drawing captures the heroines descent

S uc ce ss ion Pic a ss o, 20 15/ Photo: B rid gema n Ima ges 2 0 1 5

P abl o Pi c asso, Fem me de Sain t-L az a re par c la ir


de lu n e, 19 01.
B equ e st o f Rob ert H. Tan n ah ill De tr oit In s titute
of Art s, USA

into lunacy with an intensity that is made


all the more concentrated by the images
small size. The inexorable young psychologist who penetrated into the dens of
vice did not shrink from encounters with
insanity, as we can see in the charcoal
drawing of a madwoman with a vacant and
hungry look in her large eyes, Wilhelm
Boeck has written (op. cit., 1955, p. 114).
The theme of La boija may have held special
poignancy for Picasso, whose own parents
had lost a child - the artists much-loved
younger sister Conchita - five years earlier.
In 1899, perhaps seeking to exorcise the
trauma of Conchitas passing, Picasso had
made a group of watercolours and drawings
that depict a despairing young mother, her
long hair undone, grieving at her childs
deathbed; these culminated in the oil
painting Derniers moments, which Picasso,
probably short of canvas, painted over in
1903 to produce the masterpiece of his
Blue Period, La vie (Zervos, vol. 1, no. 179;
Cleveland Museum of Art). In the present
work, the anguished mothers ghostly,
almost demonic, visage emerges from a
dark ground, creating a proto-expressionist
shock of impact that suggests the influence
of Edvard Munch, another artist (well-

Th e p res en t l o t .

known in fin-de-sicle Barcelona) who had


harnessed his grief over the death of a
beloved sister in his work.
By the autumn of 1900, Picassos preparations for his trip to Paris were complete.
Euphoric at his imminent departure, he
drew a self-portrait (now lost) that he
inscribed, not once but three times, Yo
el Rey, as if to establish that he, Picasso,
was the king, the messiah of the new century (see J. Richardson, op. cit., 1996, p.
157). He left Barcelona a few days before
his nineteenth birthday on 25 October,
which he celebrated with his compatriots Casagemas and Isidre Nonell at
the latters studio at 49 rue Gabrielle in
the French capital. By the very next fall,
Picasso would have embarked upon the
earliest major canvases of his celebrated
Blue Period, whose destitute outcasts are
heralded in La boija, with its pervasive
blue tonality and its compelling depiction
of female suffering.

Po ur l a vers i o n fran a i s e,
vo i r p. 1 04 -1 1 1

35

11
Roger de La Fresnaye (1885-1925)
Les acrobates
sign, dat et situ La Fresnaye Grasse 20
(en bas droite)
gouache et traces de graphite sur papier
28.4 x 21.6 cm.
Excut Grasse en 1920
signed, dated and located La Fresnaye
Grasse 20 (lower right)
gouache and traces of pencil on paper
11 x 8 in.
Executed in Grasse in 1920
20,000-30,000
US$23,650-35,500
15,700-23,550

provenance

bibliographie

Roland Balay, Paris.


Maurice Gouy, Genve (avant 1977).
Vente, Sothebys, New York, 14 novembre
1990, lot 166.
Acquavella Galleries, Inc., New York.
Barbara Mathes Gallery, New York.
Galerie Hopkins-Custot, Paris.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celle-ci, en 2002).

C. Roger-Marx, Roger de la Fresnaye, peintre


des sentiments hroques, in Jardin des Arts,
no. 59, septembre 1959, p. 708 (illustr).
G. Seligman, Roger de La Fresnaye, Neuchtel,
1969, p. 225, no. 402 (illustr).
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the Present, the Collection of the Triton Foundation,
Bruxelles, 2012, p. 546 (illustr en couleurs,
p. 238).

expositions
Paris, Muse national dart moderne, Roger de
La Fresnaye, juillet-octobre 1950, no. 127.
Lyon, Muse de Lyon, Roger de La Fresnaye,
1951, no. 43 (dimensions errones).
Rotterdam, Boijmans Van Beuningen Museum,
From Monet to Picasso, Masterpieces on Paper
1860-1960 from the Triton Foundation Collection,
novembre 2002-fvrier 2003 (sans catalogue).

36

La n o t i ce d e ce l o t
es t d i s p o n ib l e s ur c hr i st i e s. co m
T he n o te f o r t hi s l o t
ma y b e v ie wed a t c hr i s ti es . co m

12
Flix Vallotton (1865-1925)
Laccident
sign des initiales, dat FV 93 (en bas gauche)
et titr LACCIDENT. (en bas droite)
encre de Chine et fusain sur papier
27.3 x 36.9 cm.
Excut en 1893
signed with the initials, dated FV 93 (lower
left) and titled LACCIDENT. (lower right)
India ink and charcoal on paper
10 x 14 in.
Executed in 1893

provenance

bibliographie

Galerie Paul Vallotton, Lausanne; vente,


Sothebys, Zurich, 4 juin 1997, lot 221.
Galerie Hopkins-Custot, Paris.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celle-ci, en 2003).

M. Vallotton et C. Goerg, Flix Vallotton, Catalogue raisonn de luvre grav et lithographi, Genve, 1972, p. 56, no. 50 (illustr).
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the Present, the Collection of the Triton Foundation,
Bruxelles, 2012, p. 566 (illustr en couleurs,
p. 117).

exposition
La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, Clarion Call of
Modern Art, the Nabis in the Collection of the
Triton Foundation, avril-novembre 2008, p. 36
(illustr en couleurs).

M a ri na D u c r ey a c o n f ir m l a u t h e nt i cit
d e c et te u vr e.
La n o t ice d e ce lo t
es t d i s p o n ib l e s ur c hr is t ie s . co m
T he n o te fo r t h is l o t
ma y b e v ie wed a t c hr i s ti e s. co m

7,000-10,000
US$8,300-11,900
5,500-7,900

37

13
Paul Czanne (1839-1906)
Pot de graniums
aquarelle et graphite sur papier
49.7 x 30.8 cm.
Excut vers 1885
watercolour and pencil on paper
19 x 12 in.
Executed circa 1885
300,000-500,000
US$354,500-590,700
235,500-392,500

provenance
Ambroise Vollard, Paris.
Etienne Bignou, Paris (avant 1940).
A. Reid & Lefevre, Londres.
Knoedler & Co. Inc., New York.
Arthur Sachs, New York/Paris (avant 1950).
Collection particulire, Paris.
Lefevre Fine Art Limited, Londres.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celui-ci, en 2005).

La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, The Switch, Illusion and Reality in the Art of the 50s and 60s
from the Triton Foundation, novembre 2005mars 2006, p. 2-5 et 12 (illustr en couleurs).
La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, Czanne, Picasso,
Mondriaan. In nieuw perpectief, octobre
2009-janvier 2010, p. 186, no. 103 (illustr en
couleurs, p. 187).
Rotterdam, Kunsthal, Avant-Gardes, De collectie
van de Triton Foundation, octobre 2012-janvier 2013.

expositions

bibliographie

New York, Bignou Gallery, Paintings and


Watercolors by Czanne, avril 1940, no. 13.
San Francisco, California Palace of the Legion
of Honor, The Arthur Sachs Collection, 1950.
Paris, Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, Czanne, aquarelliste et peintre, mai-juillet 1960, no. 4.
Paris, Muse Jacquemart-Andr, Chefsduvre des collections franaises, juillet-septembre 1961, no. 53.

L. Venturi, Czanne, Son art - son uvre, Paris,


1936, vol. I, no. 1538 (dat 1883-87;
illustr, vol. II, pl. 391).
J. Rewald, Les aquarelles de Czanne, catalogue raisonn, Paris, 1984, p. 136, no. 212
(illustr).
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the Present, the Collection of the Triton Foundation,
Bruxelles, 2012, p. 78 et 541 (illustr en
couleurs, p. 79).

38

Th e Me tr opoli ta n Mu se um of A rt , Di st . RMN-Gra nd Pa l a i s / i ma ge of t he MMA

P h oto : RMN-G ran d Pa la is (mu s e d Or say) / Tony Querrec

P a u l C z an n e, Les pot s de fleu rs , c irc a 1 88 5.


P a ri s, mu se d O rsa y , cons erv au mus e d u Lou vr e

aul Czanne painted this delicate and refined watercolour of


a single geranium plant in the
small greenhouse that once stood on the
grounds of the Jas de Bouffan, his family
estate near Aix-en-Provence. The greenhouse was a warm and secluded place
where Czanne could work uninterrupted
when the weather was severe during the
winters that he spent in Provence in the
1880s. He produced two oil paintings and
six watercolours here that capture the
pale, silvery light of winter as it filters
through the greenhouse glass and plays
across the leaves of the potted geraniums,
pansies, and begonias (Rewald, nos. 470
and 702; Rewald Watercolors, nos. 194,
211-214, 221). This was also most likely the
conservatory where Madame Czanne
sat for an elegant portrait in 1891-92
(Rewald, no. 703; The Metropolitan
Museum of Art, New York, fig. 1).
Pot de graniums manifests the exquisitely restrained means, the powers of
allusive suggestion, so novel in his time,
which Czanne in his maturity practiced
in rendering his motifs. The technique of
watercolour was perfected by Czanne to
such a degree that a few touches of colour

Fig. 1 Paul Czanne, Madame Czanne dans la serre, 1891-92.


The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

are sufficient to express everything,


Michael Hoog and Genevive Monnier
have written about the artists paintings
of geraniums (Czanne dans les muses
nationaux, exhibition catalogue, Orangerie des Tuileries, Paris, 1974; translated in
J. Rewald, op. cit., p. 132). At the right in
the present example, translucent pools of
green, applied with a virtuoso lightness of
touch, suggest the verdant fullness of the
leaves, while on the left, the bare white of
the paper signifies areas where sunlight
falls across the plant and subsumes its
local colour. A single, spare pencil line
near the bottom of the sheet establishes
the spatial context of the greenhouse,
and thin washes of taupe shadow on
the background plane lend subtle visual
weight to the image. It is, in one sense, a
remarkably understated depiction of light
effects - and the introspective mood they
engender - on a winter afternoon in the
South, Joseph Rishel has written about a
closely related watercolour in the Louvre
(Rewald Watercolors, no. 194). But if
this work is consistent with the Impressionist program to capture transient effects,
it also carries poetic evocations that lift
it above such specificity (Czanne, exhi-

40

bition catalogue, Philadelphia Museum of


Art, 1996, p. 171).
Adrien Chappuis has suggested that
geraniums - a famously hardy plant,
resistant to the ravages of winter - may
have served Czanne as a fitting symbol of
his own tenacity (see J. Rewald, op. cit.,
p. 136). The mid-1880s, when he painted
the present watercolour, was a period
of relentless turmoil in his personal life.
I had a few vines, but untimely frosts
came, he lamented to Victor Chocquet
(quoted in A. Danchev, ed., The Letters of
Paul Czanne, Los Angeles, 2013, p. 238).
His relationship with his domineering
father had deteriorated when the latter
learned of Hortense and Paul fils, whose
existence the artist had long kept secret.
In 1885, he had a brief, disastrous love
affair with an unidentified woman in Aix;
the following year, he cut all ties with his
lifelong comrade Zola, whose portrait of
failed artistic genius in Luvre struck
him as a deeply personal attack. Throughout, however, Czannes propensity
for rigorous and prolonged work never
flagged. He deliberately withdrew to
engage in an intense and solitary struggle
with painting and nature, Vronique

P hoto: Bri dge ma n Ima ge s

Paul Czanne, Pots en terre cuite et fleurs, 1891-92.


Barnes Foundation, Philadelphia.

Serrano has written, a struggle whose


outcome radically altered the painted
image and our perception of it for many
years to come (Czanne in Provence,
exhibition catalogue, National Gallery of
Art, Washington, D.C., 2006, p. 136).
Whereas some of Czannes paintings of
geraniums depict them near the end of their
dormant winter cycle, with sparse foliage
and leggy stalks, the present watercolour
instead emphasizes the fullness of the plant
as its leaves again fill with sap, turning to
the left to face the sun. The multiplicity of
the leaves smooth, rounded forms reflects
an irrepressible earthy abundance, which
forms a lively counterpoint to the spare,
distilled aesthetic that governs the image.
With its centralized composition, seen
close-up, the watercolour projects a direct
matter-of-factness that transforms an
ordinary subject into a heroic statement of
determination and strength.
Although still life is the genre in which Czanne achieved the purest realization of
his artistic intent, flower painting remains
relatively rare in his uvre. His painstakingly slow working methods (he one time
dwelled on a single apple for a month,
according to his patron Eugne Murer)

The present lot.

was ill-suited to a model that was continually changing - budding and blooming,
wilting and withering. To circumvent
these difficulties, Czanne opted to work
from artificial flowers or, still better, in
the greenhouse at the Jas, where nature
could be bent to human will. Even in his
watercolours, a medium traditionally
associated with rapidity, what Czanne
sought was not a single, swift rendering of
transient effects but a slower, intermittent accounting of the ebb and flow of his
unique sensations before the motif. Czanne slows down his watercolours, Matthew Simms has concluded, and, instead
of capturing quick impressions, exploits
the mediums division into moments of
drawing and painting as a means to prolong his interface with his motif through
repeated contact (Czannes Watercolors: Between Drawing and Painting, New
Haven, 2008, p. 102).
Po ur l a vers i o n fran a i s e,
vo i r p. 1 04 -1 1 1

41

14
Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)
Femme debout la faucille
( La moissonneuse )
sign Renoir (en bas droite)
sanguine et craie sur papier
36.1 x 28.6 cm.
Excut vers 1890
signed Renoir (lower right)
sanguine and chalk on paper
14 x 11 in.
Executed circa 1890
70,000-100,000
US$82,700-118,150
55 ,000-78,500

provenance
Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, Paris.
Galerie E. Druet, Paris.
Collection M. Walter, Paris.
Galerie Hopkins-Custot, Paris.
Collection particulire, France (acquis
auprs de celle-ci, en 1990); vente, Christies,
New York, 18 novembre 1998, lot 7.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis au cours de cette vente).

expositions
Paris, Les Expositions des Beaux-Arts et de la
Gazette des Beaux-Arts, juin 1954, no. 90.
Paris, Galerie Hopkins-Thomas et Monaco,
Artis Monte-Carlo, Dessins et aquarelles de
Renoir, avril-septembre 1985, no. 12 (illustr
en couleurs).
Laren, Singer Museum, De Impressionistische
Wereld van Julie Manet, mai-aot 1990.
Tokyo, Bridgestone Museum of Art et Nagoya,
City Art Museum, Renoir, From Outsider to Old
Master 1870-1892, fvrier-juin 2001, p. 164,
no. 63 (illustr en couleurs, p. 165).
Rotterdam, Boijmans Van Beuningen Museum,
From Monet to Picasso, Masterpieces on Paper
1860-1960 from the Triton Foundation Collection,
novembre 2002-fvrier 2003 (sans catalogue).
La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, The Outdoor Life,
Nineteenth-century French Landscapes from
the Triton Foundation, juillet-octobre 2005,
p. 26 (illustr en couleurs).

42

Rome, Complesso del Vittoriano, Renoir,


La maturit tra classico e moderno, mars-juin
2008, p. 266, no. 73 (illustr en couleurs).
Seoul, Museum of Art, Renoir, Promise of
Happiness, mai-septembre 2009, p. 241 (illustr en couleurs; un dtail illustr en couleurs,
p. 228, fig. 45).
Milwaulkee, Museum of Art et Vienne, Albertina, Impressionism. Pastels, Watercolours,
Drawings, octobre 2011-mai 2012, p. 230,
no. 131 (illustr en couleurs, p. 231).

bibliographie
J. Rewald, Renoir. Drawings, New York, 1946,
p. 21, no. 54 (illustr, p. 65).
C. Renoir, Seize aquarelles et sanguines de
Renoir, Paris, 1948, pl. X (illustr en couleurs).
R. Cogniat, Renoir. Enfants, Paris, 1958, p. 5
(illustr).
G.-P. et M. Dauberville, Renoir, Catalogue
raisonn des tableaux, pastels, dessins et
aquarelles, Paris, 2009, vol. II, p. 530, no. 1552
(illustr).
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the Present, the Collection of the Triton Foundation,
Bruxelles, 2012, p. 560-561 (illustr en couleurs, p. 44).

P h o t o : Brid g em a n Im a ge s

t o u s dro i ts r s e rv s

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Lavandires, circa 1888.


Cleveland Museum of Art.

uring the late 1880s and early 1890s,


Pierre-Auguste Renoir traveled extensively in the French countryside,
seeking to escape the bustle and, in his
words, the stiff collars of Paris. He spent
several lengthy periods with his long-time
companion Aline Charigot and their young
son Pierre in Alines native village of Essoyes,
on the border of Champagne and Bourgogne;
he frequently visited Caillebotte and Morisot
in the Seine valley and Czanne in Provence;
he vacationed with Aline and Pierre on the
Normandy coast, in rural Brittany, and on the
Cte dAzur. Although his principal subject
during these travels was the carefree recreations of rosy-cheeked bourgeois girls, who
lounge or stroll in the countryside, gather
fruit or flowers, and picnic beneath trees,
he also produced an important group of
pictures that treat the theme of peasant life
- washerwomen on the banks of the river, for
instance, and grape pickers breaking from the
harvest. Im playing peasant in Champagne
in order to escape the expensive models
of Paris, he wrote to Berthe Morisot and
Eugne Manet in 1888. Im becoming more
and more of a rustic (quoted in Renoir, exhibition catalogue, Hayward Gallery, London,
1985, p. 253).

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, La marchande de pommes, circa 1890.


Baltimore Museum of Art.

The p res en t dr awi n g d ep i c t s a pr et ty


c ountr y gir l c as ua l l y p o s ed b e fo re a c o p s e
of tr ees , the s m al l s cy t h e i n he r r i g h t h an d
a re min der o f her w o rk i n th e fi el d s . She
s eems to b e d res s ed t o o el eg an t l y fo r real
lab or, ho wever , a n d h a s p erh a ps do n n ed
he r Su nd ay b es t t o m o d el fo r R en o i r; he r
inc lined he ad an d di st an t g az e s u g g es t a
d rea my re verie. Im ag er y o f ru ra l wo rk ers
at r es t ou td oo rs pl a y ed a c en tr al ro l e i n
the con temp ora ry i m a g ery b o t h o f R e no i r s
fellow I mp re ssi o n i s t P i s s a rro an d o f Sa lo n
ar tis ts su ch as Ju l es B ret o n a n d L o n
Lh er mitte. But wh e reas t he ir pa i n t in g s
gen er ally make a n o v er t l i n k b et ween t o i l
an d wea ry r ep o se, R en o i r av o i d s a n y s u ch
s igns , ins tead s u bs u m i n g t h e ri g o rs o f fa rm
life with in a n a m b i an c e o f ha rm o n i o us , c la ss ically d erive d s ere ni t y t h at wo u l d bec o m e
the de fin in g fea t u re o f h is l a te a n d m o s t
influen tia l style. Th i s g en t l e, a l m o s t i d yl li c
vision of c oun t ry l i fe b ear s c o m p ar i so n wit h
the mor e mo num en t a l, so l em n i m a ge s o f
wo rk whic h Piss a rro wa s p a i n ti ng at t h e s am e
time, Jo hn Ho us e h as wri t t en . P i s s ar r o s
c onc er ns we re w i t h t he ro l e o f l a b o r wi th i n
an integ ra te d r ur al so c i e ty , R en o i rs wi t h t h e
c ountr y as s ite f o r e as y rel at i o n s a nd h ea lt hy
oc cu pa tio ns (i bi d ., p p . 2 53- 254 ).

44

R en o i r s s ea rc h f o r n ew s ub j ec t s in t he
Fr enc h co u n t rys i d e co i nc i d es wi t h a w at e r sh ed p er i o d o f reas s es sm e nt an d ren ewa l
fo r t h e ar t i st , wh o w as th en n e ari n g fi ft y.
In Ma y 1 88 7, h e h a d e x hi b i t ed L e s gra n d e s
b a i gne u s e s, a v eri t a bl e m a n i fes to o f t he
h ar d- ed g ed , In g re sq u e m an n er t ha t he ha d
a ss i d u o us l y c u lt i v a te d o v er th e pr ev io u s
t h ree yea rs (D au b ervi ll e, no . 1 29 2 ; P hi lad el p hi a Mu s eum o f A rt ). C o n fi de nt th at he
h ad b ro u g h t t h i s l i n ear st yl e t o i ts p i nn ac le
- a nd s i m ul t a neo us l y d i s he art en ed th at
t h i s m o n um e nt a l p a i n t in g , in wh i c h h e ha d
i n ves t ed s o m u c h, ha d m et wi t h a l ar g el y
h o s ti l e re sp o n s e - R en o i r e m ba rk ed o n a ne w
p at h al m o s t as s o o n a s t h e ex h i b it i o n cl o s ed .
H e b eg a n t o t rav el a g ai n wi d el y, se ek i n g in sp i ra t io n i n t h e ri c h l y c o l o u red art o f Ti t i a n ,
R u b ens , a n d t h e Fre nc h R o co c o , a n d h e
ren o u n ce d t h e c o o l t o n es , d ry s u rfa c e, a n d
c ri s p c o n t o u rs o f Le s gra n d es b a i gne use s.
I ha ve t a ken up a g a in , n e ver t o a b a nd o n
i t , m y o l d st y l e, s o ft a nd l i g h t o f t o uc h , h e
ex p l ai n ed t o D u ra nd -R u el . It s n o th i ng ne w ,
b ut ra t he r a fo ll o w -u p t o th e pa i n ti ng s o f t he
ei g h t een th c en t ur y. T hi s i s to g i ve y o u s o m e
i d ea o f m y new a n d fi n al m a n n er o f pa i nt in g
(l i k e F ra g o na rd , bu t n o t so g o o d ) (q u o te d
i n i b i d ., p . 2 54 ).

R M N - Gra n d P al ai s (m us e d Ors ay) / Her v Lewa ndowski

Camille Pissarro, La bergre, 1881.


Muse dOrsay, Paris.

During the same period, Renoir also began to


work more extensively with chalk and pastel,
which enabled him to unite his renewed
colourists instinct with the draftsmans
knowledge that he had developed through
his study of Ingres. His favorite became red
chalk or sanguine, a medium that had been
dear to Watteau, Boucher, and Fragonard as
well, which he used not only for sketches and
preparatory studies but for independent and
finely worked compositions such as the present Femme debout la faucille (La moissonneuse). With his soft chalks Renoir crushed
lines, blurred contours, and modeled forms,
John Rewald has written. Occasionally he
wiped a number of strokes into large areas.
Often several lines, repeating themselves in
parallel, generate a vibrating form. Thus the
human bodies, which he conceived as sensuous and generous, overflow their outlines
and radiate into space. Line is no longer a
limit which separates an object from its surroundings; it is, on the contrary, the medium
that unites them (op. cit., p. 14).
The exquisitely soft and harmonious manner that Renoir adopted in the wake of Les
grandes baigneuses was an immediate success,
ushering in a decade of mounting prosperity
and long-awaited fame for the artist. Durand-

Detail of the present lot.

Ruel began to buy eagerly from Renoir once


more, confident in his ability to find buyers.
Secure at last that he could support a family,
Renoir finally married Aline in April 1890. Im
in demand again on the market and I worked a
lot in the spring, the artist wrote to his friend
and patron Paul Brard a few weeks later. If
nothing happens to disturb my work, it will go
like clockwork (quoted in Renoir, exhibition
catalogue, Kunsthalle, Tbingen, 1996, p. 50).
In 1892, the French State purchased Renoirs
Jeunes filles au piano for the Muse du Luxembourg, a mark of official recognition that the
artist himself viewed as one of his crowning
achievements (Dauberville, no. 993; Muse
dOrsay, Paris). Later the same year, DurandRuel mounted a large retrospective of Renoirs
work that was exceptionally well-received
- the beginning of a triumph, the critic
Arsne Alexandre categorically proclaimed
(quoted in Renoir in the Twentieth Century,
exhibition catalogue, Los Angeles County
Museum of Art, 2009, p. 371).

Po ur l a vers i o n fran a i s e,
vo i r p. 1 04 -1 1 1

45

15
Camille Pissarro (1830-1903)
Paysannes travaillant dans les champs,
Pontoise
sign et dat C. Pissarro 81 (en bas
gauche)
gouache et pierre noire sur papier
32.2 x 49.7 cm.
Excut en 1881
signed and dated C. Pissarro 81 (lower left)
gouache and black chalk on paper
12 x 19 in.
Executed in 1881
250,000-350,000
US$295,500-413,500
196,300-274,700

provenance

bibliographie

Carl et Felicie Bernstein, Berlin.


Vente, Rudolph Lepkes Kunst-Auctions-Haus,
Berlin, 26 novembre 1929, lot 179.
Collection particulire, Allemagne (en 1929).
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas (en 2003).

L.-R. Pissarro et L. Venturi, Camille Pissarro,


son art, son uvre, Paris, 1939, vol. I, p. 267,
no. 1345 (illustr, vol. II, pl. 263).
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870
to the Present, the Collection of the
Triton Foundation, Bruxelles, 2012, p. 72
et 558-559 (illustr en couleurs, p. 73).

expositions
La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, The Outdoor Life,
Nineteenth-century French Landscapes from
the Triton Foundation, juillet-octobre 2005,
p. 23-25 (illustr en couleurs sur la couverture
et p. 24).
Milwaulkee, Museum of Art et Vienne, Albertina, Impressionism. Pastels, Watercolours,
Drawings, octobre 2011-mai 2012, p. 204-205,
no. 112 (illustr en couleurs).
Rotterdam, Kunsthal, Avant-Gardes, De collectie
van de Triton Foundation, octobre 2012-janvier 2013.

46

Ce t t e u vr e s e ra in c lu s e a u c a t a lo gu e
c r it iq u e d es p a s t el s et go u a c he s d e Ca m il le
Pis s a r r o a ct u el leme n t e n p rp a r a t io n p a r
lI n s t it u t W ild en s t ein .
Cla ir e D u r a n d -R u el S n o lla er t s a co n f ir m
la u t h en t ic it d e ce t t e u v re .

Chri s ti es Ima g es Li mi ted 1 9 9 5

Chri s ti es Ima g es Li mi ted 2 01 0

C a m i l l e P i ssa rro, La rc olte, Pontoise, 1 880.


C h ri sti e s, Lon don , 2 Feb r uar y 20 1 0 , lot 1 6.

C a m i l l e P i s s a rro , La r c o l t e d e s p o i s, 1 887 .
C h ri s t i e s , N ew Y o rk , 1 1 M a y 1 9 9 5, l o t 1 0 2 .

he e a rl y 1 880 s , wh en t h i s ex q u is ite g o u a c h e wa s p a i n t ed , wa s t h e
most ex t en s i ve p eri o d o f p i c t o ri a l
exp er iment a t i o n i n C a m i l l e P i s s a rro s en t i re
c ar eer . His l a n d s c a p e p ro d u c t i o n , s o c h ar ac ter is tic o f t h e p revi o u s d ec a d e, d wi n dled in favor o f l a rg e-s c a l e fi g u re p a i n t i n g .
His b r us hwo rk evo l ved t o wa rd u n i fo rm l y
s mall, c ar ef u l l y c o n t ro l l ed t o u c h es o f p a i n t ,
c los er to C z a n n e s c o n s t ru c t i vi s t s t ro k e
than to the free, p a i n t erl y h a n d l i n g t h a t
p r ac titione rs o f t h e Im p res s i o n i s t m et h o d
mor e typ ic al l y fa vo red . Fi n a l l y, h i s t ec h n i c a l
logis tic s b e c a m e m o re c o m p l ex , i n vo l vi n g
gr eater s tu d i o wo rk a n d i n c rea s ed p rep ar ator y d r aw i n g , a n d h e b eg a n t o ex p l o re a
wid e r ange o f m ed i a , i n c l u d i n g p ri n t -m a k i n g ,
water c olou r, a n d g o u a c h e. A l l o f t h es e
var ied inter es t s s u g g es t a fu n d a m en t a l
q ues tioning o f t h e k i n d o f p a i n t i n g n o rm a l l y
as s oc iated wi t h Im p res s i o n i s m , t h e p l e i n -a i r
s ketc h, Ric h a rd Bret t el l h a s ex p l a i n ed ,
and a mor e c o m p l i c a t ed , h i g h l y m ed i a t ed
r elations hip wi t h rea l i t y t h a n a s i m p l e o p t ic al one (P i s s a rro a n d P o n t o i s e : Th e P a i n t e r
in a Landsca p e, N ew H a ven , 1 9 9 0 , p . 1 84 ).
One of the largest and most significant groups
of paintings that Pissarro made during this key
period of reassessment and renewal portrays
rural women engaged in everyday agrarian
chores - watering the garden, digging a plot

of land, picking cabbages, gathering grass,


pushing a wheelbarrow, tending animals - or,
alternatively, at rest and reverie during the
day. These works are a major contribution
to Impressionist figure painting, Brettell
has declared, and are, in effect, a critical
part of the collective Impressionist portrait
of contemporary French society (Pissarros
People, exhibition catalogue, Sterling and
Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown,
Massachusetts, 2011, p. 171).
In P a ys a n n e s t ra va i l l a n t d a n s l e s c h a m p s ,
P o n t o i s e, p a i n t ed i n 1 881 , P i s s a rro d ep icts a
g ro u p o f fi ve yo u n g wo m en h a rves t i n g p e as
o n t h e ru ra l o u t s k i rt s o f P o n t o i s e, a b us tlin g
m a rk et t o wn a b o u t fo rt y k i l o m et ers n o rt h wes t o f P a ri s wh ere h e a n d h i s fa m i l y h ad
l i ved fo r o ver a d ec a d e. P i s s a rro h a d fir s t
t rea t ed t h e t h em e o f p i c k i n g p ea s i n t w o o ils
t h e p revi o u s yea r, a n d h e ret u rn ed t o th e
m o t i f a t l ea s t t h ree t i m es fo l l o wi n g h is m o v e
t o t h e a g ra ri a n h a m l et o f ra g n y i n 1 88 4
(P i s s a rro a n d D u ra n d -R u el Sn o l l a ert s , n o s .
6 2 7 , 6 37 , a n d 1 0 0 8; P i s s a rro a n d Ven t ur i,
n o s . 1 4 0 8 a n d 1 4 31 ). In t h e p res en t g o u ach e ,
t h e b ri l l i a n t em era l d h u e o f t h e fi el d a n d th e
d eep , b l u e-g reen c o n t en t s o f t h e b a s k e ts
s u g g es t t h a t t h e c ro p m i g h t b e m a rro w f ats ,
p ea s t h a t h a ve b een a l l o wed t o m a t u re o n
t h e vi n e ra t h er t h a n b ei n g h a rves t ed w h e n
yo u n g l i k e o rd i n a ry g a rd en p ea s . Th e lu s h ,

tous d roit s r ser v s

Cami l le P i ssar ro , L a c uillette des pois, r agny, 1 893 .


Mu se um Lan g matt, Bad en .

j ew el -li ke t on e s of th e p ea field domin ate


th e c omp osi ti o n , formin g a b roa d d ia gona l
i n t he fo re g ro u nd th at lead s into the s c ene;
th e r ed a n d y el lo w chec ke d h ea dsc a rf of the
n ea res t f i gur e st an ds ou t s h ar ply aga ins t this
sw a th o f g re e n a nd p rovides a foc a l poin t in
th e o pe n , pa n or amic vis ta.
U n li ke M i lle t s vi s ion of the F ren c h
co un t rys i de , i n w h ich la bor is c eas eles s
a nd b ack -b re a ki ng, Piss a rro s r ur al ima gery
fr om th e 1 8 8 0 s i s s uffu se d w ith a s ense of
w ar mth a n d e a se . H ere, th e thr ee figur es
i n t he fo re g ro u nd b en d gr ac efully an d in
h ar mon y, th ei r c ollec tive wor k tak ing on th e
ch a ract er o f a co untry d a nce; th e p air of
w omen i n th e mi d dle dis tan c e, mea nw hile,
pa u se f rom t he har ves t to res t an d con ver s e.
T he domi n a nt c oo l ton es of the women s
si mp le , h omema de cloth es in tegra te th em
i n to t he su rro un din g lan d sca pe of gr eens
a nd b lu es, w h i l e th eir sle nder b od ies a nd
u nf or ced po se s con ve y a sen s e of th e hea lth
a nd v i ta li ty i n ru ra l life. A n a dmir er of Peter
K ropo tk in s se mi -u topia n th eories of agr icu lt ur e, P i ssa rr o ha s c rea te d a moder n ru ra l
pa st ora le , i n w h i ch w ork is cooper ative an d
ba la n ced by a mple opp ortu nities for leis ur e.
P i ssar ro w a s pe rh ap s th e fir st grea t p a inter
of Fren ch ru ra l li fe w ho a ctu a lly rev ealed
a ki n d o f re la xe d b eau ty in fieldw ork,
B ret te ll has n o te d . His p olitically inf lec ted
a na rch i st wor ld gives ru ra l lab or a pr ima c y

D et ai l o f t he p re sen t l o t.

in its r e pr ese nt a t i o n o f wo r k, b u t t h a t wo r k
is p rod u c t iv e an d fu l fi l l i n g (i b id ., p p . 17 1
an d 17 5).
The qu i et eas e o f t h e h arv es t er s i n th e
p re sent g o u ac h e i s co n t ras t ed wi t h t h e
inten si ty o f t he a rt i s t s o wn l a bo r, whi ch is
r ec ord ed i n t h e d en s e fa ct u re o f t ho u s a nd s
of in divi d u a l t o u c hes o f p i g m en t . In l et te rs
to h is s o n s, ho weve r, P i s s arro r ep e at ed l y
likene d t h e s ens e o f u rg en cy t ha t h e f el t
up on fi nd i n g a p ro m is i n g m o ti f wi t h t h at o f
a fa rmer w hen t he c ro p s a re ri pe; i n b o t h
c as es, o n e m us t set t o wo rk w it h o u t d el a y o r
all may b e l o s t . I h ave ex p e ri en c ed i t , fo l lo w
it! Whe n yo u feel a ce rt ai n t h i n g , y o u ha v e
to d o it a t wh at eve r c o s t . Y o u ca n b e s ur e
that yo u wi l l rea p t h e rewa rd s (q u o t ed in
J. Piss arr o , P i ss a rro, N ew Y o rk , 1 9 93 , p . 18 6 ).
Piss ar ro s a p p ro a c h t o cr ea t i vi t y , m o r eo v er ,
wa s not t h at o f t h e i s o la t ed a n d b ro o d in g
gen ius ; i n s te ad , h e sa w h i m s el f as a m em b e r
of a c om m u ni t y o f li ke-m i n d ed i nd i vi d ua ls
wo rking t o wa rd a c o m m o n go a l , a n d h e a s s umed th e r o l e o f t eac h er fo r y o un g er ar ti s ts
as w ell a s fo r h i s s o n s. Fo r a m a n o f th i s
c oop er at i v e o ut l o o k an d ex e m pl a ry wo r k
ethic , t h e ha rv est - h ere o f p ea s, el sewh ere
of a pp les , p o t a t o es, o r h ay - wa s a po we rf ul
s ymb ol o f h i s o wn l i f e s w o rk.
Po ur l a vers i o n fran a i s e,
vo i r p. 1 04 -1 1 1

49

16
Paul Signac (1863-1935)
Saint-Tropez, la jete vue du chantier naval
avec le cachet indistinct P Signac
(en bas droite)
crayon Cont sur papier verg
24 x 31 cm.
Excut en 1892
illegibly stamped P Signac (lower right)
Cont crayon on laid paper
9 x 12 in.
Executed in 1892
18,000-25,000
US$21,300-29,650
14,100-19,650

provenance
Galerie Lucie Weill, Paris (avant 1965).
Arthur G. Altschul, New York.
Galerie Hopkins-Custot, Paris.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celle-ci, en 2003).

expositions
Paris, Galerie Lucie Weill, Paul Signac,
juin-juillet 1965, p. 4, no. 39.
New York, Albert Loeb & Krugier Gallery, Paul
Signac, watercolors, gouaches, drawings, lithographs, fvrier-mars 1971 (probablement no. 25).
Purchase, Neuberger Museum of Art, End
Papers: Drawings 1890-1900 and 1990-2000,
janvier-avril 2000, p. 18 et 38, no. 94 (illustr,
p. 18, fig. 28).

aint-Tropez, la jete vue du chantier naval represents one of the


first studies of the celebrated Var
port executed by Paul Signac in May 1892.
The artist, who would enjoy a passion
for sailing, had just completed a journey
onboard the Olympia, a yacht which had
taken him from Bnodet in Finistre to the
Mediterranean. In a letter to his mother,
he wrote: As of yesterday, I am bathing
in joy. Not five minutes from the old town
lost amongst the pines and rose bushes, I
have found a small furnished dwelling[]
before the golden shore of the gulf, the
blue waves come to an end on the small
beach, my beach, and a fine mooring for
Olympia [] in the background are the
blue silhouettes of the Maures and of the

50

Martigny, Fondation Pierre Gianadda,


P. Signac, juin-novembre 2003, p. 172-173,
no. 78 (illustr en couleurs, p. 173).
Milwaulkee, Museum of Art et Vienne,
Albertina, Impressionism. Pastels, Watercolours,
Drawings, octobre 2011-mai 2012, p. 261, no. 157
(illustr en couleurs, p. 260).

bibliographie
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870
to the Present, the Collection of the
Triton Foundation, Bruxelles, 2012,
p. 563 (illustr en couleurs, p. 97).
M a ri na F er r et t i a c o n fi rm la u th e n ti ci t
d e c et te u vr e.

Esterel []. I have enough to keep me working my entire life. I have just discovered
happiness. Saint-Tropez is a revelation
for the artist who decides to relocate
there. He acquires a house above the beach
at Graniers, moves his studio there and
completes a number of paintings showing
the port and its surroundings.
Si g n a c , t he f i rs t a rt i s t t o su c c u m b t o th e
c h arm s o f t h e t o wn , wo u l d s o o n wel c o m e
n um e ro us fr i en ds wh o w o ul d i n tu rn fa ll
u nd er t h e s pel l o f t h e p en i n s ul a: L uc e, C r o s s ,
M at i s s e, M a ng u i n , Bo n n ar d , M arq u et o r ev en
P i c ab i a t o n am e b u t t h e b es t kn o wn .

Po ur l a vers i o n fran ai s e ,
vo i r p. 1 04 -11 1

17
Andr Derain (1880-1954)
Etude pour Lge dOr
avec le cachet a. Derain (en bas gauche)
gouache et pierre noire sur papier
50.1 x 58.5 cm.
Excut vers 1905
stamped a. Derain (lower left)
gouache and black chalk on paper
19 x 23 in.
Executed circa 1905
200,000-300,000
US$236,300-354,500
157,000-235,500

provenance
Ambroise Vollard, Paris.
Collection Granclaudon, Paris.
Wildenstein & Co., New York.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de ceux-ci, en 2000).

expositions
Houston, Museum of Fine Arts, Focus on the
Beck Collection: Andr Derains The Turning
Road, LEstaque, mai-juillet 2002, p. 12-13,
fig. 17 (illustr en couleurs, p. 13).
Rotterdam, Boijmans Van Beuningen Museum,
From Monet to Picasso, Masterpieces on Paper
1860-1960 from the Triton Foundation Collection,
novembre 2002-fvrier 2003 (sans catalogue).
Seoul, Museum of Art, Matisse and the
Fauves, Color of the Century, dcembre
2005-mars 2006, p. 134 (illustr en
couleurs, p. 135).

52

La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, More than colour.


Fauvism and Expressionism from the Collection
of the Triton Foundation, avril-septembre
2009, p. 12-13 (illustr en couleurs, p. 13).
La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, Parijs, Stad van de
moderne kunst 1900-1960, octobre 2011- janvier
2012, p. 30 (illustr en couleurs, p. 31).
Rotterdam, Kunsthal, Avant-Gardes, De collectie
van de Triton Foundation, octobre 2012-janvier 2013.
Vienne, Albertina, Matisse and the Fauves,
septembre 2013-janvier 2014, p. 318, no. 88
(illustr en couleurs, p. 149).

bibliographie
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the Present,
the Collection of the Triton Foundation, Bruxelles,
2012, p. 202 et 543 (illustr en couleurs, p. 203).
Le Co mit De r ai n a c o n f ir m l a u t h e n ti ci t
d e c et te u vr e.

A da gp, Pa ri s 2 01 5/ Phot o : t ous droi ts r serv s

F i g . 1 An dr Der ai n , L ge dOr, 19 05 .
T e h ra n M use um o f Cont emp orar y A rt.

his free and lively gouache is a study


for Lge dOr (fig. 1), the most
monumental and ambitious canvas
that Andr Derain painted in 1905, the year
in which the incendiary colours of Fauvism
took the art world by storm and propelled
the impetuous young Derain and his more
seasoned compatriot Matisse to the forefront
of the Parisian avant-garde. Fauvism was
our ordeal by fire, Derain later wrote about
this first real revolution in the development
of twentieth-century art. Colours became
charges of dynamite. They were expected to
discharge light (quoted in D. Sutton, Andr
Derain, London, 1959, p. 20). In Lge dOr, Derain took up the venerable theme of the Ovids
Golden Age, encapsulating its paradisiacal
spirit in an ensemble of seductive nudes and
exultant dancers, set in a lush landscape and
rendered in sweeping arabesques. Whereas
Matisses contemporaneous and closely related idyll Le bonheur de vivre (fig. 2) exudes a
sense of bucolic leisure and Apollonian composure, Derains vision of the Golden Age is
one of exotic revelry and frenzied, Dionysian
ecstasy. Lge dOr is more Fauve, more wild,
in its conception, John Elderfield has proclaimed, than any of the landscapes Derain
made in 1905 (The Wild Beasts: Fauvism
and Its Affinities, New York, 1976, p. 105).

D et ai l o f t he p re sen t l o t.

De rain s move t o art i s t ic m a tu ri t y o v er


the cou rs e of t h at s i ng le f ab l ed yea r wa s
s wift and de cisi v e. In t he f al l o f 19 0 4, a t ag e
twen ty- four , h e ha d en d ed h i s t hre e ye ar s
of c omp ulsor y m i li ta ry s e rvi c e an d res u m ed
p ainting alon g s i de V l a m in c k , h is b es t f ri end
an d so le pa rtn er i n t h e s el f-s ty l ed S c ho o l
of Ch atou. Soo n , h o wev er , h e be ga n t o
gr avita te tow ar ds M at i s s e, el ev en yea rs h i s
s enior , w ho, w h il e s t i l l st ru g g l i n g fi na nc ia l l y
an d ye t to s olid i f y h is p l a ce i n th e a va nt gar d e, a lr ea dy m o ved i n p r o gr es si ve c ir c l es .
Der ain inc re as i n g l y s ho w ed hi m s el f r ea d y
to matc h Ma tiss e i n am b i t io n , E l d erfi el d
ha s wr itten , an d ev en at t i m es in ad va nc e
of h im (ibid., p. 34 ). A t M at i s s e s s ug ge stion, Der ain s ub m i t t ed ei gh t pa i n ti ng s t o
the Salon de s I nd p en da n t s i n th e sp r in g o f
1 905, wh ere th ey h un g i n th e sa m e ro o m a s
M atis s es own d i vi s i o n is t m a ni fe st o Lux e ,
c alme et volu p t (M u s e d O rsa y , P ar i s ).
F our of th e e ig ht p a in t i n g s s o l d , a nd a t s o l i d
p ric es ; s hor tly t her ea fte r, D era i n s bo u rgeo is par e nts d ro p p ed th ei r s t au n ch res i stanc e to th eir s o n s c h o sen c a reer p at h. T he
youn g ar tist, pa s si o n a t e a nd de te rm i n ed ,
wa s la unc h ed .
In J uly 19 0 5, Dera i n a c ce pt ed M a t i ss e s
invitatio n to joi n h i m at C o ll io u r e, a re m o te

54

fi s h i ng v il l a g e i n t h e fo o t h il ls o f t he P y ren ees w her e he a nd h i s wi fe A m l ie h a d b e e n


s i nc e M a y. I c a nn o t in s i s t t o o s tr o ng l y th at
a s t a y he re i s a bs o l u t el y n ec es sa ry f o r yo u r
wo r k, M a t is s e wro t e to D era i n (qu o t ed in
H . S p ur li n g , Th e Un kn o w n M a t i s se : A Li fe o f
H e n ri Ma t i s se , Th e Ea rl y Y e a rs, N ew Y o rk ,
1 99 9 , p . 3 16 ). In f ac t , t h e s o j o u rn at s u n d ren c he d C o l l i o u re wo u l d u t t er l y t ra nsfo r m t h e wo rk o f b o th ar ti st s . W i t h in a few
week s , p ai nt i n g si d e -b y-s i d e, t h ey b ro ke
fr ee fro m t h e co ns t rai nt s o f di v i s io n i s m a nd
a dv an c ed to a hi th ert o un k no w n l i b ert y in
a rt , a pp l y i ng p u re, u n m o du l a t ed pi g m en ts i n
b ra sh , i r reg u l ar s t ro k es an d p a tc h es . W h en
D era i n a nd M at i s s e e x hi b i t ed t h e p ro du ct s
o f t h i s s p ec t ac u l ar s u m m er at t h e 1 9 0 5
Sa l o n d A ut o m n e, i t c a us ed an im m e d ia t e
s en sa t i o n , c h al l en g i n g a n d e ven o u t ra g i ng
vi ew ers . T he c ri t i c Lo u i s V a ux c el l es d ub be d
t h e t wo h o t yo u n g p ai nt ers an d th e ir co h o r t
l e s f au ve s ( t h e wi l d b eas t s ) - a so b r i q ue t
o r a n ep i t he t, d ep en di ng o n o ne s p o i nt o f
vi ew a t t h e t i m e, t h at s t uc k h ar d a n d f as t.
D era i n wo r ked o n h i s m o n u m en t al o i l L g e
d O r th ro ug h o u t t h i s m o m en t o u s y ear . Th e
d i vi s i o n is t ha n d l in g s ug ge st s th at h e b eg an
t h e p a i n ti n g i n t h e sp ri n g , l i k el y i n res p o n s e
t o Ma t i s s es Lu x e , c a l m e et v o lu p t . H e l ef t

Suc ce ssi on H. Ma ti sse / Photo : Br idgeman Ima ges

F i g . 2 He n ri Ma ti s se, L e b on heu r de vivr e, 1 905 - 06.


B a r ne s F ou n da ti o n, P hi l ad elp hia.

th e c an va s b eh i n d in his stu d io w he n h e wen t


sou t h i n Ju ly , bu t it w as ne ver far fr om h is
mi n d; i n a l et t er to V lamin c k fr om Colliou re,
h e me nt i on s h av i ng mu ltiple s tud ies un d erw a y fo r hi s g ra nde toile, as he ca lled it.
I w il l n e ve r hav e ma de a wor k as comp lex
a nd a s di ffe ren t, as d is conc er tin g for the
cr it ic s ( i n P . D age n, ed., An dr Der ain ,
Let t res V la mi n ck, Par is, 19 9 4, p. 17 0 ). He
re sume d w or k o n th e tw o- mete r can va s in
th e f al l , arou n d t he s ame time th a t M a tis s e
be ga n h i s ow n G old en A ge tab lea u, L e bonh eu r de v iv re. T he he ighten ed palette is now
th a t of Co ll i ou re, an d th e red foregr o un d
n ud es b ear t h e u nmista ka ble sta mp of
Ga ug u in , wh o se p r imitive p as tora ls D era in
h ad s tu die d ov er the s umme r in D a nie l d e
Mon f rei d s c ol le ction . D era in h a d in itially
e nv i sio n ed L ge d Or a s th e cen terp iec e
of hi s su bmi ssi o n to th e Sa lon d Au tomne,
bu t th e p ai n ti n g wa s n ot r ead y in time . Ev en
w i th out it , how e ver, D er ain mad e q uite a
sp la sh , a n d t he dea ler Volla rd - alw ay s on th e
l ook out for t h e l ate st s hinin g talen t o f the
a va nt -ga rd e - pu t him u nder c on tr ac t b ef ore
th e S a lon ev en c lo s ed.
T he pre se nt s tu d y inclu d es a lmost a ll th e
fi g ure s fr om th e fina l ver sion of L ge d O r.
T he tw o wi l l ow y re veler s in th e c enter a re

D et ai l o f t he p re sen t l o t.

ther e, th ei r wh i t e sk i rt s bi l l o wi ng c a b ar et s tyle as t h ey ki c k u p t h ei r h eel s ; s o a re t h e


r osy- rin g o f d an c ers i n t h e b ac k ri g h t , t h e
In gr esq u e ba t h ers t h at fra m e th e s c ene , an d
the tw o r ec li n i n g nu d es i n t h e fo r eg ro und ,
the one o n t h e l eft co v eri n g he r f a ce i n m el od ra mati c d i st r ess (o r p erh ap s i t i s ec s ta s y ).
Only the t h ir d f o reg ro u n d fi g u re i s m i s s i n g,
an d in h er s t ead D erai n h a s a dd ed a wan t o n,
s un- kis se d n u de w ho l ea ps wi t h e up h o ri c
ab an do n a c ro s s t h e ce nt er o f t he s c ene . Th e
oil p ain t i ng f eat u res an al m o s t N i e tz s c he an
op p osi t io n b et ween th e f la t , d ar k-t o n ed ,
s omewh a t s i ni st er fo r eg ro u n d a n d t he
b rilliant l y l i t , m o r e s p ac i o u s ce nt ra l zo n e;
in th e p res ent s he et , th e b o l d co n t ras t o f
c omp le m en ta ri es - l i g h t o ra n g e a ga i n s t d eep
b lu e - ex p res s es t h i s sa m e du a l i t y el eg an t l y
an d suc c i n ct l y. W he re th e o i l h a s a c ert ai n
s tiffnes s i n h eren t i n t h e d i v is i o n i s t t ec hniq ue, ho w ever, t hi s st u d y i s freel y b r us he d
an d gra c efu l i n i t s f o rm a l i d i o m , p res e rv in g
all the f res h n ess an d i m m ed i a cy o f D e ra in s
wo rk fr o m C o l l i o u re .
With its heightened palette, exotic
overtones, and intentionally disjointed,
dream-like structure, Lge dOr represents a radically anti-classical re-working
of a theme - the Golden Age - with a long

55

and illustrious lineage in western art, from


Giorgione and Bellini to Ingres and Puvis
de Chavannes. Derain, of course, was not
the first artist to update the iconography
of the idyll for modern times: Signac and
Cross had imagined flourishing anarchist
utopias on the shores of the Mediterranean, and Gauguin had located the Golden
Age in the geographically distant paradise
of Tahiti and the Marquesas Islands. Yet
Derains blatant transgressions of the
genres classical conventions would have
had particular significance in 1905, the
very moment that the deeply conservative
Action Franaise was promoting classicism
as a national value. Derains canvas would
have challenged the idea that the mythical
past offered a model of classical order to
which the decadent present should return,
James Herbert has concluded. From
this perspective Derain, even more than
Matisse, had violated the promise of a calm
and hierarchical Latin past in favor of the
pleasures of exotic intoxication (Fauve
Painting: The Making of Cultural Politics,
New Haven, 1992, p. 139).
Po ur l a vers i on f ran a is e,
vo ir p. 1 04 -11 1

18
Georges De Feure (1868-1943)
Llgante lAiguille Creuse
sign dE FEURE. (en bas droite)
gouache sur papier vert
44 x 29.7 cm.
Excut entre 1905 et 1909
signed dE FEURE. (lower right)
gouache on green paper
17 x 11 in.
Executed between 1905 and 1909
20,000-30,000
US$23,650-35,500
15,700-23,550

provenance
Vente, Piasa, Paris, 8 juillet 1999, lot 95.
Collection particulire, Belgique.
Galerie Hopkins-Custot, Paris.
Fondation Triton, Pays-Bays (acquis auprs de
celle-ci, en 2001).

bibliographie
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870
to the Present, the Collection of the
Triton Foundation, Bruxelles, 2012, p. 546
(illustr en couleurs, p. 129).
Ia n Mi llm a n a co n f ir m l a u t h en c it d e
cette uvr e.
La n o t i ce d e ce l o t
es t d i s p o n ib l e s ur c hr i st i e s. co m
T he n o te f o r th i s lo t
ma y b e v ie wed a t c hr i s ti es .co m

56

19
Paul-lie Ranson (1861-1909)
Tigre dans les jungles
sign P. Ranson (en bas droite)
encre de Chine, lavis dencre et graphite
sur papier
42.5 x 33.5 cm.
Excut en 1893

provenance
Vente, M es Beaussant et Lefevre, Paris, 11 juillet
1994, lot 52.
Arthur G. Altschul, New York (acquis au cours
de cette vente).
Galerie Hopkins-Custot, Paris.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celle-ci, en 2002).

expositions
signed P. Ranson (lower right)
India ink, ink wash and pencil on paper
16 x 13 in.
Executed in 1893
25,000-35,000
US$29,650-41,350
19,650-27,500

Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Muse dpartmental


Maurice Denis, Le Prieur, Paul Elie Ranson, du
Symbolisme lArt Nouveau, octobre 1997-janvier 1998, p. 91, no. 38.
La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, Clarion Call of
Modern Art, the Nabis in the Collection of the
Triton Foundation, avril-novembre 2008, p. 12
et 33 (illustr en couleurs, p. 33).

57

Wuppertal, Von der Heydt-Museum, Pierre


Bonnard, Magier der Farbe, septembre
2010-janvier 2011, p. 141 (illustr en couleurs).
Rotterdam, Kunsthal, Avant-Gardes, De collectie
van de Triton Foundation, octobre 2012-janvier 2013.

bibliographie
B. Ranson Bitker et G. Genty, Paul Ranson,
Catalogue raisonn, Japonisme, Symbolisme,
Art Nouveau, Paris, 1999, p. 139, no. 114 (illustr en couleurs).
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the Present,
the Collection of the Triton Foundation, Bruxelles,
2012, p. 560 (illustr en couleurs, p. 116).
La n o t ice d e ce l o t
es t d i s p o n ib l e s ur c hr is t ie s . co m
T he n o te f or t h is l o t
ma y b e v ie wed a t c hr i s ti e s. co m

20
Odilon Redon (1840-1916)
Rverie
sign ODILON REDON (en bas gauche)
pastel et fusain sur papier
54.5 x 37.8 cm.
Excut vers 1900
signed ODILON REDON (lower left)
pastel and charcoal on paper
21 x 14 in.
Executed circa 1900
300,000-500,000
US$354,500-590,700
235,500-392,500

provenance
Jos Hessel, Paris.
Alexander G. Bing, New York; vente,
M e Lair-Dubreuil, Paris, 9 juin 1927, lot 65.
Downtown Gallery, New York.
Abby Aldrich Rockefeller, New York (acquis
auprs de celle-ci, le 4 avril 1928).
Museum of Modern Art, New York (don de
celle-ci, en 1935).
Eugene V. Thaw, New York (en 1971).
Collection particulire, Japon.
Galerie Hopkins-Custot, Paris.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celle-ci, en 2002).

expositions
New York, Museum of Modern Art, Lautrec,
Redon, janvier-mars 1931, no. 92a.
Paris, Petit Palais, Odilon Redon, fvrier-mars
1934, no. 65.
New York, Museum of Modern Art, Modern
Paintings and Drawings, Gift of Mrs. John D.
Rockefeller, JR., janvier-fvrier 1936, no. 108.
Princeton, The Present Day Club, Exhibition,
novembre 1938.
Twelve Small Pictures, exposition itinrante
organise par le Museum of Modern Art, New
York, novembre 1941-aot 1942.
Albany, Institute of History and Art, Beauty,
and is it Art?, novembre 1944.
Mystery in Paint, exposition itinrante organise par le Museum of Modern Art, New York,
novembre 1945-juin 1946.
Boston, School of the Museum of Fine Arts,
avril 1948.
Syracuse, Syracuse University, College of Fine
Arts, 15 Impressionists, novembre 1949, no. 16.
Winnipeg, Art Gallery, Paintings from the
Museum Collection of the Museum of Modern
Art, janvier-fvrier 1951.

58

Akron, Art Institute, Collection of the Museum


of Modern Art, mars-avril 1951.
Poughkeepsie, Vassar College, New York
Vassar College Exhibition, mars-avril 1954.
Palm Beach, Society of the Four Arts, Odilon
Redon, mars-avril 1955, no. 25.
New York, The New Gallery, Odilon Redon,
novembre 1958, no. 5.
Rotterdam, Boijmans Van Beuningen Museum,
From Monet to Picasso, Masterpieces on Paper
1860-1960 from the Triton Foundation Collection,
novembre 2002-fvrier 2003 (sans catalogue).
Milwaulkee, Art Museum et Vienne, Albertina, Impressionism. Pastels, Watercolours,
Drawings, octobre 2011-mai 2012, p. 220,
no. 124 (illustr en couleurs, p. 221).
Rotterdam, Kunsthal, Avant-gardes, De
collectie van de Triton Foundation, octobre
2012- janvier 2013, p. 10 (un dtail illustr en
couleurs; dat vers 1893).

bibliographie
A. H. Barr, Painting and Sculpture in the
Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1942, p. 71,
no. 513.
Tricolor II, fvrier 1945, p. 80, no. 2 (illustr).
J. Rewald, Post-Impressionism, from Van Gogh
to Gauguin, New York, 1956, p. 179 (illustr).
J. Canaday, Mainstreams of Modern Art, New
York, 1959, p. 389, no. 468 (illustr).
K. Berger, Odilon Redon, Phantasie und Farbe,
Cologne, 1964, p. 213, no. 416.
A. Wildenstein, Odilon Redon, Catalogue
raisonn de luvre peint et dessin, Portraits
et figures, Paris, 1992, vol. I, p. 162, no. 403
(illustr).
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the Present, the Collection of the Triton Foundation,
Bruxelles, 2012, p. 164 et 560 (illustr en couleurs, p. 165; dat vers 1893).

ou are no t wr ong, Edga r


Al l an Po e wr ote, that all my
da ys h a ve b een a dr e am. .. All
t h at we s ee or s eem i s bu t a d re am w ithin
a dre am ( from th e p oem A D rea m within
a D r ea m, pu bl i sh ed 1 8 49) . Od ilon Red on
i n 18 82 ex h i bi t ed a n al bu m of d ra win gs ,
e t c hin gs a n d l i th ogr aph s he title d and
d ed ic at ed E dg ar P oe; se vera l ye ars later
t h e w ri te r Jor i s- Ka rl Huys mans , a n ad mir er
o f b o t h me n , pu bl i sh ed an app re cia tio n in
wh i ch he be st owe d up on Redon the h onor
o f h a v i n g bec ome i n hi s w ork the p rinc e
o f m y ste ri ou s dr eams (q uoted in Odilon
R e d o n, ex h i bi t i on c ata l ogue , Th e A rt I ns tit u t e o f C h i ca go, 1 99 4, p . 1 45) .
R v er ie is an i co ni c Re don vis age, h is s ignat u r e su bj e ct, wh i ch ma y b e a p ers on of either
se x , cl ad i n r ai men t of ti me less ly u nc ert a in per i od o r pr ov ena nc e, r apt in p ens ive
si l e n c e, i mmer se d i n th e r adia nc e of inwar d
v i si on s, t ran sp or te d to dis ta nt u nkn owab le
re a l m s on sp ec t ra l cu rr ents of dr eam. A nd
o nc e R edo n ha d tu rn ed to colou r in his
wo r k, by a ro u nd 18 9 3, th e n ightmaris h and
m a ca bre si d e of h i s v i si on s th at ha d p r evail e d in h i s gra ph i c wor k - r end ere d un til then
i n b l a ck l i th ogr ap hi c c ra yon and tene b r ous
c ha rc o a l, i n w orks h e c al led his n oir s -

P h o t o : Brid g em a n I m ag e s

P h o t o : 2 014. G as p art /S ca la, F lor enc e

O di l o n R ed on , J e an n e dAr c, cir ca 19 0 0 .
Mu s e d Orsa y, P ar i s.

Odilon Redon, Le Sacr Cur (also known as Le Boudha), circa 1906.


M us eu m Kr l l er- M ll er , O t te rl o .

gave wa y to a m o re b eat i fi c rev el a ti o n o f


the wor ld. In the vi bra n t t i n t s o f p a st el s
es p ecially, he ma d e t he m a i n s ta y o f h i s new
wo rk a b rilliant , o t her wo rl d l y f lu o r es c en c e
of c olour b y w hi ch h e c o u l d c o n j ur e t he fl eeting ess en ce o f d ream s . R v e ri e d e sc r ib e s
an evan es ce nt d i m en si o n i n wh ic h R ed o n
gives no thin g t h e we ig ht o f s ub s t an ce a s o ne
migh t fin d in n a tu r e, o r ev en as m ay be s een
els ewh ere in the ar t o f h i s t i m e . In st ea d h e
c rea tes a p r iva t e i n n er re al i t y t h ro ug h m e an s
of a p han ta smag o r i ca l d is p l a y o f l yri ca l ,
c hr omatic abs t ra c t io n , e m bra c i ng t h e t o tality of the wor l d i n bo t h i ts s o m b er sh a d o ws
b elow, an d a vi vi d eff ul ge nc e o n h i g h .
Wh ile I re co gn i z e t he n ec es s it y fo r a b a s is
of ob s erve d re al i t y , R e do n de cl a red , tr u e
ar t lies in a r ea l it y th at i s fel t (q u o t ed in
J. Rew ald, Post-Impressionism, from Van
Gogh to Gauguin, t hi r d ed ., N e w Y o rk, 19 78 ,
p . 1 53 ) . The s en si ti v el y c o n t em p l a t i ve a s p ec t
s o p ro min ent i n R ed o n s wo r k d er i ved fr o m
the explor atory pr o c li vi t y fo r t h e m ys t i c al
d imens ion in h u m an as p i ra t i o n, a n a s s er t i o n
of id ealis m, w hi ch h ad bec o m e a pr eo c c up ation in F ren c h i n t el l ec tu a l ci rc le s d ur i ng t h e
fin- de- s i cle p eri o d , a ph e no m en o n wh ic h
s erve d a s a sp ir i t ua l c o u n t er wei g h t t o th e
we arying on s lau g h t o f p o s i ti vi s t m a t er ia l i s m

60

i n s c i en c e a n d c a p i t al i s t e co n o m i c s . R ed o n
a dr o i t l y na vi g a t ed an an ti -n at ur al is t m i l i eu
t h at ha d fo s t ered th e s y m bo l i s t m o vem en t,
en c o m p as s i ng b o t h th e C at h o l i c R ev i va l an d
t h e l u re o f E a st er n re li gi o ns , l i t era t u re an d
t h o ug h t - fo r R ed o n , i n pa rt i c ul ar, an in t eres t i n t h e l i f e an d th o u g ht o f t h e B ud d h a
- a s wel l a s c ert a i n s p i ri t u al i s t a s so c i a t i o ns ,
s uc h as Th eo s o p h y a nd R o si cr uc i a ni s m , an d
o t h er g ro u p s wh i c h im m e rse d t h em s e lv e s
i n a wi d eni n g fa s c in a t i o n wi th es o t er is m ,
o c c ul t i s m an d m ag i c .
R ed o n s s i ng u l a r u vre wa s c o n t ro v er s i a l;
c ri t i c s a n d p a rt i sa n s a l i k e d eb a te d wh er e t he
a rt i s t s a f fi ni ti es m ay a ct u a ll y l i e. H e s h ar ed
wi t h M a l l arm a nd t he s y m bo l i s t po et s t h e
n o t i o n t h at a rt s h o ul d n o t d es cr i be t h e t hi n g
i t s el f, b u t r at h er t h e e ffec t i t p ro du c es . H e
k new h o w t o s ug g es t m o o ds wi t h o u t b ei n g
p rec i s e, Jo h n R ewa ld o b s er ve d, h o w
t o i nd i c a te t h i ng s wi t h o ut d efi n i n g t h em ,
a l way s p ro vo ki ng a d e ep b u t i n de sc ri b ab l e
i m p res s i o n , l i ke t h at c reat ed b y m u s ic
(i bi d ., p . 1 6 2 ). R ed o n rem ai ned t hr o u gh o u t
h i s c a reer a r es o l ut el y i n n er- di r ec t ed a nd
s t an d -a l o ne a rt i s t , p la c i ng t h e de m an d s of
a rt , a nd i t s o wn t ra di ti o n s , a bo v e a ll el s e in
h i s l i fe a n d wo r k. An d fo r t hi s reas o n he al so
d ed i ca t ed t i m e an d ef fo rt t o t h e wel f ar e o f

T h e Br it ish M u se u m , Lo n dre s, Di st . RMN-Gra nd Pa l a i s / The Trust ees of t he B ri t i sh Muse u m

O di lo n R ed on , La c ellule dor, 189 2.


T he Br it is h Mus eum , Lon d on.

h i s prof es si o n a nd c olleagu es ; h e wa s on e of
th e c o-fo u nd ers o f th e Socit d es I nd p enda n ts, se rv i ng as its vic e- pr e siden t in 1 88 4
fo r it s de bu t ex h i bition . He c ontr ibu ted
v ari ou s su bj ec ts, inclu d ing my ster ious hea d s
a nd a pa ir of l an ds c ap es , to the eigh th an d
fi n a l i mpres si o n i s t gr oup exhibition o f 1 88 6;
th e c ri ti c P au l Adam d id n ot fail to notic e,
of cou rse , t h a t his ge nius , in d epe nden t of
a ll sch oo ls, be a rs n o imme diate rela tion to
Impre ss io ni sm (qu oted in Th e New Pa int i ng : Imp re s si on i sm 1 87 4- 18 86, exh ib ition
ca ta log u e, Nat i on al Galler y of Ar t, Was h ingto n , D .C., 1 98 6, p . 46 4 ).
S h owi n g t wi c e a gain w ith the I ndp en d ents ,
du ri n g 18 86 -8 7, Re don often se nt wor ks to
ot h er gr oup sh o ws. Th us fa r his on ly s olo
e xh i bit i on s w er e sma ll occ a siona l affair s in
i mpro vi sed ve n ues ; it wa s n ot un til 18 94 , at
th e a g e of fi ft y -f ou r, th at Redon wa s giv en
h i s fi rst on e -ma n show in a p res tigious
ga l le ry, t h e roo ms of th e dea ler Dur an d Ru el , w i th a r et ro spec tive that inclu d ed n ine
pa i nt in g s, t en p as te ls, sixty -thr ee ch a rc oa l
dr aw in g s an d fi ft y- thr e e lith ogra phs . His
n ew pa ste ls a pp ea led to a b roa de ning c liente l e. He co nse qu ently s h owed only pas tels
a nd d raw i n g s at A mbr oise Vollar d s ga llery
i n 1 89 8 ; an d s i mi lar ly, pa stels an d dr awin gs

Th e p res en t l o t .

- with on l y a s i n g l e o i l pa i n t in g - c o m p ri s ed
his r eturn en g ag em en t a t Du ra n d- R ue l t he
followi ng ye ar. By t h e b eg in n i n g o f 19 0 0 he
wa s on hi s wa y t o es t a bl i s h i n g t h e l uc ra ti ve
s uc ces s th a t h e wo u l d s u s ta i n hi m i n t he new
c entur y fo r t h e r em a in d er o f h i s c a reer. I
am wor ki n g a s a l way s w i th g re at j o y i n m y
p astels , h e wro t e to h i s f ri en d a n d c o l l ector A ndr ie s B o ng e r. An d th e y ar e pl ea s i n g,
p eop le wan t th em , an d th e y ta k e t h em fr o m
me as s o o n a s t hey a re m a d e (qu o t ed in
exhib iti o n c at a l o g ue , o p. c it ., 1 99 3, p. 259 ).
He is a t t h e o ri g i n o f a ll t h e a es t h et i c
inn ovati o n s o r ren o va t i o ns , o f a l l rev o lutions of t a st e t h at we h a ve wi t ne ss ed [ s in c e
1 89 0 ], Ma u ri c e Den i s wro t e o f R ed o n i n
1 91 2. H e fo r es aw t h em , h e ev en l o v ed t he ir
exc es se s .. . A s o p po sed t o w ei g h ty sy s t em s
that act u al l y m a s k t he a b se nc e o f se ns i t i vi ty
for most yo u n g pa i n te rs, R ed o n s le ss o n i s
his in abi l i t y t o p ai n t a n yt h i n g t h a t d o es n o t
r epr es e nt a s t a te o f t h e so u l , th at d o es no t
tra nsla t e an in t er io r vi s i o n . A d ec a d e l a te r
the Sur rea l i st s a do pt ed R e do n a s a p re cu rs or. Ma t i s se a d m i red t h e p uri ty a n d ar d o r
of th e to n a l i t i es o f hi s p al et t e. Ev en M ar c el
Du ch amp , t he ea rl y m o d ern i s t w ho m o s t
thor ou g hl y fo s t ered th e m i n d- set t h at h as
fac ilitat ed t he a rt o f o u r o w n e ra , p ai d t ri-

61

b ut e t o th e p ri n c e o f m ys t eri o u s d r ea m s
- If I wer e to s a y wh a t m y o wn p o in t o f
d ep ar t ur e h a s b een , h e d ec l a re d , I s ho u ld
s ay it wa s t h e a rt o f Od i l o n R ed o n (q u o te d
i n J . R ewa l d, S t u d i e s i n P o st -Im p re s si o n is m,
N ew Y o rk , 1 9 86 , p p . 2 2 3-2 2 4 a n d 2 4 0) .
Po ur l a vers i on f ran a is e,
vo ir p. 1 04 -11 1

21
Charles Filiger (1863-1928)
Christ aux anges
sign et dat FILIGER.92 (en haut droite)
gouache et peinture dore sur carton
28 x 26 cm.
Exxut en 1892
signed and dated FILIGER.92 (upper right)
gouache and gold paint on board
11 x 10 in.
Executed in 1892
6,000-8,000
US$7,100-9,500
4,700-6,300

provenance
Antoine de La Rochefoucauld, Paris (en 1892).
Arthur G. Altschul, New York (avant 1965).
Galerie Hopkins-Custot, Paris.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celle-ci, en 2003).

expositions
Paris, Galerie Durand-Ruel, Salon de la Rose +
Croix, mars-avril 1892.
Copenhague, Winkel & Magnussen, Gauguin
og Hans Venner: en udstilling af malerne som
dannede lcole de Pont-Aven, juin-juillet 1956,
p. 30, no. 62.
Minneapolis, Institute of Arts, The Nabis and their
Circle, novembre-dcembre 1962, p. 141, no. 4.
New Haven, Yale University Art Gallery, NeoImpressionists and Nabis in the Collection of
Arthur G. Altschul, janvier-mars 1965, p. 73-74,
no. 25 (illustr, p. 72).
Londres, The Tate Gallery, Gauguin and the PontAven Group, janvier-fvrier 1966, p. 36, no. 141.
Turin, Galleria Civica dArte Moderna et
Toronto, Art Gallery of Ontario, Il sacro e il
profane nellarte dei Simbolisti, juin-novembre
1969, p. XLIII.
Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Muse dpartemental
Maurice Denis, Le Prieur et Quimper, Muse
des Beaux-Arts, Filiger. Dessins, gouaches, aquarelles, novembre 1981-avril 1982, p. 52, no. 29.

62

Strasbourg, Muse dart moderne, Charles


Filiger, juin-septembre 1990, p. 169, no. 54
(illustr en couleurs, p. 44).
La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, Clarion Call
of Modern Art, the Nabis in the Collection
of the Triton Foundation, avril-novembre
2008, p. 26-27 (illustr en couleurs, p. 26).

bibliographie
R. de Gourmont, Les Premiers Salons: Indpendants - Rose + Croix - Exposition de Mme
Jeanne Jacquemin, in Mercure de France,
Paris, vol. V, no. 29, mai 1892, p. 64.
A. de La Rochefoucauld, Charles Filiger, in Le
Cur, Paris, vol. IV/V, juillet-aot 1893, p. 3-6.
W. Jaworska, Paul Gauguin et lEcole de PontAven, Neuchtel, 1971, p. 164 (illustr).
D. Thomas, The Face of Christ, Londres/New
York, 1979, p. 20.
F. Puget, Charles Filiger, Morlaix, 2001, p. 7.
C. Jeancolas, La peinture des Nabis, Paris,
2002, p. 56 (illustr en couleurs, p. 57).
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the Present, the Collection of the Triton Foundation,
Bruxelles, 2012, p. 546 (illustr en couleurs,
p. 101).
La n o t i ce d e ce lo t
es t d i s p o n ib l e s ur c hr i st i e s. co m
T he n o te f o r th i s lo t
ma y b e v ie wed a t c h ris t ies .co m

22
Jan Toorop (1858-1928)
De droom der zeven heuvelen
(Le rve des sept collines)
sign JTHToorop (en bas gauche)
et numrot No 3 (en haut droite)
graphite, pierre noire et crayon gras
sur papier
14.7 x 24.8 cm.
Excut en 1914
signed JThToorop (lower left)
and numbered No 3 (upper right)
pencil, black crayon and wax crayon
on paper
5 x 9 in.
Executed in 1914

provenance

bibliographie

H.P. Bremmer, La Haye.


Collection particulire, Pays-Bas (par descendance); vente, Christies, Amsterdam,
1er dcembre 1998, lot 211.
Kunsthandel Studio 2000, Blaricum.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celui-ci, en 2004).

C. Easton, J.E. Heeres et A. van der Valk, Het boek


der Koninging, Amsterdam, 1919, p. 8 (illustr).
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870
to the Present, the Collection of the
Triton Foundation, Bruxelles, 2012, p. 565
(illustr en couleurs, p. 132).

expositions

G er a rd W .C . va n W eze l a co n f ir m
la u t h en t ic it d e ce t t e u v re .

La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, Ttes Fleuries,


19th and 20th Century Portraiture from the
Triton Foundation, juillet-dcembre 2007,
p. 17 (illustr en couleurs).
Rotterdam, Kunsthal, 15 jaar Marlies Dekkers,
mai-juin 2008 (sans catalogue).

15,000-20,000
US$17,700-23,650
11,800-15,700

63

La n o t ice d e ce l o t
es t d i s p o ni bl e su r c h ri s ti es . co m
T he n o te fo r th i s lo t
ma y b e v ie wed a t c hr i s ti e s. co m

23

Salvador Dal (1904-1989)

provenance

La reine Salom

Joseph Fort, Paris (don de lartiste).


Go Dupin, Paris (avant 1956).
Georges Hugnet, Paris.
Galerie Krugier & Cie., Genve (avant 1967).
Stephen Mazoh & Co., Inc., New York
(avant 1993).
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas (en
2008).

sign, dat et ddicac PouR mon


amie FORET Avec tout lespoir dans nos
imperialismes espirituels freres Salvador
Dal 1937 (en bas gauche)
fusain et craie blanche sur papier maroufl
sur toile
62.2 x 93.9 cm.
Excut en 1937
signed, dated and dedicated PouR mon
amie FORET Avec tout lespoir dans nos
imperialismes espirituels freres Salvador
Dal 1937 (lower left)
charcoal and white chalk on paper laid
down on canvas
24 x 37 in.
Executed in 1937
300,000-500,000
US$354,500-590,700
235,500-450,000

expositions
Knokke-Le Zoute, Albert Plage, Casino Communal, Salvador Dal, juillet-septembre 1956,
p. 34, no. 74 (illustr, p. 36; titr Dessin).
Humlebaek, Louisiana Museum of Modern Art
et Bruxelles, Palais des Beaux-Arts, Six peintres
surralistes, mai-juin 1967, no. 10 (erronment
dat 1957).
New York, Albert Loeb & Krugier Gallery, Bellmer and the surrealists, septembre-octobre
1968, no. 25 (illustr).
Londres, Annely Juda Fine Art, Surrealist
Drawings, mai-juin 1969, no. 15.
Rotterdam, Boijmans Van Beuningen Museum,
Dal, novembre 1970- janvier 1971, no. 114
(illustr).
Baden-Baden, Staatliche Kunsthalle, DALI,
Gemlde, Zeichnungen, Objekte, Schmuck,
janvier-avril 1971, p. 214, no. 93 (illustr, p. 215).
Stuttgart, Staatsgalerie et Zurich, Kunsthaus,
Salvador Dal, Retrospektive, mai-octobre
1989, p. 235, no. 188.

64

Canberra, National Gallery of Australia;


Brisbane, Queensland Art Gallery et Sydney,
Art Gallery of New South Wales, Surrealism,
Revolution by Night, mars-septembre 1993,
p. 319, no. 44 (illustr en couleurs, p. 60).
Rome, Complesso Monumentale del Vittoriano, Dada e Surrealismo riscoperti, octobre
2009-fvrier 2010, p. 293 (illustr en couleurs).
Londres, Barbican Art Gallery, The Surreal
House, juin-septembre 2010, p. 99 et 304
(illustr en couleurs).
Rotterdam, Kunsthal, Avant-Gardes, De collectie
van de Triton Foundation, octobre 2012-janvier 2013.

bibliographie
R. Descharnes, Dal, Luvre et lhomme, Lausanne, 1984, p. 221 (illustr en couleurs).
R. Descharnes, Salvador Dal, Luvre peint,
Cologne, 1994, vol. I, p. 294, no. 653 (illustr en
couleurs).
S. va n H eu g t en , A v an t -ga rd e s , 1 87 0 t o t h e
P re s e n t , t h e C o l l e c t i o n o f t he Tr it o n Fo u nd a ti o n, Bru x el l es , 2 01 2 , p . 54 2 ( i l l us t r en
c o u le ur s, p . 35 7).

Sa l va dor D a l , F u nda c i G a l a -Sa l va dor D a l i / Ada g p , P a ri s ,


2 01 5 ./Chri s ti es Ima g es Li mi ted 1 9 81

F i g. 1 S a l v ador D al, Le sommeil, 1 93 7.


F ormerl y i n th e C ol lec tion of Ed war d James ; Chr is ties Lo n d o n , 30
Ma rch 19 8 1, l ot 17 .

D et a i l o f t h e p res en t l o t .

y whole amb ition in the


pi ctor ial d omain is to
mater ialize the images
of con crete i rra ti onality with the mos t
i mpe ri a l i sti c fu ror o f p r ec is ion, Salvad or
D a l decl a re d i n h i s text T he Conquest of the
I rra t i on a l ( 19 35) , so that the wor ld of the
i magi n a ti on a n d conc r ete ir r ationality may
b e of th e same obj ec tive c lear nes s , of the
sa me con si sten cy , o f the s ame d ur ab ility, of
t he same persu a si v e, c ognos c itive and c ommu n i ca bl e th i ckn e ss as that of the exter nal
w orl d of ph en ome n al r eality (in H. F inkelst ei n , ed., Th e C ol l ec ted Wr itings of Salvador
Da l , C a mbri dge , U K, 1 998, p . 265 ).

r ec ounting o f p a rt i c u l a r even t s a n d em otions that h a ve wel l ed u p fro m c u rren t s


d eep withi n t h e m o s t p ri va t e d o m a i n o f
Dals exp eri en c e, c o n j u red wi t h ea c h ex a c t
s tr oke of h i s p en c i l , a s o n l y t h e a rt o f fi n el y
linear and s h a d ed d ra wi n g , wi t h o u t t h e
d is tr ac tio n o f c o l o u r, m i g h t b ri n g t o p erfec tion. Th e o n ei ri c s et t i n g h ere i s n o t t h e
p anor amic ex p a n s e o f D a l s n a t i ve C a t a l unya, alway s wa rm l y s u b l i m e i f s u g g es t i vel y
p or tentou s i n i t s em p t i n es s , b u t i n s t ea d t h e
c onfines o f a s t a g e-l i k e ro o m l i t o n l y fro m
within, hal f d a rk , a i rl es s a n d c l a u s t ro p h o b i c ,
an ominou s p l a c e fo r revel a t i o n s o f a m o s t
intimate an d p erh a p s even d i re k i n d .

D a l i n trodu ce d th i s p r ec is ion into his p aint in g du ri n g 19 2 9 , y i eld ing thr oughout the
1 930s th ose cl assi c d r eam land s c ap es whic h
stan d a s th e h i gh w ater mar k of his c ar eer .
W h i l e th e i ma gery that oc c up ies thes e
v ast, desol a te spa ces may s tr ongly r es is t or
ev en de fy ex pl i cati o n, the ter r itor y its elf
h a s be come fami l i ar to mos t anyone who
dreams, ari si n g as i f fr om a s har ed c ollec tive
su bcon sci ou s, re v ealed and animated in
D a l s fa sti di ou sl y d etailed tec hniq ue.

This drawing is deeply autobiographical; the


pair of dramatis personae here consists of
Dal himself - as the disembodied, elastic and
shaven head - and the sole true love of his
life, Gala (ne Elena Ivanovna Daikonova), a
woman ten years the artists senior, whom
he first met in Cadaqus during August 1929,
when she was thirty-five and, since 1918, married to the surrealist poet Paul luard. Gala
was vacationing with her husband in a nearby
hotel when she and Dal plunged into a passionate affair. luard normally tolerated such
indiscretions, and Gala had already numbered
among her lovers Max Ernst (in a mnage

T h e dra w i n g La rei n e Salom, b y c ontr as t,


i s a ma n i festati on o f a far mor e p r ofound ly
i n teri or a n d stri ctl y p er s onal utter anc e, a

trois that lasted three years and extended


half-way around the globe to French IndoChina), Giorgio de Chirico and Man Ray. The
intensity of Dals liaison with Gala, however,
led to the dissolution of her marriage with
luard. In January 1934 Dal married Gala in a
civil ceremony at the Paris registry office.
D a l h a s h ere a s s u m ed t h e s h a p e o f t h e g r e at
h ea d p ro p p ed u p wi t h c ru t c h es h e d e p icte d
i n h i s c el eb ra t ed p a i n t i n g Le s o m m e il ( f ig . 1),
wh i c h h e c o m p l et ed d u ri n g 1 9 37 , a ro u n d th e
t i m e h e m a d e t h e p res en t d ra wi n g ; t h e ar tis t
i s b el i eved t o h a ve d eri ved t h e s h a p e o f th e
s l eep i n g h ea d fro m a ro c k fo rm a t i o n lo cate d
o n C a p d e C reu s , n ea r C a d a q u s . In co n tr as t
t o t h e p a i n t i n g , wh ere t h e vi s a g e i s c o m p let el y h a i rl es s , D a l s d i s t i n c t i ve s l i m m o u st a c h e i s vi s i b l e i n t h e d ra wi n g . H i s s h av e n
h ea d h ere i s very l i k el y a referen c e t o th e
t erri b l e en c o u n t er i n l a t e 1 9 2 9 wh en D al s
fa t h er, d i s g u s t ed wi t h h i s s o n s d a l l i a n ce
wi t h a m a rri ed wo m a n , b ro k e o ff a l l co n tact
a n d fo rb a d e h i m t o en t er t h e fa m i l y ho m e .
M y fi rs t rea c t i o n wa s t o c u t o ff a l l m y
h a i r, D a l wro t e i n h i s a u t o b i o g ra p hy . B u t
I d i d m o re t h a n t h i s - I h a d m y h ea d co mp l et el y s h a ved . I wen t a n d b u ri ed t h e p ile o f
b l a c k h a i r i n a h o l e I h a d d u g o n t h e b e ach
fo r t h i s p u rp o s e, a n d i n wh i c h I i n t er r e d at

Salvador Dal, Fundaci Gala-Salvador Dali/Photo: tous droits rservs

D et ai l of th e p re sen t lot.

th e s ame ti me t h e p ile of e mpty sh ells of the


u rch i n s I h ad e at en at noon (Th e Sec r et
Li fe of Sa lv ad or D al, New Yor k, 1 9 42 , p . 2 53 ).
Ga l a w ear s i n th i s d ra win g a kind of multi- face te d ber et , a mor e e lab ora te ly c onfigur ed
a lt ern a ti ve t o th e c a p s een in th e G eodes i c P ort rai t of Ga la, 1 9 36 ( fig. 2 ), in wh ic h
sh e s imi la rl y p re se nts only a los t- pr ofile,
a ve rti n g he r g az e from the ar tis t an d v iewers
a li ke . D al r el at ed the en ve loping s tr uc tu ra l
l in e s th at c omp ri se a geod es ic dome to th e
st ruc tu re of G al as h ea d a nd h at in a stu d y
do n e at th e ti me o f the p ain ting, an d to the
h ea dw ea r i n t hi s d r aw ing a s w e ll.
B y ref er ri n g to t h e na me Sa lom in the title
of th i s dra w i n g , Dal w as invoking Gala in
l ig h t of t he f able d s tor y of this n otor ious
fe mme f at al e. Th e Roman ized J e wis h h is tori an Fla vi u s Jos ep hu s r e cor de d S alom in
th e f i rst c en tu ry A D a s th e da ughter of Her odi a s, a w oma n w h o ha d in de fia nce of Jewis h
l aw di vo rced h er h usb a nd Her od II to mar ry
h i s br ot he r, Her od An tipas , th e tetra rc h of
Ga l il e ( bo th men w ere s ons of Her od the
Gre a t) . Sa lo m t hu s bec a me He rod An tip as s
st ep -d au g ht er, a nd a s M a rk a nd M atthew
te l l i n t he i r g ospels (with out n amin g her ),
sh e d an ced fo r h i m, th erea fter req u es ting
a s he r rew a rd th e h ead of Joh n- the- Bap tis t,

Fi g . 2 Sa l va d o r Da l , G e o de si c P o rt ra i t o f G al a, 19 36 .
Y o k o ha m a M u se um o f A rt .

wh om H er o d h a d i m p ri s o n ed fo r vi l i fy i n g h is
mar r ia ge t o H ero d i a s .
The po et St p h a ne M a ll arm b eg an a d r amatic po em a b o ut H ero d i as , h i s H ro d ia d e,
in 186 4, bu t ne ver fi ni s h ed i t; m e an wh il e
Gu stave F la u be rt p u b l i sh e d i n 18 77 hi s s t o r y
Hr odi as, wh i c h h ere aft er b ec a m e t he s ubjec t of Ju l es Ma s sen e t s o p era H ro d i a d e i n
1 881 . Os c a r W i ld e i n 18 9 1 wr o te , i n F ren ch ,
his p lay Sa l o m , wh i c h wa s fi r st p ro du c ed in
Par is in 1 89 6. R i c ha rd St ra u s s m a de a o n e- ac t
ad ap ta t i o n o f W i ld e s pl a y t o s er ve a s th e l ib retto f o r hi s o p era S a lo m , 1 9 0 5, fo r whi c h
he c om p o s ed t h e t i ti ll at i n g D a nc e o f t h e
Seven Ve il s . I n 1 9 49 D a l c reat ed s et s fo r
a pr od u ct i o n o f S tr au s s s S a l o m at C o vent
Gar d en , Lo n d o n . In bo t h t he W i l d e pl ay an d
the Str au s s o p era , S al o m k i s ses t he l i p s o f
Jo hn s s ev ered he ad , a n d i n di sg u s t H e ro d
ha s his s o l d i ers ki ll h er - s he d i d li ve no t t o
b eco me a qu een .
Dal instead turned again to Josephus, who
chronicled Salom as being married to
Philip (another son of Herod the Great),
the tetrarch of Trachonitis. After he died
childless, Salom married Aristobolus, King
of Chalcis, becoming his queen. By merging
the characters of Herodias and Salom,
women who both had two husbands in

67

succession, Dal was pondering the fact that


Gala, too, had exchanged one man for another
- luard for himself. The artists visage in this
drawing appears crumpled and desultory, as
if he were beset with uncertainty and guilt.
Gala was well-known in the surrealist circle
for wielding an irresistibly domineering and
even destructive influence on the men in
her life. The artist is also perhaps alluding
here to a crisis his marriage had undergone
in 1936, when he entered into a homoerotic relationship with the English surrealist
collector Edward James. Gala had attempted
to suppress this tendency in her husbands
behavior. The metallic rods that connect
Dal and Gala in La reine Salom, poking and
nearly skewering them, aptly symbolize a
sadomasochistic dimension in their relationship, insofar as Dal experienced it, in the
ecstasy and torment of his love for Gala.
D al d ed ic a t ed th i s wo rk t o Jo s ep h Fo r t, h is
fr i end an d t he p u bl is h er o f h i s g rap h i c w o r k .

Po ur l a ve rs i o n f ra n ai se ,
vo ir p. 1 04 -11 1

24

Francis Picabia (1878-1953)

provenance

bibliographie

Cyclope

Vente, Mes Champin, Lombrail et Gautier,


Enghein-les-Bains, 27 mars 1990, lot 14.
Vente, Me Christian de Quay, Paris, 9 juin 1994,
lot 353.
Collection Dray, Paris (acquis au cours de
cette vente); vente, Christies, Paris, 9 juin
2006, lot 17.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas (en
2007).

S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to


the Present, the Collection of the Triton
Foundation, Bruxelles, 2012, p. 362 et 557
(illustr en couleurs, p. 363).

sign Francis PICABIA (en bas droite)


huile et ripolin sur papier maroufl sur toile
103.2 x 72 cm.
Peint vers 1924-26
signed Francis PICABIA (lower right)
oil and ripolin paint on paper laid
down on canvas
40 x 28 in.
Painted circa 1924-26
350,000-550,000
US$413,500-650,000
274,700-431,700

expositions
La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, Parijs, Stad van de
modern kunst 1900-1960, octobre 2011-janvier
2012, p. 112 (illustr en couleurs, p. 113).
Rotterdam, Kunsthal, Avant-gardes, De
collectie van de Triton Foundation, octobre
2012-janvier 2013, p. 24 (un dtail illustr en
couleurs).

68

Le Co mit Pic a b ia a c o n fi rm la u th e n t ic it
d e c et te u vr e.

S uc ce ss io n P ica ss o 2 0 15/P h ot o : Pe ter Wi lli / Bri dgema n Ima ges

A d ag p , P aris 2 0 15/ Ph o to : C o ur te sy Ga ler i e Na t a l i e Seroussi

F i g . 1 Fran ci s Pi c abi a , Le Ba iser, sp r ing 1 925 .


P r iv a t e col l ec ti o n.

his young woman may have been a


stunningly voluptuous bathing beauty when Francis Picabia spied her on
a beach in Cannes, before he transformed
her into one of the outrageously grotesque
monster paintings he created between
1924 and 1927. Marcel Duchamp had bestowed this sobriquet on several such works
when he included them in an auction of
Picabias paintings he organized on the
artists behalf in 1926, when the latter was
in need of funds to finance the lavish life
style he had been pursuing since moving to
Mougins on the Riviera the previous year.
Duchamp may have been thinking of an aphorism Picabia published in one of the final issues
of his magazine 391 (no. 17, Paris, 10 June 1924):
I am a monster who shares his secrets with the
wind (in M. Lowenthal, ed., Francis Picabia, I
am a beautiful monster: Poetry, Prose, and Provocation, Cambridge, Mass., 2007, pp. 309 and
362). Picabia was alluding to a passage in Friedrich Nietszsches The Gay Science, in which
the philosopher described building a house by
the sea; the artist was then similarly engaged
in the construction of his own sprawling new
home, Le Chteau de Mai, in Mougins.
Du ri ng th e te n- ye ar pe ri od b etw een 1 91 2 and
1 9 2 2 , P ica bi a ha d mov ed fr om c ub ist- b as ed

Fi g . 2 P a bl o P i c a ss o , L e Ba i s e r, s u m m er 1 92 5 .
M us e P i c a ss o , Pa ri s .

ab str ac tio n in t o t he d ad a i s t t erri to r y o f


mac hin e-in sp ir ed e le m en t s r i fe wi t h a b s u rd ist w ord p lay an d freq u en t se x ua l i n nue nd o .
He then abr up t l y c h an g ed co u rs e. H e t erminated in 1 9 21 h i s a ffi li at i o n w it h Da d a is m
an d retu rn ed to f i g u ra ti v e a rt , fi rs t i n a
s eries of c ostum ed fi g u res , l e s e s p a gno l es.
In late 192 4 Pic a bi a al so t u rne d h i s b a ck o n
the ris ing sur r eal i s t m o vem e nt , d es pi te i t s
lead er A nd r B ret o n s e ag ern es s t o rec ru i t
him to the ca u se. P i ca b i a wa s i n h i s o w n
c ontr arily ind ep en d en t m a n ne r r es po n d i ng
to the mes s age o f l e ra p p e l l o rd re - t he
c all to or d er - a s um m o n s to s t a nd do wn
fro m the trans g res s i v e e dg e o f a va n t -g a rd e
mod er nis m, a n d re tu rn t o t h e l i fe-a ff ir m i ng
hu manis t tra di t io n i n t h e ar ts , w hi ch s ee m ed
to man y the onl y j u s ti f ia b l e res po n s e t o
the ca rn age an d d e st ru c ti o n wh i c h E u ro p e
ha d suffer ed d u ri ng t h e Fi rs t W o r l d W ar .
Even b efore th e war en d ed P i ca s so h ad
b een minin g a n ew c la s si ca l ve in i n h i s a rt ,
featur ing th e fi g u re i n th e l i g h t o f h i s t o r ic al
p rec ed en ts , wh i c h h e re-i m a g i n ed a n d r ec as t
for his ow n p u rp o s es .
Pica bia like wis e c o nc ei ve d c ert a in o f h is
mons te r p aint i n g s i n th e l i g h t o f f a m o us
ar t wo rks h e s e le ct ed fr o m t h e pa s t , in s o m e
c ase s as ob jec t s o f p a ro dy a nd sa t i re. O n e

70

m i g h t s u sp e ct a s t an d i n g ba t he r t o b e a
rep r es ent a t i o n o f th e se a-b o rn Ven u s ; t he lik el y ca n d i d at e fo r a p rec ed en t i n th i s c as e i s
Bo ug u ere au s L a n ai s s a nc e de V nu s fi g . 3 ) , a
p o p ul a r fa vo r i t e w he n i t w a s p a in t ed in 18 79 ,
fo r m erl y i n t h e M us e de Lu x e m bo u rg , an d
t o d ay a t th e M us e d O rsa y , P ar i s. O b s er v e
t h at t he h ea d o f V en us i n B o u g u er ea u s
p ai n t i n g i s t urn ed t o th ree -q ua rt er vi ew;
s he s h o ws her r i g h t ey e o n l y , wh i c h P i c a b ia
h as g ro s s l y en l ar g ed t o cr ea te a s in g l e h u ge
C yc l o p ea n ey e. T he p re sen c e o f th e w hi t e
t o wel p ar al l el s t h e g o d des s s fl o w in g ru s s et
t res s es i n Bo u g u ere au s o ri g i n al , an d m ay
a l so s u g g es t t h e bu b b li ng s ea f o am fr o m
wh i c h Ve nu s i s fa b le d t o ha ve em e rg ed .
N o w l i vi n g by t h e s ea , P i c ab i a i m m e rse d hi ms el f i n s eve ra l m i l l en n ia o f Me di t erra ne an
m yt h , l o re a n d h i s to r y, a s P i ca s so h i m s el f
c o u ld n o t r esi st wh i l e o n h i s s e as i de s um m e r
va c at i o n s an d af te r res et t li ng i n t h e M id i
fo l l o w in g t h e S ec o n d W o rl d W a r - i nd eed,
h e even t ua l l y m a de h i s h o m e , l i ke P i c a b ia,
i n M o u g i n s. P i ca s s o s po r te nt o u s ly m o num en t al c l as s i c i sm wa s n o t t o P i c a bi a s t as t e,
h o weve r, a n d i n hi s C yc l o p e P i ca b i a wa s
p ro b a bl y t a ki n g a t o n g ue -i n- c hee k s wip e at
P i c as s o s b a th ers , p e rha p s m a k in g fu n o f t he
l a tt er a rt i s t s o wn pe nc h an t fo r ex a gg er at io n

2 01 4 . P h o t o A rt Me d ia/H e r it age Im a ges /S ca l a , Fl orenc e

Fig. 3 William-Adolphe Bouguereau, La naissance de Vnus,


1879 (detail).
Mu se d Orsa y, P ar is .

a nd d ef orma ti o n, in limbs a nd extremities


e nl ar ged t o gi ga n tic p rop ortion s.
T he pri ma ry sou rc e for Pic ab ia s mons ter
i mag ery , ho w ev er , w as fu nda menta lly of his
ow n ti me a n d p l ac e, a s h e witn essed life on
th e R iv i er a fi r st h and . He wa s r e ad y to tak e
a dva n ta ge of t h i s n ew s ituation . In the fin al
i ssu e o f 3 9 1 (n o . 19 , Pa ris , Oc tober 1 9 24 ) h e
pr op ose d In st an tan is m a s h is r eplac emen t
fo r D ada i sm. Amo ng a litan y of p rec ep ts ,
P ic abi a p ro cl ai med : INS TA NTANI SM :
B E LI EVE S O NLY IN TODA Y/ INSTA NTA NIS M :
W ANT S LIB ER TY FOR A LL / INS TA NTANIS M :
B E LI EVE S O NLY IN LI F E/ I NSTANT ANI SM :
B E LI EVE S O NLY IN PE RPETUAL M OTI ON (in
M. Low e nt h a l, e d. , op. c it., p. 3 13 ).
This ethos was well-suited to Picabias new life
style, and his approach to art as well, on the
Cte dAzur. Although he later derided this
environment as having given in to the absolute reign of ersatz (quoted in S. Cochran,
Duchamp Man Ray Picabia, exhibition catalogue, Tate Modern, London, 2008, p. 146),
he reveled while painting his monsters in
the shallow hedonism and empty materialism
of the place. He drew his subjects from the
burgeoning population of nouveaux riches
and their opportunistic hangers-on, relishing,
unmasking and then mercilessly skewering

The present lot.

their hypocrisies and pretensions, while


having admitted, What I love least in others is
myself (quoted in ibid., p. 309).
Pica bia a n d P i c a ss o - l e s d eu x P i c as, as th e
d ealer Lo n c e R o se nb erg c a ll ed t he m - ha d
s ince th e war b ec o m e t h e tw i n c u tt i n g e d ge s
of th e m o st ex t rem e p o s si bi l i t i es i n m o d er n
ar t, s et t i ng u p a ri v al ry s u c h a s t h a t P i c as s o
ha d kept u p , o n an d o f f, wi t h Ma t i s se. Le s
deux Pi c as c ro s s ed p a th s in M o u gi ns du r in g
the su m m er o f 1 9 25 , wh i l e P i c as s o w as
vac atio n i n g i n n ea rby Go l f e- Ju a n. N o l o n ge r
in Pa ris , a way f ro m t he d a da -s u rre al i s t
wa r zo ne , Jo h n R i c h ar d so n ha s w ri t te n,
th ey tu rn ed o u t t o ha v e m o r e i n c o m m o n
than ei t her m i g h t ha ve t h o u gh t (A L if e o f
Pica sso : Th e Tri u m p h a nt Y e a rs , 1 9 17 - 19 3 2,
New Yo rk , 2 0 0 7, p . 2 9 0) .
In M ar ch 1 9 2 5, f o l lo w i n g t h e M i- C ar m e Bacc han alia in N i c e, P i c a bi a wro t e to a fri en d ,
I a m d o i n g a l o t o f w o rk i n a w hi r lw i n d o f
b acc ar a , a w hi r lwi nd o f l eg s , a wh i rl win d
of jazz. I am d o i n g mi d- Len te n p a in t i n gs
of love rs , c o n fet t i pa i n ti ng s i n wh i c h th e
s hee n o f c h ea p s i l k i s du p l i c at ed by R ip o l in
(q uo te d i n i b i d. , p . 2 91 ). F i ft y ye ars be fo r e
the ad ven t o f P o p , P i c ab i a h as us ed th e
en erg y a n d t a wd ri n es s o f t h e C a rni val s c ene
- tar nish ed fi n ery , ca k ed m ak eu p , ca nd y f l o s s

71

h ai r - t o ad m i n i s t er a s u c ce ss i o n o f s h o ck s
t o co nv en ti o na l a rt l o ve rs, R i ch ar d s o n h as
wri t t en . A c co rd i ng t o Ga b ri el l e [ th e a rt is t s
wi fe ], P i ca b i a t h o u gh t he h a d g o n e t o o f ar i n
t h ese M o n s t er p ai n t in g s . M u c h a s h e lo v e d to
s ho ck , h e m ay ha ve f ea re d t h at m o d e r ni s ts
wo u l d l o o k as k an c e at a st y l e an d te ch n iq u e
s o pe rfec t l y a tt u n ed to t he s l ea z y u n de rb el l y o f t he R iv i era . H e wa s g o i n g to d es tr o y
t h em , Ga b ri el l e sa i d , bu t I b e gg ed h im t o
d o no t h i n g o f t he s o rt s in c e th e y m an i f es t ed
s o m e o f t he m o s t as t o ni sh i n g a s pe ct s o f h is
p ers o n al i t y (i bi d., p. 2 92 ).
In 1925 Picabia and Picasso each painted a
version of a kiss - Picabia first (fig. 1), some
months before Picasso (fig. 2). Both versions
share a frenzied vitality, an irrepressible
monster quality which defies Classicism,
Cubism or any other previous discipline of
figuration. These paintings demonstrate that
each painter was making his own way, from an
impetus they shared to push the boundaries
of painting to the furthest conceivable limit,
toward a personal revelation of surrealism,
while standing alone and apart from the madding crowd of their colleagues back in Paris.
Po ur l a vers i on f ran a is e,
vo ir p. 1 04 -11 1

25
Le Corbusier (1887-1965)
Femme attable aux mains croises
sign, dat et situ Le Corbusier Vezelay
39 (en bas gauche)
aquarelle et graphite sur papier
26.9 x 20.8 cm.
Excut en 1939
signed, dated and located Le Corbusier
Vezelay 39 (lower left)
watercolour and pencil on paper
10 x 8 in.
Executed in 1939

provenance

bibliographie

Galerie Hopkins-Custot, Paris.


Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celle-ci, en 2001).

S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870


to the Present, the Collection of the
Triton Foundation, Bruxelles, 2012, p. 542
(illustr en couleurs, p. 314).

expositions
La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, Ttes Fleuries,
19th and 20th Century Portraiture from the
Triton Foundation, juillet-dcembre 2007,
p. 23-24 (illustr en couleurs, p. 24).
Rotterdam, Kunsthal, 15 jaar Marlies Dekkers,
mai-juin 2008 (sans catalogue).
Rotterdam, Kunsthal, Avant-gardes, De
collectie van de Triton Foundation, octobre
2012-janvier 2013, p. 35 (un dtail illustr en
couleurs).

20,000-30,000
US$23,650-35,500
15,700-23,550

72

E r ic M o u c he t a c o n f ir m l a u t h en t ic it
d e c et te u vr e.
La n o t i ce d e ce l o t
es t d i s p o n ib l e s ur c hr i st i e s. co m
T he n o te f o r t hi s l o t
ma y b e v ie wed a t c hr i s ti es . co m

26
Richard Diebenkorn (1922-1993)
Sans titre
avec le cachet RD (au revers)
encre, aquarelle, graphite et stylo bille sur
papier
43 x 35.4 cm.
Execut vers 1965-67
stamped RD (on the reverse)
ink, watercolour, graphite and pen on paper
17 x 14 in.
Executed circa 1965-67
40,000-60,000
US$47,300-70,900
31,400-47,100

provenance
Atelier de lartiste.
Artemis Greenberg Van Doren Gallery, New
York.
John Berggruen Gallery, San Francisco.
Acquavella Galleries, New York.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celle-ci, en 2004).

New York, Artemis Greenburg Van Doren


Gallery, Richard Diebenkorn. Figurative
drawings, gouaches and oil paintings,
avril-juin 2002, pl. 22 (illustr en couleurs).

bibliographie
s. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the Present,
the Collection of the Triton Foundation, Bruxelles,
2012, p. 544 (illustr en couleurs, p. 385).

expositions
M ilan , G al l eri a La wren c e R u bi n , Ri c h ar d
Diebenk o rn . Re p re se n t a t i o n al Dr aw i ngs,
mai- juin 20 0 0 .
Zurich, Galerie Lutz & Thalmann, Richard
Diebenkorn. Figurative Paintings and Drawings,
juin-juillet 2000.
New York, Lawrence Rubin Greenberg Van Doren
Fine Art, Drawing & Painting, fvrier-mars 2001.

73

L u vr e e s t e n re gis t r e d a n s le s Ar c h ive s
d e la Ri c ha r d D ieb en k o rn Fo u n d a ti o n s o u s
le n u m ro R D8 7 0 .
La n o t ice d e ce lo t
es t d i s p o n ib l e s ur c hr is t ie s . co m
T he n o te fo r t h is l o t
ma y b e v ie wed a t c hr i s ti e s. co m

27
Balthus (Balthasar Klossowski de Rola;
1908-2001)
Katia endormie
monogramm Bs. (en bas droite)
graphite et crayon gras sur papier
70.4 x 50.2 cm.
Excut en 1969-70
monogrammed Bs. (lower right)
pencil and wax crayon on paper
27 x 19 in.
Executed in 1969-70
250,000-350,000
US$295,500-413,500
196,300-274,700

provenance
Galerie Claude Bernard, Paris.
Galerie Jan Krugier, Genve.
Alex Reid & Lefevre Ltd., Londres.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas (acquis
aups de celui-ci, en 1999).

expositions
Paris, Galerie Claude Bernard, Balthus, dessins
et aquarelles, octobre 1971, no. 2 (illustr).
Paris, Galerie Claude Bernard , Balthus,
Dessins, dcembre 1978-janvier 1979.
Spolte, Palazzo Racani-Arroni, Balthus,
disegni e acquarelli, juin-juillet 1982, p. 89,
no. 94 (illustr).
New York, Jan Krugier Gallery, The Presence of
Ingres, Important Works by Ingres, Chassriau, Degas, Picasso, Matisse and Balthus,
novembre-dcembre 1988, no. 1 (illustr).
Andros, Muse dart moderne, Fondation Basil et
Elise Goulandris, Balthus. Dessins, aquarelles, huiles,
juin-septembre 1990, p. 104, no. 80 (illustr).
Tokyo, Tokyo Station Gallery, Balthus=Barutyusu ten,
novembre 1993-janvier 1994, no. 39.
Berne, Kunstmuseum, Balthus, Zeichnungen,
juin-septembre 1994, p. 84, no. 60 (illustr, p. 85).
Rotterdam, Boijmans Van Beuningen Museum,
From Monet to Picasso, Masterpieces on Paper
1860-1960 from the Triton Foundation Collection,
novembre 2002-fvrier 2003 (sans catalogue).

74

La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, The Switch, Illusion and Reality in the Art of the 50s and 60s
from the Triton Foundation, novembre 2005mars 2006, p. 17 (illustr en couleurs).
Martigny, Fondation Pierre Gianadda, Balthus,
100 e anniversaire, juin-novembre 2008, p. 229,
no. 139 (illustr en couleurs).
Rotterdam, Kunsthal, Avant-Gardes, De collectie
van de Triton Foundation, octobre 2012-janvier 2013.

bibliographie
J. Clair et V. Monnier, Balthus, Catalogue raisonn de luvre complet, Paris, 1999, p. 338,
no. D 1142 (illustr).
Balthus, catalogue dexposition, Venise,
Palazzo Grassi, 2001, p. 400, fig. 1 (illustr en
couleurs).
G. Nret, Balthasar Klossowski de Rola, Balthus,
De koning der katten, Cologne, 2005,
p. 57 (illustr en couleurs; dimensions errones).
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the Present, the Collection of the Triton Foundation,
Bruxelles, 2012, p. 537-538 (illustr en couleurs, p. 339).

he tender subject of a young woman


serenely sleeping, dreaming, or
indulging in reverie has fascinated
important late 19th and 20th century masters,
including Gustave Courbet, Paul Gauguin,
Odilan Redon, Pierre Bonnard, and - most
famously - the two great arch-rivals of the
modern era: Henri Matisse, as he painted
his sensual odalisques in repose; and Pablo
Picasso, who delighted in watching his young
mistress Marie-Thrse as she slept and
depicted her in this way in many of his finest
paintings of the early 1930s. Balthus arrived
on the scene toward the end of this long and
distinguished line, and even after such exemplary precedents, one finds in his treatment
of this theme an exquisite perfection in terms
of sensitivity, carefully gauged discretion and
taste, which enabled this artist to insightfully
evoke the many subtle mysteries of this most
intimate realm of the feminine inner self.
T h e d r ea mi n g yo u ng gi rl is ind eed Balthus s
si g na t ure a n d mos t enga ging su bje ct. Having
d ri ft ed i n to s lu mbe r, or be come los t in
re v er ie , sh e a ppe a l s to our feelings a s the
v e r y e m bo di me n t of i n noc enc e, a nd that of a
p a rt i cu la rl y g e nt l e a nd d elica te kin d - vulnera b l e , to o - a ri s i ng fr om tha t cr uc ial p er iod
o f t r an sf ormat i on t hr ough a dole sc enc e to

To u s dr oits r s er v s

P h o to : Peter Willi / Br idgeman I mages


F i g . 1 B al t hu s, Nu a u repos, 1 97 7.
P r iv a t e col l ec ti o n.

F ig . 2 Ba l t hu s , Nu d e p r o fi l, 1 9 73 -7 7.
Priv at e c o l l ec ti o n.

ea rly ad ulthoo d , wh i c h o f c o u rs e i nv o l ve s
the inc rea singl y s t ro n g st i r ri n gs o f s ex ua l i t y.
Ju st a s comin g -o f-a g e a ut o b i o g ra ph i es a nd
fiction ha ve lo n g be en an i m p o rt a nt p ar t o f
ou r liter ar y he ri t ag e, t he a rt o f Ba l t h us m a y
als o b e s ee n to s h ed va l u ab l e l i g h t o n t hi s
p hen omeno n, a s a ki n d o f d e ep l y per ce p ti ve
an d enc ha nting vi s u a l p o et ry , s in c erel y fel t
an d be autifu lly i m ag in e d.
Balthus d r ew t hi s sl ee pi n g yo u n g m o d el i n
his s tud io a t th e Vi l l a M ed i c i , t h e qu a rt er s o f
the Ac ad mie d e Fr an c e i n R o m e , o f wh ic h
the ar tis t se rved as d i rec t o r f ro m 19 6 1 t o
1 977. His frien d th e w ri te r A n d r Ma l r au x ,
the Min is ter of C ul t u re i n t h e d e G au l l e
gover nme nt, ap p o i n t ed h i m t o th i s p o s t .
The se le ction o f B al t h us wa s c o n t ro v er s i a l;
his id iosyn cr ati c a rt was n o t we ll -kn o wn
or ap p re ciated b eyo n d a sm a l l c ir cl e o f
c ogno scen ti, h e ha d n e ver wo n th e P ri x d e
Rome or attend ed th e A c a dm i e, a nd h e h ad
no exp er ienc e i n ad m i n i s t er i ng a s ta t e- fu nd ed or ganiza ti o n. M a lr au x h ad c ha rg ed h im
with th e tas k o f o vers eei n g t h e ren o vat io n
of th e Villa M ed i c i a n d i t s gr o u nd s , s o t ha t i t
migh t again d is p la y t h e g ra nd eu r i t h ad p o ss ess ed a ce ntu ry a nd a q u a rt er ea rl i e r, whe n
Je an- Au gus te-D o m i n i qu e In g re s s erv ed as
d irec tor .

76

R es t o ri n g t he V i ll a M ed i c i s s pl en d o r wa s
a r eal o b se ss i o n fo r m e, Bal th u s l a t er
rec a l l ed . Th e p ro j ec t h as s o m e rel at io n to
s p i ri t ua l li fe, a wa y o f pr es erv i ng l i f e. A ll o f
u s a re res p o n si bl e fo r p as t hi st o ry , wh o s e
t es t i m o ny m us t be m a i n t ai n ed at a l l c o s ts ,
t h ei r i nf i ni t e p a ti en c e an d ex t ra o rdi na ry
m a st er y. F o r m e, r em o vi n g th e V i l l a s ch e ap
fi n ery a n d v ul g a r fu rn i s h in g s t ha t h a d v i ct im i z ed i t o ve r t h e ye ars wa s a j o b o f reb i rt h ,
a f o rm o f el eva t i o n (V a ni s h e d S p le nd o rs : A
M e m o i r, N ew Y o rk , 2 0 0 1, p p . 1 41 - 14 2 ). To t hi s
en d B al t h us wa s s uc c es sf ul , b ut th e ef f o rt
l eft h i m l i t t l e ti m e t o pa i n t; he c o m p l et ed
o n l y a d o z en m a j o r f ig ure p a in t i n g s d u ri n g
h i s s i x t een- yea r t en ure a t t h e Vi l l a M ed i ci ,
b ut wi t h m a n y m o re d ra wi n g s r el at ed t o
t h ese c a nv a ses .
Th e m o d el i n t hi s d raw i n g i s Ka ti a Te rre r i,
wh o wi t h h er s i st er Mi c h el i n a - t h ey we re th e
d au g h t ers o f a V i l l a em p l o yee - s erv ed a s t he
a rt i st s ch i ef m o d e ls wh i l e he w as res i d en t
i n R o m e. Ka t i a p o s ed f o r K a ti a l i s an t, 1 9 6 87 6 (C l a i r an d Mo n n i er, no . P 3 33, fi g. 3);
M i c hel i n a a p p ear s i n N u d e pr o fi l, 1 97 3 -77
(n o . P 334 , f i g . 2 ). A t h i rd u n n am e d m o d el i s
t h e s u b j ec t o f N u au re p o s, 1 97 7 (n o . P 33 5 ,
fi g . 1) . Th e p res en t d ra wi n g i s n o t a pr ep ara t o ry s t u d y fo r K at i a l i sa n t. It m a y h ave

P ho t o : Brid gema n I mages


Fi g. 3 Ba lth u s, Ka tia lisa n t, 1 968 -7 6.
P ri va te c ol le cti o n.

be en don e f ol l ow ing a tir ing s ession in whic h


K at i a h ad b een p osin g for the pa intin g. Sh e
l ay ba ck i n th e c h air , an d w as soon a sleep ;
B al th u s to ok a dva nta ge of th e momen t to
ma ke th i s dr aw i n g, w hich he e xte nsiv ely
re n dere d on t he sh eet a s a stu dy in ligh t a nd
sh a de. T h e re i s a sm aller r e lated dr awin g of
K at i as u pp er b od y, pr oba bly done a rou nd
th e s ame ti me ( no. D 11 4 0) , a s w e ll as a lar ger
sh e et l i kel y ba se d on th es e two (n o. D 1 1 4 1 ).
B al th u s drew sco res of stu d ies of K atia a nd
Mi ch el i na , o n sep ar ate s he ets, in c ar nets
a nd blo cs de c ro qu is, s ome of w hich led to
pa i nt in g s he un der took after lea vin g Rome
i n 1 977 an d mov i ng into the Gra nd Ch let in
Ro ssi ni re, S w i tz er lan d .
He tri e s to f i nd in you th in gs h e c an d ep ic t,
a spec ts o f y ou th at ar e not simply ph ys ica l, as Mi c h e la ( Mich elin a ) Ter r eri later
de scri b ed p os i ng for B alth us. He tries to
tr an scri b e w h a t y ou ar e ; a nd s o e ver ythin g
de pen ds o n th e mod el, if sh e c an rev eal
h er sel f to t he artis t, wh o then dr aw s wha t h e
w an ts t o br i ng out... F or me , [ his p ictu res ]
sh ow some o ne man agin g to c a ptu re a n
i mpor ta nt mo ment of pas s age - that fr om
ch i ld ho o d t o a du lthood ( in Mich elin a,
J. C l ai r, e d ., ex hi bition ca talogu e, op. c it.,
2 001 , p. 15 1) .

Th e p res en t l o t .

The present drawing and the larger version


are surely the finest that Balthus produced
during his sixteen-year stay in Rome. Andr
Malraux wanted [Balthus] to play the part of
cultural ambassador of France and entertain
accordingly, Virginie Monnier has written.
Since the budget allotted to the director
did not cover these expenses, Balthus made
a great number of drawings that he sold for
that purpose (exhibition catalogue, op. cit.,
2001, p. 400). The enjoyment that he took
in making such drawings, and the benefit he
found in selling them, led Balthus to reconsider his approach to the role of drawings in
his work. Up till then he only regarded his
drawings as studies preparatory to his paintings, Monnier observed. Henceforth he
viewed them as independent works, elaborate
and meant to be seen for themselves (ibid.).
I s eize d u p o n t i m e s fl ee ti n g at m o s p he re
as it w en t b y a n d l i fe s f rag il it y . Th i s se ar ch
ha s also b een c o ns t an t i n a l l m y d ra win g s ,
Balthus wro t e. T he re i s n o m o re ex a ct in g
d isc ipli n e t h a n c ap t u ri n g th es e va ri a t i o n s i n
fac es an d p o s es o f m y d a yd ream i ng yo u n g
gir ls . The d ra wi n g s c ar es s s eeks t o r ed i s c over a chi l d l i ke g r ac e t ha t v a ni s h es s o q u ic kl y ,
leaving u s wi t h a n i n co n s o l a bl e m em o r y. T he
c hallen g e i s t o t ra ck do w n t h e s weet ne s s

77

s o th a t g r ap h i t e o n p a per ca n r e-c r ea te t h e
fr es h o va l o f a f ac e, a sh a p e cl o se to a ng e ls
fa c es .
Drawing is a great school of truth and
exactingness, the artist explained. It brings
us closer to natures most secret geometry,
which painting doesnt always allow us to
do, since more imagination, stage direction,
and spectacle go into it. By contrast, drawing
necessitates abstraction in some way, since it
is about going behind facial and bodily appearance and reaching their light. Its a more austere and, perhaps, more mystical project. It
entails reaching the flame of an incandescent
blaze. With just a few lines the fire, despite
its transience, may be stolen, captured, and
grasped in its glimpsed-at splendor (quoted
in ibid., pp. 64, 65 and 67).
Po ur l a vers i on f ran ai s e ,
vo ir p. 1 04 -11 1

28
Marc Chagall (1887-1985)
Autour de la Thora, gouache prparatoire
non retenue pour Les Pomes (Cramer)
avec le cachet MArc ChAgAll
(en bas gauche)
gouache, encre de Chine, crayon gras
et graphite sur papier verg gris
38.7 x 27 cm.
Excut en 1960

provenance

expositions

Vente, Sothebys, New York, 9 novembre 1994,


lot 217.
Vente, Gaston & Sheehan Auctioneers,
New York, 6-27 avril 2010, lot 5.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis au cours de cette vente).

Seoul, Museum of Art, Chagall, Magician of


Color, dcembre 2010-mars 2011, p. 185
(illustr en couleurs).
Amsterdam, Joods historisch museum,
Marc Chagall, mars-septembre 2012.
Le Co mit M a rc Ch a ga ll a c o n f ir m
la u t h en t ic it d e ce t t e u v re .

stamped MArc ChAgAll (lower left)


gouache, India ink, wax crayon and pencil
on gray laid paper
15 x 10 in.
Executed in 1960
120,000-180,000
US$141,800-212,700
95,200-141,300

f I were not a Jew, I wouldnt have


been an artist, Chagall once
proclaimed, or I would have been
a different artist altogether (quoted in J.
Baal-Teshuva, ed., Chagall: A Retrospective,
New York, 1995, p. 170). From his earliest
work onward, Chagall featured subjects
drawn from the Jewish culture and folklore
in which he was raised in his native Russian
town of Vitebsk. During the 1960s - some
two decades since Vitebsk had been almost
totally destroyed in the Second World War,
and since Chagall achieved the international
acclaim that established him as an important
modern master - he became ever more ab s o r bed in the legacy of his shtetl upbringing.
During this period, he created a series of
tapestries and mosaics on Old Testament
themes for the new Knesset building in
Jerusalem and seventeen monumental Bible
paintings for donation to the French State,
which form the nucleus of the Muse national du message biblique in Nice. His late
decades are moving for the energy of the
survivor, the fidelity to his childhood and
to the Jewish theme, the optimism and the
protean ability to reinvent those themes,
Jackie Wullschlager has written (Chagall:
A Biography, New York, 2008, p. 508).

78

Th i s ly ri c al , p o et i c g o u ac h e, p ai nt ed i n 1 96 0 ,
d ep i c ts a b ea rd ed ra bb i b ef o re a t o wn s c a p e
o f m o d es t , j o s t l i ng h o u se s, rem i n i s ce nt o f
V it eb s k . Th i s so l i t a ry fi gu r e c ra d l es a T o r ah
s c ro l l p r o t ec t iv el y i n hi s ar m s , ri c hl y co l o ured c ra yo n ac c en t s ev o k in g h i s re li gi o us
fer vo r . A bo v e t he ra b bi s o a rs a fem al e h ea d
- a m em o r i al t o C h ag a ll s bel o ved B el l a, s e en
h ere a s a h ea ven l y b o d y, h er ex p res si o n
b ea ti f i c a nd ra p t - a n d a se co n d To ra h , lar g er
t h an li f e an d l um i n o u s i n wh it e g o u a ch e.
H ea ven an d ear t h, di v i n e m y st er y an d hum an
yea rn i n g , a re t h us m e rg ed w i th i n C h ag a ll s
m a rvel o u s l y i nv en ti ve, d re am -l i k e p ic to r i al
u ni v ers e, w hi c h , t h e a rt is t i n si s t ed , rev eal ed
n o t hi n g l ess t ha n t h e p ure st tr u th s . A l l o ur
i n te ri o r wo r l d i s real it y - an d p erh a ps m o r e
s o th a n o u r ap p a ren t wo rl d , he ex p l a i ne d .
To c al l eve ryt h i ng t h at a pp ear s i l l o g ic al ,
fa nt a s y, fa i ry t a l e, o r c h im e ra w o ul d b e
p ra c ti c a l l y t o ad m i t no t u nd ers t an d i ng
n at u re (q u o te d i n B. H a rs h av , ed . , M ar c
C h aga l l o n A rt an d C ul tu r e, P al o A lt o , 20 0 3 ,
p p . 81 -8 2 ).
Po ur l a ve rs i o n fra n ai se ,
vo i r p. 1 04-1 11

29
Jan Toorop (1858-1928)
Het aanzoek (La demande en mariage)
sign et dat J.THToorop.98 (en bas gauche)
crayon de couleur, graphite et gouache sur papier
25.2 x 20 cm.
Excut en 1898
signed and dated J.THToorop.98 (lower left)
coloured crayon, pencil and gouache on paper
9 x 7 in.
Executed in 1898

provenance

bibliographie

Collection K. Kah, Steenwijk; vente, Christies,


Amsterdam, 2 dcembre 1997, lot 318.
Kunsthandel Louk Brons, Amsterdam
(acquis au cours de cette vente).
The Piccadilly Gallery, Londres.
Galerie Hopkins-Custot, Paris.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celle-ci, en 2000).

S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the Present, the Collection of the Triton Foundation,
Bruxelles, 2012, p. 565 (illustr en couleurs, p. 131).

25,000-35,000
US$29,650-41,350
19,650-27,500

80

G er a rd W .C . va n W eze l a co n f ir m
la u t h en t ic it d e ce t t e u v re .
La n o t i ce d e ce lo t
es t d i s p o ni bl e su r c h ri s ti es . co m
T he n o te f o r t hi s l o t
ma y b e v ie wed a t c hr i s ti es . com

30
Emile Bernard (1868-1941)
Femmes nues sur fonds bleus
sign Emile Bernard (en bas gauche)
gouache sur papier
48.6 x 38.2 cm.
Excut vers 1888-89
signed Emile Bernard (lower left)
gouache on paper
19 x 15 in.
Executed circa 1888-89
12,000-18,000
US$14,200-21,300
9,400-14,100

provenance
Ambroise Vollard, Paris.
Galerie Hopkins-Custot, Paris.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celle-ci, en 2001).

expositions
Probablement Paris, Galerie Durand-Ruel,
Emile Bernard, Epoque de Pont-Aven 1883-1893,
avril-mai 1959.
Mannheim, Stdtische Kunsthalle et Amsterdam,
Rijksmuseum Vincent van Gogh, Emile Bernard, Ein
Wegbereiter der Moderne, mai-novembre 1990.
Paris, Fondation Mona Bismarck, Emile Bernard,
fvrier-mars 1991, p. 32, no. 15 (illustr en couleurs).
Nmes, Muse Balore, Emile Bernard, marsoctobre 1993, p. 50, no. 14 (illustr en couleurs).
Rotterdam, Boijmans Van Beuningen Museum,
From Monet to Picasso, Masterpieces on Paper
1860-1960 from the Triton Foundation Collection,
novembre 2002-fvrier 2003 (sans catalogue).

La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, Clarion Call of


Modern Art, the Nabis in the Collection of the
Triton Foundation, avril-novembre 2008,
p. 31-32 (illustr en couleurs, p. 31).
Taipei, Fine Arts Museum, Elsewhere: Gauguin,
novembre 2010-fvrier 2011, p. 276-277
(illustr en couleurs, p. 277).

bibliographie
J.-J. Luthi, Emile Bernard, catalogue raisonn
de luvre peint, Paris, 1982, p. 30, no. 173.
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the Present,
the Collection of the Triton Foundation, Bruxelles,
2012, p. 538-539 (illustr en couleurs, p. 111).
B a t ri ce Rec c i- A lt ar r ib a a c o n fi r m
la u t h en t ic it d e ce t t e u v re .
La n o ti ce d e ce lo t
es t d i s p o ni bl e su r c h ri s ti es . co m
T he n o te fo r t h is l o t
ma y b e v ie wed a t c hr i s ti es .com

30

81

31
Gustave Moreau (1826-1898)
Les satyres
sign -Gustave Moreau- (en bas gauche)
et titr -Les Satyres- (en bas au centre)
aquarelle et gouache sur papier
39.5 x 28.2 cm.
signed -Gustave Moreau- (lower left)
and titled -Les Satyres- (lower center)
watercolour and gouache on paper
15 x 11 in.
250,000-350,000
US$295 ,500-413 ,500
196,300-274,700

provenance
Galerie Allard et Nol, Paris.
Collection M. Baillehache, France (en 1898).
Collection Bernheim, France.
Vente, Galerie Georges Petit, Paris, 4-5 mars
1921, lot 32.
Madame Henri Jonas, France.
Daniel Wildenstein, New York (jusquen 1976).
Galerie Hopkins-Custot, Paris.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celle-ci, en 1999).

expositions
Paris, Galerie Georges Petit, Gustave Moreau,
1906, no. 5.
Tokyo, Sentoraru Bijutsukan, MoreauBourdelle, octobre-dcembre 1971, no. 10.
Yamanashi, Muse dpartemental dart;
Kamakura, Muse dart moderne et Mie, Muse
dpartemental dart, Gustave Moreau et le symbolisme, septembre-dcembre 1984, no. 98.
Zurich, Kunsthaus, Gustave Moreau. Symboliste, mars-mai 1986, no. 396.
Seishin, Sogo Department Store Museum et
Toyota, Sogo Department Store, septembreoctobre 1992 (sans catalogue).

82

Rotterdam, Boijmans van Beuningen Museum,


From Monet to Picasso, Masterpieces on Paper
1860-1960 from the Triton Foundation Collection, novembre-fvrier 2002 (sans catalogue).
Rotterdam, Kunsthal, 15 jaar Marlies Dekkers,
mai-juin 2008 (sans catalogue).

bibliographie
P. Flat, Gustave Moreau, in Revue de lart
ancien et moderne, 10 mars 1898, p. 238 et 240.
P.-L. Mathieu, Gustave Moreau, sa vie, son
uvre. Catalogue raisonn de luvre achev,
Paris, 1976, p. 165 et 357-358, no. 396.
P.-L. Mathieu, Gustave Moreau. Monographie
et nouveau catalogue de luvre achev, Paris,
1998, p. 411, no. 433.
G. Lacambe, Gustave Moreau, catalogue
dexposition, Paris, Galeries Nationales du
Grand Palais, 1998, p. 243-244.
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the
Present, the Collection of the Triton Foundation, Bruxelles, 2012, p. 556 (illustr en
couleurs, p. 128).

P h o t o : N M W A /D N P ar tc om

G u s ta ve M ore au , S ai n t e Cc ile en dor mant un satyr e ses pieds


M u s e n a ti o na l d art oc cid ental d e To kyo

ariously entitled Les Satyres or Muse


sacre, this work seamlessly combines various sources of inspiration
for Gustave Moreau: the Italian Renaissance, the Medieval revival and symbolism.
Be it at the Louvre or during his stay in Italy
(1857-1859), the artist copied the Old Masters, notably the Venitian Vittore Carpaccio, Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelos
work in the Sistine Chapel. The background
in the present drawing recalls Leonardo da
Vincis enigmatic rocky landscapes immersed with sfumato. From the 1880s onwards
the artists work increasingly reflected a
search for formal beauty, often represented
in the form of a young, graceful figure with
blond hair and thin features. Just as with
Leonardos Saint John (Muse du Louvre,
inv. no. 780), the models gender is deliberately androgynous.
A decade after his Italian journey, Gustave
Moreau explored the sumptuousness and
richness of colours presented by certain
objects and medieval motifs (architecture,
textiles, enamels) which he studied at

D et ai l o f t he p re sen t l o t.

the Lo uvre and i n en g ra v ed b o o ks o f th e


p eriod . The go ld h i g h li gh t s , t h e m o t i fs
wh ich ad or n th e m us es d ra per y an d th e
finely w orked l yre o f t h e pr es en t d ra wi ng
we re thus d eli b erat el y rem i n i s ce nc es o f t he
M id d le A ges .
The spirituality incarnated here by a muse
with a lyre, probably attributable to the
goddess Terpsichore, contrasts with the
medieval note evoked by Satyrs who gravitate around the androgynous figure. This
watercolour can be compared with another
drawing by Gustave Moreau showing use
of a similar technique and where a haloed
female musician also stands surrounded by
small Satyrs: Sainte Ccile endormant un
satyre ses pieds (fig. 1; Tokyo, National
Museum of Occidental Art).
As the present drawing illustrates, a highly
tuned palette and textured surface were
central themes in Gustave Moreaus graphic
work. As in Les satyres, colour does not
completely dominate line: the underlying
drawing remains present and very elaborate. Gustave Moreau summed up cogently

84

his graphic ideal in these words: the


evocation of the thought by the line, the
arabesque and the plastic medium, here is
my purpose (quoted in P. Bittler and P.-L.
Mathieu, Catalogue des dessins de Gustave
Moreau, Paris, 1983, p. 11). This watercolour
was probably executed to satisfy the demand of Moreaus collectors who sought highly finished works such as in this example.
Amongst the four hundred and fifty works
sold by the artist during his lifetime, almost
half of them were watercolours. These
works, unlike simple studies, were considered by the artist to occupy an equal place in
terms of status and importance as his paintings, as testified by the artists decision
to present several drawings at the Salon
of 1876 and at the Exposition Universelle
of 1878, proof of the importance and place
that they had in his uvre.

Po ur l a vers i o n fran ai s e ,
vo i r p. 1 04 -11 1

85

32
Ferdinand-Eugne-Victor Delacroix
(1798-1863)
Cavalier arabe cheval
avec datation 1838 (en bas droite)
aquarelle sur papier
18.3 x 20 cm.
bearing date 1838 (lower right)
watercolour on paper
7 x 7 in.
40,000-60,000
US$47,300-70,900
31,400-47,100

provenance

expositions

Tampon datelier de lartiste (L.838a); vente,


M es Pillet et Lainn, Paris, 17-19 fvrier 1864,
possiblement lot 414.
Victor Choquet, Paris; vente, Galerie Georges
Petit, Paris, 1-4 juillet 1899, lot 142.
Edgar Degas, Paris; vente, M es Lair-Dubreuil,
Dubourg, Delvigne et Petit, Paris, 26-27 mars
1918, lot 118.
Knoedler & Co. Inc., New York.
T. Edward Hanley, New York (avant 1957).
E.V. Th aw & Co ., N ew Y o rk .
Ven te , Soth eb y s, Lo n dr es , 2 -3 av ri l 1 97 4,
lot 3 7.
Galer ie Bellar te, H el s i n ki (ac q u i s a u co u r s d e
c ette ven te ).
Nor to n Simon Fo u nd a t i o n, P a sa d en a .
Collec tio n p a rt i c ul i re, S u is s e (j u sq u e n
1 999 ).
Galer ie Hopkins-Custot, Paris.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celle-ci, en 1999).

Stockholm, Svensk-Franska Kontgalleriet,


Delacroix, non dat, no. 188.
Cambridge, Fogg Art Museum et Philadelphie, Museum of Art, The Hanley Collection, 1957, no. 194.
New York, Wildenstein & Co., Loan exhibition
of paintings and drawings from the Hanley Collection, novembre-dcembre 1961, no. 54.
New York, Gallery of Modern Art including the
Huntington Hartford Collection, et al., Selections
from the Collection of Dr and Mrs T. Edward Hanley, janvier-mars 1967 (sans numro).
Rotterdam, Boijmans Van Beuningen Museum,
From Monet to Picasso, Masterpieces on Paper
1860-1960 from the Triton Foundation Collection,
novembre 2002-fvrier 2003 (sans catalogue).
Rotterdam, Kunsthal, Avant-Gardes, De collectie
van de Triton Foundation, octobre 2012-janvier 2013.

he iconographical subject and above all


the dating of this watercolour enables
one to set it within its creative context.
At the very end of the year 1831, Eugne
Delacroix embarked with the Count of Mornay
upon a diplomatic mission with the aim of
concluding a treaty of Good-Neighbourly Relations between the Sultan of Morocco, Murley
Abd el Rahma, and French-governed Algeria.
The ar tis t thus sa i l ed fro m To u l o n , d is e mb arkin g in Tan g er o n th e 2 5th Ja n ua ry 1 83 2 .
He then c ros se d t h e co u n t ry v i a A l c a s s ar -el Ke bir , Sid i-Ka s sem a n d G ar b ia , b efo r e ar r iving in M ekne s. D es p i te h i s m is s i o n o n l y l asting six month s, t h e d i s c o very o f t h e M id d l e
Ea st w ould r em ai n a si gn i f ic a n t i n fl u enc e o n
the re st of his c a ree r. H e to o k t o d ra wi n g
en plein air and t o us i n g l iv e m o d el s; th r ee
alb ums of sket c h es a t te st i n g to t hi s a ct iv i t y
ar e con ser ved at Le M u se d u L o u vre, a nd
a fu rthe r one i n Ch a n t il ly . A s wel l a s t h e
alb ums , is olated s he et s o f pa p er s uc h a s t he
p res en t wo rk w ere a ls o p ro d uc ed (o v er two
hu nd re d examp l es ar e c o ns erv ed a t th e L e
Lo uvre . See L .- A. P rat , Le d es s i n f ra n ai s au
XI X e s icle, Par i s , 2 01 1 , p . 2 3 6).
Delacroixs journal of this time constitutes a
precious testimony regarding his stay, as well
as illustrating his growing artistic sensibility towards vibrant colour and luxurious

86

bibliographie
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the Present, the Collection of the Triton Foundation,
Bruxelles, 2012, p. 543 (illustr en couleurs, p. 63).

materials (fabrics, precious stones, metals,


etc.). As can be seen in the present watercolour with its vitality and shimmering colour,
Delacroix was keen to note his discoveries in
rich visual detail. One entry in his diary reads
`Met the emperors spokesperson [...]: very
beautiful white headdress, sharp hat without
turban, yellow slippers and golden spurs;
gold-embroidered purple belt, embroidered
cartridge holder, the horses bridle purple
and gold. [...] Very beautiful backwards
glance at this mass of dark skinned or black
people (E. Delacroix, Journal 1822-1863,
Paris, 1996, p. 104).
On his return to France, Delacroix continued to
relive his discovery of the Middle East. He likely
realized the present watercolour as a distant
memory a few years on from his return. His
interest naturally lies with the arab costume
and its colours, the contrasts made by strong
light and the sense of a horses movement.
Cavalier arabe cheval, with its associations
of liquid green, vermilion red, and gradations
of blues and browns, subscribes perfectly to
Delacroixs approach to graphic work: the
artist skillfully associates line and colour whilst
allowing neither to gain the upper hand.
Po ur l a vers i o n fran ai s e ,
vo i r p. 1 04 -11 1

33
Gustave Courbet (1819-1877)
Le violoncelliste, autoportrait de lartiste
monogramm GC (en bas gauche) et
inscrit 1 m 16 - 0 m 10 (le long des bords
gauche et infrieur)
mine de plomb, plume et encre noire sur un
fin carton beige
22 x 18 cm.
monogramed GC (lower left) and
inscribed 1 m 16 - 0 m 10 (along the left and
lower edges)
pencil, pen and black ink on a thin light
brown cardboard
8 x 7 in.

provenance

bibliographie

Mary Cassatt, Paris.


Marguerite Rusca, Suisse.
Max Blumberg.
Galerie Hopkins-Custot, Paris.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celle-ci, en 2001).

S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the present, the Collection of the Triton Foundation,
Bruxelles, 2012, p. 542 (illustr en couleurs,
p. 28).

expositions
Rotterdam, Boijmans Van Beuningen Museum,
From Monet to Picasso, Masterpieces on
Paper 1860-1960 from the Triton Foundation
Collection, novembre 2002-fvrier 2003 (sans
catalogue).
La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, Ttes Fleuries,
19th and 20th Century Portraiture from the
Triton Foundation, juillet-dcembre 2007, p. 9
(illustr en couleurs).

25,000-35,000
US$29,650-41,350
19,650-27,500

88

M o n s ieu r Jea n - Ja c q u es Fe rn ie r a c o n f ir m
la u t h en t ic it d e ce t t e u v re .

La n o t i ce d e ce l o t
es t d i s p o n ib l e s ur c hr i st i e s. co m
T he n o te f o r t hi s l o t
ma y b e v ie wed a t c hr i s ti es . co m

34
Frdric Bazille (1841-1870)
Lhomme la pipe
sign F. Bazille (en bas gauche)
aquarelle sur papier
22.4 x 17.1 cm.
Excut en 1869
signed F. Bazille (lower left)
watercolour on paper
8 x 6 in.
Executed in 1869
25,000-35,000
US$29,650-41,350
19,650-27,500

provenance

bibliographie

Collection particulire, Europe


(acquis Nmes, vers 1980).
Collection particulire, Europe
(par descendance); vente, Sothebys,
Londres, 27 juin 2001, lot 109.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis au cours de cette vente).

M. Schulman, Frdric Bazille, Catalogue raisonn, Peintures, dessins, pastels, aquarelles, Sa


vie, son uvre, sa correspondance, Paris, 1995,
p. 230 et 254, no. 21 (illustr en couleurs, p. 254).
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the Present, the Collection of the Triton Foundation,
Bruxelles, 2012, p. 538 (illustr en couleurs,
p. 52).

expositions
Rotterdam, Boijmans Van Beuningen Museum,
From Monet to Picasso, Masterpieces on Paper
1860-1960 from the Triton Foundation Collection,
novembre 2002-fvrier 2003 (sans catalogue).

89

La n o t ice d e ce l o t
es t d i s p o n ib l e s ur c hr is t ie s . co m
T he n o te f or t h is l o t
ma y b e v ie wed a t c hr i s ti e s. co m

35
Pierre Bonnard (1867-1947)
Nu debout
sign Bonnard (en bas gauche)
huile, plume et encre et graphite sur papier
19 x 13.7 cm.
Excut aprs 1900
signed Bonnard (lower left)
oil, pen and ink and pencil on paper
7 x 5 in.
Executed after 1900
10,000-15,000
US$11,900-17,700
7,900-11,800

provenance
Galerie Hopkins-Custot, Paris.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celle-ci, en 2001).

expositions
Munich, Haus der Kunst et Paris, Muse de
lOrangerie, Pierre Bonnard, Centenaire de
sa naissance, octobre 1966-avril 1967, no. 169
(dimensions errones).
Paris, Galerie Jacques Rodrigues-Henriques,
novembre-dcembre 1969, no. 7.
Rotterdam, Boijmans Van Beuningen Museum,
From Monet to Picasso, Masterpieces on Paper
1860-1960 from the Triton Foundation Collection,
novembre 2002-fvrier 2003 (sans catalogue).
Seoul, Museum of Art, Matisse and the Fauves,
Color of the Century, dcembre 2005-mars 2006,
p. 129 (illustr en couleurs; dat vers 1930).

Rome, Complesso del Vittoriano, Matisse e Bonnard, Viva la pittura!, octobre 2006-fvrier 2007,
p. 247, no. 65 (illustr en couleurs; dat vers 1930).
Le Cannet, Espace Bonnard, Bonnard, Matisse,
La Mditerrane, avril-septembre 2007, p. 92
(illustr en couleurs, p. 93; dat vers 1930).
La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, Clarion Call of
Modern Art, the Nabis in the Collection of the
Triton Foundation, avril-novembre 2008, p. 30-31
(illustr en couleurs, p. 30; dat vers 1930).
Wuppertal, Von der Heydt-Museum, Pierre
Bonnard, Magier der Farbe, septembre 2010-janvier
2011, p. 270 (illustr en couleurs; dat vers 1930).
Rotterdam, Kunsthal, Avant-Gardes, De collectie
van de Triton Foundation, octobre 2012-janvier 2013.

bibliographie
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the Present,
the Collection of the Triton Foundation, Bruxelles,
2012, p. 540 (illustr en couleurs, p. 124).
G u y- Pa t r ic e D a u b er v ille e t Fl o ria n e
D a u b er vil le o n t c o n f ir m l au t h en t ic it
d e c et te u vr e.
La n o t i ce d e ce l o t
es t d i s p o n ib l e s ur c hr i st i e s. co m
T he n o te f o r t hi s l o t
ma y b e v ie wed a t c hr i s ti es . co m

90

36
Auguste Rodin (1840-1917)
Le pot au lait
sign, titr et ddicac Hommage
Sympathique madame Charlotte B. Shaw
Aug Rodin le pot au lait (en bas droite)
aquarelle et graphite sur papier
32.3 x 25 cm.
Excut vers 1900
signed, titled and dedicated Hommage
Sympathique madame Charlotte B. Shaw
Aug Rodin le pot au lait (lower right)
watercolour and pencil on paper
12 x 9 in.
Executed circa 1900
20,000-30,000
US$23,650-35,500
15,700-23,550

provenance

bibliographie

Charlotte Shaw, Londres (don de lartiste, en 1906).


Georges Bernard Shaw, Londres (par succession); vente, Christies, Londres, 1950.
Beaux Arts Gallery, Londres (acquis au cours
de cette vente).
Robert Haines, Sydney (acquis auprs
de celle-ci, le 21 janvier 1951).
Galerie Hopkins-Custot, Paris.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celui-ci, 2001).

S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the Present, the Collection of the Triton Foundation,
Bruxelles, 2012, p. 561 (illustr en couleurs, p. 56).

expositions
Rotterdam, Boijmans Van Beuningen Museum,
From Monet to Picasso, Masterpieces on Paper
1860-1960 from the Triton Foundation Collection,
novembre 2002-fvrier 2003 (sans catalogue).
Rotterdam, Kunsthal, 15 jaar Marlies Dekkers,
mai-juin 2008 (sans catalogue).
Rotterdam, Kunsthal, Avant-Gardes, De collectie
van de Triton Foundation, octobre 2012-janvier 2013.

91

Ce t t e u vr e s e ra in c lu s e a u c a t a lo g u e
r a is o n n d es d es s in s et p ei n tu r e s
d A u gu s t e Ro d i n ac t u ell emen t en
p r p a ra t i o n p a r Ch r is t in a B u ley - U ri b e .

La n o t ice d e ce l o t
es t d i s p o n ib l e s ur c hr is t ie s . co m
T he n o te f or t h is l o t
ma y b e v ie wed a t c hr i s ti e s. co m

37
37
Berthe Morisot (1841-1895)
Le djeuner la campagne
sign B. Morisot (en bas droite)
aquarelle et pierre noire sur papier
14.4 x 21.5 cm.
Excut Meudon en 1879
signed B.Morisot (lower right)
watercolour and black chalk on paper
5 x 8 in.
Executed in Meudon in 1879
12,000-18,000
US$14,200-21,300
9,400-14,100

provenance
Julie Manet Rouart, Paris (par descendance de
lartiste).
Clment Rouart, Paris (par descendance).
Galerie Hopkins-Custot, Paris.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celui-ci, 1999).

expositions
Paris, Galerie Durand-Ruel, Berthe Morisot
(Madame Eugne Manet), mars 1896, no. 297.
Paris, Galerie Marcel Bernheim, Runion duvres
par Berthe Morisot, juin-juillet 1922, no. 61.
Par is, Mus e d e l O ra n g eri e, Be rt h e M o r is o t,
t 194 1, p . 3 3, n o . 1 6 4 .
Par is, Galerie D ur an d -R u el , E x p o si t i o n
Ber the Mo riso t , p a s te ls , a q u a re l l e s, de ssi ns,
avr il 19 48, no. 5.
Cop enh agu e, N y C a rl s b erg Gl yp to t ek , Be r th e
M oris ot, M ale r i e r, A k var e l l e r o g Te gn in ge r,
ao t- s eptemb re 1 9 49 , n o . 5 5.
Lo nd re s, Ar ts C o u nc i l o f Gr ea t Bri t a in ,
Ber the Mo riso t , a n e x h i b i t i o n o f p ai n t i ng s
an d dra wings, 1 95 0 , n o . 57.
A lb i, Mus e To u l o u se -La ut rec , E x po s i t i o n
Ber the Mo riso t , p e i n t u re s , aq u a re l l e s , d essin s, juillet- sep t em b re 1 95 8, p . 35 , n o . 69.

92

P a ri s , M us e Ja c q ue m art -A n dr , Be rt h e
M o ri s o t, 1 9 61 .
Nagoya, Aichi Prefectural Museum of Art,
Six femmes peintres. Morisot, Cassatt,
Laurencin, Gonzles, Valadon, Gontcharova,
mars-avril 1983, no. 4.
Paris, Galerie Hopkins-Thomas, Berthe
Morisot, avril-juin 1987, no. 8.
Washington, National Gallery of Art; Fort
Worth, Kimbell Art Museum et South
Hadley, Mount Holyoke College Art
Museum, Berthe Morisot, Impressionist,
septembre 1987-mai 1988, p. 77, pl. 32 (illustr en couleurs).
Paris, Muse Marmottan, Les femmes
impressionnistes, Mary Cassatt, Eva
Gonzles, Berthe Morisot, octobredcembre 1993, p. 159, no. 81 (illustr
et illustr en couleurs).
Tokyo, Isetan Museum of Art; Hiroshima,
Museum of Art; Osaka, Takashimaya Grand
Hall et Hakodate, Museum of Art, Les
femmes impressionnistes, Morisot, Cassatt,
Gonzles, mars-aot 1995, p. 56, no. 26
(illustr en couleurs).
Lille, Palais des Beaux-Arts et Martigny,
Fondation Pierre Gianadda, Berthe Morisot,

38

mars-novembre 2002, p. 192, no. 45 (illustr


en couleurs, p. 193).
Francfort, Schirn Kunsthalle et San
Francisco, Fine Arts Museums, Women
Impressionists. Berthe Morisot, Mary
Cassatt, Eva Gonzles, Marie Bracquemond,
fvrier-septembre 2008, p. 308 (illusr en
couleurs, p. 92).
Mi l wa u kee, Art M useu m et V ienne,
Al be rti n a, Imp re s sionis m, Pa s tels,
Wa t ercol ou rs, Dr awings, octob re 2 011 - mai
2 012 , p. 6 5, fi g . 8 (illu s tr e n c ou leur s ).

38
Eugne Boudin (1824-1898)
Trouville, scne de plage
avec le cachet E.B (en bas droite)
aquarelle et graphite sur papier verg
11.8 x 25 cm.
Execut vers 1868
stamped E.B (lower right)
watercolour and pencil on paper
4 x 9 in.
Executed circa 1868

bibliographie
M.-L. Bataille et G. Wildenstein, Berthe
Morisot, catalogue des peintures, pastels et
aquarelles, Paris, 1961, p. 63, no. 642 (illustr,
fig. 619).
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the Present, the Collection of the Triton Foundation,
Bruxelles, 2012, p. 556-557 (illustr en couleurs, p. 47).

15,000-20,000
US$17,700-23,650
11,800-15,700

provenance
Collection Martin, France.
GdB Fine Arts, Genve.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celui-ci, en 2002).

expositions
Paris, Galerie Schmit, Exposition Eugne
Boudin, mai 1965, p. 113, no. 144 (illustr).
Rotterdam, Boijmans Van Beuningen Museum,
From Monet to Picasso, Masterpieces on Paper
1860-1960 from the Triton Foundation Collection,
novembre 2002-fvrier 2003 (sans catalogue).
Milwaulkee, Museum of Art et Vienne,
Albertina, Impressionism. Pastels,
Watercolours, Drawings, octobre 2011-mai
2012, p. 78, no. 5 (illustr en couleurs, p. 79).

bibliographie
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the Present, the Collection of the Triton Foundation,
Bruxelles, 2012, p. 540 (illustr en couleurs, p. 25).

La notice d e ce lot
es t dis p onible sur c hr istie s. com
The no te for this l ot
may be vie we d a t chri sti es.com

La n o t i ce d e ce l o t
es t d i s p o n ib l e s ur c hr i st ie s . co m
T he n o te f o r t h is l o t
ma y b e v ie wed a t c hr i s ti e s. co m

93

39
Jean-Franois Millet (1814-1875)
Bcheur au repos
pierre noire, rehauss de blanc et traits
dencadrement la pierre noire sur papier
25.4 x 20 cm.
black chalk heightened with white, black
chalk framing lines on paper.
10 x 7 in.
20,000-30,000
US$23,650-35,500
15,700-23,550

provenance
Atelier de lartiste, cachets L.1460 (recto) et
L.1816a (verso); vente, M e Pillet, Paris, 10-12
mai 1875, lot 259.
Collection Lorenceau, Paris.
Galerie Brame et Lorenceau, Paris.
Galerie Hopkins-Custot, Paris.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celle-ci, en 1999).

exposition
A mster d am, Va n G o g h M u s eu m , Bo e re nl even, octob re 19 9 9- ja n vi e r 2 0 0 0 .
Rotter da m, Bo i jm a n s V a n B eu n i n g en M us eum, F rom Mo n e t t o P i c as s o , M a st er p i e c e s
on Paper 1 86 0 -1 9 60 fro m t h e Tri t o n Fo u nd ation Collec tion, n o ve m bre 2 0 0 2-f vr ie r 2 0 0 3
(s an s cata lo gue ).

94

La H ay e, G em een t em u seu m , Th e Ou t d o o r
Li f e , N i n e t e e n th -c e n t u ry Fre nc h la n d sc ap e s
fr o m t h e Tri t o n Fo u n d at i o n, j u i l l et -o c t o b r e
2 00 5 , p . 1 7 (i l l u st r en c o ul eu r s).

bibliographie
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the Present, the Collection of the Triton Foundation,
Bruxelles, 2012, p. 554 (illustr en couleurs, p. 61).
G r av d a n s le m me s en s p a r Pie r re M i ll e t.

La n o t i ce d e ce l o t
es t d i s p o n ib l e s ur c hr i st i e s. co m
T he n o te f o r t hi s l o t
ma y b e v ie wed a t c hr i s ti es . co m

40
Camille Pissarro (1830-1903)
Paysannes dans un champ
sign C. Pissarro (en bas gauche)
pierre noire et craie sur papier verg
24.3 x 29 cm.
Excut vers 1880
signed C. Pissarro (lower left)
black and white chalk on laid paper
9 x 11 in.
Executed circa 1880
50,000-70,000
US$59,100-82,700
39,250-55,000

provenance

bibliographie

Josephine Boardman Crane, New York.


Louise Crane, Etats-Unis (par descendance); vente,
Christies, New York, 19 novembre 1998, lot 230.
Galerie Hopkins-Custot, Paris (acquis au cours
de cette vente).
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celle-ci, en 2002).

S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the Present, the Collection of the Triton Foundation,
Bruxelles, 2012, p. 558 (illustr en couleurs,
p. 46).

expositions
Rotterdam, Boijmans Van Beuningen Museum,
From Monet to Picasso, Masterpieces on Paper
1860-1960 from the Triton Foundation Collection,
novembre 2002-fvrier 2003 (sans catalogue).
La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, The Outdoor Life,
Nineteenth-century French Landscapes from
the Triton Foundation, juillet-octobre 2005,
p. 23 (illustr en couleurs).
Milwaulkee, Museum of Art et Vienne, Albertina, Impressionism. Pastels, Watercolours,
Drawings, octobre 2011-mai 2012, p. 210, no. 116
(Illustr en couleurs).

95

Ce t t e u vr e s e ra in c lu s e a u p r o ch a in
c a t a lo gu e r a is o n n d es d es s in s d e C am i ll e
Pis s a r r o a ct u el leme n t e n p rp a r a ti o n
p a r J o a c him Pis s a rr o .
La n o t i ce d e ce lo t
es t d i s p o ni bl e su r c h ri s ti es . co m
T he n o te fo r th i s lo t
ma y b e v ie wed a t c hr i s ti es .com

41

41
Claude-Emile Schuffenecker (1851-1934)
Concert aux Tuileries ou Concert au parc
avec le cachet CES (deux fois, en bas gauche)
plume et encre sur papier
27.6 x 35.2 cm.
Excut vers 1881
stamped twice CES (lower left)
pen and ink on paper
10 x 13 in.
Executed circa 1881
15,000-20,000
US$17,700-23,650
11,800-15,700

provenance

bibliographie

Collection Dudensing, New York.


Vente, Sothebys, New York, 12 mai 1965, lot 2.
Arthur G. Altschul, New York.
Galerie Hopkins-Custot, Paris.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celle-ci, en 2003).

R. Porro, Claude-Emile Schuffenecker,


une uvre mlodieuse, Combeaufontaine,
1992, vol. I, p. 63, no. 41 (illustr).
J.-E. Grossvogel, Claude-Emile Schuffenecker,
Catalogue raisonn, San Francisco, 2000,
vol. I, p. 43, no. 99 (illustr).
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the Present, the Collection of the Triton Foundation,
Bruxelles, 2012, p. 562 (illustr en couleurs,
p. 100).

expositions
Binghamton, University Art Museum et
New York, Hammer Galleries, Claude-Emile
Schuffenecker: Margin and Image, novembre
1980-janvier 1981, fig. 33 (illustr).
Boston, Museum of Fine Arts et New York, IBM
Gallery of Science and Art, Pleasures of Paris,
Daumier to Picasso, juin-dcembre 1991,
p. 183, no. 48.

96

La n o t i ce d e ce l o t
es t d i s p o n ib l e s ur c hr i st i e s. co m
T he n o te f o r t hi s l o t
ma y b e v ie wed a t c hr i s ti es . co m

42
Jean-Louis Forain (1852-1931)
Un coucher
sign Louis Forain (en haut droite)
et titr un coucher (en bas au centre)
aquarelle, gouache et encre de Chine sur papier
73.7 x 30 cm.
Execut en 1877
signed Louis Forain (upper right)
and titled un coucher (lower centre)
watercolour, gouache and India ink on paper
17 x 11 in.
Executed in 1877
20,000-30,000
US$23,650-35,500
15,700-23,550

provenance

bibliographie

Collection particulire, Genve.


Galerie Hopkins-Custot, Paris.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celle-ci, en 1999).

S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the Present, the Collection of the Triton Foundation,
Bruxelles, 2012, p. 546 (illustr en couleurs,
p. 35).

expositions
Rotterdam, Boijmans Van Beuningen Museum,
From Monet to Picasso, Masterpieces on Paper
1860-1960 from the Triton Foundation Collection,
novembre 2002-fvrier 2003 (sans catalogue).
Rotterdam, Kunsthal, 15 jaar Marlies Dekkers,
mai-juin 2008 (sans catalogue).
Milwaulkee, Museum of Art et Vienne, Albertina, Impressionism. Pastels, Watercolours,
Drawings, octobre 2011-mai 2012, p. 151, no. 67
(illustr en couleurs, p. 150).

97

Ce t t e u vr e s e ra in c lu s e a u c a t a lo g u e
r a is o n n d e lu v re d e Jea n - Lo ui s F o r ai n
a c t u ellem en t en p r p a ra t io n p a r F l o r en c e
V al d s - Fo r a in .

La n o t ice d e ce l o t
es t d i s p o ni bl e su r c h ri s ti es . co m
T he n o te fo r th i s lo t
ma y b e v ie wed a t c hr i s ti e s. co m

43 recto

43
Georges Lacombe (1868-1916)
Portrait de Madame Wenger Camaretsur-Mer (recto); Portrait du marin Piriou
(verso)
avec les cachets GL et ATELIER Georges
LACOMBE (au revers)
pierre noire sur papier verg bleu
31.3 x 23.5 cm.
Excut en 1895
stamped GL and ATELIER Georges
LACOMBE (on the reverse)
black chalk on blue laid paper
12 x 9 in.
Executed in 1895
5,000-7,000
US$6,000-8,300
4,000-5,500

43 verso

44
Ker-Xavier Roussel (1867-1944)

provenance
Shepherd Gallery Associates, New York.
Arthur G. Altschul, New York (en 1974).
Galerie Hopkins-Custot, Paris.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celle-ci, en 2003).

expositions
New York, Shepherd Gallery Associates,
Georges Lacombe, Drawings, printemps 1974,
no. 28, pl. XII (illustr).
Pont-Aven, Muse de Pont-Aven, Georges
Lacombe, juin-septembre 1998, no. 49 (illustr).

bibliographie
J. Ansieau, Georges Lacombe, Catalogue
raisonn, Paris, 1998, p. 203 (illustr).
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the
Present, the Collection of the Triton Foundation,
Bruxelles, 2012, p. 551 (illustr en couleurs, p. 115).

La n o t i ce d e ce l o t
es t d i s p o n ib l e s ur c hr i st i e s. co m
T he n o te f o r th i s lo t
ma y b e v ie wed a t c hr i s ti es .co m

98

Madame Vuillard cousant


sign des initiales K.X.R. (en bas droite)
fusain sur papier verg
23 x 19.2 cm.
Excut vers 1889-90
signed with the initials K.X.R. (lower right)
charcoal on laid paper
9 x 7 in.
Executed circa 1889-90
4,000-6,000
US$4,800-7,100
3,150-4,700

45

44

provenance
Alexandre Natanson, Paris; vente, M e LairDubreuil, Paris, 16 mai 1929, lot 61.
Collection particulire, Saint-Germain-en-Laye.
Galerie Hopkins-Custot, Paris.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celle-ci, en 2003).

expositions
Zurich, Kunsthaus et Paris, Galeries nationales du
Grand Palais, Die Nabis, propheten der Moderne,
mai 1993-janvier 1994, p. 219, no. 83 (illustr).
La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, Clarion Call of
Modern Art, the Nabis in the Collection of the
Triton Foundation, avril-novembre 2008,
p. 27-28 (illustr en couleurs, p. 27).

bibliographie
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to th
Present, the Collection of the Triton Foundation,
Bruxelles, 2012, p. 561 (illustr en couleurs, p. 114).
Ni co l as La n gl oi s e t Ja cques Rousse l ont
c onf i rm l auth enti ci t de ce tte uvr e.

45
Maurice Denis (1870-1943)
Bretonnes La Clart ou Bretonnes
devant le feu de joie de La Clart
sign des initiales MD (en bas gauche)
gouache, encre de Chine et fusain sur papier
31.8 x 26 cm.
Excut vers 1890
signed with the initials MD (lower left)
gouache, India ink and charcoal on paper
12 x 10 in.
Executed circa 1890
6,000-8,000
US$7,100-9,500
4,700-6,300
provenance
Franois Denis, Paris (par descendance
de lartiste).
Galerie Hopkins-Custot, Paris.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celle-ci, en 2002).

expositions
L a notice de ce lot
e st d isp on ible s ur c h ris tie s.com
The no te for this l ot
may be v ie wed a t chr isti e s.com

Albi, Muse Toulouse-Lautrec, Exposition


Maurice Denis, juin-septembre 1963, p. 44,
no. 159 (dat vers 1910).
Pont-Aven, Muse de Pont-Aven, Maurice
Denis, t 1979, no. 4.

99

Morlaix, Muse de Morlaix et Perros-Guirec,


Maison des Traouieros, Maurice Denis et la
Bretagne, Maurice Denis Perros-Guirec,
juillet-septembre 1985, no. 155.
Paris, Galerie Huguette Bers, Maurice Denis,
juin-juillet 1992, no. 81.
Rotterdam, Boijmans Van Beuningen Museum,
From Monet to Picasso, Masterpieces on Paper
1860-1960 from the Triton Foundation Collection,
novembre 2002-fvrier 2003 (sans catalogue).
La Haye, Gemeentemuseum, Clarion Call of
Modern Art, the Nabis in the Collection of the
Triton Foundation, avril-novembre 2008, p. 20
(illustr en couleurs).
Taipei, Fine Arts Museum, Elsewhere:
Gauguin, novembre 2010-fvrier 2011, p. 289
(illustr en couleurs).
Rotterdam, Kunsthal, Avant-Gardes, De collectie
van de Triton Foundation, octobre 2012-janvier 2013.

bibliographie
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the Present,
the Collection of the Triton Foundation, Bruxelles,
2012, p. 543 (illustr en couleurs, p. 106).
Cla ir e D e nis a c o n fi r m l au t h en t ic it
d e c et te u vr e.

La n o t ice d e ce l o t
es t d i s p o ni bl e su r c h ri s ti es . co m
T he n o te f or t h is l o t
ma y b e v ie wed a t c h r is t ie s . co m

46
Albert Dubois-Pillet (1846-1890)
Le Pont dIna et le Trocadro
sign duBoiS PillEt (en bas droite)
encre sur papier
13.6 x 20.8 cm.
Excut vers 1888
signed duBoiS PillEt (lower right)
ink on paper
5 x 8 in.
Executed circa 1888
2,000-3,000
US$2,400-3,600
1,570-2,400

provenance
Galerie Hopkins-Custot, Paris.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celle-ci, en 2001).
Ce tte uvre se ra in c lu s e a u c a t al o gu e
ra iso nn de lu v r e d A lb er t D u b o is -Pillet
a ct ue lle m ent en p r p ar a t io n p a r Pat ric k
Of fe nsta dt.
La n o t i ce d e ce l o t
es t d i s p o n ib l e s ur c hr i st i e s. co m
T he n o te f o r th i s lo t
ma y b e v ie wed a t c hr i s ti es .co m

100

47
Paul Signac (1863-1935)
Saint-Tropez, le chantier naval et le phare
sign Signac (en bas gauche)
aquarelle sur base lithographique
31.3 x 42.2 cm.
Excut en 1893
signed Signac (lower left)
watercolour on lithographic base
12 x 16 in.
Executed in 1893
25,000-35,000
US$29,650-41,350
19,650-27,500

provenance
Collection particulire, France.
Galerie Hopkins-Custot, Paris.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celle-ci, en 2000).

expositions
Saint-Tropez, Muse de lAnnonciade et Reims,
Muse des Beaux-Arts, Signac & Saint-Tropez
1892-1913, juin-dcembre 1992, p. 90, no. 22
(illustr en couleurs).
Rotterdam, Boijmans Van Beuningen Museum,
From Monet to Picasso, Masterpieces on Paper
1860-1960 from the Triton Foundation Collection,
novembre 2002-fvrier 2003 (sans catalogue).

Milwaulkee, Museum of Art et Vienne,


Albertina, Impressionism. Pastels,
Watercolours, Drawings, octobre 2011-mai
2012, p. 263, no. 158 (illustr en couleurs).

bibliographie
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the Present, the Collection of the Triton Foundation,
Bruxelles, 2012, p. 563 (illustr en couleurs,
p. 96).
M a ri na F er r et t i a c o n fi rm la u th e n ti ci t
d e c et te u vr e.
La n o t ice d e ce l o t
es t d i s p o n ib l e s ur c hr is t ie s . co m
T he n o te fo r th i s lo t
ma y b e v ie wed a t c hr i s ti es .com

101

48
James Ensor (1860-1949)
Nature morte
sign Ensor (en bas droite) et ddicac
Hommage gretry o peut on tre mieux
quau sein de sa famille. (en haut gauche)
pierre noire sur papier
11 x 17.3 cm.
signed Ensor (lower right) and dedicated
Hommage gretry o peut on tre mieux
quau sein de sa famille. (upper left)
black chalk on paper
4 x 6 in.
6,000-8,000
US$7,100-9,500
4,700-6,300

provenance
Galerie Isy Brachot, Bruxelles.
Vente, Sothebys, Amsterdam, 4 dcembre
2001, lot 54.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis au cours de cette vente).

expositions
Bruxelles, Galerie Isy Brachot, James Ensor
dans les collections prives, dcembre
1965-janvier 1966, no. 65.

La n o t i ce d e ce l o t
es t d i s p o n ib l e s ur c hr i st i e s. co m
T he n o te f o r th i s lo t
ma y b e v ie wed a t c hr i s ti es .co m

102

49
Antoine-Louis Barye (1796-1875)
Deux cervids dans un paysage
sign BARYE (en bas au centre)
aquarelle et gouache sur papier
7.6 x 13.3 cm.
signed BARYE (lower center)
watercolour and gouache on paper
3 x 5 in.

provenance
E.J. van Wisselingh & Co., Amsterdam.
Galerie Brame et Lorenceau, Paris.
Galerie Hopkins-Custot, Paris.
Triton Collection Foundation, Pays-Bas
(acquis auprs de celle-ci, en 1990).

bibliographie
S. van Heugten, Avant-gardes, 1870 to the
Present, the Collection of the Triton Foundation,
Bruxelles, 2012, p. 538 (illustr en couleurs, p. 27).

6,000-8,000
US$7,100-9,500
4,700-6,300
La n o t i ce d e ce l o t
es t d i s p o ni bl e su r c h ri s ti es . co m
T he n o te f o r th i s lo t
ma y b e v ie wed a t c h ris t ies .co m

103

Vers i ons fra n ais e s


J u s s i P y lk k anen (J P ), G lo bal Pres iden t d e Ch ris ties , interroge Mari j ke
Co rdi a Van der La an ( M C) sur les origine s d e la collection d e la Fon da t io n
Tr i to n, et s ur s es sou rces d ins piration en tant q ue collectionneus e .

d e v i e n t p r e s q u e i n s t i n c t i f. C e s t u n e s o r t e d e c h a s s e , q u e j a i d a b o r d m e n a v e c
W i l l e m e t q u i s e p o u r s u i t a u j o u r d h u i a v e c E l i a n e e t M a r l i e s . Q u a n d l u n e d e n o u s
t r o u v e l a p e r l e r a r e , i l n y a p a s d e d o u t e , e l l e s i m p o s e n o u s . M a i s i l f a u t a u s s i
g r e r c e t t e c o l l e c t i o n , p o u r q u e l l e n e s a g r a n d i s s e p a s d e f a o n d m e s u r e .
Par ailleurs, Willem adorait tre entour de ses uvres. De ce fait tout tait
s u r n o s m u r s , l e x c e p t i o n d e s u v r e s p a r t i e s p o u r d e s e x p o s i t i o n s . M a i s a p r s
le terrible cambriolage au Kunsthal [ Rotterdam] en 2012, le changement fut
radical. Dsormais, de nombreuses uvres que nous ne pouvons plus accrocher
chez nous sont conserves en entrepts. Ceci est totalement contraire la
p h i l o s o p h i e d e Tr i t o n : n o u s v o u l o n s q u e l e p u b l i c p u i s s e a p p r c i e r l e s u v r e s , c e
qui est parfois incompatible avec leur scurit.

J P : Mari jke, vou s s ouven ez-vous de la toute p remire uvre acq uis e a vec
vot re pou x Willem , p oin t d e d par t de la collection ?
M C : E n r a l i t , n o u s n a v i o n s p a s e n c o r e c o n s c i e m m e n t l i n t e n t i o n d e c o n s t i t u e r
u n e c o l l e c t i o n p r o p r e m e n t p a r l e r a v a n t d a c q u r i r l e Va n G o g h e t l e M o n e t
[ r e s p e c t i v e m e n t e n d c e m b r e 1 9 9 5 e t e n j a n v i e r 1 9 9 6 ] . N o u s c h e rc h i o n s p l u t t
d c o r e r n o t r e m a i s o n . M a i s u n e f o i s p ro p r i t a i re s d e c e s d e u x c h e f s - d u v re ,
n o u s a v o n s r a l i s q u e n o u s d e v i o n s t re p l u s s l e c t i f s , e t q u i l s e r a i t d s o r m a i s
i m p r a t i f d e c h o i s i r d e s u v r e s l a h a u t e u r d e c e s d e u x p i c e s . M a i s p o u r re v e n i r
v o t r e q u e s t i o n , l a s e u l e u v r e f a i s a n t e n c o re p a r t i e d e l a c o l l e c t i o n e t a c q u i s e
e n s e m b l e e n 1 9 8 8 e s t n o t r e K a re l A p p e l .
J P : S a gi t- il du magn ifiqu e Flowering He ad s d e 19 6 1, actuellemen t en pr t a u
m u s e COB RA?
M C : C e s t b i e n l u i . S a v r a i e p l a c e e s t e n q u e l q u e s o r t e d a n s c e m u s e , t o u t
dabord parce que ses collections ne comprennent aucun Appel de cette
i m p o r t a n c e . D e p l u s , n o u s s o m m e s l a f o n d a t i o n Tr i t o n t r s p a r t i s a n s d e c e t y p e
d e p r t s : n o u s v o u l o n s q u e n o s u v r e s p r o f i t e n t a u p l u s g r a n d n o m b r e e t q u u n
l a r g e p u b l i c a i t l a c h a n c e d e l e s a d m i r e r.
J P : Co mme vo us le savez , je suis moi-m me un fer ven t d fens eur d es pr ts
d e co l lec tio nneu rs p ar ticu liers aux in sti tution s p ub liq ues . Dautres u vres
d e l a f on dat ion son t-elles en p rt?
M C : To u t f a i t ! L e V a n G o g h e t l e D e g a s A p r s l e b a i n , q u a n d i l s n e v o y a g e n t
p a s d a n s l e c a d r e d e x p o s i t i o n s , s o n t e x p o s s a u m u s e V a n G o g h
Amsterdam. En plus du public, cela profite aussi au muse, qui ne possde pas
de Degas quivalent, et na pas la possibilit dacqurir une telle uvre pour
le moment. Ainsi, tout le monde y gagne. Entre 40 et 60% de la collection se
trouve parfois ltranger au mme moment, certaines uvres allant jusqu
Soul ou Cleveland.
J P : Jaim erais en s avoir plus sur la faon d on t votre famille en vis age l a
co lle ct ion . La jeune gnration sem ble sen gager d an s un e voie nou vel le ,
ave c de s ar tis tes com me Sean Scully et Marin a Ab ramovich. Toute vo tre
f am il l e sem ble vo u loir sim pliq uer d ans lavenir d e la collection: com me n t
ce t in trt es t-il n ?
MC: Ma fille Eliane a suivi le programme de Christies Fine Art pendant un an
Londres, que ma belle-fille Marlies a galement intgr fin 2010. En 2003 ,
Eliane a voulu nous convaincre dacheter un Martial Raysse, que nous avons
toujours. Il ne plaisait pas tellement mon mari, mais il souhaitait vraiment
encourager la jeune gnration (quant moi, jtais plutt sduite par cette
uvre trs pop!). Nous lavons donc acquise, et, la surprise de Willem,
l a c t e d e l a r t i s t e a r a p i d e m e n t g r i m p e n f l c h e . C e s t a i n s i q u i l a p r i s
c o n s c i e n c e q u e l l e a v a i t u n b o n i l . L a m m e a n n e n o u s a v o n s a c h e t n o t r e
premier Fontana, une autre suggestion dEliane qui laissa Willem sceptique.
P u i s q u a n d W a r i n g H o p k i n s n o u s a p r s e n t u n Yv e s K l e i n d e s a n n e s 1 9 6 0 e n
2004, Eliane et moi avons tout de suite saisi la beaut du tableau. Ensemble,
nous avons convaincu Willem qui nhsita pas longtemps. A vrai dire, le
c o n s e n s u s f a m i l i a l e s t l u n d e s p r i n c i p e s s u r l e s q u e l s e s t f o n d e n o t re
collection. Nous apprenons mutuellement et changeons beaucoup lorsque
nous prenons des dcisions la concernant. Et Marlies, qui est en charge des
prts, des expositions, de lassurance, et de tous les aspects relatifs son
organisation fait vraiment un travail remarquable. Il y a tellement faire!

J P : La r t m o d e r n e e s t m i s l h o n n e u r p a r l a s l e c t i o n c h o i s i e p o u r c e t t e
vente.
MC: Absolument. Il est primordial que la collection garde sa cohrence. Sans
c o m p r o m e t t r e l u n i t d e c e q u e n o u s a v o n s c h o i s i d e c o n s e r v e r, j a i v o u l u q u e
l e n s e m b l e d i s p e r s r e f l t e l a q u a l i t e t l a r a r e t q u i s o n t l e s s e n c e m m e d e
l a F o n d a t i o n Tr i t o n . E t c h a q u e u v r e d e l a v e n t e , s a n s e x c e p t i o n , e s t c h r e
m o n c u r. J e s u i s p a s s i o n n e p a r l e d e s s i n , e t c h a c u n e d e c e s p i c e s v o q u e
l e s o u v e n i r p r c i s d u m o m e n t d e s o n a c q u i s i t i o n . J e s p r e s i n c r e m e n t - e t
c e s t l a r a i s o n p o u r l a q u e l l e n o u s a v o n s s o u h a i t u n e v e n t e p u b l i q u e - q u e
dautres amateurs dart seront aussi sduits que nous lavons t, et en
p r o f i t e r o n t l e u r t o u r.
JP : Vo u s di tes q ue c ha que u v re es t ch re vo tre cu r. Po uvez-vou s n ou s
e n di re pl us ?
MC: Chaque pice a t mticuleusement choisie, avec passion. Une uvre
d a r t d o i t d c l e n c h e r u n e m o t i o n . C e n e s t p a s q u u n e q u e s t i o n d a p p r c i a t i o n
r a t i o n n e l l e . L u v r e d o i t r e l l e m e n t v o u s p a r l e r.
JP : Pren o n s l e xe mp le de la s upe rb e go u ac h e d e Pi s s ar ro a cqu i s e e n 1 9 9 8.
Qu el a t l l m e nt d cl en c h eur d e cet a c h at ?
M C : L a q u a l i t d e l u v r e . N o u s a v i o n s v u n o r m m e n t d e P i s s a r r o , c a r n o u s
v o u l i o n s f a i r e n o t r e i l e n v i s i t a n t b e a u c o u p d e x p o s i t i o n s , p o u r r e g a r d e r
e t a p p r e n d r e . C e s t l a s e u l e f a o n d e d e v e n i r u n c o l l e c t i o n n e u r a v e r t i . C e t t e
uvre est de celles qui ont attir immdiatement notre attention, mme si
nous connaissions mieux les grandes toiles. De celles qui nous ont fait dire
i n s t a n t a n m e n t : c e t t e u v r e e s t p a r t . S i n o u s n e d e v o n s a v o i r q u u n s e u l
Pissarro, ce doit tre celui-ci.
JP : L a qu a li t qu e vo u s voqu e z r si de da n s l a s u r f a ce s i ri ch e de l u v re ,
da n s l a l um i re qu i e n m a n e, da n s le s d ta ils , e t da n s ce tte ca pa ci t u n i q u e
de l a r t i ste ca p ter la fu ga c it de l i n st a n t. E n a dm iran t le n s em bl e d e vot re
co l le ct i on , a ve z- vou s le s en ti m en t que c h a qu e uvre p os s d e cette q u a l i t
e xce pt io n n el l e?
M C : A l o r i g i n e n o u s v o u l i o n s t r o u v e r, p o u r c h a q u e a r t i s t e d e 1 8 7 0 l a
m o i t i d e s a n n e s 1 8 9 0, l u v r e p a r f a i t e . N o u s t i o n s a l o r s r g u l i r e m e n t
en contact avec John Leighton, qui travaillait au Van Gogh Museum. Il
venait souvent admirer la collection, qui souffrait bien videmment de trs
nombreuses lacunes. Mais il a toujours dit: attention ne pas combler ces
l a c u n e s p a r p r i n c i p e . A t t e n d e z p a t i e m m e n t l e c h e f - d u v r e , c e l u i q u i s a u r a
emporter votre imagination.

J P : Po uvon s- no u s d ire q u e la collection a p ris un tour n ouveau il y a en v iro n


10 an s ? E t que cer t ai nes d es uvres don t vous vous s p arez aujourd h u i n e
co r re s po nden t p lus tou t fait ce nouveau vis age?
M C : O u i , c e s t j u s t e . J e d i r a i s q u e l e f i l c o n d u c t e u r d e l a c o l l e c t i o n a t o u j o u r s
t lavant-garde. Les ar tistes que nous collectionnons aujourdhui sont choisis
dans cet esprit. Mais plus nous nous tournons vers des artistes rcents, plus il
e s t d i f f i c i l e d a v o i r l e r e c u l n c e s s a i r e e t l a c e r t i t u d e q u u n e u v r e s a u r a a v e c
l e t e m p s c o r r e s p o n d r e e n q u a l i t e t e n r a r e t l e n s e m b l e d e l a c o l l e c t i o n .
En toute honntet, il est beaucoup plus facile de juger un artiste dont vous
connaissez le travail en profondeur et depuis longtemps.
J P : Po urri ez-vo u s n ou s do nner lexemp le d une uvre q ui s elon vous in c a rn e
ce t te no uvelle gnratio n de lavant-gard e?
M C : J e p e n s e c e t t e s c u l p t u r e d A i We i We i , u n s i m p l e b l o c d e t h , e n p r t a u
R i j k s m u s e u m d e p u i s 2 0 1 2 . Co m p t e t e n u d e l i m p o r t a n c e d u c o m m e rc e d u t h d a n s
l h i s t o i re h o l l a n d a i s e , l e r a p p r o c h e m e n t n o u s a s e m b l i n t re s s a n t . Q u e l m e i l l e u r
e n d ro i t a u r a i t - o n p u t r o u v e r p o u r c e t t e u v re c o n t e m p o r a i n e q u e l e R i j k s m u s e u m ,
p a r m i l e s m a g n i f i q u e s Re m b r a n d t e t a u t re s c h e f s - d u v re d u X V I I e s i c l e ?
J P : Pas s ionn an t! P u is-je maintenant vous d emand er p ourq uoi la famil le a
d c i d d e vendre ce magn ifique en sem bl e d uvres s ur p ap ier?
M C : I l y a e n f a i t p l u s i e u r s r a i s o n s . To u t d a b o r d , q u a n d o n c o m m e n c e
c o l l e c t i o n n e r, r e l l e m e n t c o l l e c t i o n n e r, i l e s t t r s d i f f i c i l e d e s a r r t e r ! La c h a t

JP : Vo i l un e xcel le n t con s ei l, qu i po u rra p e ut- tre a us s i s er v ir a u x f u t u rs


pro pr i t a ires d es 49 l ot s de ce tte ve nte ?
M C: Tou t f ait ! I l l eu r su f f ira p eu t- t re de d e ux m er ve il l e use s p i ces , co m m e i l
s uf fit p ou r n o us du Va n G o g h e t du Mo n et , p ou r l es co n v ai n c re d e se l a n ce r d a ns l a
m e r vei l le u se a ve n t ure du co l l ec ti on n e u r!

L o t 1 To u r s - 1 9 1 0 A R T C ATA S T R O P H E , d r a m e , c a t a c l y s m e , c r i t D e l a u n a y
d a n s C o n s t r u c t i v i s m e e t N o c l a s s i c i s m e , 1 9 2 4 , u n e v u e d e n s e m b l e d e s o n t r a v a i l
jusque-l, o il rapporte son Passage des Vieilles Mthodes aux Nouvelles.
C e s t l a s y n t h s e d e t o u t e u n e p r i o d e d e d e s t r u c t i o n : u n e v i s i o n p r o p h t i q u e ,
dclare-t-il. Visions de perspectives catastrophiques, destructions, neurasthn i e , n v r o s e s c h a s s e n t l a n c i e n ; d e s s e c o u s s e s c o s m i q u e s , l e d s i r d u n g r a n d
n e t t o y a g e , d e n t e r r e r l a n c i e n , l e p a s s . . . L a l u m i r e d f o r m e t o u t , b r i s e t o u t ; p l u s
de gomtrie, lEurope tombe en ruines. Un souffle de folie (le futurisme avant
l a t h o r i e ) ; d i s l o c a t i o n d e l o b j e t s u c c e s s i f. V a g u e s p l a n t a i r e s ( i n A . A . C o h e n ,
e d . , T h e N e w A r t o f C o l o r : T h e Wr i t i n g s o f R o b e r t a n d S o n i a D e l a u n a y , N e w Yo r k ,
1978, p. 13).
D e l a u n a y a u r a i t d c l a r : L a To u r E i f f e l , b a r o m t r e d e m o n a r t ( c i t i n G . Vr i e s e n
e t M . I m d h a l , R o b e r t D e l a u n a y : L i g h t a n d C o l o r, N e w Yo r k , 1 9 6 7, p . 2 8 ) . P r e u v e d e
limportance dvorante de ce sujet entre 1910 et 1912, qui donne naissance une
t e n d a n c e v i s i o n n a i r e d a n s l i m a g i n a t i o n d e c e j e u n e h o m m e - i l n a q u e v i n g t - c i n q
ans lpoque - et fait surgir la ferveur cratrice fondatrice de son aventure
a r t i s t i q u e . L e s To u r s d e m e u r e n t l e p r e m i e r c a t a l y s e u r d a n s s o n u v r e p a r l a s u i t e ,
jusquau dbut de la premire guerre mondiale en 1914 . Il reprend le thme dix ans
plus tard, dans un style architectural plus cohrent correspondant au retour
l o r d r e d e s a n n e s 1 9 2 0.

104

Le ca t a logu e de l e xpo s it ion de 1998 au Mus e Gug genhei m (op. c i t ., p. 32 e t 3 5)


n o te q u e De la un ay a v ai t l ha bit ude de dater toutes ses uvres fa i sa nt pa r t i e dun
t h m e de l an n e du dbut de la sr ie - 191 0 p our l es Tours. A l exa ndra Rud en s t in e
a ta b li q ue ce r ta in es tude s simi la ires not re des si n, ont en fa i t t excu t e s en
19 13 (i bid., p. 3 4 , n os. 3 4-3 7) , a pr s que l e t ab l ea u La Tour rouge, sommet de l a s ri e
de s To ur s d ava nt-gue rre ( 191 1-1 2) soit ac he v. Ces des si ns i ncorporent l es f o rm es
dy na m ique s ven ir et const it uent une ta pe ma rqua nte da ns son vol ut i o n , al o rs q ue
D e l au n ay consa cre de pl us en pl us ses e f for t s sa proc ha i ne sri e, presque a b st rai te ,
de s Fen tres de 19 12 -14 .
S e u ra t pein t la To u r E if f el en 1 899 ( Hauke, no.1 96), a l ors quel l e vi ent dt re ac h e v e
p o u r ser vi r da rc he dent r e de lExposit ion U ni versel l e, i na ugure cet te an n e- l
Pa r i s. Elle e st a lo r s la p lus ha ute str uct ure au monde const rui te de ma i n d h o m m e ,
l e sy m b ole m me de l a mode rni t , ma is ce ne st que l orsque Del a una y l a pe in t p o ur
l a p remire f ois en 19 09 que la Tour a tt ire l a t tent i on de l a va nt-ga rde mode rn is te
du d b ut d u X Xe si cle. Pe ndant le s ann es 1 91 0 et 1 91 1 , c ri t l e pote Bl a is e
Cen drar s e n 19 24 , Rober t De la unay e t moi t i ons peut-t re l es seul s Pa ris p a rl er
de m a c hines e t dar t e t avoi r que lque id e d es gra ndes t ra nsforma t i ons d u m o n de
m o de rn e ( in Th e E if f el Tower , A.A. Cohe n, ed. , op. c i t ., p. 1 7 1 ).
A l o rs qu il s e reme t du ne f rac ture de la ja mbe l Htel de Pa ri s, Cendra rs vo i t l a To ur
E i f f e l de sa ch ambre. De la unay ve nai t presqu e tous l es j ours pour me ten ir co mp a g n i e , s e re mmore Cendrar s. I l ta it touj ours ha nt pa r l a Tour. .. Et ds q ue j a i
p u s o r tir jai acco mpag n De la unay pour voir l a Tour. .. Del a una y voul a i t a b so l u m en t
m o n tre r Par is tout a utour de la Tour a vec ce l l e-c i a u cent re.. .Nous a vons es s ay to us
l e s po i nts de v ue , de tous le s ang le s, de tous l es c t s. .. Del a una y voul a i t l in terp r te r
de f a o n plast iqu e. I l a dsa r t ic ul la Tour pour ent rer l i nt ri eur de sa st ru ct u re.
I l l a t ron qua et l in cl in a pour lui donner ses t roi s cent s mt res de ver t i ge, il ad o p t a
di x p oint s de v ue , qu inze per spec ti ves, te ll e p a r t i e est vue den ba s, tel l e au t re den
h au t vol doise au , te rre te rre. (i bid., p. 1 74 et 1 7 5).
L a s r i e d e s To u r s e s t l e r s u l t a t d u v o y a g e i n i t i a t i q u e d e D e l a u n a y a u s e i n d u
Cubisme, au cours duquel il dpasse les limites du mouvement et le souci essentiel
d e s e s t e n a n t s , c e n t r s s u r l a p e r c e p t i o n e t l a n a l y s e d e s o b j e t s s t a t i q u e s d a n s
l e s p a c e , p o u r a l l e r v e r s u n e n o u v e l l e f r o n t i re , f a i t e d u n e s i m u l t a n i t d y n a m i q u e d e c o n t r a s t e s d e s f o r m e s d e c o u l e u r s , t e r r i t o i re v i e rg e d e c e q u e l e p o t e
e t c r i t i q u e d a r t A p o l l i n a i re a p p e l l e l a p e i n t u re p u re . Le s To u r s E i f f e l l e n c re ,
c r i v e n t Vr i e s e n e t I m d a h l , d o i v e n t t r e c o n s i d r e s c o m m e l e s p l u s i m p o r t a n t s
d e s d e s s i n s c o n n u s d e D e l a u n a y. Ce s d e s s i n s e x p l i q u e n t - i l s m o n t re n t c o m m e n t
D e l a u n a y s e s t a t t a q u a u p r o b l m e d e l i n t g r a t i o n d e l o b j e t q u i s e d s i n t g re
d a n s l a l u m i r e , l a To u r E i f f e l , u n e g r a n d e ro u e g a n t e , a v e c l e n o u v e l o rd re d e l a
l u m i r e m e rg e a n t . L e u r l i g n e s p o n t a n e , n e r v e u s e , v i b re d e q u e l q u e c h o s e d u
p o u v o i r e s s e n t i e l d e l a c t i o n q u i f r a g m e n t e l e v i s i b l e e t c o n f re u n e f o r m e c o n c r t e
l i n v i s i b l e ( o p. c i t . , p. 3 0 ) .
D an s ce des sin , De la una y proj et te le cont ra ste et l a f frontement de di vers s ig n es
g ra p h i que s, ce r tai ns repr sentent des a spec t s fra gment s et di sj oi nt s de l a To u r e t
de l a g rand e roue , al ors qu il s g nrent des r y t hmes c i nt i ques da ns l eur in terac t io n
a ve c de p uis sa nts ch amps de forces d ne rg ie et de l umi re. Aux mot i fs j um ea ux de
l a To u r et d e la rou e, De la unay a aj out par la sui te l a si l houet te dun des p rem i ers
a v i o n s bi plan s, et plu s surprena nt, une e f fusi on concent ri que de formes co urb e s et
se m i - s ph r iqu es k a l idoscopique s aux coule urs du pri sme, qui sont pour l a r t i ste de s
a na l ogi es pictural es chromat ique s du ra yonnement de l a l umi re pure, vo q ua n t l e s
i m a g e s r si due lles qu i i mpr gne nt br i veme nt l a rt i ne a prs a voi r rega rd l e s o l ei l .
Ave c ce s l me nts De la unay c r e l e t abl ea u Sol ei l , tour, a ropl a ne, 1 91 3 , do n t ce de ssi n e t l es a ut re s de la s ri e, t udes r v la tr ices et vi si onna i res, posent l es f o n da t io n s .
La bo u tis s eme nt est un l ang ag e e t une composi t i on de l a pei nt ure ent i rem e n t
f o n d s su r de s co n trastes de coul eur s, comme l c ri t Del a una y l a coul eur p o ur
l a co u l eur (A . A. Cohen, ed. , op. ci t., p. 13) . L a sri e de Del a una y en cours cet te
p o q ue e s t ce lle de s Fen tres, ta ble aux dont l es voi l es de coul eurs t rembl an t s co n s t it u e nt l u lt ime cra n qu i s pare l es r a li t s du Cubi sme du sa nc t ua i re i nt rie ur de l a
p e i n tu re pure. En 19 13 , De la unay c r e Le premi er di sque et l es formes c i rc u l a ires d e
sa s ri e de S oleil, de s uv res radi ca le s, r vol ut i onna i res o, dc l a re l a r t i ste, La
p e i n tu re de vi en t l a pei nture (i bid. , p.36) .
D a ns le d omaine plast ique , d cl are De la una y, j a i tent une a rc hi tec t ure en
cou l e ur, dan s lespoir de re ndre le s ent housia smes, l es t a t s de posi e dyn am i qu e,
tou t e n rest an t exclusi veme nt da ns le s li mites des moyens pl a st i ques, l i br s de
tou te li tt rature, de tout ce qui e st a necdoti que ou desc ri pt i f, etc . Cet ef fo r t d p e n d
tot al e ment de la tec hni queOn doi t commen cer a vec ce qui si mpl e, a vec la f o rm e
v i v an te, ave c le ge rme du moment (ibi d., p.36). C est a i nsi que Del a una y a cc de l a
r v l ation de l a pei ntu re pure , l a for me l a pl us pui s sa mment moderne de pe in t u re
du s i c le nou ve au , par la quel le il par ti ci pe l mergence du nouvel a r t a bs t ra it et
n o n- f i g ura tif.

Lo t 3 En oc tobre 1 90 9, que lque s sema ine s a prs t re rent r Pa ri s dun s jo u r


e st i v a l except ion n el le ment produc ti f Hor ta de Ebro, Pa bl o Pi c a s so qui t te s o n a tel i e r bo h me du Batea u L avoi r Montma r t re et s i nst a l l e a vec sa compa gne Fe rn an d e
O l i v i e r dans un appar teme nt pl us spac ie ux et pl us bourgeoi s a u 1 1 boul e va rd de
C l i c hy, p r s de l a pla ce Pig al le . Lappa r teme nt est ra pi dement rempl i du m o b il i er et
du b ri c -- brac a ch ets pa r Pi ca s so au cours d e ses promena des da ns l e qua r t i er, e t
be a u co up de ces n o u veaux obj et s trouvent le ur pl a ce da ns ses rec herc hes cu b is te s
qu i o n t pr is un tour de pl us en pl us ra dic al . P i c a s so i nt gre son nouvel env i ro n n em e n t pa r isien dan s sa pei nture, c ri t Pi er re Da i x. Il ut i l i se l es l ment s dun e n o uve l l e r al it do mestique , un vent ai l, des ve rres, un mel on, pour c rer un vo c ab u l ai re

d e qu an t it s g o m t riq ue s e t d e d isco n t in u it s co u rbe s (P ic a s s o, Li f e a n d Ar t, N e w


Yo rk , 1 9 9 3 , p. 9 8) .
D an s l e p r se n t d e s sin , P i cas s o ap p a rie u n e b ri oc h e p a risi en n e po s e s u r u n p l at
al l o n g e t u n ve rre p i ed , se co n ce n tran t s u r l i n te ra c ti o n en t re l ig n es d roi tes et
l ig n e s cou rb e s , e n t re fo rm e s s ol i de s e t fo r m es t ra n s pa re n tes . Le m ail l a g e d i a g on a l
fa cet t q ui d o m in e l e Cu b ism e de Pi cas s o H o r ta l a i s se p l ace u n e j ux t a p os i ti o n
re ct il in a ire d e p l an s , o uv ran t l a voi e la d e st ru ct i on r vo l u ti o n n ai re de l a f or m e q u i
s e p ro d uit Ca daq u s a u co u rs d e l t 19 10. Un ab an d on p ro g re s si f m a i s in e xora bl e
d e l il l us io n de s t ro is dim e n s io n s, de l a s o l idit e t d e l i de n t i t fixe a l i eu , cr i t
E l iz ab et h Cow l in g, al o r s qu e P ica s so a v an ce d an s se s rec h erch e s sur l e s l i m ite s et l e
p o te n t ie l d u s ty l e a n a l y tiq u e ( P ic a s s o : S tyl e a n d M ea n in g, Lon d res , 2 0 02 , p. 2 1 3 ).
B rio c h e et ve rre a ap p a r ten u a u c l b re co ll e ct i on n e ur Ro ge r Du t il l e ul , m c n e
d e p re m ie r p la n de l av an t- g ard e Par is p ar ti r d e 1 907 e t l un d u pe t i t no m bre d e
co n n ai s se u rs (avec l e s S te in e t W il h l m Uh d e ) qu i so u ti en n e n t l e Cub i sm e d s s e s d b u ts . D s 19 14 , D ut il l e ul acqu ie r t a u m o in s v in gt-c in q t ab l ea ux e t d e s sin s d e P ic a s s o
e t p re s qu e au t an t de Braq ue , u n v r it ab l e m ic ro co sm e c ub i ste, q ui co uv re com p l tem e n t l e s m u rs de so n ap p a r tem e n t d u so l au p l a fo n d e t d ro u te s on e n tou ra ge p l ut t
b o u rg eo i s. Un e g al e rie , l e s ar t is tes e t l e prop ri ta i re po uv ai en t s ur v i v re a ve c tr s
p e u d e co ll e ct io n n e u rs , t ro is o u qu at re , m a is se ul e m e n t si l s t aie n t d e s a m is l oy a u x ,
s e rap p e l le ra p lu s t ard l e m arch an d de s cu bi s tes , K ah n wei l er. Ro be r Du t il l eu l a t
d s l e d b u t, l un de ce s am a te urs p as si on n s (D u te m p s qu e l e s cub iste s t ai en t
je u n es, L il , jan v i er 19 55 , p. 29).

Lot 4 E n 19 16, a u m il ie u d e la G ran de G u erre, J u an Gris reto urn e s es re c he rc h es


s ur l ar t d e Pau l C z a n n e, re co n n u d s l or ig in e co m m e l e p r curs eu r d u Cu bi s m e. Le s
cu b is te s d av an t-g u er re , y com p ris Gr is , n a sp i raie n t p as l e st h t iq ue de C z a nn e
e n e l l e- m me , m a is l a va ie n t p l ut t a pp ro fo n d ie , re tra v ail l a n t et te n d ant ce q u il s
co n si d raie n t co m m e le s id es e t i m p ul s io n s ce n tra l es de l a v isi o n du p e i nt re
d A ix-e n - P roven ce . D s or m ais , Gris a do p te un e a p p ro c h e com p l te m e n t d if f re nte
e t cr e un e s rie d t ud e s au crayo n t r s p ro ch e s d es g ran d s t a bl e au x de C z an ne ,
r in terp rt s l a un e d e la g o m t r ie cu b iste m a is tou jo urs in t act s et id en t if i ab l es .
Co m m e l e s de s s in s co n te m p o rain s de P icas s o da n s l e s t y l e i n gres qu e, l es h o m m ag es
l it t rau x d e G ris Cz a n n e, q ui au raie n t t con s i dr s co m m e u n e h r s ie po u r
u n c ub is te dav an t-g ue rre, p ar t ici pe n t l es p rit de n o - tra di ti o n al i s m e n a ti o n a l q u i
e n v ah it l a c ul t ure fran ais e e n tem p s d e g ue rre. Gris f a it e n ef f et p as s er C z an ne
d u r l e de m o d l e d e r f ren ce rad ica l ce l ui d e n o uvea u m a t re a n cie n , c r a teu r d e
m o n u m en t s e m b l m at iq ue s de l h isto ire d e l ar t m od e rn e , e xp l iq ue Ken n et h Si l ver
( Cu b is m : T h e Le on a rd A . L a u der Col l ec tio n, ca ta l o gu e d e xp os i ti o n , Th e Met ro p ol i ta n
M u se u m o f A r t, N e w Yo rk , 2 014 , p. 19 6 -19 9).
L a p r se n te N a tu re m or te, fi n em e n t ren d ue au gra ph i te et da ta n t de l a m m e p o q u e
q ue l e s co p ie s dap r s C z an n e , e st un e m a n ife st at i on m o i n s v i den te m a i s prob ab l em e n t p l u s p ro fo n d e d e l h o m m ag e ren d u p ar G ris l h ri ta g e d e Cz a n n e pen d an t l es
an n e s d e g ue rre . Au p re m ie r pl a n s e t ro uve u n e cou p e o u un e ch o p e a ve c un m ot if
fl o ral en re l ie f, a uq ue l G ri s co n f re l a so l id it e t l e vo l u m e d e l a p ie rre. La bo u tei l l e
e t l e ver re d err i re l a co up e s e r d ui se n t au co n t ra i re un e s ri e d e co u r bes e t d e
p l an s h a utem e n t st y l is s, q ui so n t p o ur Gr is u n e r p o n se l a st a bi l i t des f or m es
g o m t riq u es d e C z a n n e . C z an n e dun e bo utei l l e f a it u n c y l i n dre c r i t- i l en 1 92 1
d an s l a re v u e LE s p ri t n ou vea u , m o i, j e p ars d u c y l in d re po ur cr er u n i n d i v i d u d un
t y p e s p c ial , du n c yl i n dre j e f ais u n e b o ute il l e (c it in i b i d., p. 2 01) .
D an s N a tu re m o r te, G ris p ren d u n p l ais ir p ar t ic u l ie r a ux h a c h ures c ro i s es i n f in i m en t
d l ic ate s d es dif f re n t s p la n s p o ur p ro d uire d es to n al it s v a ri es de gris , j ou a n t
avec d e s e f fe t s de cl ai r-o b s cur arg en t s. M ai s l a sup erp o s it i on d e ces p l a n s n e c r e
p as un e i l lu si o n d e p ro f o n de u r m a is de t ran s p aren ce , i n t gra n t l e p re m ie r pl a n e t
l a rri re -p l a n , avec u n e m th o de q ui rap p e ll e l a tec h n i qu e d e p as s a ge em p l oy e pa r
C z an n e. q ui l ib re r l a b st rait e t l a re p r s en t at i on ta i t e s se n ti el p o ur G r i s ; l a d i f ficu l t qu i l y a l e fai re, e t l es i m p li cat io n s cu l t urel l es q ui e n dcou l en t , d e v i en n en t
v ide n te p e n da n t l a Gra n de G ue rre , co n cl ut Si l ve r. C z an n e , u n a r ti s te d on t l a s ens ib il it e s t si f er m em e n t en raci n e da n s le s do n n es d e l a p e rcep t i on e t q ui p o ur ta n t
l ais s e l ib re co urs s e s p ro p re s te n da n ce s p o ur fo rm er s o n proj e t ar t is t iq ue, s er t d e
p o in t de r f re n ce Gr is ce m o m e n t-l (ib id., p. 1 99 -2 01) .

Lot 5 Fe rn an d L g er p e in t D a n s eu s e a u t am b o u rin al o rs qu i l t ra v a il l e l ta t d f in it if d e s a de rn i re fre sq ue L a gra n de p a ra de, c h ef d uv re d e s a carri re, a c h e v en


19 5 4 (B auq u ie r, n o. 1 59 2 ). D e bo ut d e v an t l o rg ue p o r ta t if d u ci rq ue , a g it a n t u n ta mb o u rin au -de s s us d e s a t te, cet te je un e f e m m e p o r ta n t l es c h e veu x co ur t s l a m od e
s e re t ro uve d an s l e p re m ie r t at de La g ra n d e p ara de, 19 5 2 (B auq ui er, H an sm a e t
Lef e bv re du P re , n o. 1 51 7), da n s l t at d fi n it if p l u s du n a n p l us t a rd , a in si q ue d a n s
d e n o m b re u se s tu d es ex cu t e s e n tre- te m p s, da n s l es qu el l es e l l e a pp ara i t en p ied ,
h ab il l e d un t ut u d e ru b an s, b ras -d es s u s bra s- des s o us a vec u n e a u tre d a n s eu s e; l es
d eu x acro b ate s fo n t l eu r n u m ro au so n du b an j o d u n c l ow n .
L a gra n de p a ra de es t l e p o in t cul m in an t dun e l on g u e s rie d e sc n e s d e c i rq ue
p e in te s p a r L g er au co u rs dun e p r io de q ui co uv re p r s d e q uat re d cen ni e s; l e
ci rqu e e s t l u n d e s gran d s t h m es q ui h ab i ten t l uv re de l a r ti s te to ut au l o ng d e s a
v ie . Il aim e se rap p e l e r s o n e xc it at io n lo rs de l a ve n ue d e s c i rq ue s a m bu l a n ts l or s q u i l
t ait e n f an t d an s l a p e t ite v il l e p rov in c ial e dArge n ta n . A p rs so n in st al l a t i on Pa r i s ,
L g e r fr q ue n te l e l g e n daire Ci rqu e M dran o M o n t m ar t re, q uo n t pe in t Deg a s,
Re n o ir, S e urat , L au trec , Pi cas s o, Van D o n ge n e t Ch a gal l .
D an s un e s u ite d e t ab l e aux p e in t s en 19 1 8 (B auq ui er, n o s. 10 8 -114 ) , Lg er s in sp ire
d u Cirq u e M dran o, c l b ran t ain s i la f in d e l a p rem i re gue rre m o n d ial e e t l e re tou r
de s l o is irs d e te m p s de p aix . I l co n si d re q ue l e c i rq ue i n c arn e p a r f a item en t l e

105

sp e ctac le co n te mpora in e t l es l oisi rs popul a i res, a cces si bl es tous, quel le q ue


so i t l e ur o r ig in e socia le . Le Grand C hapi te au du Nouvea u C i rque est un mo n d e
a bs ol u ment mer ve ille u x , cr it-il en 1 924 . Q ua nd j e me perds da ns cet te to n n an te
p l an te mt allique ave c se s proj ec te urs bloui s sa nt s et l e pet i t a c roba te q ui ri sq ue
sa v i e tous l es soi rs, je suis di strai t. .. Il y plus de moment s pl a st i ques dan s d ix
m i n ute s dun specta cl e dac roba te s que da ns bea ucoup de sc nes de ba l l et (c it i n
E .F. F r y, Ed., Fer na nd L ge r: Func ti ons of Pai nt i ng, Ne w York, 1 97 3 , p. 39 et 4 0 ).
Po ur L ge r, le cirqu e est un vr it abl e a r t popul a i re. La r t i ste fa nt a sme l e m o de
de v i e de la troupe , se lon de vn ra ble s tradi t i ons. Il si dent i fi e rel l ement au x
a r t i s tes du c irqu e; ch ac un, da ns sa sp ci al it , est souvent confront a u dan g er, to ut
com m e lar t iste mode rne qui r pond lappe l de l a va nt-ga rde et cour t l e ri sq ue
d ch o ue r. L ger f a it dun ac roba te muscl e t de sa t roupe l e suj et de Comp o s it io n
a ux de ux pe rroqu ets , 193 5-3 9, la grande fre sque de l a pri ode de l ent re-d eu x g ue rres
( B au q uier, n o. 881 ; M us e na ti onal da r t moderne, Pa ri s). Da ns cet te uvre, L g er
p a r v i e n t la sy nt h se des i de s pic tural es qu i vont domi ner sa c ra t i on j u sq u l a fi n
de s a c ar ri re. Par la sui te , se s forme s et ses coul eurs en cont ra stes vont i n te ra gi r
u ne ch el le imme nse , pour trouver le ur pl ei ne ra l i sa t i on da ns La gra nde p a ra d e.
Au co ur s de son e xil N e w York dura nt l a g uerre, Lger se pa s si onne pour l e s
m a g ni f ique s ci rque s t roi s pistes de s Ring li ng Bros. et de Ba rnum & Ba i l e y, q ui
se d i se nt e nco re a uj ourd hui l e pl us grand s how de l a pl a nte. Il pei nt pl u si eu rs
t a bl ea u x de cirque av a nt de quit te r l es t at s-Uni s (Ba uqui er, nos. 1 2 0 5-1 2 07) q ui
p r f i g ure n t l es composit ions de la Gra nde pa ra de des a nnes 1 950. Re venu e n Fran ce
l a f i n de la nn e 194 5 , L ge r se sent touj ours pl us a t t i r pa r l e t hme du ci rqu e;
l e c i rq ue f ra nai s est une g ra nde t ra dit ion na t i ona l e dont ses compa t ri ote s et l ui m m e s ont tr s fie r s. I l sy mbol ise la joi e de vi vre l a fra n a i se, soul i gna n t l e d s ir
du pa y s d e xce ller a u mi li eu de s dfi s de l a prs-guerre et de met t re en a va n t s es
t a l e n t s . I l est au s si pe r suad que l es a r t s popul a i res l uvre da ns l e spect a cl e d u
ci rq ue ouv re nt le pu bli c a ux pla isi rs de s ar ts c l a s si ques.
E n 19 50 L ger reme t Cirque, son c hef-d uvre gra phi que, un ma gni fi que f o l io de
3 4 l i t h o graphi es e n co u le ur e t 2 9 en noi r e t b l a nc , son di teur Tri a de (S ap h i re,
n o s. 4 4-106 ) . Ce r tai nes de s ima ge s de cet en sembl e i nspi rent de fut urs t ab l e au x . Le s
si l ho u e tte s de de u x danse uses a vec un cl own fi gurent pa ges 84-85 (Sa phi re n o. 9 0).
D an s sa pr face, L ger e xhor te se s le cteur s: A l l ez a u c i rque. Qui t tez vos re ct a n gl e s,
vo s f e n tres g om tr ique s, pour al le r ve rs l e pa ys des cerc l es en mouveme n t . Ces t
si hu m ain de rompre ses l ie ns, de s te ndre , d e gra ndi r pour a l l er vers l a li b er t . ..
ch a pper au so l, le qui tter, touc her le sommet a us si l grement que pos s ib l e , l e
so m m et le plu s l e v (c it da ns ibi d. p. 1 73-1 74).
Le p remie r ta t e t l tat df i nit if de La grand e pa ra de prsentent tous deux l es
con to ur s des si n s des si lhoue ttes, de l eur s a cces soi res et du dcor. Da ns l a
p re m i re versi on de la composi ti on, de s coul eurs rempl i s sent l es formes e n s ui v an t
ces co ntou r s, al ors que dans l ta t d fini ti f la coul eur est a ppl i que en l a rge s ap l a t s
r y t h m s, la fo is a u- des sus e t e n-des sous de s cernes noi rs. Lger consi d re qu e
cet te der ni re appro che est plus a dapt e aux di mensi ons monument a l es (30 0 x 40 0
cm .) de l a fresque fina le . S on approche pour l a Da nseuse a u t a mbouri n corre sp o n d
cel l e de la de rni re ver sion de La grande para de, l a quel l e i l t ra va i l l e l orsq u il p ei n t
cet te tu de. Le co n traste e ntre l es l ig nes courbes et l a st ruc t ure da ngl es d ro it s
e st ty p ique du trav a il de L g er depui s ses Cont ra stes de formes de 1 91 3-1 4 . I l r ve
u ne n o uvel le re de la pei nture: De g ra nds vol umes de coul eur couvrent u n e v as te
su r f a ce. No u s ava no n s v er s le futur , e t c e st un fut ur c ol l ec t i f, dc l ar e Lg er.
No us so mmes laub e d un e r e naissa nce de l art mural . Lart monument al d o it et
p e u t amp lifi er ce tt e nouv el le conc ept ion ( c i t i n W.Sc hma l enba c h, Lger, N e w Yo rk ,
197 6, p. 1 66) .

Lo t 8 D e 191 0 191 4 , i mmdi ateme nt a van t l e dbut de l a premi re guerre


m o n di al e, l e Cubi sme ouv re l a voi e de nouve l l es ra l i t s vi suel l es. La pein t u re
p u re de v ie n t al ors l e cent re de l a rec herche est ht i que. Le pote et c ri t i que d a r t
G ui l l a ume A poll in ai re voit le suje t se dis soud re et de veni r presque i ndc hi f f ra b l e
da n s l es t able au x cu bistes de ses a mis Braque et Pi c a s so a u cours de l eur p h as e
a na l y t i que . La v ra isembla nce na plus d impor t a nce c a r tout est sa c ri fi pa r l ar t is te
l a comp osit ion de son t abl ea u, obse r ve Ap ol l i na i re. Le suj et ne compte p l u s, o u
si l co mpte , cest pei ne. .. Un ar t e nti reme nt nouvea u est en t ra i n de na t re , qu i
se ra la pe int ure , te ll e quon l a vai t e nvisa g e j usqui c i , ce que l a musi que e st l a
l i t t rature. . .Ce se ra de l a pe int ure pure , de mme que l a musi que est de l a l it t ra t ure
p u re ( A pro po s de la pei nture mode rne , in L.C. Breuni g, A pol l i na i re on Ar t, Bo s to n ,
2 0 01, p. 197).
Ce d e s sin de Fe rna nd L g er l a composit ion a uda c i euse, mont ra nt une fem m e n ue
a l l o n g e, an nonce l av neme nt de la pei nture pure. Il sa ppa rente l a toi le Le m o dl e
n u da n s la telier, commenc e par L ge r la fi n de 1 91 2 et a c he v a u dbut de l an n e
su i v an te ( Bau qu ie r no. 40 ). Ce ta ble au de forma t ver t i c a l mont re l e modl e d v t u ,
u n b ra s le v au -des sus de la t te , l a utre ma in pose sur l e vent re, a s si se l g rem e n t
e n di a gon ale da ns latel ie r c ubiste e t se mi- sp hri que de Lger. En tourna n t l e
p r s e n t de s sin , da tan t ga le ment de 1 912 , de qua t re vi ngt di x degrs da ns l e se n s
i n ve rs e de s ai gu ille s dune mont re et en i nver sa nt l a posi t i on des bra s du m o d l e, l e
rap po r t ave c l e t able au e st i mmdi ateme nt vi dent .
Le x i s tence de Femme nue couch e sug g re que l a r t i ste peut a voi r a us si en v i sa g
e n 19 12 un ta blea u de sti n fai re penda nt a u modl e nu da ns l a tel i er, mon t ran t l e
m m e mo d l e a llong sur un diva n dans un c a dre hori zont a l , da ns l a gra nde t rad it i o n
de l o da li sque orient ali ste . L g er montre Le modl e nu da ns l a tel i er tout j us te
a ch e v au S a lon des I n dpe ndant s au pr intemps 1 91 3 . Peu a prs i l ent a me l a g ra n de
a ve n ture d es d buts de sa c ar ri re, une e xpdi t i on a uda c i euse vers l a pei n t ure p u re,

n o n - fig u ra ti ve , ave c l a s rie de s Con t ra s tes de fo rm es . E l l e l o cc u pe l e res te d e


l a n n e e t ju sq uau d bu t d e l an n e 19 14 , pu i s f a it da te da n s so n uv re.
I l e st v id e n t t an t d an s le M o d l e n u d an s l atel i er qu e da n s cet te t ud e d u n n u
al l o n g qu e L g er a d j l ab o r n o m b re de s l m en t s q ui vo n t c a rac t r i ser s es
Con t ra s tes, ce s fo rm e s p ures , ru dim e n t aire s , q ui i n tera gis s en t p o ur g n rer u n
co n t re p o in t h a rdi , d y n am i qu e et dis s o n an t . Au d b u t de l an n e 19 13 , Lg er f o rm u l e
l e ca dre gra ph iqu e q ui v a co m b in e r ce s fo rm es , a ve c d e s cou rb e s l i n a i re s n o ires e t
d es a n g le s p ro m in e n t s q ui se bo usc ul e n t e t sen t rec h o q ue n t s ur l a sur f ace pl a n e
d u ta b l ea u. Po ur cr e r l i l lu si on s pa ti al e , il p la ce d es reh a u ts de b l an c s ic i e t l su r
l a to il e , p are il s l cl at d e s p i ce s m can iq ue s p o l i es - un ef fe t sug g r p ar l e ton
t ra n sp a re n t d u p ap ie r de Fem m e n u e cou c h e.
L g e r ch e rch e co n t re r l im p act cro i s san t d u f ut u rism e i t al i en , d o n t l in t r t
p rov ie n t d e so n u ti li sa ti on de su je t s m o de rn e s e t co sm o p o l i tes , re pr sen ts en
m o u ve m e n t, e t ten d re m p l ace r l e ur i ll us io n de m o uve m e n t p ar u n v rit a bl e
d yn am is m e p ict u ra l . I l s o uh ai te g al em e n t dp as se r l in f l u en ce d e Cz a n n e, d on t l e
t ra v ail la co n s id ra bl e m e n t im p res s io n n l o rs de l a rt ro sp ec ti ve du m a tre a u Sa l o n
d Auto m n e de 19 07. L g e r p ar t age l in t rt d e Cz a n n e p o u r l e s o bj e ts st a ti q u es
e t l e s te ch n iq ue s d e co n st ru ct io n d e l a co m po sit io n , f on d es su r l e cy l i n d re, l a
s p h re, l e c n e . M ais L g er p e n s e d so rm ais qu e l e r y t h m e acc l r de l a v ie
m o d ern e e xi g e un e ap p ro ch e n o u ve l le , p lu s ra di c al e . Lem p ris e [ de Cz a n n e] ta i t
s i f o r te , s e rap p e l le L g er e n 1 9 5 4 , qu e p o u r m e n d gag er jai d al l e r j u s q u
l a b st ract io n (c it in C. Gree n , L ger a n d th e Av an t- Ga rd e, N e w H a ve n , 1 976, p. 5 2 ).
D an s un e co n f ren ce l Ac ad m ie Ma rie Vas s i l ie f e n 1 9 14 , Lg er vo q ue l e r l e
d u n u date l ie r dan s s o n t rav a il de 19 12 -13 : Ave c l e s u jet l e p l u s o rd in a i re , l e p l u s
b an a l , un n u f m in in d an s l ate l ie rvou s p o uvez a v an t a ge use m e n t re m pl a cer l es
l o co m o ti ve s e t au t res m a ch in e s m o de rn e s, q ui so n t d if fi c il e s em m en e r c h ez s oi [ i l
fa it i ci al lu s io n au fu t ur ism e ]. To ut ce l a e s t un m oyen p o u r at tei n dre l a f i n ; a uc u n e
ch o s e n a de v rit ab l e in t r t e n de h o rs d e l a f a o n do n t el l e es t rep r se n te
(ci t in i b id ., p. 53 -5 4 ). L g e r lab ore u n e sy n ta xe p ict ura l e de f o rm e s p ures , n on d es cri p ti ve s. p ro p o s du t ab l e au Le m o d l e n u da n s l atel i er, C h ris to ph er G re en
cri t, E n fa it L ge r n e re n d p as ce n u a bs t ra i t, e x t ra y a n t du m od l e des f or m es
e t q ual i t s s im p l ifi e s, i l le tra d u it p l ut t e n u n e g am m e d e fo rm es ab s tra i tes
d au t re s su je t s - le m ou vem e n t d e l a f u m e e t du fe ui l l a ge d an s l es pa y s a ge s d e l a
v il l e e t d e l a cam p ag n e Le m o d le co m m e po in t de d p a r t n ce s sai re e st m ai n te n a nt
co m p l tem e n t re do n d an t , pa rce qu e s o n vo ca bu l a ire de f o rm e s con t ras t es a t
p ur au p o i n t de de ven i r co m p l te m en t ve rsa t il e e t de to ut en g l ob erLa f or m e
d es cri p ti ve a f in al e m e n t d isp ar u de s o n r pe r to i re (i b id., p. 53 -5 4 ) .
Lo rsq u il de s si n e cet te Fem m e n u e co u c h e, L ge r e st s u r l e p o in t d e r v l e r l a
p e in t u re p u re . C e s t en s up p rim a n t co m p l tem en t l e su je t , a u d bu t d e lan n e 101 3 ,
q ui l y p ar v i en t avec se s Co n tras te d e f o rm es . Lors de s a p re m i re co n f re n ce
l a cad m ie Va s sil i ef, rd ig e ce p o in t c rit iq ue d e so n vol u t io n , il d cl a re q u e l e
r al is m e p ic t ural - q u il e n te n d co m m e im ag e p ure en t an t q uo bj e t en s oi , et no n pa s
co m m e l a re p r se n t at io n de q ue l q ue ch o se d e p r -ex ist an t - es t l a m is e en ord re
s im ul t an e d e t ro is co m p o sa n te s p la st iq ue s : Li gn e s, Fo rm es et Cou l eu rs . Il p o ur s u i t
e n p ro cl am an t, D s o rm ais , to ut pe u t co n ve rg er ve rs u n ra l ism e i n te n s e o bte n u p ar
d es m oyen s p u re m en t d y n am iq ue s . Le s co n tra stes p ict ura u x ut i l is s da n s l eu r sen s l e
p l us p u r (co ul e ur s, l ig n e s e t fo rm e s co m p l m e n ta i re s) so n t do n c l e s f on d e m en t s d e
l a p ei n tu re m od e rn e ( in E . F. Fr y, e d., Fern a n d L ge r: Th e Fu n c ti on s of Pai n t in g, N e w
Yo rk , 1973 , p. 4 et 7).

Lot 9 Ou b l io n s l a r al it e x t ri eu re , d c l are S e veri n i, e t l a co n n ai s s an ce d e


s es v a l eu rs in t g ra l es p ou r cr e r l e s n o u ve l le s di m en s i on s d o n t n ot re se n si b il i t
re n o u ve l e fixera l ordre e t l ten d u d an s lun i vers ( i n An a l o gi es p l ast iq ue s d a n s l e
d yn am is m e. M an if es te f ut ur is te 19 13 , dit io n s U. Ap po l on i o, M a n i fe s te s Fu t u r is tes,
Bo s to n , 2 001, p.11 8) . Le de s si n La m od is te n ou s o uv re u n e fe n tre d vo i l a nt l e
p ro ce s su s p ar l e qu e l S e ve r in i t ran s fo rm e l a ra l it e xt ri eu re , en ut il is a n t l es
p r ce p te s qu i l a la b o r s avec s es co l l g u es d e l a b a n de ria f u tu ris t a , au v u d e l a
s o ci t de l eu r te m p s, q uil s p e r oi ve n t co m m e u n e p o q ue de dy n a m ism e et d e
s im ul t an it (ib id , P.12 1)
D e s si n e n 19 15 , il y a do n c e x ac tem e n t ce n t an s cet te a n n e , La M od is te il l u s tre l e
Fut u ris m e s ub l im e , q uas im e n t ab st rait , auq ue l ab o ut it S e veri n i av an t l e d c l en c h em e n t d e l a p re m i re g ue r re m o n d ial e e n a o t 19 1 4 . Pa ral l l e m en t , to ut e n r i n trod uis an t l un de se s s uje t s d e l a Be ll e - p oq ue da v an t-g ue rre , p ro b a bl e m e n t e n r a c ti on
l a trag di e d u co n fl it e n co u rs e t p ar o p p o si t io n a u tra item en t f ro id et m t al l i q u e
d e t h m es m i li ta ire s, te l l e c l b re Tra in b l in d en ac t i on (Fo n t i , n o. 2 4 2 ; Mu s eu m
o f M o d ern A r t, N e w Yo rk ), S e ve r in i a b o rd e un e ph a s e c u bi s te, da v an t a ge d a n s l a
m an i re d e P ica s so, G ri s et da ut re s p e in t re s Pa ris p en d an t l a g ue rre .
S e ve rin i o s cil l e e n t re l e s de u x c am p s riv au x du Cub i sm e p ari s ie n et du Fu tu r i sm e i tal ie n , de p u is l m e rg en ce de s de u x m o u ve m en t s en 1 9 10 -11. A rri v Pari s l a u to m ne
19 0 6 l g e de 2 3 an s , il ren co n t re p res qu e to u s l es p ro t a go n i stes de l a v a nt- g ard e d e
l a r t , M il an e t Paris . E n 1 91 0, i l s ig n e l a fo i s l e M an i f es te d es Pei n tres fu t u r i s te s
e t L a Pein t u re f u tu ris te: M a n if e s te Tec h n iq u e, de s d oc u m en t s cl s q ui p o r te n t gal em e n t le s n om s de B al l a, Bo ccio n i, Carr e t Ru s s ol o. I l se l i e d am it i a ve c l es d eu x
fo n d ateu rs d u Cu bi sm e , dab o rd B raq ue , p ui s P ic a s so, p u is p a r l eu r i n te rm d i ai re
ave c A p o l l in ai re , p o te, jo u rn al is te , et gran d e p l um e du m o d ern i sm e Pa r i s. Se ve r in i
s ait ex p l iq u er e t d f en d re ch acu n d e ces m o uve m e n ts a u pr s d e l au t re, tou t en e n
t iran t de s l e o n s e s se n t ie ll e s co n t rib u an t s on p ro p re t rav ai l . D e tou s l es a r ti s tes
d av a n t-g a rde a f f il i s so it au Cub is m e , so it a u Fut u rism e , c h aq ue f act io n d n ig ra n t
l a ut re vo ire la n ian t com p l te m e n t, S e ve rin i e st l e se ul t re r so l u m en t pa r ti s an
d es d e ux cam p s, da n s s es p oi n ts d e v u e e t se s af fin i t s.

106

Le th me de la modiste a pparai t pour la pre mi re foi s da ns l uvre de Se ve rin i


e n 19 1 1 ( Fo n ti , no 1 5) . Il ent ame cet te poqu e sa sri e de da nseuses, en ch o au
p h no mne de la v ie cosmopoli te moder ne i nc a rna nt sel on l ui de l a fa on l a p l us
e n tho us iasm an te les nouve ll es dyna mique s de l poque. Il a l l i e l e st yl e contem p o rai n
e t l e d i ver t is seme n t, tout e n expr ima nt l e mouvement , composa nte es sent ie l l e de l a
rec h e rche est h tiqu e d es f ut uri ste s.
Le de s sin La Modi ste est labout is se ment dune pha se de t ra nsforma t i on, co m m en c e
e n 19 1 3 , lor squ e S e ve r ini s loi gne dun styl e a upa ra va nt i nfl uenc pa r l es m u l t ip l e s
f a ce ttes d u Cu bisme par isi en, visi ble dans G erogl i fi co Di na mi co del Ba l Tab a ri n, 19 1 2
( Fo n t i , no. 107 ; Th e M useum of Mode rn A r t , N e w York), l a di mensi on c a rn av a l es qu e.
E l l e a b o utit u ne syn th se pl us li bre et plus va ste, pl us rsol ument fut uris te , o
de s f o r mes r y thm es s embl ent se d pli er et souvri r a utour de l a xe cent ra l d e l a
si l ho u e tte . I ci, co mme a vec ses da nseuse s, S e veri ni rdui t son suj et l es s en t i el , l im i n an t la plupa r t de s dt ai ls, jusqu ce que ne restent que l es formes a c ti ve s l es p l u s
e s s en tie ll es, se s a na log ie s pla sti ques du dyn a mi sme, sa pproc ha nt ostens ib l e m en t
de l ab straction. D an s l int roduc ti on du ca ta l ogue de son exposi t i on de 1 91 3 l a M albo ro u gh Ga lle r y Lon d re s, l a r t iste e xpli que: Un besoi n i rrpres si bl e dab s t ra ct i o n
m a co ndu it met tre de ct tout ce qui est reprsent a t i on de ma s se et de fo rm e
da n s l e se ns du re lief pl ast ique . C haque des si n est une t ude obj ec t i ve, un ef fo r t da n s
l a di rect io n de la bsolu. (c it i n J.C. Ta ylor, Fut uri sm, c a t a l ogue dexposi ti o n , Th e
M us eu m of Mode rn Ar t, Ne w York, 1 961, p. 69).
L a r p titio n de s l me nts i mpr gne L a Modi ste de mouvement , sur tout se s b ra s et
se s m ai ns, le t is su que ll e ma nipul e se dpl oya nt en esc a l i er, gnra nt des r y t h m e s
da n s l a compositio n que Se ver ini souli gne en core a vec l vent a i l des pl i s d e l a ro b e.
Le s f o rme s co u rbe s bri se s descenda nte s qui a ppui ent des deux c t s de l a fe ui l l e
e t l e co in sai ll an t de l a t abl e e nfer ment la sil houet te da ns son envi ronnem en t .
Com m e Se veri ni le d cl are, lun de s obje ct ifs formel s de son uvre est l e co n t ras te
si m ul t a n de lign es, de sur f a ce s et de vol umes et de groupes de formes a n al o g ue s en
e x p a nsi on sph riqu e. - I nte rp nt ra ti on cons t ruc t i ve (c i t i n U. A pol l oni o, op. c i t.,
2 0 01, p. 12 3) .
Ce t t e p h a s e d e s a c r a t i o n v a c o n t i n u e r r s o n n e r d a n s l u v re d e S e v e r i n i
j u s q u e n 1 9 1 5 , y c o m p r i s d a n s s e s t a b l e a u x d e t r a i n s e t d a u t re s s u j e t s l i s l i d e
d e g u e r r e . A p r s a v o i r r i n t ro d u i t l e t h m e d e l a m o d i s t e d a n s c e d e s s i n , l a r t i s t e
se rapproche nouveau du Cubisme avec ce mme thme la fin de la priode 191516, en utilisant un style plus plat, plus schmatique, qui tmoigne de linfluence du
C u b i s m e s y n t h t i q u e d e P i c a s s o ( Fo n t i , n o s . 2 6 3 , 2 6 3 A - C e t 2 6 4 - 2 6 5 ; g a l e m e n t u n e
l i t h o g r a p h i e , M e l o n i , n o. 1 1 ) .
Le pre mier propritai re de La Modiste fut Si r Sa c her verel l Reresby Si t wel l (1 8978 8 ) , f rre ca det de Da me Edi th e t S ir Osbe r t Si t wel l , tous a c teurs de premi er p l an
de l a scne litt raire a ngl ai se e ntre l es de ux guerres, potes et di teurs de W h eel s,
a nt h o l ogie s de po sie conte mpora ine publi es ent re 1 91 6 et 1 92 1. Si r Sa c he r vere l l f ut
p l us co nn u pa r l a suite e n ta nt que cr it ique da r t et de musi que et pour ses l i v res s ur
M ozar t et Li szt; i l fu t ga le ment un spc ia li ste reconnu de l a rc hi tec t ure ba ro qu e. E n
19 2 1, p ar li nterm dia ire du ma rc hand pa ri sie n Lonce Rosenberg, Si r O sbe r t et Si r
S a ch e r ve re ll comma nd re nt Se ver ini des fresques pour dcorer l e sa l on de l a v i l l a
tos ca n e de l a fami ll e, C astel lo de Monte gufon i prs de Fl orence. Se veri ni p a s sa s ep t
m o i s a u ch tea u, trava il la nt sur pla ce . I l ter mi na l a comma nde en 1 92 2 (Fon t i , n o s.
39 0 A- D) .

Lo t 10 Ce des sin lenc re , g ouac he e t pa stel , i ma ge obsda nte dune fem m e s o l it a i re a u bo rd de la mer a u v isa ge al long ma rq u pa r l a doul eur, est l e pl us p u is s an t et
l e pl u s ins pir du n e n sembl e dil lust ra ti ons c r pa r Pa bl o Pi c a s so pour un m ag az i n e
a u co ur s du prin te mps et de l t 190 0, ava nt son dpa r t pour Pa ri s. La nne p r cde n te , Picas so, al ors g de di x- sept ans, re nt re c hez l ui Ba rcel one a prs un b ref
p a s s a ge par la prestigie use, mai s cont ra ig nan te et t ra di t i onnel l e A c a demia d e Be l l as
A r te s de Sa n Fer n an do Ma dri d. Le mode rni sme c a t a l a n est a l ors en pl ei n e s so r et au
d b ut des a nn e s 19 00, Pi ca s so, toujour s plu s i ndpenda nt et dtermi n, e st a ccu ei l l i
da n s l e cercl e des a r t istes e t cr iva ins dava nt-ga rde qui se rencont rent a u c ab a ret
E l Q u a tre Ga ts. Pou r le je une prodig e, le X Xe si c l e, qu i l va i nc a rner pl us qu a uc un
a ut re , souv re sous dexcel le nts a uspices.
E n j a n vi er 19 00, Picas so s inst al le ave c un a ut re pei nt re, C a rl os C a sa gema s da n s so n
p re m i e r v r it able atel ie r, a u der nie r ta ge dun b t i ment dl a br da ns un qu ar t ie r
m a l f a m de la vie ille vi ll e. Peu a pr s, l es me mbres fonda teurs du mouveme n t
m o de rn is te o f f re nt Pi ca s so une e xposit ion personnel l e, l a premi re de sa c arri re ,
da n s l a Sa la G ran dE l Q uat re Gat s. t re re connus pa r eux, c est t re vri t ab l e m en t
reco n nu , cr it J ohn Ri cha rdson. Et i l e st vra i ment rema rqua bl e que l e d b ut de
l i m m ense ca rr i re de Pic as so conc ide ave c l e commencement dun nouvea u si c l e
( op. c i t ., 19 96, p. 127) .
Po ur sa p remi re e xposi ti on, qui ouvre le 1e r fvri er 1 90 0, Pi c a s so expose 15 0
p o r tra it s sur papi er des pei ntres, potes e t a ut res sui veurs qui const i t uent
so n g roupe , u ne v rita ble ga le ri e de por t ra it s de l a bohme de Ba rcel one. Les
t ra i ts au dac ie ux e t le re ndu li bre des for mes de ces des si ns sont un dfi di rec t ,
vo i re i r r vre ncie u x, aux por trai ts vi r t uoses a u fusa i n que fa i t Ra mon C a s as d e
se s co ntemporai ns, qui ont t e xposs a vec un gra nd retent i s sement l a nn e
p r c d e nte dan s la plus l ga nte ga le ri e de Ba rcel one, l a Sa l a Pa rs. Pi c a s so se m b l et-i l es t dj pr t po u r une sc ne pl us la rg e. Presque a us si t t a prs l a ferme t ure
de s o n expositio n , il commence sorg ani ser pour pouvoi r se rendre Pa ri s (avec
l e m a l he u re ux Casa gemas) , sur monta nt l a r t i cence de son pr e et persuad an t
l e s par e nts de C asag ema s de four nir la maj eu re pa r t i e des fonds. Pour t ro uver
da v an t age darge n t pour le voyag e, il ex cute une sri e de pa stel s de t a uro m a ch i e

q ui l e x p o se E l Qu at re G at s e n ju il l et e t acce p te d e s t rav a u x co m m ercia u x, d o n t d e s


af fic h es et de s il l us t rat io n s d e m ag a z in e s.
L a b o i j a ( L a f o l l e ) i n c a r n e c e m o m e n t d a m b i t i o n j u v n i l e . Co n t r a i re m e n t a u x
a u t re s i l l u s t r a t i o n s , a f f i r m e R i c h a rd s o n , c e l l e - c i e s t p o r t e u s e d e l a g r a n d e u r
v e n i r ( i b i d . , p. 1 5 4 ) . P i c a s s o e x c u t e l e p r s e n t d e s s i n p o u r i l l u s t re r u n e n o u v e l l e
m a c a b re d u m m e n o m , c r i t e p a r l e j e u n e a u t e u r R a m o n S u r i n a c i S e n t i e s , p u b l i e
l e 6 s e p t e m b re 1 9 0 0 d a n s C a t a l y u n a A r t s t i c a , h e b d o m a d a i re d e l i t t r a t u r e , d a r t
e t d e t h t re . A l a m m e p o q u e , P i c a s s o f a i t g a l e m e n t u n p o r t r a i t a u f u s a i n d e
S u r i n a c i S e n t i e s , e n c a d r p a r u n e a rc h e g o t h i q u e , d u m m e s t y l e q u e l a f a a d e
m o d e r n i s t e d E l Q u a t r e G a t s ( v o i r c a t a l o g u e d e x p o s i t i o n , o p. c i t . , 1 9 9 5 , n o. 1 1 5 ) .
L a n o u v e l l e L a b o i j a r a c o n t e l h i s t o i re t r a g i q u e d u n e f e m m e n o m m e M a d r o n a
q u i d e v i e n t f o l l e a p r s a v o i r p e rd u s o n m a r i , s a m a i s o n e t s o n e n f a n t . L e d e s s i n d e
P i c a s s o c a p t u re l e g l i s s e m e n t d e M a d r o n a v e r s l a f o l i e a v e c u n e i n t e n s i t e n c o r e
accentue par le petit format de limage. Le jeune psychologue implacable, qui
a p n t r d a n s l e s re p a i re s d u v i c e , n h s i t e p a s s e c o n f ro n t e r l a f o l i e , c o m m e
o n p e u t l e v o i r d a n s l e d e s s i n a u f u s a i n d u n e f o l l e a u re g a rd v i d e e t a f f a m , c r i t
W i l l i a m B o e c k ( o p. c i t . , 1 9 5 5 , p. 1 1 4 ) .
Le t h m e de L a b oi ja re c l e un e dim e n s io n p ar t icu l i re m en t p oi g n an te po u r P ic a s s o,
d o n t l es p are n t s o n t p e rdu un e n f an t , Co n c h it a , cin q a n s au p ara v an t . E n 1 89 9,
p e ut- t re p o u r e xo rcis er l e t rau m at ism e d e l a m o r t d e Co n ch it a, P i cas s o p ei n t u n
e n se m b l e d a qu are l l es e t d e d es s in s qu i re p rs en te n t u n e jeu n e m re ds es p r e,
s es l o n g s ch e ve ux d fa it s, p l eu ran t au ch e vet d e so n e n fan t m o r t; l e p oi n t c u l m in an t
d e cet en s e m b le e st l e t ab l e au D ern i ers m o m en t s , p ar de s su s l e qu el Pi c as s o,
p ro b a b le m e n t e n p an n e de to ile , a p e in t l e ch e f- d uv re de s a p ri o d e bl eu L a V i e
( Zer vo s, vo l . 1, n o. 1 79 ; Cl e vel a n d Mu s eu m o f A r t) . Da n s l e p rs en t d es s in , l e v i s a g e
fa n to m a ti qu e p re sq ue d m o n ia qu e de l a m re e n p ro i e aux af fres d e l a n go i s s e,
m erge dun arri re- p l an s o m b re , cr an t u n e f fe t qu a si ex pres s io n n i ste q u i s u g g re
l in fl ue n ce d Edv ard M un ch , au t re ar t is te ( b i en co n n u d e l a Ba rcel o n e de l a fi n d u
s i cl e) ay a n t e x p rim s o n ch ag rin su ite l a m o r t de s a p ro p re s u r p a r s o n trav a i l .
l aut o m n e 1 9 00, l e s p rp arat if s de P ic as so po ur so n v oy a g e P ari s so n t a c h ev s.
R e n du e u p h o riq ue p ar so n d p ar t im m in e n t, i l d es sin e un aut o p o rt rait (au j ou r d h ui
p e rdu ) in s c rit n on p as un e f oi s m ai s t r oi s, Yo el Re y, com m e p ou r t ab l ir q u e l u i ,
P ic as so e st le ro i, l e m e s sie du n o u ve au s i cl e (vo ir J. R i c h ards o n , o p. c it . 1 99 6, p.
15 7). I l q ui tte Ba rce l o n e q ue l qu e s j o ur s a v an t so n di x-n e uv i m e a n n i ve rsa i re l e 2 5
o cto b re , e t le f t e av e c s es co m pa tr io t es Cas a ge m as et I sid re N o n e l l d ans l a tel i e r
d e ce de rn i er, au 49 ru e G ab ri el l e Par is . D s l a u to m n e su i v an t , P ic a s so en t rep ren d
l es p re m ie rs ta b l ea ux im p o r t an t s de s a c l b re p rio de b l e ue , do n t l es in d ig en t s et
l es m al h eu re ux so n t d j p r f igu r s p ar l in ten s e to n al i t b l eu e et l e x p res s i on d e
s o uf f ran ce de L a b o ija .

Lot 13 Pa ul C z an n e pe in t ce t te aqu are l l e d l i cate et raf fin e re pr sen ta n t u n


u n iq ue p l a n t d e g ra n ium d an s la p e t ite se rre q ui s e t ro u v ait ja di s da n s l en cein te
d u J as d e Bo u f f an , s a p ro p ri t d e f am il l e p rs d A ix . Cet te s erre e st u n l i eu c h a ud et
is o l o C z an n e p e ut t rav a il le r s an s tre in te rro m p u , e n cas d e m a uv ai s tem p s , l o r s
d es h ive rs q u il pa s se e n P rove n ce au co u rs de s an n e s 18 80. I l p e in t l d e ux h u i l es et
s ix a qu are l l e s qu i cap t u re n t la p l e lu m i re arge n t e de l h i ve r qu i f il t re a u tra ve r s
d u v it ra g e de la s e rre e t j ou e s ur l e s fe uil l e s d es g ran iu m s , p en s es e t b g on i a s en
p o t s. (Re w a ld , n o s . 4 70 e t 702 ; Re w al d Wa tercol ors, n os . 19 4 , 2 11-2 1 4 , 2 2 1 ). C es t p rob ab l e m e n t l a s erre o a p o s M ad am e C z an n e po ur so n l gan t p o r tra it d e 1 89 1- 9 2
(Re w al d , n o. 703; T h e M e t ro p o l it an M u se u m o f A r t, N e w Yo rk ).
Po t d e g r a n i u m s t m o i g n e d e s m o y e n s l g a m m e n t c o n t e n u s , d e s p o u v o i r s d e
suggestion, si nouveaux son poque, utiliss par Czanne dans sa maturit.
L a t e c h n i q u e d e l a q u a re l l e a t p e r f e c t i o n n e p a r C z a n n e u n p o i n t t e l q u e
quelques touches de couleur suffisent tout exprimer, crivent Michel Hoog et
G e n e v i v e M o n n i e r p ro p o s d e s t a b l e a u x d e g r a n i u m s d e l a r t i s t e ( C z a n n e d a n s
l e s m u s e s n a t i o n a u x , c a t a l o g u e d e x p o s i t i o n , O r a n g e r i e d e s Tu i l e r i e s , P a r i s , 1 9 74 ) .
S u r l a d ro i t e d e l a p r s e n t e a q u a re l l e , d e s a p l a t s t r a n s l u c i d e s d e v e r t a p p l i q u s
d u n e t o u c h e d u n e l g re t v i r t u o s e , s u g g re n t l a p l n i t u d e v e rd o y a n t e d e s
feuilles, alors qu gauche le blanc nu du papier voque les parties o la lumire du
s o l e i l t o m b e s u r l a p l a n t e e t a b s o r b e s a c o u l e u r. U n e s i m p l e l i g n e a u c r a y o n p r s
d u b a s d e l a p a g e c o n s t r u i t l e s p a c e d e l a s e r re e t d e l g e r s l av i s d o m b r e t au p e e n
a r r i r e - p l a n a s s o i e n t s u b t i l e m e n t l i m a g e . C e s t d a n s u n s e n s u n e re p r s e n t a t i o n
re m a rq u a b l e m e n t re t e n u e d e s e f f e t s d e l u m i re d u n a p r s - m i d i d h i v e r d a n s l e
m i d i , e t d e l a t m o s p h r e d i n t ro s p e c t i o n q u i l s e n g e n d re n t , c r i t J o s e p h R i s s e l
p ro p o s d u n e a q u a re l l e t r s p ro c h e q u i s e t ro u v e a u L o u v re ( R e w a l d Wa t e r c o l o r s ,
n o. 1 9 4 ) . Ce p e n d a n t s i c e t t e u v r e c o r re s p o n d a u x c a n o n s d e l i m p re s s i o n n i s m e
d a n s s a c a p t u re d e f f e t s f u g a c e s , e l l e p o r t e g a l e m e n t u n e d i m e n s i o n d v o c a t i o n
p o t i q u e q u i l e s t r a n s c e n d e ( C z a n n e , c a t a l o g u e d e x p o s i t i o n , P h i l a d e l p h i a
M u s e u m o f A r t , 1 9 9 6 , p. 1 7 1 ) .
A dr ie n Ch a p p ui s a su g g r qu e l es g ran iu m s , des pl a n te s v i v aces bi en con n u es pou r
l eu r r si st an ce a ux rig ue u rs de l h iver, p eu ve n t a voi r t ch o isi s p a r C z an ne pou r
s ym b o lis e r s a p ro p re p ers v ran ce (vo ir J. Re w al d , op. c i t., 1 98 3 , p. 13 6 ). Le m il i e u
d es a n n es 1 88 0, date d e l a p r s en te aq ua re l l e, es t u n e p rio de d in ten s es tou r m en t s
d an s s a v ie p er so n n e l l e. J a v ais q ue l qu es v ign e s, m a i s d e s g el e s p rco ce s s on t
ve n u e s, s e l am e n te -t-il aup rs de V ic to r Ch o cq ue t (ci t in A . D a n ch e v, d . , T he
Letters of Pau l Cz a n n e, Lo s A n ge l es , 2 013 , p. 2 3 8). S a rel a ti o n a vec so n p re ses t
d t rio r e l o rs qu e ce lu i- ci ap p re n d l e x is te n ce d H o r te n se e t du pe t i t Pa u l , d on t
l a r t is te a l o n g te m p s di s sim u l l e x is te n ce. E n 1 88 5 , il a un e a ven t ure brve et
ca ta st ro p h i qu e a ve c u n e f em m e n o n id e n ti fi e A ix; l an n e su i v an te, i l rom p t to u t
l ie n a ve c Zo l a, u n a m i de to ujo urs , c ar il p ren d l e p or t ra i t qu e ce l ui- ci tra ce d u n

107

g n i e ra t da ns Lu vre pour une a tt aque profondment personnel l e. Tou t a u l o n g


de ce tte p rio de cepe n dant , C za nne ne re nonce j a ma i s poursui vre son t rav a il
de m a nire e xigea nte et intensi ve. Il sest dl i brment ret i r pour se l a n cer da n s
u ne l u t te in te nse et sol it ai re ave c l a pe int ure et l a na t ure, c ri t Vroni que S erran o,
un e l u tte don t le r sult at a radi ca le ment modi fi l i ma ge pei nte et l a perce p t io n
qu e no u s e n avons pour de nombreuse s ann es pa r l a sui te (Cza nne i n Proven ce,
ca ta l o gue de xposit ion, Nat iona l Ga ll er y of A r t , Wa shi ngton, D.C. , 2 0 0 6, p. 13 6 ).
A l o r s q u e c e r t a i n s t a b l e a u x d e g r a n i u m s d e C z a n n e l e s m o n t re n t l a f i n d e l e u r
c y c l e h i v e r n a l , a v e c u n f e u i l l a g e r a r e e t d e f i n e s t i g e s , c e t t e a q u a re l l e a u c o n t r a i re
s o u l i g n e l a p l n i t u d e d e l a p l a n t e a l o r s q u e s e s f e u i l l e s s e g o rg e n t n o u v e a u d e
s v e e t q u e l l e s e t o u r n e v e r s l e s o l e i l s u r s a g a u c h e . L a m u l t i p l i c i t d e s f o r m e s
l i s s e s e t a r r o n d i e s d e s f e u i l l e s e x p r i m e n t l a b o n d a n c e i r r s i s t i b l e d e l a n a t u re q u i
c o n t r a s t e v i v e m e n t a v e c l e s t h t i q u e d p o u i l l e d e l i m a g e . A v e c s a c o m p o s i t i o n
c e n t r a l e , l o r s q u o n l e x a m i n e d e p r s , c e t t e a q u a re l l e e x p r i m e u n e d i m e n s i o n
t e r re - - t e r re q u i t r a n s f o r m e u n s u j e t o rd i n a i re e n u n e p u i s s a n t e a f f i r m a t i o n d e
dtermination et de force.
M m e si la na tu re mor te est le ge nre de pr d i l ec t i on de C za nne, l es t a bl ea ux de
f l e u rs s o nt re la tiveme nt rares da ns son uvre. Sa fa on de t ra va i l l er mti cu l eu se
e t l e n te ( so n mc n e Eug ne Mure r raconte qui l a pa s s un moi s sur une un i qu e
p o m m e) est mal a dapt e un modl e qui cha nge cont i nuel l ement , qui c lo t et
f l e u ri t , f l tr it et fan e. Pour contour ner ce s di f fi c ul t s, C za nne c hoi si t de t rav a il l e r
su r de s f leur s ar tifi ci el le s ou, mi eux e ncore, da ns l a serre du Ja s, o l a na t ure
p e u t tre pl i e la vol ont humai ne. Mme da ns ses a qua rel l es, une tec hn iq ue
t ra di ti onn ell eme nt as soc i e la ra pidi t , ce que c herc he Cza nne nest pa s un e
rep r sent atio n sur l e v i f et ra pide def fe ts phmres ma i s un compte-ren du p l u s
l e n t, i n ter mi tten t du f l ux et du re flux de ses s ensa t i ons de va nt l e mot i f. C z an n e
ral e ntit se s aqu arelle s , conc lut Mat the w Si mms, et a u l i eu de c a pt urer de s
i m p re s sions rapi des, il e xploi te le s t ape s de cet te tec hni que o se succ d en t de s si n
e t p e i n ture po u r prol onge r son i nte ra ct ion a vec son mot i f pa r un cont a c t rp t
(C z anne s Wa te rcolor s: B e twe en Drawi ng a nd Pa i nt i ng, Ne w Ha ven, 2 0 0 8, p. 102 ).

Lo t 15 Le dbut de s ann es 1 88 0, dont da te cet te mer vei l l euse goua c he, m a rqu e l a
p ri o de de xpri men ta ti on ar ti sti que l a pl us i ntense de toute l a c a rri re d e Ca m il l e
P i s sa rro. Les pa y sage s qui c arac t ri sent la dcenni e prc dente, di mi nuen t e n
n o m bre pou r lai s ser pla ce de grands t abl ea ux a ni ms de personna ges. So n t rav a il
vo l u e ve rs de pe ti te s touc hes uni forme s tr s cont rl es, pl us prs de l a to u ch e
con st ru ctivi ste de C zanne que de la te chni que pi c t ura l e gnra l ement uti l is e p a r
l e s i m pre s sion n istes. Enf i n son approche te c hni que de vi ent pl us compl exe, avec
da v an t age d e tra v ail en a te li er et de de s sin pr pa ra toi re. Il expl ore ga l em en t un e
g ra n de v a ri t de tec hnique s, dont la gravure, l a qua rel l e et l a goua c he. To u s ces
cen tre s dint r t var is sug g re nt une re mise en quest i on fonda ment a l e d u m o d l e
de pe i ntu re g n ral eme nt a s soci e l I mpre s si onni sme, c est- -di re l e t rav a il en
p l ei n a ir explique Richa rd B ret te ll et une rel a t i on pl us compl exe a vec l a ra l it
qu e l a se u le re la tion vi suel le , me tt ant en j eu de nombreux i ntermdi a i res.( P i s s a rro
a nd Pontoise : Th e Pai nte r i n a L andsc ape, Ne w Ha ven, 1 990, p. 1 84).
Au co ur s d e cette pr iode es se nti el le de rem i se en quest i on et de renouve au , l u n e
de s s rie s de Pis sa rro, ma je ure tous point s de vue, mont re des pa ysa nnes o ccu p e s
a ux act iv it s du qu o tid ie n, a rrosant le ja rdi n, bc ha nt , ra ma s sa nt l es c hou x , de
l h er be , po u s san t u ne broue tte, socc upant da ni ma ux ou encore se reposa n t o u
r v an t . Ces u vres sont une contr ibut ion ma j eure l a pei nt ure de person n a ge s de
l i m pre s sio nn isme , a f f ir me Bret te ll , e t const i t uent en fa i t une pa r t es sen t ie l l e de
l a re pr se n ta tion de l a soc i t fra na ise contempora i ne pa r l es Impres si o n n is te s
(P i s s a rros People, ca ta log ue de xposit ion, Sterl i ng et Fra nc i ne C l a rk A r t In st i t ute,
W i l l i a m stow n , Mas sac huset ts, 2011, p. 17 1) .
D an s Pays ann es tra v ail la nt da ns le s cha mps, Pontoi se, Pi s sa rro mont re un gro u p e de
ci nq j eu nes f e mmes r col ta nt de s pois da ns l es fa ubourgs a gri col es de Pon to is e, u n
bo u rg a nim qua ra nte k il omt re s au nord-ouest de Pa ri s, o i l vc ut a vec s a fa m il l e
p e n da n t pl us de 10 a ns. Pis sa rro a d j trai t l e t hme de l a rcol te des po is d an s
de u x h uile s la nn e prc de nte , e t i l re vi ent sur ce suj et a u moi ns t roi s foi s ap r s
so n d mn ageme n t ve rs l e ha mea u rural dra gny en 1 884 (Pi s sa rro et Dura n d- Ru el
S n ol l a e r ts, n os. 627, 63 7, e t 1 00 8; Pis sa rro et Vent uri , nos. 1 40 8 et 1 431 ). Da n s n o t re
g o u ach e, l a riche to n ali t me ra ude du pr e t l e contenu bl eu-ver t des pa n ie rs
su g g re nt qu i l sag it de pois que lon a la is s s muri r sur l eur t rei l l e pl ut t qu e de
l e s r co lter je une s co m me de s pet it s pois de j a rdi n ordi na i res. Les tons l ux u ria n t s
du c h amp de pois do m ine nt l a composit ion, forma nt une l a rge di a gona l e au p re m ie r
p l an g uidan t l e reg ard du spec ta te ur, l e foul a rd c a rrea ux rouges et j a unes de l a
si l ho u e tte la pl us rapproch e res sor ta nt vi vement sur cet te ba nde ver te et cr an t un
p o i n t focal da ns l e panorama ouver t.
Con traire ment la vi sion de la ca mpag ne fran a i se de Mi l l et , o l e l a beur es t i n cessa n t e t haras san t, la repr se nta ti on de l a c am pa gne de Pi s sa rro pa r t i r de 1 88 0
res p i re cha leur et qui t ude. Ic i, le s trois si lhouet tes a u premi er pl a n s i nc l in e n t a ve c
g r ce et le ur tra v ail se rapproche dune da nse c a mpa gna rde; l es deux femm es d u p l an
i n te r m dia ire on t ces s de t ra vai ll er l a r col te pour se reposer et ba va rd er. Les
ton s f roids de le urs simple s vteme nts cousus l a ma i n l es i nt grent da ns l es ver t s
e t bl e us du pa ysag e, l eur s sil houet te s fine s et l eurs poses dtendues t moi gn e n t
de l a sa nt e t de l a vital it de la vie rural e. Pis sa rro, qui a dmi re l es t hori es su r
l a g ri c ulture pro che s de lutopie de Pe te r Kropot ki n, c re une pa stora l e m o de rn e,
o l e t ra vai l se f a it de f a on coop ra ti ve e t compa t i bl e a vec l es l oi si rs. Pis s arro es t
p e u t- tre l e premi er grand pe int re de l a vi e r ura l e en Fra nce qui rvl e une ce r t a in e
be a u t nat ure ll e dan s le s trava ux des c hamps, note Bret tel l . Son monde ten d an ce

an a rch i ste do n n e au trav a il d es c h am p s l a p ri m a ut l o rs qu i l sagi t de m o n trer l e


t ra v ail , m ai s ce t ra v ail e s t p ro d uct if e t g rat if ia n t. (i b id., p. 171 e t 1 7 5).
L a s r n it t ran q uil l e d e s m o is so n n eu ses co n t ra s te ic i a ve c l i n ten s i t du tra v a il d e
l a r t is te , re t ran scr ite p ar un e f act ure d en s e, co m po s e d e m i l l ie rs de tou c h es d e
p ig m e n t . D an s d e s le t t re s s e s fi ls , Pi s sar ro co m pa re de fa o n rp t e l e s e nt i m en t
d u rg en ce qu il pro uve l o rs qu il t ro u ve u n s u jet p ro m e tte ur ave c cel u i d u f er m i er
l o rsq u e l es r co l te s a rrive n t m a tu ri t ; da n s l es de ux c as, il fau t se m et tre a u tra v a il
s an s t ard e r o u to u t p e u t tre p erdu . J e n ai f a it l ex p rie n ce, il fau t sui v re ! Q u a nd
o n re s se n t q u el qu e ch o se , il f aut ag ir qu o iq u il en co te . Vou s p o u ve z t re s r q ue
vo u s e n rco l te re z le s b ie n fa it s (c it in J. Pi s s arro, P i s s a rro, N e w Yo rk , 1 99 3 , p. 18 6) .
P is s arro n e co n o it p a s la c ra ti o n co m m e l e fa i t d u n g n i e i s ol et so m bre; il se
co n si d re p lu t t co m m e f ais an t p a r t ie d un e com m u n a ut d i n di v id us p a r ta ge an t l es
m m es v ue s e t se f fo r an t d at te in d re u n b u t co m m u n , e t s er t ain s i de prof es s eu r
de s a r t is te s p l us jeu n e s e t se s fi l s. Po u r u n h o m m e com m e l ui, qu i pri v i l g i e u n
e sp r it co m m u n au t aire e t d o n t l t h iqu e d e t rav ai l e st exe m pl a i re , l a rcol te , i c i cel l e
d es p o i s, ai l le u rs cel l e d e s po m m es , d e s p o m m es d e te rre o u du f o in , es t u n pu is s a n t
s ym b o le de s o n p ro p re t rav ail .

Lot 16 Sa in t-Trop ez , l a jet e v u e du c h an t ier n a va l es t l u n e d e s prem i res t ud es


d u c l b re p o r t v aro is e x cu t e s p ar Paul S ig n a c en m a i 1 89 2 . Lar t is te qu i c ul t ive
u n e p as s io n p o u r l a voi l e ach ve al o rs un p rip l e b ord d O l ym p i a, u n voi l i er q ui l a
co n du it de B n o de t da n s l e Fin is t re au x c te s de l a m e r M di terra n e. Da n s u n e
l et t re s a m re , il cri t : D e p ui s h ie r, je s u is in s ta l l e t j e n a g e d an s l a j o i e. A c i n q
m in u te s d e l a v ie il le v il le p e rdu e da n s l es s ap i n s et l es ro s es , j ai d co u ve r t u n j ol i e
ca b an o n m e ub l [ .. .] de v an t l e s rives d o r e s du g o l fe , l es f l o t s b l e us ve n a n t m o ur i r
s ur un e p e t ite p l ag e , m a p la g e, e t un b o n m ou i l l age po ur O l ym p ia [. ..] d an s l e fo n d l es
s il h o ue t te s b l e ue s de s M au res e t d e l Es terel [ ... ]. Jai l d e qu o i t rav ai l l er p en d a n t
to u te m o n e x is te n ce . Ce st le b on h e u r qu e je v i en s d e d co uv ri r. Sa i n t-Trope z es t
u n e r v la ti o n po ur l a r t is te q ui ch o i sit de sy in s t al l e r. Il ac h te u n e m a i s on a u - d e ss us d e l a p l ag e d es Gran ie rs , y in s ta l le s o n ate l ie r et p e in t d e n o m b re ux t a bl ea u x d u
p o r t e t d e ces en vi ro n s. S ig n ac qu i es t l e p re m ie r ar t iste c de r aux c h arm e s trop z ie n s , y accu e il l era de n o m b re ux am is q ui d e vi en d ro n t d e s ad ep tes de l a pres q u l e,
L uce , Cro s s , M at is s e , M an g uin , B o n n ard , M arqu et o u e n co re Pi c ab i a po ur n e c i ter q ue
l es p lu s co n n u s.

Lot 17 Ce t te g o u ach e lib re e t p l e in e de v ie es t un e t ud e p ou r L ge d o r, le


t ab l e au l e p l u s m o n u m en t al e t l e pl u s am b it ie u x p ei n t pa r A n dr D era in en 1 9 0 5 . L a
m m e an n e , l es co u l eu rs i n ce n d iaire s d u fau v i sm e p ren n e n t l e m on d e da s s a u t et
p ro p u l se n t u n D e ra in je un e e t i m p tu eu x et Ma t is s e, so n com p at ri ote p l u s ta bl i ,
e n p rem i re l ig n e d e l a v an t- ga rd e p aris ie n n e. Le f auv i s m e a t n o t re preu ve d u
fe u , c rit D erai n p l u s t ard p ro p o s de ce t te prem i re v ri t ab l e r vo l ut i on d a ns l ar t
d u X Xe si c le . Le s co ul e ur s so n t d e ve n u e s des c h a rg es d e dy n a m i te. El l e s d oi ven t
m et t re de la l u m i re ( cit in D. Su tto n , A n dr D e ra i n, Lo n do n , 1 9 59, p. 2 0 ) . D a ns
L ge d or, D e rain re p re n d le th m e a n cie n de l ge dor d Ov id e et en c a ps u l e s on
e sp r it p ara dis iaq u e da n s un e n se m b le de n us s d uis a n ts e t d e da n s eu rs tr i o m ph a n ts
d an s u n c ad re l ux u ria n t , ren d us e n larg es a rab es qu es . A l ors q ue l e p en da n t pei n t pa r
M at is s e , Le b on h e u r de vi vre , e x h al e u n s en t im e n t d e l o is i rs bu co l i qu es et d e c al m e
ap o l l in i en , l a v is io n de l ge d o r d e D e rain ren vo ie aux f es ti v i t s e xo t i qu es et u n ext as e d io n y sia qu e f r n t iq ue . L ge do r es t d e co n cep ti o n pl u s f auve, pl u s s au v a g e ,
p ro c la m e J o h n E l de r fi el d, q uauc un de s au tres p ay s a ge s de D era in fai t s e n 1 90 5 .
L v o l u t i o n d e D e r a i n v e r s l a m a t u r i t a u c o u r s d e c e t t e s e u l e a n n e , re s t e
l g e n d a i re , e s t r a p i d e e t d t e r m i n a n t e . l a u t o m n e 1 9 04 , g d e v i n g t - q u a t r e
a n s , i l t e r m i n e s e s t r o i s a n s d e s e r v i c e m i l i t a i re o b l i g a t o i re e t re p re n d l a p e i n t u r e
a u p r s d e V l a m i n c k , s o n m e i l l e u r a m i e t s e u l a u t re m e m b re d e c e q u e t o u s d e u x
appellent lcole de Chatou. Il se tourne rapidement vers Matisse, son ain de
o n z e a n s , q u i b i e n q u e d j a c t i f d a n s l e s c e rc l e s p ro g re s s i s t e s , s e t ro u v e d a n s
u n e s i t u a t i o n f i n a n c i re f r a g i l e e t d o i t a s s u re r s a p l a c e l a v a n t - g a rd e . D e r a i n
s e m o n t r e d e p l u s e n p l u s p r t f a i re p re u v e d a u t a n t d a m b i t i o n q u e M a t i s s e ,
c r i t E l d e r f i e l d , e t m m e p a r f o i s d a v a n t a g e q u e l u i ( i b i d . , p. 3 4 ) . l i n i t i a t i v e d e
Matisse, Derain prsente huit tableaux au Salon des Indpendants au printemps
de 1905, qui sont accrochs dans la mme salle que le manifeste divisionniste de
M a t i s s e L u x e , c a l m e e t v o l u p t ( M u s e d O r s a y, P a r i s ) . Q u a t re d e s h u i t t a b l e a u x
s o n t v e n d u s p o u r d e b o n s p r i x ; p e u a p r s , l a f a m i l l e b o u rg e o i s e d e D e r a i n r e n o n c e
s o p p o s e r l a v o i e c h o i s i e p a r l e u r f i l s . L a c a r r i re d e c e j e u n e a r t i s t e p a s s i o n n
et dtermin est lance.
E n j u i l l e t 1 9 0 5 , D e r a i n a c c e p t e l i n v i t a t i o n d e M a t i s s e Co l l i o u re , u n p e t i t v i l l a g e
de pche au pied des Pyrnes, o il est avec sa femme Amlie depuis le mois de
m a i . J e n e p e u x p a s a s s e z i n s i s t e r q u u n s j o u r i c i e s t a b s o l u m e n t i n d i s p e n s a b l e
p o u r v o t re t r a v a i l , c r i t M a t i s s e D e r a i n ( c i t i n H . S p u r l i n g, T h e U n k n o w n
M a t i s s e : A L i f e o f H e n r i M a t i s s e , T h e E a r l y Ye a r s , N e w Yo r k , 1 9 9 9 , p. 3 1 6 ) . E n f a i t , l e
s j o u r i n o n d d e s o l e i l Co l l i o u r e v a c o m p l t e m e n t t r a n s f o r m e r l u v re d e s d e u x
a r t i s t e s . E n q u e l q u e s s e m a i n e s , p e i g n a n t c t e c t e , i l s s e l i b r e n t d e s c o n t r ai n t e s
d u d i v i s i o n n i s m e e t av a n c e n t v e r s u n e l i b e r t a r t i s t i q u e i n c o n n u e j u s q u e - l ,
a p p l i q u a n t l e s p i g m e n t s p u r s e n t o u c h e s i r r g u l i r e s e t h ar d i e s . Q u a n d D e r ai n
e t M a t i s s e e x p o s e n t l e s c r a t i o n s d e c e t t s p e c t a c u l ai r e au S a l o n d A u t o m n e
de 1905, elles font immdiatement sensation, dfient les spectateurs ou les
s c a n d a l i s e n t . Le c r i t i q u e L o u i s Va u x c e l l e s b a p t i s e a l o r s l e s d e u x j e u n e s p e i n t r e s e t
l e u r g ro u p e l e s f a u v e s .
D e rain tra va il l e su r s a m o n um e n t al e to il e L ge d o r to ut au l o n g de cet te an n e
e s se n t ie l l e. Le t ra ite m e n t d iv is io n n iste su g g re qu i l a co m m en c l e t ab l ea u

108

a u p ri n temps, proba ble ment en r ponse au L uxe, c a l me et vol upt de Ma ti s se .


S i l a to ile reste da ns son atel ie r a lor s qui l pa r t vers l e sud en j ui l l et , el l e re ste
t r s p r s ente da ns son e spri t; dans une le tt re Vl a mi nc k c ri te de Col l i ou re, i l
m e n ti o nn e pl usieur s tude s en cours pour sa gra nde toi l e, comme i l l a pp e l l e. J e
n a i j a ma is f ai t d uv re a us si comple xe e t a us si di f frente, a us si dconcer t an te p o ur
l e s cr i tiqu es ( cit in P. Dag en, ed. , A ndr Dera i n, Let t res Vl a mi nc k, Pa ris , 19 9 4 ,
p. 17 0 ) . I l re pren d le tra v ai l sur sa toil e de deux mt res, peu prs a u mom en t o
M ati s s e commen ce so n propre t abl ea u re pr sent a nt l ge dor, Le bonheur de vi vre.
L a p al e tte plus i ntense est mai nte nant ce ll e d e Col l i oure et l es nus du prem ie r-p l a n
p o r te nt lemprein te ca ra ct r ist ique de Ga ugu i n, dont Dera i n a t udi l es p as to ral e s
p r i m i t ive s au cou r s de l t dans l a coll ec ti on de Da ni el de Mont frei d. l o rig in e ,
D e ra i n e n visa ge L ge dor comme la pi ce ma j eure du proc ha i n Sa l on dAuto m n e,
m a i s l e t able au ne st pa s pr t te mps. M me a bsent , Dera i n fa i t sensa t i on et l e
m a rchan d Vo llard, toujour s l a f fut de nouvea ux t a l ent s da va nt-ga rde, l ui p ro p o s e
u n con trat a van t m me la f in du S al on.

Lo t 2 0 Tu n as pas tor t, c ri t Edg ar Al la n Poe, Ti ens! toi qui j uges qu e m es j o urs


o n t t u n r ve ... Tout ce que nous voyons ou pa ra i s sons nest quun rve d an s u n
r ve ( dan s le po me Un r ve dans un r ve , publ i en 1 849). En 1 882 Odi l on Red o n
e x p o s e un albu m de des si ns, g ra vure s et li thogra phi es qui l i nt i t ul e Edga r Poe e t
d d i e au po te; que lque s ann es pl us ta rd, l c ri va i n Jori s-Ka rl Huysma ns qu i ad m ire
ces d e u x a r tistes, publ ie un comme nta ire o i l confre Redon l honneur d t re
de ven u pa r son trav a il le pri nce des r ve s myst ri eux (c i t da ns O di l on Redo n ,
ca ta l o gue dexpositio n , T he Ar t I nsti tue of Ch i c a go, 1 994 , p. 1 45).
R ve r i e mon tre un per sonnag e t ypique de Re don, de sexe i ndtermi n, a u co s t um e
i n te m po re l. A bsorb dans un si le nce pensi f, i mmerg da ns l a l umi re de ses v is io n s
i n t ri eures, il se mble t ra nspor t ve rs l es roya umes i nconnus du rve. Lors qu e ve rs
18 9 3 Re do n a dopte la coul eur, laspe ct mac ab re et c a uc hema rdesque de ses v i si o n s
qu i d o m in e ju squa lor s son trava il graphi que, rendu a u c ra yon l i t hogra phiq ue n o i r e t
f u s ai n , da ns des u vres qu il appe ll e se s Noi rs, l a i s se pl a ce une rvl at i o n p l u s
p a n oui e du monde . Da ns le s te intes vi bra nte s de pa stel sur tout , i l c re une f l uo re scen ce d e co u le urs su rna turel le s par la quel le i l peut voquer l es sence fugi t ive de s
r ve s. R ver ie repr sente une dime nsion va nescente da ns l a quel l e ri en ne p r se n te
u n p o i d s ou u ne substance e xist ant dans l a na t ure ou mme da ns l a r t de s o n p o qu e.
Re d on cr e plu tt une r al it i nt ri eure pe rs onnel l e a u moyen dune repr se n t at i o n
f a n ta sm agori que dabs trac ti on lyr ique et chroma t i que, embra s sa nt l a tot a l it d u
m o n de , de se s plu s sombre s profonde urs ses ha uteurs l es pl us c l a t a ntes.
B i e n que je re con n ais se le besoi n dun fondement de ra l i t obser ve, d cl a re
Re d on , lar t v rita ble se t rouve dans une r a l i t res sent i e ( i n J. Re w a l d, o p. c it .,
p. 1 53) . La spec t dlicateme nt conte mpla ti f, si promi nent da ns l uvre de Red o n ,
n ai t de s on pe n ch an t pour le xplorat ion de la di mensi on myst i que des a spi ra t io n s
h um a i nes, un e a f firma t ion de lid al isme de venu un quest i onnement cent ra l d an s l e s
m i l i eu x in tell ec tu els en F ra nce l a fi n du si c l e, ce phnomne vena nt en co n t rep o i n t s pir itu el lat ta que inces sa nte du mat ri a l i sme posi t i vi ste de l a sc i en ce e t d e
l co n omi e ca pit aliste . Re don navi gue adroitement da ns l e mi l i eu a nt i na t ural i ste qu i
a d on n n ais sa nce a u m ouveme nt symbol iste, a ppa ru da ns un contexte de r su rge n ce
du c a thol ic isme , dmerge nce dun int r t pour l es rel i gi ons, l a l i t t ra t ure et l a p ens e orient ale s, - Redon s int res sa nt e n par ti c ul i er l a vi e et l a pense de B o ud dh a .
Cer ta i n e s as soc ia tions spi ri tua li ste s, comme l a t hosophi e, l es Rosi c ruc i en s et
da utres grou pes s imm erge ant ave c une fasc i na t i on gra ndi s sa nte da ns l so t ris m e,
l o ccu lt isme e t la ma gi e, par ti ci pent g al eme nt l a ppa ri t i on du mouvemen t .
Lu v re si ngu li re de Redon e st controver se; c ri t i ques et pa r t i sa ns se dis p uten t
p o u r savoir o se t rouve nt l es v ri ta ble s af fi ni t s de l a r t i ste. Il pa r t a ge a vec
M al l a rm et le s po te s sy mboli ste s la noti on que l a r t ne doi t pa s dc ri re l o b j et l ui m m e mais pl ut t l e f f e t qu il produi t. Il sava i t sug grer des a t mosphres s an s t re
p r c i s, note J oh n Re w a ld, indi quer le s chos es sa ns l es dfi ni r, tout en c ra n t u n e
i m p re s sion profo n de m ai s inde scr ipt ibl e, com me cel l e provoque pa r l a mu si qu e.
( i b i d. , p. 1 62) . To u t au long de sa ca rr i re , Re don demeure un a r t i ste rsol um e n t i n dp e n da n t e t indi vidua liste, pla a nt l es e xig ences de son a r t et ses propres trad it i o n s
a u- de s s us de tout . Cest pour cet te ra ison qu i l consa c re ga l ement son tem p s et se s
e f f o r ts au bie n de se s conf r res; il est lun de s co-fonda teurs de l a Soc i t de s In d p e n da n ts e t en 188 4 le v i ce - pr side nt de son exposi t i on i na ugura l e. Il pa r t ic ip e a ve c
p l us i e u rs uv re s, y compri s des t tes myst r i euses et deux pa ysa ges, l a h ui t i m e
e t de rn ire e xpo sition de groupe de s impres s i onni stes en 1 886; l e c ri t i que Pa ul A da m
n a v i demme n t pas manqu de noter que son gni e i ndpenda nt de toute co l e ,
n e st pas directe ment a pparent l Impres si onni sme (c i t i n The Ne w Pai n ti n g:
I mp re s s ionis m 18 74 -188 6, ca ta log ue de xposi t i on, Na t i ona l Ga l l er y of A r t , Wa sh i n gton , D.C., 19 86, p. 4 64) .
Re d on expose e n core de ux f ois a vec le s Ind penda nt s, en 1 886 et 1 887, et en vo ie s o uve n t de s u vres de s exposi ti ons de g roupe . cet te poque, ses seul es ex p o s it i o n s
p e rs o n ne lles son t de modestes e t rares vn ement s da ns des l i eux i mprovi s s; ce
n e st quen 189 4 , alors qu il a c inqua nte -quat re a ns, que Redon est expos p o ur l a p re m i re fo is da ns u ne ga l er ie pre sti gi euse , cel le de Dura nd-Ruel , a vec une rt ro s p ect i ve qui compre n d ne uf ta ble aux, dix pa ste ls, soi xa nte-t roi s fusa i ns et c i nq ua n te -t ro i s
l i t ho g raphi es. S es pa stel s r ce nts a tt irent une c l i ent l e gra ndi s sa nte. Il ne m o n t re
do n c q ue d es pastel s et des de s sins la ga le ri e dA mbroi se Vol l a rd en 1 898; et de
m m e de s p aste ls e t des des si ns pour son retour c hez Dura nd-Ruel l a nne su iv a n te ,
l e xcept ion dune se u le huil e. Au d but de s a nnes 1 90 0, i l t rouve l a voi e d u su cc s
m a rchan d q ui la ccompa gne jusqu l a fi n de s a c a rri re. Je t ra va i l l e touj o urs a ve c
g ra n de jo ie mes pastel s, cr it-il son a mi e t col l ec t i onneur A ndri es Bon ge r. Il s

p l ais e n t , le s g e n s l es ve ul e n t e t m e l e s p re n n e n t d s qu i l s s on t f ait s. (c it d an s l e
ca ta l o gu e d e x p o s it io n ., o p. cit ., 1 99 3 , p. 2 59) .
Il es t l o rig in e d e to ute s l es i n n ov a ti on s o u re n ai s s an ces e st h t iq ue s, d e tou tes l e s
r vo l u ti o n s d u g o t do n t n o u s avon s t t m o i n s [d ep ui s 1 89 0 ] , c ri t M a u ri ce D en i s
p ro p o s d e Re do n e n 19 12 . Il le s p r voy ai t, il ai m a it m m e l eu rs exc s l op po s
d es p e s an t s s y st m e s q u i m as qu e n t e n f ait l a b se n ce d e s en s i bi l i t de l a p l u pa r t d es
je u n es a r ti ste s , la l e o n de Re d on e st s o n in ca pa c it p ei n dre q ue l q ue c h os e q u i ne
re p r se n te p as u n t a t de l m e , q ui n e se t radu i t p a s pa r u n e v is i on in t r i eu re. D i x
an s p lu s t ard , l es S u rr al is tes a do p te ro n t Red o n com m e pr cu rs eu r. M at i s s e a d m i re
l a p uret et lard e ur de s ton a l it s d e s a p a le t te . M m e Ma rcel D u ch am p, d o n t
l e s re ch e rch e s o n t ta n t in f l ue n c l a r t de n o tre p o q ue , ren d h o m m a ge a u pr i n ce
d es r ve s m y st r ie ux - S i j e de v ais d ire o se s it u e m o n p ro p re p o i n t d e d pa r t ,
d c la re -t- il , je dirai s qu e ces t l ar t dO dil o n Redo n (c i t in J. Re w a l d, S t ud i es i n
Pos t-I m p re s s i on i s m, N e w Yo rk , 19 8 6, p. 2 2 3-2 2 4 e t 2 4 0 ).

Lot 23 To u te m o n am b it io n s ur l e p l an p i ct u ral co n si s te m at ri al is er a vec l a p l us


im p ria li ste rag e d e p r ci sio n l es i m age s d e l irra t io n al it con c rte dc l a re Sa l v ad o r D a l d an s so n te x te L a Con q u te de l irra ti on n e l ( 19 3 5) d e s or te qu e l e m on d e d e
l im a g in at io n e t de l irrat io n al i t co n cr te p u is se t re o b j ec ti vem en t v i d en t et a voi r
l a m m e con sis t an ce , l a m m e f acu lt p ers u asi ve d e co g n it i on e t d e com m u n i c at i on
q ue l e m on de e x t rie u r d e s ph n o m n e s de la r al it ( in H . Fin ke l ste in , ed . , Th e
Col l ec ted Wri tin gs o f Sa l va do r D al , Cam b ri dg e, UK , 19 9 8, p. 2 6 5).
D al in t ro d ui t ce tte n o ti o n d e p r ci sio n dan s so n u v re a u co urs de l a n n e 1 9 2 9
e t p ro d ui t to u t a u lo n g de s an n e s 19 30 ce s p a y sag es on i ri qu es q ui co n s ti t uen t l e
s o m m et de s a carr i re. S i l im ag e rie d e ce s v aste s e sp aces ds o l s s em b l e r s i ste r
to u te e x p l ica ti o n , le u r te rritoi re l ui -m m e e st fam i l i er q ui co n qu e rve, com m e
si l n ai s sa it d u n i n co n sci en t col l e ct if p ar t ag , rv l e t an im p ar l a tec h n i q u e
m in u t ie us e m en t d t ail l e d e D al .
L a rei n e Sal o m , au co n t raire , es t l ex p res s io n du n e a f f irm at io n be au co u p
p l us i n t r ie ure e t pe rs o n n e ll e , le r cit d v n e m en t s et d m o ti o n s s urg i s d es
p ro f o n de u rs le s p l u s in t im e s de le xp ri en ce de D al , vo q u s p ar c h a qu e tra i t d e
crayo n . Le d co r o n iriq ue n e st p as l te n du e pa n o ra m i qu e de l a Cat al o g n e n at a l e d e
l a r t is te , to u jo ur s su b l im e m ai s d o n t l e v i de s o us -te n d un e so r te de m en a ce , m ai s l e
re co in dun e ch am b re se m b l ab l e un e sc n e , c l air e se ul e m e n t de l in t r i eu r.
Ce d es s in es t p ro f o n d m e n t au to b io g rap h iq ue ; l e s p ers on n a g es ic i so n t D al l u im m e - l a t te a u cr n e ras e , l a st iq ue , san s co rps - et l e s eu l v ri ta b l e a m o ur d e s a
v ie , Ga l a ( n e E l en a I v an ov n a D aiko n ov a) , de di x a n s so n ai n e . I l s s e re n co n tren t
Ca daq u s a u m o is d ao t 19 29, el l e a al o rs 3 5 a n s e t es t m a ri e de p u is 1 91 8 a u p ote
Paul l ua rd. G al a e st e n v acan ce s ave c s on m a ri d an s un h tel de l a rg io n , q u a n d el l e
e t D al e n t am e n t u n e re l at io n p as si on n e . lu a rd s e m o n t re g n ral e m e n t to l ran t
d e se s ave n t ure s, e t G al a com p te d j p ar m i se s a m a n ts Ma x E rn st ( l e ur m n a g e
t ro is a d ur troi s an s e t p arco uru l a m o it i d u m o n de j us qu en In do ch in e ), G i orgi o
d e Ch ir ico e t M a n R a y. Lin te n s it de l a l iais o n e n t re Ga l a e t D al ab o ut it ce pen d an t
l a fin de so n m ari ag e avec l u ard. E n jan v i er 1 93 4 , D al et G a l a s e m a rie n t c iv i l e m en t
Pa ris .
D al s e re p r se n te ici s ou s l a fo rm e d un e g ran de t te s o ute n ue p a r d es b q u i l l es ,
ap p a ra is s an t g al e m en t dan s so n c l b re t ab l ea u Le So m m ei l , ac h e v e n 19 3 7. L a
fo r m e de ce t te t te e n d o rm ie se rait i n sp ir e d un e fo rm at i on ro c h eu se s i tu e
s ur l e Cap de Cre us , p r s de Cad aqu s. Con t rai re m en t a u t a bl e au o l e v i sa g e es t
e n t i re m en t gl ab re, s ur l e de s s in on p e ut vo i r l a f in e m o u st a ch e ca ract r i s ti q u e d e
D al . S a t te ras e es t u n e r f re n ce t r s p ro b ab l e u n e s c n e terri b l e a vec s on pre
s ur ve n u e la f in de l a n n e 19 2 9, l o rs qu e ce l ui -c i , sca n da l i s p a r l ave n t u re d e so n
fi ls a ve c un e fe m m e m ar i e , ro m pt to u t co n ta c t a ve c l u i e t l u i i n te rdi t l a ccs l a
m aiso n fam ili al e. M a p r e m i r e r ac ti on f ut d e m e c ou p e r e n ti r e m e n t l es ch ev eu x
c rit D al d an s so n aut o b io g ra ph i e. M ais je fis en c or e p l us. J e m e ras ai l a tt e, p u is
j en t e rrai m a ch e v el u r e sac rif i e av e c l e s co q ui l l es v id es d es o u rsin s m an g s m id i
( La vie s ec r te d e Sa l va d or D a l ) .
D an s ce de s si n , Ga la p o r te un e s o r te de b ret p an s m ul t i pl e s, u n e f orm e p l us
l ab o r e d u ch ap ea u de G o ds i qu e, Por tra it d e G al a , 1 93 6, o el l e n e m o n tre q u u n
p ro f il d to ur n an t l e reg ard l a fo i s d e D a l et d es sp ec ta te urs . D al t ab l it u n l i en
e n t re l es li gn e s e n ve l o p p an tes q ui f or m e n t u n d m e g o ds i qu e et l a fo r m e d e l a
t te e t d u ch ap ea u de Gal a dan s un e t ud e p o ur l e t ab l ea u d e 19 36, ai n s i q u e d an s l e
p r se n t de s si n .
E n fai sa n t r f re n ce Sa l om , d an s l e ti tre de l uv re, D al pr se n te ici Ga l a l a
l um i re de l h is to ire de ce tte c l bre f em m e f a ta l e. L h isto i re d e S al o m , d a t a nt
d u p re m ie r s i cl e av a n t n o t re re , n o us e st con t e p ar Fl av i u s J os p h e: s a m re
H ro di as d ivo r a d e s o n m ar i H rod e I I a u m p ri s d e s l o is ju i ve s, p o ur p ou s er l e
fr re de ce l ui -ci , H ro d e A n t ip as , t t ra rq ue d e G al il e . Sel o n l e s v an g i l es d e Ma rc
e t M at t h ie u , Sa lo m , d e ve n ue b el l e -f il l e dH ro d e An t ip a s, d an sa po ur ce d er n i er
l o cc asi o n d e so n an n ive rs aire . Ch ar m p ar cet te da n s e, H rod e A n t ip as o f f ri t
S al o m d e x au cer l u n de s es so u h ait s en r com p en s e. Pou s s e p ar s a m re, Sa l o m
d em a n da l a t te de J ea n -Ba p t iste , q ui av ai t l ou rd em en t co n d am n l e rem a r i ag e
d H ro di as . Ce t p is o de in sp ire de n o m b re ux ar t is te pa r ti r du X IXe sic l e . Ai n si ,
l e p o te S t p h an e M a l l arm co m m e n ce un p o m e dra m at i qu e sur H rod i a s , so n
H ro d ia de, e n 186 4 , m ais n e l a ch ve jam ai s; G u st a ve Fl a ub er t p ub l i e qu an t l u i
H ro d ia s e n 18 7 7, d o n t J u l es M a s se n et t ira l o p ra H ro dia de en 18 81. En 1 89 1, O s c ar
W il de cr it , e n fran ais , s a p i ce Sa lo m , q ui e st m on t e Paris en 18 96. R i c h a rd
S tra us s a dap te l a pi ce de W il de en un acte et l ut i l ise com m e l i v re t de s o n o pra d e
19 0 5 , Sa l om , p o u r le q ue l i l com p os e l a se n su el l e D a n s e des s ep t vo il e s. En 1 949 Da l
cr e l e s d co rs p o u r l a Sa l om d e S t ra us s jo u e Coven t G a rd e n Lon d res . D an s l a

109

p i ce de Wilde a in si que dans l opra de St ra us s, Sa l om ba i se l es l vres d e l a t te


t ra nch e d e J ea n- B apti ste et Hrode A nti pas , horri fi , ordonne son exc u t io n , l a
p r i v a n t de s on a veni r de re ine .
D an s l a ve r sio n de F la v ius J os phe, Sa lom pouse en premi res noces Ph il i p p e
( au tre fi ls dH rode le Grand) , t t ra rque de Tra c honi t i de. A prs l a mor t s an s
de s ce nd ance de cel ui-c i, el le sunit A ri stob ol e, roi de Ca l c hi s et de vi ent rei n e.
L h i sto ire de Sa lom et de sa mre, qui e ure nt c ha c une deux ma ri s succes si fs , es t
rap pro ch e pa r Da l de cel le de Ga la , uni e tout da bord l ua rd, pui s l ui- m m e .
Le v i sa ge de l ar ti ste dans l e pr se nt de s sin p a ra i t dcompos, en proi e pe ut- t re
l i n ce r titu de e t a u doute. Gal a e st connue d a ns l es mi l i eux surra l i stes p o ur l a
do m i nat io n et l ir r si sti ble et dest ruc tr ice i nfl uence quel l e exerce sur l es h o m m es
de s a v ie. Lar tiste fa it aus si peut-t re al lusi on une c ri se sur venue da ns s o n co u p l e
e n 19 36, a lor s qu il ent re ti ent une rel at ion homosexuel l e a vec l e col l ec t i on n e ur
su r r a liste a ng la is Edw ard J ame s, a u dse spoi r de Ga l a . Les t i ges mt a l l i qu es q ui
rel i e n t Da l e t Ga la da ns La re ine Sa lom , l es pi qua nt j usqu bi ent t l es t ra n sp e rcer,
sy m bo li se nt la di men sion sa domasoc histe de l eur rel a t i on tel l e que l a res s en t D al ,
d c hi r ent re le xta se e t l es tourme nts que provoquent son a mour pour G al a .
D al d dicace l e pr se n t de s sin Joseph For t , a mi et di teur de son uvre
g ra p h i que .

Lo t 2 4 Ce tte je u ne f emme est peut-t re dune bea ut mer vei l l eusemen t vo l upt u e us e qua nd F ra ncis Pi ca bia la re pre sur une pl a ge prs de Ca nnes, a va n t d e l a
t ra ns f o r mer dan s lu n de s ta ble aux de monst res, sc a nda l eusement grotes qu es ,
p e i n ts en tre 1 92 4 e t 1927. Ma rcel Ducha mp af fubl e pl usi eurs uvres de ce s o b riq ue t ,
l o ccas ion du n e ve nte pa r Pi ca bia de se s propres t a bl ea ux orga ni se en 19 2 6, da n s
l e bu t de f ina ncer le st y le de vi e fa stue ux qui est cel ui du pei nt re depui s son in s t all a ti o n lann e pr c dente Mougi ns, sur la Ri vi era . Duc ha mp a peut-t re pe n s u n
a ph or i sme pu bli pa r P ic abi a da ns lun de s derni ers numros de son ma gaz i n e 39 1
( no. 1 7, Par is, 10 ju in1 924) : J e sui s un monstre qui pa r t a ge ses sec ret s a vec l e ven t
( i n M. Lowe nth al, e d., F ra nci s Pic abi a, I a m a b ea ut i ful monster: Poet r y, Pros e, a n d
P rovoc ation, Ca mbri dge , Ma s s., 20 07, p. 30 9 et 362 ). Pi c a bi a fa i t a l l usi on u n p a s sa ge
du G a i S avoir de F r dri c Ni et szche , o l e ph i l osophe dc ri t l a const ruc t i o n d u n e
m a i so n au bord de la mer ; l a r t iste e st a lor s lu i a us si occ up l a const ruc ti o n d e so n
i m m e n se n ouvel le de m eure, le Ch te au de Ma i Mougi ns.
Au co ur s de la dcenn ie al la nt de 191 2 192 2, Pi c a bi a vol ue de son a bst ra ct i o n f o nd e sur le Cu bisme vers un ter ri toi re dada ste d l ment s i nspi rs pa r l es m ac h in e s,
a bo n da nt en j eu x de m ots a bsurde s et en sou s-entendus sexuel s. Pui s i l c ha n ge
br u tal e men t de voie . En 192 1, il met fin son a f fi l i a t i on a vec l e da da sme et re v ie n t
ve r s l a r t figu ra ti f, dab ord da ns une s ri e de personna ges cost ums, l es es p a gn o l es .
l a f i n de l an n e 1 92 4 , Pi ca bia tour ne ga le ment l e dos a u mouvement surr al i ste
a l o rs mo n tant , malgr l e d sir dAndr Breton, son c hef de fi l e, de l e ra l l i er s es
t ro u pe s. Picabi a pr f re r pondre sa fa on, rsol ument i ndpenda nte, a u m es s ag e
de ra p pe l lordre ap pel ant sl oig ner de l a va nt-ga rde moderni ste t ran s gre s si ve
e t re venir l a tradi ti on humani ste des a r t s, en ra c t i on a u c a rna ge et la d es t ruct i on s u bis pa r l Euro pe au cours de la pre mi re guerre mondi a l e. Dj a va nt l a fi n d e
l a gu e rre , Picas so tra v ai ll e da ns une nouve ll e vei ne c l a s si que, a vec des perso n n a ge s
m o n trs la lu mi re des pr c de nts hi stor iq ues, qui l ri nvente et a da pte se s
p ro p res besoi ns. Pica bia lui aus si con oit ce r t a i ns de ses t a bl ea ux de mon st re s l a
l u m i re duv re s da r t c l bre s du pas s qui l c hoi si t , pa r foi s pour l es pa ro di er o u
l e s tou rne r e n d rision. On pe ut suppose r qu une ba i gneuse debout reprse n te V n us
so r ta n t d es on des, in spir e proba ble ment de La na i s sa nce de Vnus, de Bou gu ere au .
Ce ta b le au , t r s populai re lor squi l e st pe int en 1 87 9, se t rouve a l ors a u Mus e d u
L uxe m bourg, pu is e st d pl ac a u Muse dO rs a y Pa ri s o i l est conser v au jo u rd h ui .
N o te z que la t te de V nus dans l e t abl ea u de Bouguerea u est tourne de tro i squ a r ts; elle ne montre que son i l droit , que Pi c a bi a a l a rgement a gra ndi po u r c re r
u n i m m en se e t u niqu e il cyc lop en. La pr sence de l a ser vi et te bl a nc he f ai t ch o
a ux tre s ses rous se s flott antes da ns lor ig ina l de Bouguerea u et peut a us si s ug g re r
l cu me f r mis sa nte dont naqui t V nus, se lon l a l gende.
Picabia vit cette poque au bord de la mer et simmerge dans les millnaires de
my thes, de lgendes et dhistoire de la Mditerrane; Picasso lui-mme ne peut y
rsister lors de ses vacances dt et lorsquil se rinstalle dans le Midi aprs la deuxime guerre mondiale, il finit par sinstaller Mougins comme Picabia. Le classicisme
monumental de Picasso nest cependant pas du got de Picabia, et dans son Cyclope
ce dernier sen prend probablement aux baigneuses de Picasso, se moquant peut-tre
de son penchant pour lexagration et la dformation, avec ses membres et extrmits
agrandis dans des propor tions gigantesques. Toutefois la source premire des images
de monstres de Picabia est fondamentalement celle de lpoque et du lieu o il se
trouve et de son obser vation directe de la vie sur la Riviera. Dans le dernier numro de
391 (no.19, Paris, octobre 1924) il propose le terme dInstantanisme pour remplacer
le dadasme. Parmi une litanie de prceptes, Picabia proclame: LINSTANTANISME:
NE CROIT QUEN AUJOURDHUI / LINSTANTANISME: VEUT L A LIBERT POUR TOUS/
LINSTANTANISME: NE CROIT QU L A VIE / LINSTANTANISME: NE CROIT QUAU
MOUVEMENT PERPTUEL ( in M. Lowenthal, ed., op. cit., p. 313).
Cet te p hilosophi e correspond bi en a u nouvea u st yl e de vi e de Pi c a bi a sur l a C te
dA z u r et au s si son ap proc he de lar t. Bie n que pl us t a rd i l se moque de ce t e n v iron n e me nt ay a nt c d a u r gne absol u de l ersa t z (c i t i n S. Coc hra n, Du c h a m p
Ma n R ay Pica bia, ca tal ogue d e xposi ti on, Ta te Mode rn, Lond res , 2 00 8, p. 14 6 ), a l o rs
qu i l p e int ses monstre s, il j oui t de lhd onis me et du ma t ri al i sme d e l e n dro i t .
I l t i re s e s s ujets de la populat ion grand is sa nte d e nouvea ux ric hes e t d e l eu rs p arasi te s, profitan t de leur hy po cr isi e e t de leu rs pr te nt ions , l es d ma sq ua nt p u is l e s

p in g l an t , to u t e n ad m et t an t , Ce q ue ja im e l e m o i n s ch e z l es a u tres c e s t m o i ( i n
ib i d., p. 3 09).
P ic ab ia e t P i cas s o - le s d eu x Pi c as , co m m e l e s ap pe l ai t l e m a rch a n d L o n ce Ro sen berg
- t aie n t d e ve n u s d ep u is l a g ue rre l e s d eu x f e rs de l an ce d e s po s sib il it s l es p l u s
e x t rm e s d e l a r t m o de rn e , fa isa n t n at re u n e riv a l i t co m m e cel l e q ue P i c a s s o a e nt re te n u d e fa o n in te rm it te n te a ve c M at is s e. Le s d eu x P ic a s se s on t c ro is s M ou g i n s
au co u rs d e l t 19 25 , al o rs q ue Pi cas s o e s t e n v a can ces n o n l oi n d e l , G o l fe -Ju a n .
Lo in de Pari s, l o in d e l a zo n e d e g ue rre dad a- surr al i s te , c rit J oh n R ic h a rd s o n , i l
sav re q ui l s o n t d av an t ag e e n co m m u n q uauc u n de s d eu x n aura it p u pen ser (A
L if e of P ic a s s o : T h e Tr iu m p h a n t Yea rs , 191 7-19 3 2, N e w York , 2 0 07, p. 2 90 ) .
E n m ars 1 9 2 5 , a p r s l e ca rn av al d e l a M i- Car m e N ice, P i cab ia crit u n a m i , Je
t ra v ail l e b e au co up au mi l ie u du to u rb il l o n B acca ra, du to u rbi l l o n ja m be , to ur bi l l on
ja z z . Je fa is de s t a bl e au x de ca r m e , d e s am o u re ux , d e s ta b l e aux co n f et t i s o l a
ric h e s se d e l a s o ie q uara n te so us e st e x p r im e p ar l e R i p o l i n (ci t i n ib id ., p. 2 9 1) .
Ci n qu an te an s av an t l av n em e n t d u Po p A r t, Pi c ab i a ut i l ise l n e rg ie et l e c l i n q u a n t
d u Carn av al - pa ru re s te rn ie s, m aq ui l lag e pl a qu , ch e ve ux e n ba rb e - -p ap a - p ou r
ch o q ue r l e s am o u re ux de l a r t t rad it io n n e l , cri t R ich a rd so n . D a p r s Ga b r ie l l e [ l a
fe m m e d e l ar ti ste ] , P ica bi a pe n s e qu i l a t t ro p l o i n a ve c l es t ab l ea ux d e M o n s tres.
M m e s il ai m e ch o q u er, il p e ut avo ir cra in t qu e l e s m od e rn iste s n e d sap prou ven t
d u n s t y le et dun e te ch n i qu e qu i co rres p o n de n t s i p ar fai te m e n t au x ba s - f on d s m ite u x
d e l a R iv ie ra . I l a ll a it l es d tr ui re , racon te G ab ri el l e, m a is j e l ai s u pp l i d e n e n r i en
fa ire p arce q u il s e x p rim ai en t ce r t ain s de s as p e ct s l es p l us fra pp an t s de sa per s on nal it (i b id., p. 2 9 2 ).
E n 19 2 5 , P ica b ia e t P ic as s o p e ig n en t ch ac un un e vers io n d un ba i se r - P i ca b ia l e prem ie r, q ue l q ue s m o is a v an t P ic as so. Le s de u x ve rsi o n s p a r t a ge n t un e v it a l i t i n te n se ,
u n e q ua lit irr si st ib l em e n t m o n st ru eu se q ui d fie l e C l as s i cis m e, l e Cu b is m e o u
to u t a ut re m ou vem e n t f ig ura ti f an t ri eu r. Ces t ab l ea u x d m o n t re n t q ue c h ac u n d es
p e in t re s e st e n t rain de m p ru n ter s a p ro p re vo ie , a n i m d un l a n co m m u n q u i l es
p o u s se n t d p la ce r l es l i m ite s de la p e in t ure j us qu a u x co n fi n s l es p l us e xt r m es
co n ce v ab l e s, ver s un e r v lat io n p e rs on n e l l e du s u rra l ism e , to ut e n se d res s a nt
s eu l , d is t an ce d e l a fo u le .

Lot 27 Le su je t d e l a je un e fe m m e e n do r m ie , p l on g e da n s se s rves , a f a sc i n
d e g ra n ds m a t re s du XI Xe e t d u X Xe s i cl e , d o n t Gus t ave Cou rb e t, Pa ul Ga u g u in ,
Od il o n Re d o n , P ie rre Bo n n ard, e t p o ur l e s pl u s c l b re s, l es de ux ri v aux a bs ol u s d e
l re m o d e rn e : H e n ri M at is s e, q ui p ei g n it s es s en s u el l es o da l isq ue s au repo s ; e t Pab l o
P ic as s o, qu i pr it p l ai sir re g arde r do rm ir sa j eu n e m a i tres s e M arie -Th r se et l a
re p r se n t a ai n si d an s n o m b re de s e s p l us b e au x t a bl e au x du d b u t d es a n n es 1 9 30.
Ba l th u s p re n d p l a ce da n s ce t te l o n g ue l i gn e d a r t i stes re m arqu a bl e s e t ab ord e ce
t h m e avec u n e p e r f ec t io n , u n e s e n sib il i t , u n g o t et un e di s cr ti o n so i g ne u sem e n t
m a tr is s . La r t is te vo q ue a ve c cl air voy an ce l es n o m breu x e t su b t i l s m y st res d u
roy au m e in t im e de l t re f m in in .
L a je un e f il l e r ve us e e st b ie n l e s uje t fo n da m en t al d e B al t h u s. E l l e es t e nd or m i e
o u p e rd ue d an s sa r ve rie , in car n at io n m m e de l i n n o cen ce. Ce t te i n n ocen ce es t
p ar t icu l i re m en t te n dre e t d l ica te , v u l n ra bl e a u s si, l o rs d e cet te p rio d e c r u c i al e
d e t ran s fo rm a ti o n q ui v a de l ado le s ce n ce au d b ut d e l ge ad ul t e, au c ou r s d e
l aq ue l l e se m an if es t en t l es p r e m ie r s m o i s s ex ue l s. T o u t c om m e l e s aut ob i og r a ph i es
e t ro m an s su r l e p a ss ag e l g e ad ul t e co n s t it u en t d e pu i s l o n gt em p s u n e p ar t
im p o r t an te de n ot re p at rim o i n e l it t raire , l ar t d e B al t h u s a p p o r te un c l a i ra g e
p r ci eu x s u r ce p h n o m n e, u n e p o si e v isu el l e rem a rq ua b l e m en t p n t ran te ,
re s s en t ie ave c si n c rit e t m a gn if iq ue m e n t m is e en i m age .
Ba l th u s d es s in e ce jeu n e m o d le e n do rm i da n s so n ate l ie r l a V i l l a M di c is , q u i
h b e rg e l A ca d m ie de F ran ce Ro m e , qu il di rige d e 19 61 1 97 7. So n am i l c r i v a in
A n dr M al rau x , m i n is tre de la Cul t ure du g o uvern e m e n t du G n ral d e Ga u l l e, l a
n o m m ce p o s te . Le c h o ix d e B al t h us e st co n t rovers ; s o n a r t o rig i n al n es t p a s
t r s co n n u o u ap p r ci en de h o rs du n pe t it ce rc l e de co n n a is se urs . Il n a n i g a gn l e
P rix d e Ro m e n i t lA cad m ie e t n a au cun e e x p rie n ce d e l ad m in is t ra ti o n d u n e
o rg an i sat i o n fi n an c e pa r l t at . M al ra ux l a c h a rg de s u r ve il l e r l a rn ov a ti o n d e
l a Vi l la M di cis e t d e se s ja rd in s, af in qu e l le re t ro u ve l a g ran d e ur q uel l e a v a i t ce nt
ci n qu an te an s p l u s t t , l o rsq ue J ea n Aug us te D o m i n iq ue I n gres l a d iri g ea i t.
Re n d re to u t s o n l u st re l a V ill a M dic is f ut p o ur m o i u n e v ri ta bl e o b s es si o n
s e rap p e l l e ra Bal t h us. L e p r oj e t a u n e d im e n sio n sp irit ue l l e, i l e st un e fa o n d e
p r se rv e r l a v i e. No us so m m es to u s r e sp o n s abl e s d u p as s , s es t m o ign a g es d oi v en t
t r e p r se rv s to ut p r ix , av ec l e ur in f in ie p at i en c e et l e ur m ait ris e ex t rao rd in ai re .
Po ur m o i, e n l e ve r le s a to urs bo n m arch e t l es dcors v ul ga i re s de l a Vi l l a , q u i
l a va ie n t d n at ur e a u co urs de s an n es t ai t u n e u v re d e ren a i s san ce, u n e so r te
d l v at io n (M m o ires de B a lt h u s, A l ai n V ircon d e l et , B al t h u s, e d. du Ro c he r, 2 0 01 ).
Ba l th u s r u s sit sa m is s io n , m ais ce t e f f o r t l ui l a is se p eu d e tem p s p ou r pei n d re; i l n e
p ro d ui t qu u n e d o u z ain e d e t ab l e au x m aj eu rs au co urs de s s ei ze an n e s p as s es l a
V il l a M d ici s, m ais e x cut e d e n o m b r e ux d es s in s l i s c es t o il e s.
Le m o d l e d u de s s in i ci es t K a ti a Ter re ri; e ll e e t sa s u r M i ch e l in a, f i l l es d u n
e m p l oy d e l a V i ll a , s o n t l e s p rin c ip aux m o d l e s d e l ar t iste au co urs de s on s j ou r
Ro m e . K at ia p o se po ur le t ab l ea u Ka ti a l is a n t, 1 96 8-7 7 (C l ai r et M on n i er, n o. P 3 3 4 ).
Un tro is i m e m o d l e n o n i de n t ifi s er t d e su je t N u a u re p os, 1 97 7 (n o. P 3 3 5) .
Le d es s in ici n es t p as un e t ud e p r p arato ire p o u r Ka tia l is a n t. I l a san s d ou te
t ex c ut ap rs u n e s e s sio n de po se f at ig an te po ur K a t ia . E l l e ses t a do s se l a
ch a is e e t rap id em e n t en d o rm ie ; Ba lt h u s p ro fite d e ce t in st an t po ur f a ire ce d es s i n,
q ui l p o r te d e fa o n d t ail l e s u r l a fe u ill e co m m e u n e t ud e e n o m b re et l u m i re.
I l e x is te u n d es s in p l us p e t it d an s l a m m e vei n e m o n t ran t l e h aut d u cor p s d e
K at ia , p ro b ab l e m e n t e x c ut a u co u rs d e l a m m e p ri od e (n o D 11 4 0) , a in s i q u u ne

110

f e u i l l e plus g ra nde , proba ble ment cr e pa r t i r de ces deux-c i (no. D 1 1 41). B al t h u s


de s si ne d es dou zai ne s d tude s de Ka ti a e t d e Mi c hel i na , sur des feui l l es s p ar es ,
da n s d e s ca rne ts e t de s bloc s de c roqui s; cer t a i ns ser vi ront pour des t a ble au x q u il
e n trep rend a pr s avoir quit t Rome e n 197 7 e t st re i nst a l l da ns l e Gra n d Ch l et
Ro s s i ni re en S u is se .
Il e s s aie de trou ve r e n vous des c hoses qu il peut reprsenter, des a spec t s de vo us
qu i n e son t pa s simpl eme nt physi ques, ra conte Mi c hel a (Mi c hel i na ) Terreri d e
so n e x pr ie n ce de mod le pour Ba lt hus. I l e s sa i e de t ra nsc ri re ce que vou s tes ;
do n c tou t d pend du m odl e, si e ll e pe ut se rvl er l a r t i ste, qui ensui te d es s in e
ce q u il veut fai re res sor ti rPour moi, [ses t a bl ea ux] mont rent quel quun qu i ru s si t
ca p t ure r un mome nt de pa s sag e i mpor t ant , cel ui de l enfa nce l ge a dul te ( in
Mi c h e lina, J. Cl air, ed. , c at al ogue dexposi ti on, op. c i t ., 2 0 01, p. 1 51 ).
Le p r s en t de s sin e t sa plus g ra nde ve rsi on comptent srement pa rmi l es p l u s
be l l e s f eu ille s ex cut e s par Bal thus a u cour s des sei ze a nnes qu i l pa s se Ro m e.
An d r Malra ux ve u t que [B al thus] j oue l e r l e da mba s sa deur de Fra nce cu l t ure l
e t q u i l re oi ve e n cons quence, c ri t Vi rg in i e Monni er. Comme l e budge t a l l o u
a u d i rec teur n e couv re pa s ce s dpe nses, Bal t hus fa i t un gra nd nombre de d es s in s
qu i l vend dan s ce bu t ( ca ta log ue de xposit ion, op. c i t., 2 0 01, p. 40 0 ). Le p l a is ir
qu i l a f a ire ces de s sins e t l e b nfi ce qui l t i re de l eur vente condui sent Ba l t h us
re co nsi drer son approche du rl e de s des si ns da ns son t ra va i l . Jusque l i l n e
con si d re ses de s sin s q ue comme de s t udes prpa ra toi res ses t a bl ea ux , n o te
M on ni er. Pa r la su ite i l l es voi t comme de s uvr es l a bores et a utonome s, q ui
do i ve n t tre vu es pour el le s- mme s (i bid ) .
J e s a i sis sais lat mosphre f ug ace du temps q ui pa s se et l a fra gi l i t de l a v i eCet te
rec h e rche a t con sta nte dans tous mes de s si ns, c ri t Ba l t hus. Il nexi ste p as d e
di sci p li ne plus e xig ea nte que de c apt ure r l es va ri a t i ons des vi sa ges et des p o s es d e
j e u ne s f ille s en t ra in de r ver. La ca re s se du d es si n c herc he redcouvri r u n e gr ce
e n f a ntine qui dispa ra it si v i te , nous l ai s sant a vec un souveni r i nconsol a bl e. Le d f i
e st de ca ptu re r la douceur pour que le crayon sur l e pa pi er pui s se re-c rer l ov a l e
f rai s d un visa ge , u ne for me proche du visa ge des a nges.
Le d e s sin e st u n e f ormi dabl e col e de vr it et dexi gence, expl i que l a r t i ste. On
y e st a u plu s pr s de la nat ure , da ns sa g om t ri e l a pl us sec rte, c hose qu e l a
p e i n tu re ne n o u s per m et pas toujour s da ttei ndre, c a r i l y ent re pl us di mag in a t io n ,
de m i se en scne et de spe ct ac le . Au cont ra ire, l e des si n a besoi n da bst rac t io n dun e
cer ta i ne man i re, pui squi l sag it da ll er au de l de l a ppa rence du vi sa ge et du co rp s
e t d a ttei ndre le ur l umi re . C est un proj et pl us a ust re et peut-t re pl us m y st i qu e.
Cel a e xige da ttei ndre la f la mme dun brasi er i nc a ndescent . Au moyen de qu el q ue s
l i g n e s se u le men t le f eu, mal gr sa nat ure fuga ce, peut t re vol , c a pt ur et t rei n t
da n s s a sp le nde u r e n tr a per ue (c it i n, op. c i t., 2 0 01, p. 64 , 65 et 67).

Lo t 2 8 Si je nava is pas t jui f, je ne se ra i s pa s de venu un a r t i ste, a dcl a r M arc


C h ag a l l, o u je l au ra is t tout aut re ment (c i t i n J. Ba a l -Teshuva , ed. , C ha ga l l : A
Re t rosp ective, Ne w Yor k, 1995 , p. 1 70 ). Ds se s premi res uvres, Cha ga l l c h o is it de s
su j e ts tir s de la c ulture e t du fol kl ore jui fs, q ui ont ba i gn son enfa nce V iteb s k , sa
v i l l e na tale e n Ru s sie . pa r t ir des a nne s 196 0, deux dcenni es a prs l a des t ruc t io n
p re s que to ta le de Vitebsk au cours de la deux i me guerre mondi a l e, Cha ga l l a cqu ie r t
u ne recon nai s san ce in te rna ti onal e, qui l ta bl i t comme l un des ma t res de l ar t
con te mp ora in . Au cou r s de cet te pr iode , i l p l onge touj ours pl us profond m en t da n s
l h r i ta ge de son pa s s a u shte tl . Il cr e une s ri e de t a pi s seri es et de mos a qu es
su r de s th m es de l A nc ie n Test ame nt pour le nouvea u b t i ment de l a Knes s et
J r us a le m, ai nsi que dix- se pt t abl ea ux bibl iqu es pour une dona t i on l t at fran ai s,
qu i f o r me le noy au du M use nat iona l du me s sa ge bi bl i que Ni ce. Ses dern i res
d ce nnie s volu en t ve r s l ne rg ie du sur vi van t , l a fi dl i t son enfa nce et l e t h m e
j u i f, l o p timisme e t l a ca pac it prot ifor me ri nventer ces t hmes, c ri t J a ck i e
Wu l l shla ger (Ch aga ll : A B i ography, Ne w Yor k, 2 0 0 8, p. 50 8). Cet te goua c he l y riq ue
e t po tiqu e, pe in te en 1960, repr se nte un ra bbi n ba rbu, de va nt une pet i te v i l l e o
se n t a s se nt de mo destes ma isons, qui rappe ll ent Vi tebsk. Cet te si l houet te s o l it a ire
be rce un roulea u de la Torah de ses bras protec teurs, de ri c hes a ccent s de co u l eu rs
a u c ra yon voqua nt sa f e r ve ur rel ig ie use. Au-des sus du ra bbi n pl a nent une t te
de f e m me, voc atio n de B el la , l a c hre pouse de Cha ga l l , vue i c i comme u n co rp s
c l es te lexpre s sion de b at it ude conte nue, et une seconde Tora h l umi neu se , p l us
g ra n de qu e na tu re , pei nte l a g ouac he bl anc he. Le c i el et l a terre, l e myst re di v in et
l e d si r hu main, son t a insi conj oint s dans l uni vers pi c t ura l mer vei l l eusem en t in ven t i f
e t o ni r iqu e de C ha ga ll, qui, insi ste -t-i l, r vl e l es vri t s l es pl us profondes . To u t
n o tre mo nd e int r ie u r e st r e l, peut-t re mme pl us rel que l e monde des ap p aren ce s e xpli que -t-il. Appe le r fa nta isi e, con te de fe ou c hi mre tout ce qu i p arai t
con traire la l ogi que re v ie nt prat ique ment ne pa s comprendre l a na t ure (ci t i n B.
H a rs ha v, ed. , M arc Cha ga ll on Ar t a nd Cul ture, Pa l o A l to, 2 0 03 , p. 81 -82 ).

Un e d iz a in e d a n n e s a pr s s o n p ri p le it al ie n , Gus t ave M o re au d co uv re l a r i c h es s e
d es p a l et te s co l o re s d e cer t ai n s o bj e ts e t m o t i fs m d i v au x ( arc h itec tu re , tex ti l e,
m au x ) q u il t ud ie a u Lo uv re e t da n s d e s re cu ei l s d e gra v ures d p o q ue . Le s reh a ut s
d o r, l e s m o t ifs q ui o rn e n t l e h a ut d u drap de l a m us e et l a l y re t rs ou v ra g e d u
p r se n t de s si n s o n t a in si d es rm i n isce n ce s d e l ar t d u M oyen g e.
D an s le s a n n e s 1 88 0, a l or s qu e l es n o - im p re s sio n n iste s s o n t sur l e de v an t d e l a
s c n e ar t is ti qu e, Pau l Ga ug ui n , dan s s o n o u vra ge d e 19 02 sur l es ar t iste s m a j e ur s d e
l a se co n de m o it i d u XI Xe s i cl e, Ra co n ta rs de ra p i n, a cco rde u n e p l ace m arg i na l e
Gu s ta ve M orea u. I l cl a s s ave c Pu v is d e Ch av a n n es et O di l o n Redo n p a r m i l e s
s ym b ol i ste s , do n t l e m ou vem e n t s e rat t ach e a v an t to ut au co ura n t l i t t ra ire
s p irit u al is te , ce n t r s ur l a n ot io n d id a l . L a s p iri t ua l i t i n c arn e ici pa r u ne m us e
l a l y re , p ro b a b le m e n t Ter p sic h o re , so p p o se l a n o te m d i v al e vo qu e pa r l es
s at y re s qu i g rav iten t aux p ie ds de l a fi gu re a n dro g y n e. Ce t te a qu a re l l e p eu t t re
co m p ar e u n e a ut re f eu il l e d e Gu st ave M o re au l a te ch n i qu e s im il a i re o u n e
m u sic ie n n e au r o l e se t ie n t g al e m en t de b o u t en to u re de p et it s s a ty res : S ai n te
Cc i le en d orm a n t u n s a ty re s es p i eds ( f ig. 1).
A l i n st a r d e l a p r se n te fe uil l e , la re ch e rc h e d u co l ori s l e p l u s ju ste e t l a ccu m u l a ti o n
d e m at i re - q ui ca ra ct r is e g a le m e n t se s to il e s - s o n t l es fi l s co n d ucte ur s d e
l u vre g ra p h iq ue de G us t ave M orea u. M ais ici l a cou l eu r n e so p p o s e pa s l a l i g n e,
l e t rac s o us -j ace n t de m e ure b ie n p r s e n t et t rs co n st ru it . M o re au rs u m era
l ui -m m e t r s b ie n s o n i d al grap h iq ue e n ces m ot s: Lvo ca t io n d e l a p en s e pa r
l a li gn e , l a ra b es qu e e t l e s m oyen s pl a st iq ue s , vo i l m o n b u t (P. B it t l e r e t P. - L.
M at h i eu , Ca t a lo gu e de s de s s i n s de G u s ta ve M o re au, Pa ri s, 19 83 , p. 1 1).
Ce tte aq ua rel l e a u carac t re t r s ab ou t i a p ro ba b l e m en t t ra l i s e po ur s a ti s f ai re
l e s de m an d e s p res s an tes de s a c l ie n t l e . E n ef fe t , p arm i l es q uat re cen t c i n q u an te
uv re s q ue l ar ti ste ve n di t de s o n v i v an t , pr s d e l a m o it i so n t de s a qu arel l e s.
Co n si d r e s ain s i co m m e de s uv re s p ar t e n ti re, G ust ave M orea u e n p r s en t a
au s s i a u Sa lo n d e 18 76 et l E x p o s it io n U n ive rse l l e d e 18 78 (M at h ie u, op. c i t ., p. 2 4 4 ).

Lot 32 Le su je t i co n o g rap h iq ue e t s u r tou t l a da ta t io n de ce t te aq uarel l e p erm e tte n t d e l a rep la ce r dan s s o n co n tex te cr at if. A l a tou te fin d e l an n e 1 83 1,
E u g n e D el ac ro ix se vo it a tt ac h la m i s sio n di p l o m a ti qu e d u Co m te d e M or n a y,
p ar t i p o ur co n cl ure u n t rait d e b o n vo is in ag e au p r s du s ul t a n du M aro c , Mu r l e y Ab d
e l R ah m an , au tem p s o la F ran ce a m a in m is e s u r l A l g ri e.
La r t is te p ar t ain s i e n b a tea u de p ui s To u lo n e t d b a rq ue Tan ge r l e 2 5 ja n v ie r 1 83 2
p u is t ra ve rs e to u t l e p ay s ch e v al - A lc as sa r-e l - Ke bi r, Si di -K a s s em ou en co re Ga r bi a
- av a n t darri ve r M ek n s. S i l a m is s io n n e du re q ue si x m o is, D el a cro ix res te m a rq u
p ar ce tte d co u ve r te d e l o ri en t j us qu la f in de s a c a rri re . S ur p l ace, i l d es s i n e
ab o n d am m e n t aus s i b ie n e n pl e in air qu e s ur l e m o d l e v iv a n t , d an s de s a l bu m s ( t ro is
s o n t co n se r v s a u Lo uv re et un C h an t il l y ) o u s ur d e s f eu i l l es is o l es co m m e l e
p r se n t de s si n ( p lu s de de u x ce n ts s o n t co n s er v es au m u s e du Lo uv re. Vo ir L. -A .
P rat , Le de s s i n f ran a i s a u X I Xe s ic l e, Paris , 2 011, p. 2 36 ).
T m o ig n a ge pr c ie ux , l e J o ur n al d e D e l acro i x n o us re n se ig n e s ur l e s l i eu x v i s it s
m ai s su r to ut su r s a se n s ib il it ar t is ti qu e, e t so n in t rt p o ur l es co ul e urs v i ves e t l es
m at i re s (t is s us , p ie rre s p r cie u se s, m t aux ... ). Co m m e l e m on t re cet te a q u arel l e
ch a toy a n te e t p l e in e d e v ie , D e la cro ix sa it ca p ter et res ti t ue r a vec b ea u co u p d e
fi n es s e ce q u il d co u v re e t l m e r ve il l e s ur p l a ce : Ren con t r l e po r teu r d e pa ro l es
d e l e m p e re ur [. .. ]: t rs be au bu rn o u s b la n c, b on n e t po in t u sa n s t u rba n , p an to u fl e s
ja un e s e t p e ro n s do r s ; ce in t u re v io l e tte b ro d e d o r, p o r te- ca r to uc h es tr s b ro d ,
l a b rid e d u c h e v al v io l et te et o r. [. ..] Tr s b ea u cou p d il en re garda n t d e rr ire n ou s
ce tte qu an t i t d e f ig ure s b as an e s o u n o ire s (J ou rn a l 1 82 2 -1 86 3, Pari s , 19 9 6, p. 1 04 ) .
D e reto ur en Fran ce , qu el q ue s an n e s p lu s t ard, D el a cro ix r al is e de s a q u a rel l es
d e m m oi re : so n so u ve n ir in vo qu e to u t n at u re l l e m en t l e s co s tu m es des ara be s et
l eu rs co u le u rs, l e s co n tra ste s d e l um i re , la v g ta t io n l ux uria n te e t l es c h e v a ux
e n m o u ve m e n t . A s s o cia n t l e ve r t de au , l e ro uge verm i l l o n e t l e bl e u un d g ra d
d e b ru n , da n s un e rec h erch e s ur l e m o uve m e n t, l a pr se n te aq uarel l e s i ns c r i t
p ar fai te m en t da n s l uv re g rap h iqu e d e D e lac ro i x: l a r t i ste y as s o ci e de m a n i re
h ab i l e l a co u l eu r et l a l ig n e s an s qu e l u n de ce s l m en t s n e p r do m in e .

Lot 31 Les diverses sources dinspiration de Gustave Moreau se conjuguent trs harmonieusement dans cette gouache appele Les Satyres ou Muse sacre: la Renaissance
italienne, le Moyen ge recr et le Symbolisme. Que ce soit au muse du Louvre ou
lors de son sjour en Italie (1857-1859), lar tiste a beaucoup copi les matres anciens
notamment le vnitien Vittore Carpaccio, Lonard de Vinci et Michel-Ange vu la
chapelle Sixtine. Le dcor de larrire-plan du prsent dessin nest pas sans rappeler les
paysages rocheux nigmatiques aux effets de sfumato qui peuplent les tableaux de Lonard de Vinci. A par tir des annes 1880, en recherche dune beaut formelle, Moreau
introduit dans son uvre une figure jeune, gracieuse, aux longs cheveux blonds et au
visage fin. A limage du Saint Jean de Lonard de Vinci (muse du Louvre, inv. no. 780)
lar tiste cultive lambigut sur le sexe de cet tre androgyne.

111

Paris, March 2015


Impressionist and Modern Art

London, June 2015


Modern British Art

Amsterdam, April 2015


Post-War and Contemporary Art

London, July 2015


Victorian, Pre-Raphaelite
and British Impressionist Sale

Amsterdam, June 2015


Impressionist and Modern Art
London, June 2015
Impressionist and
Modern Works on Paper

London, February 2016


The Art of the Surreal

Marc Chagall (1887-1985)

Victor Brauner (1903-1966)

The Inspiration of the Artist

Solar Woman

signed Chagall (lower right)


gouache, watercolour, brush and pen
and black ink on paper
63.5 x 48 cm.
220,000-280,000

signed and dated Brauner IX 1940 (lower right)


oil on board
35 X 27 cm.
Painted in 1940
40,000-50,000

Oscar Dominguez (1906-1957)

Edouard Manet (1832-1883)

A Celestial Sea

Lettre Bracquemond, Larrosoir

signed and dated O Dominguez 1938 (lower right)


oil on canvas
73 x 92 cm.
Painted in 1938
220,000-280,000

watercolour and pen and ink on paper


20 x 12.2 cm.
Executed in Ocotber 1880
150,000-200,000

Avis et Lexique
Important Notices & Explanation of cataloguing practice
SYMBOLES UTILISS DANS NOS CATALOGUES

~
+

++

Lot offert sans prix de rserve.


Des frais additionnels de 5,5%TTC du prix dadjudication seront prelevs en
sus des frais habituels la charge de lacheteur. Ces frais additionnels seront
rembourss lacheteur sur prsentation dune preuve dexportation du lot
hors de lUnion Europenne dans les dlais lgaux (se reporter au chapitre
sur la TVA).
Le lot tant compos de matriaux en provenance despces en voie de
disparition, des restrictions limportation peuvent sappliquer ou un
certificat CITES peut tre demand.
La TVA au taux de 20% sera due sur le total du prix dadjudication et des frais
la charge de lacheteur. Elle sera rembourse lacheteur sur prsentation
dune preuve dexportation du lot hors de lUnion Europenne dans les
dlais lgaux (se reporter au chapitre sur la TVA).
La TVA au taux de 5,5% sera due sur le total du prix dadjudication et des frais
la charge de lacheteur. Elle sera rembourse lacheteur sur prsentation
dune preuve dexportation du lot hors de lUnion Europenne dans les
dlais lgaux (se reporter au chapitre sur la TVA).
Le vendeur du lot est un membre de Christies France SNC.

Les articles qui contiennent des rubis ou de la jadite en provenance de


Birmanie (Myanmar) ne peuvent tre imports aux tats-Unis.

Occasionnellement, Christies peut galement avoir un intrt financier sur le


lot confi en vue de la vente. Cela comprend en particulier une garantie dun
prix minimum ou une avance consentie au vendeur sur le montant estim du
produit de la vente qui est garanti uniquement par les lots confis. De tels lots
sont identifis par le symbole accol au numro du lot.

Christies peut prsenter la vente un lot quil dtient en pleine proprit ou en


partie. Sa qualit de propritaire sur le lot est identifie par le symbole accol
au numro du lot.

SYMBOLS USED IN OUR CATALOGUES

~
+

++

Lot offered without reserve.


In addition to the regular Buyers premium, a commission of 5,5% inclusive of
VAT of the hammer price will be charged to the buyer. It will be refunded to the
Buyer upon proof of export of the lot outside the European Union within the
legal time limit.(Please refer to section VAT refunds)
Import restrictions may apply or a CITES Licence might be required as this
lot contains material fromendangered species
VAT at a rate of 20% will be payable on both the hammer price and the
Buyers premium. It will be refunded to the Buyer upon proof of export of
the lot outside the European Union within the legal time limit. (Please refer
to section VAT refunds).
VAT at a rate of 5,5% will be payable on both the hammer price and the
Buyers premium. It will be refunded to the Buyer upon proof of export of
the lot outside the European Union within the legal time limit. (Please refer
to section VAT refunds).

All Dimensions are approximate

RAPPORTS SUR LTAT DES OBJETS


Les lots sont vendus en ltat. Il convient de sassurer de ltat de chaque lot et de
la nature et de ltendue de tout dommage ou restauration en lexaminant avant la
vacation. Du fait de leur ge et de leur nature, de nombreux lots ne sont pas dans
leur tat dorigine, et certaines descriptions peuvent, dans certains cas, faire tat
dun dommage et/ou dune restauration. Labsence dune telle mention nimplique
pas quun lot soit exempt de dfectuosits. De mme, la mention de dfectuosits
nimplique pas labsence dautres dfauts. Il est vivement conseill aux acheteurs
potentiels dexaminer, avant la vente, les lots pouvant les intresser. Des rapports
sur ltat des objets sont disponibles sur demande, auprs des spcialistes en
charge de la vente pour les objets dune valeur suprieure e 3.000.

CONDITION REPORTS
Please contact the Specialist Department for a condition report on a particular lot
(available for lots above e 3.000). Condition reports are provided as a service to
interested clients. Prospective buyers should note that descriptions of property are
not warranties and that each lot is sold as is.

OBJETS COMPOSES DE MATERIAUX PROVENANT DESPECES EN VOIE DE


DISPARITION ET AUTRES ESPECES PROTEGEES
Les objets composs entirement ou en partie (quel que soit le pourcentage) de
matriaux provenant despces de la faune et de la flore en voie de disparition et/
ou protges, sont gnralement marqus par le symbole ~ dans le catalogue. Ces
matriaux sont notamment livoire, lcaille de tortue, la peau de crocodile, la corne
de rhinocros, les ossements de baleine et certaines espces de corail, ainsi que le
bois de rose du Brsil. Les acheteurs sont aviss que de nombreux pays interdisent
limportation de tout bien contenant de tels matriaux ou exigent un permis (i.e.,
un permis CITES) dlivr par les autorits comptentes des pays dexportation et
dimportation du bien. Par consquent, les acheteurs sont invits se renseigner
auprs des autorits comptentes avant denchrir pour tout bien compos
entirement ou en partie de tels matriaux dont ils envisagent limportation dans
un autre pays. Par exemple, les Etats-Unis interdisent gnralement limportation
de biens constitus de matriaux provenant despces de la faune et de la flore en
voie de disparition et/ou protges qui auraient moins de 100 ans dge.
Nous vous remercions de bien vouloir noter quil est de la responsabilit des
acheteurs de dterminer et de satisfaire aux exigences de toutes les lois ou
rglements applicables lexportation ou limportation des biens composs de
matriaux provenant despces de la faune et de la flore en voie de disparition et/
ou protges. Limpossibilit pour un acheteur dexporter ou dimporter un tel
bien compos des matriaux provenant despces en voie de disparition et/ou
protges ne serait en aucun cas tre retenue comme fondement pour justifier une
demande dannulation ou de la rescision de la vente. Par ailleurs, nous attirons votre
attention sur le fait que le marquage des lots entirement ou en partie composs de
matriaux provenant despces de la faune et de la flore en voie de disparition et/ou
protges, au moyen notamment de lutilisation du symbole ~ dans les catalogues,
et qui font potentiellement lobjet dune rglementation spcifique, est effectu
titre purement facultatif et indicatif pour la commodit de nos clients, et quen
consquence, Christies ne pourra en aucun cas tre tenue responsable pour toute
erreur ou omission quelle quelle soit.
GARANTIE DES MTAUX PRCIEUX
Certains lots en mtal prcieux (or, argent, platine) et dont la liste sera
communique avant la vente, devront obligatoirement tre prsents au contrle
de la Direction Nationale de la Garantie des Mtaux Prcieux pour tre poinonns.
Christies est responsable de ce poinonnage qui devra tre effectu, aux frais de
ladjudicataire, avant la remise de lobjet lacheteur.

The lot is the Property of a member of Christies France.

Items which contain rubies or jadeite originating in Burma (Myanmar) may


not be imported into the U.S.

On occasion, Christies has a direct financial interest in lots consigned for


sale, which may include guaranteeing a minimum price or making an advance
to consignor that is secured solely by consigned property. Such property is
identified in the catalogue with the symbol next to the lot number.

Toutes les dimensions donnes sont approximatives

PROPERTY INCORPORATING MATERIALS FROM ENDANGERED AND OTHER


PROTECTED SPECIES
Property made of or incorporating (irrespective of percentage) endangered and
other protected species of wildlife are marked with the symbol ~ in the catalogue. Such
material includes, among other things, ivory, tortoiseshell, crocodile skin, rhinoceros
horn, whale bone and certain species of coral, together with Brazilian rosewood.
Prospective purchasers are advised that several countries prohibit altogether the
importation of property containing such materials, and that other countries require
a permit (e.g., a CITES permit) from the relevant regulatory agencies in the countries of
exportation as well as importation. Accordingly, clients should familiarize themselves
with the relevant customs laws and regulations prior to bidding on any property
with wildlife material if they intend to import the property into another country. For
example, the U.S. generally prohibits the importation of articles containing species
that it has designated as endangered or threatened if those articles are less than 100
years old. Please note that it is the clients responsibility to determine and satisfy
the requirements of any applicable laws or regulations applying to the export or
import of property containing endangered and other protected wildlife material. The
inability of a client to export or import property containing endangered and other
protected wildlife material is not a basis for cancellation or rescission of the sale. Please
note also that lots containing potentially regulated wildlife material are marked ~ as
a convenience to our clients, but Christies does not accept liability for errors or for
failing to mark lots containing protected or regulated species.
PRECIOUS METALS
Certain lots containing gold, silver or platinum, must by law be presented to the
Direction Nationale de la Garantie des Mtaux Prcieux in order to be submitted
to alloy tests, and to be marked. Christies is not authorised to deliver such lots to
Buyers before the lots are marked. Any such marking will be carried out by Christies
at the Buyers expense, as soon as possible after the sale. A list of all lots requiring
marking will be available to prospective Buyers before the sale.

LEXIQUE
Ce lexique recense les principaux termes techniques employs dans ce catalogue.
Un uvre figurant dans le catalogue avec le nom (les noms) ou la dsignation
reconnue dun artiste, sans aucune rserve, est notre avis, une uvre de cet
artiste. Dans les autres cas, on utilise diffrentes expressions indiques ci-dessous
avec leurs significations:
attribu ... est probablement, notre avis, une uvre de lartiste soit en totalit
soit en partie.
*atelier de ... notre avis, uvre excute dans latelier de lartiste, peut-tre
sous sa surveillance.
*entourage de ... notre avis, uvre de la priode de lartiste, et o lon remarque
son influence.

From time to time, Christies may offer a lot which it owns in whole or in part.
Such property is identified in the catalogue with the symbol next to its lot
number.

*suiveur de ... notre avis, uvre excute dans le style de lartiste mais pas
ncessairement par lun de ses lves.
* la manire de ... notre avis, uvre excute dans le style de lartiste mais
dune date plus rcente.
* daprs ... notre avis, copie (quelquen soit la date) dune uvre de lartiste.
*sign .../dat .../inscrit ... notre avis, l uvre a t signe/date/dote dune
inscription par lartiste. Laddition dun point dinterrogation indique un lment
de doute.
*avec signature .../avec date .../avec inscription ... notre avis, la signature/la
date/linscription sont de la main de quelquun dautre que lartiste.

114

Informations importantes pour les acheteurs

CONDITIONS DE VENTE
Toutes les ventes sont soumises aux conditions gnrales imprimes en fin de
catalogue.

Nous pouvons notre entire discrtion vous demander soit de nouvelles


rfrences bancaires soit un dpt dargent comme condition pralable
lacceptation de vos enchres.

ESTIMATIONS
Le prix de vente estim de chaque lot est imprim au catalogue gauche endessous de la description. Il ne comprend pas les frais la charge de lacheteur, ni
la TVA. Il est important de savoir que les estimations sont prpares bien avant la
vente et peuvent tre sujettes rvision. La conversion des estimations en Livres
Sterling ou en Dollars se trouve au catalogue, aprs la description de chaque
lot. Ces montants ont pu tre arrondis et le taux de change utilis a pu changer
depuis limpression du catalogue. Pour tout lot dont lestimation est indique
comme tant sur demande, il convient de contacter directement le Spcialiste
en charge de la vente.

ENREGISTREMENTENVUEDENCHRIRPOURLECOMPTEDUNTIERS
Toute personne portant enchres pour le compte dun client
existant devra fournir une lettre signe par ledit client autorisant lenchrisseur agir
pour le compte du client. Merci de bien vouloir noter que Christies naccepte pas les
paiements par tiers. Christies ne peut accepter que le paiement mis par le client luimme et non par la personne portant enchres pour le compte de ce client.

PRIX DE RSERVE
Le prix de rserve correspond au prix minimum confidentiel au-dessous duquel le lot ne
sera pas vendu. Il ne peut tre suprieur la fourchette basse de lestimation indique
au catalogue.
FRAIS LA CHARGE DE LACHETEUR
Outre le prix dadjudication (prix marteau), lacheteur devra acquitter des frais
de 25% H.T. (soit 26.375% T.T.C. pour les livres et 30% T.T.C. pour les autres lots)
sur les premiers 30.000, 20% H.T. (soit 21.10% T.T.C. pour les livres et 24% T.T.C.
pour les autres lots) au-del de 30.000 et jusqu 1.200.000 et 12% H.T. (soit
12.66% T.T.C. pour les livres et 14.40% T.T.C. pour les autres lots) sur toute somme
au-del de 1.200.000. Pour les ventes de vin, les frais la charge de lacqureur
slvent 17,5% H.T. (soit 21% T.T.C.).
Exceptions :
les lots dont le numro est prcd du signe sont soumis des frais additionnels de
5,5 % TTC du prix dadjudication. Ces frais additionnels seront rembourss lacheteur
sur prsentation dune preuve dexportation des lots hors de lUnion Europenne dans
les dlais lgaux.
les lots dont le numro est prcd du signe + sont soumis une TVA de 20% sur le prix
dadjudication et sur les frais. Cette TVA sera rembourse lacheteur sur prsentation
dune preuve dexportation des lots hors de lUnion Europenne dans les dlais lgaux.
les lots dont le numro est prcd du signe ++ sont soumis une TVA de 5,5%
sur le prix dadjudication et sur les frais. Cette TVA sera rembourse lacheteur sur
prsentation dune preuve dexportation des lots hors de lUnion Europenne dans
les dlais lgaux.
EXPOSITION AVANT LA VENTE
Lexposition prcdant la vente est ouverte tous et nest soumise aucun droit dentre.
Les spcialistes de Christies y sont la disposition des enchrisseurs potentiels et du
public pour tout renseignement ou conseil. Ils peuvent notamment tablir sur demande
des rapports crits ou verbaux sur ltat de conservation des objets
PARTICIPER LA VENTE EN PERSONNE
Les acqureurs potentiels qui nont encore jamais enchri ou vendu avec Christies
doivent prsenter :
Personne physique: une pice didentit officielle (permis de conduire, carte
didentit ou passeport), et si ledit document ne les contient pas, un justificatif de
domicile, tel quune facture dlectricit ou une attestation bancaire.
Socits: un KBis
Pour toutes autres socits de droit tranger et autres structures commerciales
telles que des trusts, des socits offshore ou des socits en nom collectif, merci de
bien vouloir contacter le Christies Credit Department au +33 (0)1 40 76 84 38 ou au +44
(0)20 7839 2825 afin dobtenir conseil sur linformation devant tre fournie.
Une rfrence bancaire confirmant votre capacit financire au niveau du montant
des enchres envisages. Si vous le souhaitez, Christies pourra vous fournir un modle
de rfrence bancaire.
Tous les nouveaux clients, ainsi que les clients qui nont pas procd des achats
chez Christies au cours des 12 derniers mois, devront fournir des rfrences
bancaires ainsi que deux documents didentification. Nous pourrons galement
demander deffectuer des dpts dargent si ncessaire. Veuillez galement
noter que tout client existant souhaitant porter des enchres pour un montant
excdant ses enchres habituelles devra prsenter de nouvelles rfrences
bancaires, et pourra tre amen effectuer des dpts correspondant au
montant le plus lev entre 15.000 ou 20% de lestimation basse cumule des
lots sur lesquels il a lintention de porter des enchres.
Toute personne senregistrant en vue denchrir pour le compte dun tiers qui na jamais
enchri ou vendu avec Christies doit fournir non seulement une pice didentit officielle
attestant de sa propre identit mais galement une pice didentit officielle attestant de
lidentit du tiers, ainsi que le pouvoir sign par ledit tiers cette personne.
Afin de permettre un temps suffisant au traitement des informations reues, les
nouveaux clients sont invits senregistrer au moins 48 heures avant la vente.
Pour enchrir, il suffit de se prsenter, au moins 30 minutes avant la vacation, au bureau du
service clientle afin dobtenir un numro denchrisseur. Les clients nayant pas enchri
avec lun des bureaux de Christies au cours des douze derniers mois, ainsi que ceux
souhaitant enchrir pour un montant suprieur des enchres antrieures, devront
fournir une nouvelle rfrence bancaire. Pour toute assistance avec les documents et
rfrences susviss, merci de bien vouloir contacter le Christies Credit Department au
+33 (0) 1 40 76 84 38 (Paris) ou au +44 (0)20 7839 2825 (Londres).

(1)

ENCHRES
Le commissaire priseur accepte les enchres des enchrisseurs prsents dans la
salle, les enchres tlphoniques et les enchres excutes en accord avec les ordres
dachat transmis Christies avant la vente. Le commissaire-priseur peut galement
enchrir pour le compte du vendeur jusquau prix de rserve. Le commissaire-priseur
na pas notifier les enchres portes pour le compte du vendeur. En aucun cas, le
commissaire-priseur ne peut enchrir pour le compte du vendeur au prix de rserve
ou au-del du prix de rserve. Les paliers denchres indicatifs sont dcrits dans le
formulaire dordre dachat attach au dos de ce catalogue.
PARTICIPER LA VENTE EN DPOSANT UN ORDRE DACHAT
Pour la commodit des enchrisseurs ne pouvant assister la vente en personne,
Christies se chargera dexcuter les ordres dachat selon leurs instructions. Christies
fera ses meilleurs efforts pour obtenir le lot au meilleur prix possible en leur faveur.
Les ordres dachats doivent tre remis par crit avant la vente. Ils peuvent tre
envoys par courrier ou tlcopie, en utilisant le formulaire rserv cet effet en
fin de catalogue. Il est galement possible denvoyer un ordre dachat travers
LotFinder, sur www.christies.com. Les ordres dachat doivent tre donns dans
la devise du lieu de la vente. Dans le cas o deux offres crites seraient soumises au
mme prix, la priorit sera donne celle reue en premier.
PARTICIPER LA VENTE PAR TLPHONE
Nous sommes votre disposition pour organiser des enchres tlphoniques pour les
uvres dart ou objets de collection dont la valeur est suprieure 2.000 .
Les acqureurs potentiels devront informer Christies de leur dsir denchrir par
tlphone au moins 24 heures lavance, en particulier sils souhaitent enchrir en une
langue autre que le franais. Ils seront alors contacts par un collaborateur de Christies
pendant la vente, quelques minutes avant que ne soit offert le lot les intressant.
Nous vous informons que les enchres tlphoniques sont enregistres. En nous
demandant de bneficier de ce service, vous consentez cet enregistrement.
INTERNET : CHRISTIES LIVE
Les acqureurs potentiels pourront, dans certains cas, participer la vente o quils soient
dans le monde, comme sils taient prsents dans la salle de vente. Christies LIVE est
trs facile dutilisation. Depuis un ordinateur personnel, il suffit de crer un compte en
ligne sur christies.com, et de tlcharger le logiciel dapplication. Il est ensuite possible
de senregistrer pour participer la vente en personne, par tlphone ou en dposant un
ordre dachat, et ce jusqu 9 heures le jour de la vente.
CLOTRE DES ENCHRES
Le coup de marteau et le prononc du mot adjug par le commissaire-priseur habilit
indiquent la fin des enchres et la formation dun contrat de vente entre le vendeur
et lacheteur. Le rsultat de la vente sera communiqu par crit aux personnes ayant
dpos des ordres dachat.
MODALITS DE PAIEMENT ET DLIVRANCE DES LOTS
Sous rserve daccord particulier entre lacqureur et Christies avant la vente, le paiement
du lot sera effectu directement par lacqureur, Christies ne pouvant accepter le
paiement par un tiers. La vente se fera expressment au comptant. Lacheteur devra rgler
le prix dachat global, comprenant le prix dadjudication, les frais et taxes. Cette rgle sera
applicable mme si lacheteur souhaite exporter le lot.
Le paiement peut tre effectu:
par chque en Euros lordre de Christies France;
en espces en Euros dans les limites suivantes, que se soit en un seul ou en plusieurs paiement
pour un mme achat : 3.000 pour les particuliers franais et pour les commerants 7.500
pour les particuliers nayant pas leur domicile fiscal en France, sur prsentation dune pice
didentitetdunjustificatifdedomicile.
par cartes de crdit dans la limite dun montant maximum de 40.000 euros : Visa/
Mastercard / American Express / China Union Pay
par virement en Euros sur le compte 3805 3990 101 - Christies France SNC - Barclays
Bank Plc. - Agence ICT - 183, avenue Daumesnil - 75575 Paris Cedex 12, France / Code
banque: 30588 - Code guichet: 60001 - Code SWIFT: BARCFRPP - IBAN: FR76 30588
60001 38053990101 31.
Les lots ne seront delivrs quaprs encaissement effectif des paiements (8 jours
ouvrs pour les chques des banques franaises).
TVA
En rgle gnrale, Christies mettra les lots la vente sous le rgime de la marge. Lgalement,
ce rgime implique que la TVA napparait pas sur la facture et nest pas rcuperable.
Sur demande formule immdiatement aprs la vente par des entreprises assujetties la
TVA, Christies pourra facturer la TVA sur le prix total (prix dadjudication et frais la charge
de lacheteur). Ceci permettra lacheteur assujetti de rcuprer la TVA ainsi facture,
mais ces lots ne pourront pas tre revendus sous le rgime de la marge.

REMBOURSEMENT DE LA TVA EN CAS DEXPORTATION EN DEHORS DE LUNION


EUROPENNE
Remboursement de la TVA en cas dexportation en dehors de lUnion Europenne
Toute TVA facture sera rembourse aux personnes non-rsidentes de lUnion
Europenne condition quelles en fassent la demande crite au service
comptable dans un dlai de trois mois aprs la vente, et sur prsentation de
lexemplaire 3 du document douanier dexportation (DAU) sur lequel Christies
devra figurer comme expditeur et lacheteur comme destinataire. Lexportation
doit intervenir dans les dlais lgaux et un maximum de 3 mois compter de la date
de la vente. Christies dduira de chaque remboursement 50 de frais de gestion.
REMBOURSEMENTDELATVAAUXPROFESSIONNELSDELUNIONEUROPENNE
Remboursement de la TVA aux professionnels de lUnion Europenne
Toute TVA facture sera rembourse aux acheteurs professionnels dun autre tat
membre de lUnion Europenne, condition quils en fassent la demande par crit
au service transport dans un dlai dun mois compter de la date de la vente et quils
fournissent leurs numros didentification la TVA et la preuve de lexpdition des
lots vers cet autre tat dans le respect des rgles administratives et dans un dlai
dun mois compter de la vente. Christies dduira 50 de frais de gestion sur chaque
remboursement.
Pour toute information complmentaire relative aux mesures prises par
Christies, il conviendra de contacter Benot Pasquier au +33 (0)1 40 76 85 78. Il est
recommand aux acqureurs de consulter un conseiller spcialis en la matire
afin de lever toute ambigut relative leur statut concernant la TVA.
FORMALITS DE TRANSPORT ET DEXPORTATION
Une fois le paiement des lots intgralement effectu, le dpartement Transport
de Christies sera heureux dorganiser leur emballage et expdition, la charge et
sur demande prcise et crite des acqureurs. Un devis pourra vous tre adrss
pour les objets volumineux ou objets de grande valeur pour lesquels un transport
spcial pourra tre organis. Les acheteurs souhaitant emporter eux-mmes leurs
acquisitions ltranger doivent consulter auparavant le dpartement Transport de
Christies, au +33 (0)1 40 76 86 17.
CERTIFICATS DEXPORTATION
Des certificats dexportation pourront tre ncessaires pour certains achats, et,
dans certains cas, une autorisation douanire pourra galement tre requise. LEtat
franais a facult de refuser daccorder un certificat dexportation au cas o le lot est
rput tre un trsor national. Christies nassume aucune responsabilit du fait des
dcisions administratives de refus de certificat dexportation pouvant tre prises. La
non-obtention dun certificat ne peut en aucun cas justifier dun retard de paiement
ou lannulation de la vente de la part de lacheteur. Sont prsentes ci-dessous, de
manire non exhaustive, les catgories duvres ou objets dart accompagnes
de leurs seuils de valeur respectifs au-dessus desquels un Certificat de bien culturel
(dit CBC ou passeport) peut tre requis pour que le lot puisse sortir du territoire
franais. Le seuil indiqu entre parenthses est celui requis pour une demande de
sortie du territoire europen, dans le cas o ce dernier diffre du premier seuil.
Peintures et tableaux en tous matriaux sur tous supports
ayant plus de 50 ans dge
150.000
Meubles et objets dameublement, tapis, tapisseries, horlogerie, ayant plus de 50 ans
dge 50.000
Aquarelles, gouaches et pasTls ayant plus de 50 ans dge
30.000
Sculptures originales ou productions de lart statuaire originales,
et copies produites par le mme procd que loriginal
ayant plus de 50 ans dge
50.000
Livres de plus de cent ans dge
50.000
Vhicules de plus de 75 ans dge
50.000
Dessins ayant plus de 50 ans dge
15.000
Estampes, gravures, srigraphies et lithographies originales
et affiches originales ayant plus de 50 ans dge
15.000
Photographies, films et ngatifs ayant plus de 50 ans dge
15.000
Cartesgographiquesimprimesayantplusde100ansdge
15.000
Incunables et manuscrits, y compris cartes et partitions
(UE : quelle que soit la valeur)
1.500
Objets archologiques de plus de 100 ans dge provenant directement de fouilles (1)
Objets archologiques de plus de 100 ans dge
ne provenant pas directement de fouilles
1.500
Elments faisant partie intgrante de monuments artistiques,
historiques ou religieux (ayant plus de 100 ans dge)
(1)
Archives de plus de 50 ans dge
(UE : quelle que soit la valeur)
300
PREMPTION
Dans certains cas, lEtat franais peut exercer un droit de premption sur les
uvres dart ou les documents privs mis en vente publique. LEtat se substitue
alors au dernier enchrisseur. En pareil cas, le reprsentant de lEtat fera la
dclaration de premption Christies aprs le prononc de ladjudication
de luvre mise en vente et il en sera fait mention au procs-verbal de vente.
La dcision de premption devra ensuite tre confirme dans un dlai de
quinze jours. Christies nassume aucune responsabilit du fait des dcisions
administratives de premption pouvant tre prises.

Pour ces catgories, la demande de certificat ne dpend pas de la valeur de lobjet, mais de sa nature. Une documentation complte peut tre obtenue auprs du dpartement Transport de Christies au +33 (0)1 40 76 86 17.

Buying at Christies

CONDITIONS OF SALE
Christies Conditions of Sale are printed at the back of this catalogue. Bidders are
strongly recommended to read these as they set out the terms on which property is
bought at auction. A full translation in English of our Conditions of Sale is available upon
request at the saleroom. If there is a difference between the English version and the
French version, the French version will take precedence.
ESTIMATES
Estimates are based upon prices recently paid at auction for comparable property,
and take into account condition, rarity, quality and provenance. Estimates are subject
to revision. Buyers should not rely upon estimates as a representation or prediction
of actual selling prices. Estimates do not include the buyers premium or VAT. Where
Estimate on Request appears, please contact the Specialist Department for further
information.
RESERVE
The reserve is the confidential minimum price the consignor will accept. It will not
exceed the low pre-sale estimate.
BUYERS PREMIUM
If the bid is successful, the purchase price will be the sum of the final bid plus a buyers
premium of 25% (i.e., inclusive of VAT, 26.375% for books and 30% for other lots) of
the final bid price of each lot up to and including Euros 30.000, a buyers premium of
20% (i.e., inclusive of VAT, 21.10% for books and 24% for other lots) of the excess of the
hammer price above 30.000 and up to and including Euros 1.200.000 and a buyers
premium of 12% (i.e., inclusive of VAT, 12.66% for books and 14.40% for other lots) of the
excess of the hammer price above Euros 1.200.000. Exceptions: Wine: 17,5% of the final
bid price of each lot. VAT is payable on the premium at the applicable rate (i.e., inclusive
of VAT 21%).
Exceptions :
lots marked with the symbol will be subject to an additional charge of 5,5 % incl. VAT. This
charge will be refunded upon proof of export out of the European Union within the legal
time limit.
lots marked with the + symbol will be subject to VAT at a rate of 20% on both the
hammer price and the buyers premium. This charge will be refunded upon proof of
export out of the European Union within the legal time limit.
lots marked with the ++ symbol will be subject to VAT at a rate of 5,5% on both the
hammer price and the buyers premium. This charge will be refunded upon proof of
export out of the European Union within the legal time limit.
SALE PREVIEW
Pre-auctions viewings are open to the public free of charge. Christies specialists are
available to give advice and condition reports at viewings or by appointment.
BIDDER REGISTRATION / DEPOSIT
Prospective buyers who have not previously bid our consigned with Christies should
bring:
- Individuals: government-issued photo identification (such as driving-licence, national
identity card, or passport) and, if not shown on the ID document, proof of current
address, for example a utility bill or bank statement.
- Corporate clients: a certificate of incorporation.
- For other business structures such as trusts, offshore companies or partnerships,
please contact Christies Credit Department at +33 (0)1 40 76 84 38 or at +44 (0)20 7839
2825 for advice on the information you should supply.
- A financial reference in the form of a recent bank statement, a reference from your
bank, and/or your bankers contact information. Christies can supply a form of wording
for the bank reference if necessary.
- New clients, or those who have not made a purchase from any Christies office
within the last 12 months, will be asked to supply a financial reference and two forms
of identification, we may also require such deposits as we deem appropriate. Please
be advised that existing clients wishing to spend an amount inconsistent with their
previous pattern will also be asked to supply a new reference and may be required to pay
such deposits the higher of 15,000 or 20% of the aggregate low estimate of their lots
they intend to bid.
- Persons registering to bid on behalf of someone who has not previously bid or
consigned with Christies should bring identification documents not only for
themselves but also for the party on whose behalf they are bidding, together with a
signed letter of authorization from that party. To allow sufficient time to process the
information, new clients are encouraged to register at least 48 hours in advance of a
sale.
Prospective buyers should register for a numbered bidding paddle at least 30 minutes
before the sale.
Clients who have not made a purchase from any Christies office within the last one year
and those wishing to spend more than on previous occasions, will be asked to supply a
new bank reference to register.
For assistance with references, please contact Christies Credit Department at +33 (0)1
40 76 84 38 (Paris) or at +44 (0)20 7839 2825 (London).
We may at our option ask you for a financial reference or a deposit as a condition of
allowing you to bid.

REGISTERING TO BID ON SOMEONE ELSES BEHALF


Persons bidding on behalf of an existing client should bring a signed letter from the
client authorising the bidder to act on the clients behalf. Please note that Christies
does not accept payments from third parties. Christies can only accept payment from
the client, and not from the person bidding on their behalf.
BIDDING
The auctioneer accepts bids from those present in the saleroom, from Tlephone
bidders, or by absentee written bids left with Christies in advance of the auction. The
auctioneer may also execute bids on behalf of the seller up to the amount of the reserve.
The auctioneer will not specifically identify bids placed on behalf of the seller. Under no
circumstance will the auctioneer place any bid on behalf of the seller at or above the
reserve. Bid steps are shown on the Absentee Bid Form at the back of this catalogue.
ABSENTEE BIDS
Absentee Bids are written instructions from prospective buyers directing Christies
to bid on their behalf up to a maximum amount specified for each lot, in the salesite
currency. Christies staff will attempt to execute an absentee bid at the lowest possible
price taking into account the reserve price. The auctioneer may execute absentee bids
directly from the rostrum, clearly identifying these as absentee bids, book bids, order
bids or commission bids. Absentee Bids Forms are available in this catalogue, at any
Christies location, or online at christies.com. If two Absentee Bids are received for the
same lot at the same level, priority will be for the first received.
TLEPHONE BIDS
We will be delighted to organise Tlephone bidding for lots above 2.000.
Arrangements must be confirmed with the Bid Department at least 24 hours prior to
the auction at +33 (0)1 40 76 84 13. Arrangements to bid in languages other than French
must be made well in advance of the sale date. Tlephone bids may be recorded. By
bidding on the Tlephone, prospective purchasers consent to the recording of their
conversation.
BIDDING LIVE ON THE INTERNET: CHRISTIES LIVE
Prospective buyers will be able to participate in the auction from their personnal
computer, as if they were attending the auction in the saleroom, wherever they are in the
world. Christies LIVE is very easy to use. From a personal computer, one just needs to
create a christies.com account and to download the required software. This will enable
prospective buyers to register for the sale from their personal computer up until 9 a.m.
French time on the day of the sale, and participate in the sale in person or via absentee bids
or Tlephone bids.
SUCCESSFUL BIDS
The fall of the auctioneers hammer and the verbal confirmation that the lot is sold
indicates the final bid, at which time, the buyer assumes full responsibility for the lot. The
results of absentee bids will be mailed after the auction. Successful bidders will pay the
price of the final bid plus premium plus any applicable VAT.
PAYMENT
Please note that Christies will not accept payments for purchased Lots from any party
other than the buyer, unless otherwise agreed between the buyer and Christies prior
to the sale. Buyers are expected to pay for purchases immediaTly after the auction.
Payment can be made in cash, by cheque, direct bank transfer in Euros or bank wire
transfer in Euros. To avoid delivery delays, prospective buyers are encouraged to supply
bank references before the auction.
It is our policy not to accept single or multiple payments in cash or cash equivalents
of more than 3.000 for French fiscal residents and for trade 7.500 for foreign tax
residents.
Cheques and drafts should be made payable to Christies SNC.
Credit cards: Visa/Mastercard / American Express / China Union Pay
Limit of payment of 40.000.

Bank transfers should be made to Account number: 3805 3990 101 Christies
SNC - Barclays Bank Plc. - Agence ICT - 183, avenue Daumesnil - 75575 Paris Cedex 12,
France / Bank code: 30588 - Branch code: 60001 - SWIFT code: BARCFRPP - IBAN:
FR76 30588 60001 38053990101 31
Purchases will only be released when payment is received on our account in cleared
funds (8 working days for French cheques).
VAT
In general, auctions are conducted under the Margin Scheme status. Legally, this
scheme implies that the VAT should not appear on the invoice and is not refundable.
On request immediaTly after the sale, Christies will issue invoices showing VAT
separaTly on both the hammer price and the Buyers premium. This will enable VATregistered businesses to recover the VAT charged as input tax, subject to the usual
regulations. However, such lots will become ineligible to be resold under the Dealers
Margin Scheme.

(1) Application for a licence for these categories is subject to the nature of the item, not its value.

116

VAT REFUNDS FOR EXPORTING TO NON-EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES


Non European buyers may have all VAT invoiced refunded to them if they request so in
writing to the accounting department within a delay of 3 months of the date of sale, and
if they provide Christies with the third sample of the customs documentation DAU
stamped by customs. Christies must appear as shipper on the export document and
the buyer as consignee. The exportation has to be done within the legal delays and a
maximum of 3 months of the date of sale. Christies will charge 50 for each refund
processed.
VAT REFUNDS FOR TRADE BUYERS (EU)
VAT registered businesses from other European Union countries may have all VAT
invoiced refunded to them if they request so in writing to the shipping department
within a delay of 1 month of the date of sale and if they provide Christies with their
VAT registration number and proof that the property has been shipped to another
EU country, in the respect of administrative rules and within one month of the date of
sale. Christies will charge 50 for each refund processed. Please refer any question to
Benot Pasquier at +33 (0) 1 40 76 85 78
SHIPPING
A shipping form is enclosed with each invoice. It is the buyers responsibility to pick
up purchases or make all shipping arrangements. After payment has been made
in full, Christies can arrange property packing and shipping at the buyers request
and expense. Buyers will obtain an estimate for any large items or property of high
value that require professional packing. For more information please contact the
Shipping Department at +33 (0)1 40 76 86 17.
EXPORT/IMPORT PERMITS
Buyers should always check whether an export licence is required before exporting. It
is the buyers sole responsibility to obtain any relevant export or import licence. The
denial of any licence or any delay in obtaining licences shall neither justify the rescission
of any sale nor any delay in making full payment for the lot. Christies can advise buyers
on the detailed provisions of the export licensing regulations and will submit any
necessary export licence applications on request. However, Christies cannot ensure
that a licence will be obtained. Local laws may prohibit the import of some property
and/or may prohibit the resale of some property in the country of importation. As
an illustration only, we set out below a selection of the categories of works of art,
together with the value thresholds above which a French Certificat de bien culturel
(also known as passport) may be required so that the lot can leave the French territory
; the threshold indicated in brackets is the one required for an export licence application
outside the EU, when the latter differs from the national threshold.
Pictures entirely made by hand on any support and of any material, of more than 50
years of age
150.000
Furniture and objects, carpets, tapestries, clocks
of more than 50 years of age
50.000
Watercolours, gouaches and pasTls of more
than 50 years of age
30.000
Original sculptures and copies of more
than 50 years of age
50.000
Books of more than 100 years of age
50.000
Vehicles of more than 75 years of age
50.000
Drawings of more than 50 years of age
15.000
Prints, lithographs and posters of more
than 50 years of age
15.000
Photographs, Films and negatives of more
than 50 years of age
15.000
Printed maps of more than 100 years of age
15.000
Incunabula and manuscripts (EU whatever the value is)
1.500
Archaeology pieces of more than 100 years of age originating directly from
excavations
(1)
Archaeology pieces of more than 100 years of age not originating directly from
excavations
1.500 (1)
Parts of Historical, Religious or Architectural monuments
of more than 100 years of age
(1)
Archives of more than 50 years of age
(EU whatever the value is)
300
The French State is entitled to refuse to deliver an export licence if the lot is
considered to be a National Treasure. Christies will not be held responsible for
any administrative decisions by the French State regarding the refusal to grant
an export licence. For more information, please contact Christies Shipping
Department at +33 (0)1 40 76 86 17.
PRE-EMPTION
In certain cases, the French State is entitled to use its right of pre-emption on works of
art or private documents. This means that the state substitutes itself for the last bidder
and becomes the buyer. In such a case, a representative of the French State announces
the exercise of the pre-emption right during the auction and immediaTly after the lot
has been sold, and this declaration will be recorded in the official sale record. The French
State will have then fifteen (15) days to confirm the pre-emption decision. Christies will
not be held responsible for any administrative decisions of the French State regarding
the use of its right of pre-emption.

Conditions Gnrales*

Les conditions exposes ci-dessous ainsi que les Lexiques et Avis prsents au
catalogue constituent les termes auxquels Christies France SNC ( Christies ou
nous ) sengage en qualit de mandataire agissant pour le compte des vendeurs
avec les acheteurs. Ils peuvent tre modifis par des notices affiches ou par des
indications orales donnes lors de la vacation et portes au procs-verbal de
vente. En portant une enchre, toute personne accepte dtre lie par les prsentes
conditions.

c) Enchres simultanes
En cas de contestation au moment des adjudications, cest dire sil est tabli
que deux ou plusieurs enchrisseurs ont simultanment port une enchre
quivalente, soit haute voix, soit par signe, et rclament en mme temps cet
objet aprs le prononc du mot adjug , ledit objet pourra, selon la dcision
prise par le commissaire-priseur habilit, tre immdiatement remis en
adjudication au prix propos par les enchrisseurs et tout le public prsent sera
admis enchrir de nouveau.

(A) DFINITION DES TERMES UTILISS DANS LES CONDITIONS


GNRALES

d) Ordres dachat
Pour la commodit des clients nassistant pas la vente en personne ou par
lintermdiaire dun mandataire ou encore transmettant des enchres par
tlphone, Christies France SNC sefforcera dexcuter les ordres denchrir qui lui
seront remis par crit avant la vente. Ces ordres dachat doivent tre donns dans
la devise du lieu de la vente. Ces enchrisseurs sont invits remplir le formulaire
annex. Si Christies reoit plusieurs ordres crits pour des montants identiques
sur un lot particulier et si, lors des enchres, ces ordres reprsentent les enchres
les plus leves pour le lot, celui-ci sera adjug lenchrisseur dont lordre aura t
reu le premier. Lexcution des ordres crits est un service gracieux que Christies
sefforcera de rendre sous rserve dautres obligations satisfaire au moment
de la vente. Le dfaut dexcution dun ordre dachat ou toute erreur ou omission
loccasion de lexcution de tels ordres nengagera pas la responsabilit de
Christies.

Dans les conditions gnrales exposes ci-dessous, certains termes sont utiliss
rgulirement et ncessitent une explication:
Lacheteur ou adjudicataire signifie la personne qui aura port lenchre la
plus leve, accepte par la personne dirigeant la vente et tenant le marteau ;
le lot signifie tout article qui aura t consign entre nos mains afin quil soit
vendu aux enchres et en particulier lobjet ou les objets dcrits sous tout numro
de lot dans les catalogues ;
le prix dadjudication signifie le montant de lenchre la plus leve pour un lot,
accepte par la personne dirigeant la vente et tenant le marteau;
le prix de rserve correspond au prix minimum confidentiel au dessous duquel
le lot ne sera pas vendu;
le commissaire-priseur habilit dsigne la personne dirigeant la vente et tenant
le marteau.

(B) LACHETEUR
1. CHRISTIES FRANCE SNC EN TANT QUE MANDATAIRE
Sauf disposition contraire, Christies France SNC agit comme mandataire du
vendeur. Le contrat de vente du bien offert intervient entre le vendeur et lacheteur
en ltat du bien tel quil est prsent la vente et que lacheteur dclare connatre.
2. AVANT LA VENTE
a) Etat des lots
Il est vivement conseill aux acheteurs potentiels dexaminer le ou les biens pouvant
les intresser avant la vente aux enchres. Des rapports sur ltat des lots sont
habituellement disponibles sur demande pour des objets dune valeur suprieure
3000 .
b) Catalogue et autres descriptions
Le Lexique et/ou les Avis et/ou les Informations importantes pour les acheteurs,
vous donnent des indications sur le mode de rdaction de nos catalogues. Toutes
les mentions comprises dans les descriptions du catalogue ou dans les rapports
concernant ltat dun lot, toute dclaration orale ou crite faite par ailleurs,
constituent lexpression dune opinion et non laffirmation dun fait. Les rfrences
faites dans la description du catalogue ou dans le rapport concernant ltat du lot,
relatives un accident ou une restauration, sont faites pour faciliter linspection
et restent soumises lapprciation devant rsulter dun examen personnel de
lacheteur ou de son reprsentant comptent. Labsence dune telle rfrence dans
le catalogue nimplique aucunement quun objet soit exempt de tout dfaut ou de
toute restauration, de plus une rfrence un dfaut particulier nimplique pas
labsence de tous autres dfauts. Les estimations de prix de vente ne doivent pas
tre considres comme impliquant la certitude que lobjet se vendra pour le prix
ainsi estim ou que la valeur ainsi donne est une valeur garantie.
3. AU MOMENT DE LA VENTE
a) Enregistrement avant lenchre
Tout acheteur potentiel doit complter et signer un formulaire denregistrement
et prsenter toutes pices didentit requises avant de porter une enchre.
Christies France SNC se rserve le droit de rclamer, par ailleurs, la prsentation
de rfrences bancaires ou financires. Christies France SNC pourra galement
refuser toute enchre ou tout accs la salle des ventes pour motif lgitime.
b) Enchres faites en nom propre
En portant une enchre, les enchrisseurs assument la responsabilit
personnelle de rgler le prix dadjudication, augment des frais la charge de
lacheteur et de tous impts ou taxes exigibles. Sauf convention crite avec
Christies France SNC, pralable la vente, mentionnant que lenchrisseur
agit comme mandataire dun tiers identifi et agr par Christies France SNC,
lenchrisseur est rput agir en son nom propre.

e) Enchres par tlphone


Si un acheteur potentiel se manifeste avant la vente, Christies pourra le contacter
durant la vente afin quil puisse enchrir par tlphone mais cela sans engagement
de responsabilit, notamment au titre derreurs ou domissions relatives la
rception denchres par tlphone.
f) Conversion de devises
Un systme de conversion de devises sera mis en place lors de certaines ventes
aux enchres. Des erreurs peuvent survenir lors des oprations de conversion
des devises utilises et les enchrisseurs qui utiliseront le systme de conversion
de devises plutt que de se rfrer aux enchres portes dans la salle des ventes le
feront sous leur seule et entire responsabilit.
g) Images vido ou digitales
Lors de certaines ventes, un cran vido est install. Des erreurs de manipulation
peuvent survenir et Christies ne peut assumer de responsabilit concernant ces erreurs
ou encore la qualit de limage.
h) Prix de rserve
Sauf indication contraire, tous les lots sont offerts la vente avec un prix de rserve
correspondant au prix minimum confidentiel au-dessous duquel le lot ne sera
pas vendu. Le prix de rserve ne dpassera pas lestimation basse figurant dans
le catalogue. Le commissaire-priseur habilit pourra dbuter les enchres sur
tout lot, en dessous du prix de rserve, en portant une enchre pour le compte
du vendeur. Le commissaire-priseur habilit pourra continuer enchrir pour
le compte du vendeur jusquau dernier palier denchre avant la rserve, soit en
portant des enchres successives, soit en portant des enchres en rponse
dautres enchrisseurs. Le vendeur ne portera aucune enchre pour son propre
compte et ne dsignera aucune personne pour porter une Tlle enchre, sans
prjudice de la facult pour Christies France SNC denchrir pour le compte du
vendeur comme indiqu ci-dessus.
i) Conduite de la vente
Le commissaire-priseur habilit a la facult discrtionnaire de refuser toute
enchre, dorganiser les enchres de la faon quil juge convenable, de retirer
tout lot de la vente, de runir ou de sparer un ou plusieurs lots et, en cas derreur
ou de contestation pendant ou aprs la vente, de dsigner ladjudicataire, de
poursuivre les enchres, dannuler la vente ou de remettre en vente tout lot en cas
de contestation.
j) Adjudicataire, risques, transfert de proprit
Sous rserve de la dcision du commissaire-priseur habilit, et sous rserve que
lenchre finale soit gale ou suprieure au prix de rserve, le dernier enchrisseur
deviendra lacheteur et la chute du marteau matrialisera lacceptation de
la dernire enchre et la formation dun contrat de vente entre le vendeur et
lacheteur. Les lots adjugs seront sous lentire responsabilit de ladjudicataire au
plus tard le 14e jour aprs la vente, le jour de la vacation tant pris en compte dans
le calcul. Le transfert de risque interviendra de manire anticipe si la livraison est
ralise avant lexpiration du dlai susvis. Aucun lot ne sera remis lacqureur
avant acquittement de lintgralit des sommes dues. En cas de paiement par
chque, le transfert de proprit naura lieu quaprs encaissement du chque.

117

k) Premption
Dans certains cas, lEtat franais peut exercer un droit de premption sur les uvres
dart mises en vente publique conformment aux dispositions des articles L.123-1 et
L.123-2 du Code du Patrimoine. LEtat se substitue alors au dernier enchrisseur. En
pareil cas, le reprsentant de lEtat formule sa dclaration juste aprs la chute du
marteau auprs de la socit habilite organiser la vente publique ou la vente de
gr gr aprs-vente. La dcision de premption doit ensuite tre confirme dans
un dlai de quinze jours. Christies France SNC nassumera aucune responsabilit du
fait des dcisions administratives de premption.
4. APRS LA VENTE
a) Frais et taxes dus par ladjudicataire
Outre le prix dadjudication (prix marteau), lacheteur devra acquitter des frais de
25% H.T. (soit 26.375% T.T.C. pour les livres et 30% T.T.C. pour les autres lots) sur les
premiers 30.000 Euros, 20% H.T. (soit 21.10% T.T.C. pour les livres et 24% T.T.C. pour
les autres lots) au-del de 30.000 Euros et jusqu 1.200.000 Euros et 12% H.T. (soit
12.66% T.T.C. pour les livres et 14.40% T.T.C. pour les autres lots) sur toute somme
au-del de 1.200.000 Euros. Pour les ventes de vin, les frais la charge de lacqureur
slvent 17,5% H.T. (soit 21% T.T.C.).
Des frais additionnels ou taxes spciales peuvent tre ds sur certains lots en sus
des frais et taxes habituels. Cela est indiqu par un symbole figurant devant le
numro de lot dans le catalogue de vente, ou bien par une annonce faite pendant la
vente par le commissaire priseur habilit.
b) Paiement
Lors de lenregistrement, lacheteur devra communiquer
Christies France SNC son nom, son adresse permanente et, la demande de
Christies France SNC, les coordonnes de la banque par lintermdiaire de laquelle
le rglement sera effectu. La vente se fera expressment au comptant. Lacheteur
devra rgler immdiatement le prix dachat global, ce dernier comprenant le prix
de ladjudication, les frais et taxes. Cette rgle sera applicable mme si lacheteur
souhaite exporter le lot et cela mme si une licence dexportation est requise.
Tout retard de rglement de la part dun professionnel donnera lieu de plein droit,
et sans quaucune mise en demeure ne soit ncessaire, au paiement de pnalits
de retard sur la base du taux dintrt appliqu par la Banque Centrale Europenne
son opration de refinancement la plus rcente major de dix (10) points de
pourcentage et au paiement dune indemnit forfaitaire dun montant de 40
pour frais de recouvrement.
c) Assurance
Lacqureur sera lui-mme charg de faire assurer ses acquisitions dans les
conditions prvues larticle 3j. Christies France SNC dcline toute responsabilit
quant aux dommages que lobjet pourrait encourir en cas de dfaillance de
lacqureur ce titre.
d) Retrait des achats
Christies France SNC retiendra les lots vendus jusqu ce que tout montant d
Christies France SNC, ou Christies International plc, ou lune de ses filiales,
bureaux affilis ou socits mres dans le monde, ait t reu dans son intgralit et
dment encaiss par Christies, ou jusqu ce que lacheteur ait pu satisfaire toutes
autres obligations que Christies pourra, sa discrtion, exiger, et notamment afin
dcarter tout doute, raliser toute vrification juge approprie dans le cadre de
la lutte contre le blanchiment de capitaux et du financement du terrorisme. Dans
lhypothse o les vrifications susmentionnes ne seraient pas satisfaisantes,
Christies France SNC se rserve le droit dannuler la vente, et de prendre toutes
actions autorises par la loi applicable. Sous rserve des conditions dtailles dans
cet article, lacheteur devra retirer ses lots dans les sept (7) jours suivants la vente,
sauf accord spcifique contraire entre Christies France SNC et lacheteur.
e) Emballages, manipulations et transport
Il est conseill aux adjudicataires de procder un enlvement rapide de leurs
lots afin dviter les frais de manutention et de gardiennage qui sont leur
charge. Le magasinage nengage la responsabilit de Christies aucun titre
que ce soit. Sur simple demande, Christies France SNC pourra recommander
des manutentionnaires, emballeurs ou transporteurs. Christies France SNC,
ntant pas leur commettant, ne sera en aucun cas responsable de leurs actes ou
omissions.
f) Recours pour dfaut de paiement
Conformment aux dispositions de larticle L.321-14 du Code de Commerce,
dfaut de paiement par ladjudicataire, aprs mise en demeure reste
infructueuse, le bien sera remis en vente la demande du vendeur sur folle
enchre de ladjudicataire dfaillant; si le vendeur ne formule pas sa demande
dans un dlai de trois mois compter de ladjudication, il donne Christies
France SNC tout mandat pour agir en son nom et pour son compte leffet, au
choix de Christies France SNC, soit de poursuivre lacheteur en annulation de
la vente, soit de le poursuivre en excution et paiement de ladite vente, en lui
demandant en sus et dans les deux hypothses tous dommages et intrts, frais
et autres sommes justifies

En outre, Christies France SNC se rserve, sa discrtion, de :


(i) percevoir des intrts sur la totalit des sommes dues et compter dune mise en
demeure de rgler les dites sommes au plus faible des deux taux suivants :
Taux de base bancaire de la Barclays major de six points
Taux dintrt lgal major de quatre points
(ii) entamer toute procdure judiciaire lencontre de lacheteur dfaillant pour
le recouvrement des sommes dues en principal, intrts, frais lgaux et tous
autres frais ou dommages et intrts;
(iii) remettre au vendeur toute somme paye la suite des enchres par
ladjudicataire dfaillant ;
(iv) procder la compensation des sommes que Christies France SNC et/ou
toute socit mre et/ou filiale et/ou apparente exerant sous une enseigne
comprenant le nom Christies pourrait devoir lacheteur, au titre de toute
autre convention, avec les sommes demeures impayes par lacheteur ;
(v) procder la compensation de toute somme pouvant tre due Christies
France SNC et/ou toute socit mre et/ou filiale et/ou apparente exerant
sous une enseigne comprenant le nom Christies au titre de toute
transaction, avec le montant pay par lacheteur que ce dernier ly invite ou non ;
(vi) rejeter, lors de toute future vente aux enchres, toute offre faite par lacheteur
ou pour son compte ou obtenir un dpt pralable de lacheteur avant
daccepter ses enchres ;
(vii) exercer tous les droits et entamer tous les recours appartenant aux cranciers
gagistes sur tous les biens en sa possession appartenant lacheteur ;
(viii) entamer toute procdure quelle jugera ncessaire ou adquate ;
(ix) dans lhypothse o seront revendus les biens pralablement adjugs dans les
conditions du premier paragraphe ci-dessus (folle enchre), faire supporter
au fol enchrisseur toute moins-value ventuelle par rapport au prix atteint
lors de la premire adjudication, de mme que tous les cots, dpenses, frais
lgaux et taxes, commissions de toutes sortes lis aux deux ventes ou devenus
exigibles par suite du dfaut de paiement y compris ceux numrs larticle 4a.

Si Christies effectue un rglement partiel au vendeur, en application du paragraphe


(iii) ci-dessus, lacqureur reconnat que Christies sera subroge dans les droits du
vendeur pour poursuivre lacheteur au titre de la somme ainsi paye.
g) Dfaut de retrait des achats
Si les achats nont pas t retirs dans les sept jours calendaires suivant la vente, que
le paiement ait t effectu ou non, Christies aura la facult de faire transfrer, aux
frais de lacheteur, les biens vendus dans des entrepts, ventuellement tenus par
une tierce personne. Il est rappel que les biens achets ne sont dlivrs quaprs
paiement intgral des frais de transport, manipulation, entrept, ainsi que tous
autres frais et plus gnralement parfait paiement des sommes pouvant rester
dues Christies.
h) Licence dexportation
Sauf convention crite avec Christies France SNC, la demande dun certificat
dexportation ou de tous autres documents administratifs naffecte pas lobligation
de paiement immdiat de lacheteur ni le droit de Christies France SNC de percevoir
des intrts sur les paiements tardifs. Si lacheteur demande Christies France SNC
deffectuer les formalits en vue de lobtention dun certificat dexportation pour
son compte, Christies France SNC pourra lui facturer ses dbours et ses frais lis
ce service. Christies France SNC naura pas lobligation de rembourser tous intrts
ou autres frais encourus par lacheteur en cas de refus dudit certificat ou de tous
autres documents administratifs.
5. DROITS DE REPRODUCTION
Les droits de reproduction sur toute image, illustration et crit, reproduits par ou
pour le compte de Christies, concernant tout lot particulier, ainsi que le contenu
du catalogue, demeureront tout moment la proprit de Christies et aucune
reproduction ne sera effectue par lacheteur ou par toute autre personne sans
son accord crit pralable. Par ailleurs, la vente de lobjet nemporte en aucun cas
cession des droits dauteur, de reproduction et de reprsentation dont il constitue
le cas chant le support matriel.

6 LOI INFORMATIQUE ET LIBERTE


Dans le cadre de ses activits de vente aux enchres et de vente de gr gr, de
marketing et de fourniture de services, et afin de grer les restrictions denchrir
ou de proposer des biens la vente, Christies France est amene collecter des
donnes caractre personnel concernant le vendeur et lacheteur destines
aux socits du groupe Christies. Le vendeur et lacheteur disposent dun droit
daccs, de rectification et de suppression des donnes caractre personnel les
concernant, quils pourront exercer en sadressant leur interlocuteur habituel
chez Christies France. Christies pourra utiliser ces donnes caractre personnel
pour satisfaire ses obligations lgales, et sauf opposition des personnes
concernes aux fins dexercice de son activit et notamment pour des oprations
commerciales et de marketing.
7. AUTONOMIE DES DISPOSITIONS
Si une partie quelconque de ce contrat est dclare, par un tribunal quel quil soit,
non valable, illgale ou inapplicable, il ne sera pas tenu compte de cette partie mais
le reste du contrat restera pleinement valable dans toutes les limites autorises par
la loi.
8. LOI ET COMPTENCES JURIDICTIONNELLES
En tant que de besoin, les droits et obligations dcoulant des prsentes conditions
gnrales de vente seront rgis par la loi franaise et seront soumis en ce qui concerne
tant leur interprtation que leur excution, aux tribunaux comptents de Paris. En
application des dispositions de larticle L321-17 du Code de commerce, il est rappel
que les actions en responsabilit civile engages loccasion des ventes volontaires
de meubles aux enchres publiques se prescrivent par cinq ans compter de
ladjudication.
* A full translation in English of our Conditions of Sale is available upon request at
the saleroom. If there is a difference between the English version and the French
version, the French version will take precedence. Christies France SNC (02.13)

(x) procder toute inscription de cet incident de paiement dans sa base de


donne clients.

Entreposage et Enlvement des Lots


Storage and Collection
TABLEAUX ET OBJETS

PICTURES AND SMALL OBJECTS

Tous les lots vendus seront conservs dans nos locaux au 9, avenue
Matignon, 75008 Paris.

All lots sold will be kept in our saleroom at 9 avenue Matignon, 75008
Paris

MEUBLES ET OBJETS VOLUMINEUX

FURNITURE AND LARGE OBJECTS

Tous les lots vendus seront transfrs chez Transports Monin :

All lots sold will be removed to Transports Monin :

Mercredi 25 mars 18h

Wednesday 25 March at 6pm

Transports Monin se tient votre disposition le lendemain suivant le


transfert, du lundi au vendredi, de 9h00 12h30 et 13h30 17h00.

215, rue dAubervilliers,


niveau 3, Pilonne n 33
75018 Paris
Telephone Warehouse: +33 (0)6 27 63 22 36
Telephone standard:
+33 (0)1 80 60 36 00
Fax Warehouse:
+33 (0)1 80 60 36 11

215, rue dAubervilliers,


niveau 3, Pilonne n 33
75018 Paris
Tlphone magasinage: +33 (0)6 27 63 22 36
Tlphone standard:
+33 (0)1 80 60 36 00
Fax magasinage:
+33 (0)1 80 60 36 11
TARIFS
Le stockage des lots vendus est couvert par Christies pendant 14 jours
ouvrs. Tout frais de stockage sapplique partir du 15me jour aprs la
vente. A partir du 15me jour, la garantie en cas de dommage ou de perte
totale ou partielle est couverte par Transports Monin au taux de 0,6% de
la valeur du lot et les frais de stockage sappliquent selon le barme dcrit
dans le tableau ci-dessous.
Transports Monin offre galement aux acheteurs la possibilit de faire
tablir un devis pour lemballage, le montage, linstallation, ltablissement
des documents administratifs et douaniers ainsi que pour le transport des
lots en France ou ltranger. Ce devis peut tre tabli sur simple demande.

STORAGE CHARGES
Christies provides storage during 14 business days. From the 15th day, all
lots will be under the guarantee of Transports Monin, at 0.6% of lot value
(hammer price plus buyers premium). Storage charges will be applicable as
per the rates described in the chart below.
Transports Monin may assist buyers with quotation for handling, packing,
and customs formalities as well as shipping in France or abroad. A quotation
can be sent upon request.

MOBILIER ET OBJETS VOLUMINEUX


Frais de gestion

Frais de stockage par lot

et manutention fixe par lot

et par jour ouvr

71e + TVA

5e + TVA

OBJETS ET TABLEAUX

You may contact Transports Monin the day following the removal, Monday
to Friday, 9am to 12.30am & 1.30pm to 5pm.

Frais de gestion et manutention

Frais de stockage par lot

fixe par lot

et par jour ouvr

PAYMENT

71e + TVA

2e + TVA

PAIEMENT

Please contact Transports Monin in advance regarding outstanding


charges. Payment can be made by cheque, bank transfer, and credit card
(Visa, Mastercard, American Express)

A lavance, contacter Transports Monin au +33 (0)1 80 60 36 00 pour


connatre le montant d. Sont accepts les rglements par chque,
transfert bancaire et carte de crdit (Visa, Mastercard, American Express)

When collecting: cheque, cash, credit card and travellers cheques.


Lots shall be released on production of the Release Order, delivered by
Christies cashiers, 9 avenue Matignon 75008 Paris..

Au moment de lenlvement: chque, espces, carte de crdit, travellers


chques.

FURNITURE AND LARGE OBJECTS


Handling and administration

Storage charges per lot and per

charges per lot

business day

71e + VAT

5e + VAT

PICTURES AND SMALL OBJECTS

Les objets vous seront remis sur simple prsentation du bon denlvement.
Ce document vous sera dlivr par le caissier de Christies, 9 avenue
Matignon 75008 Paris.

118

Handling and administration

Storage charges per lot and per

charges per lot

business day

71e + VAT

2e + VAT

Salles de ventes internationales, bureaux de reprsentation


europens et consultants
Dpartements spcialiss et autres services de Christies
AUTRICHE
Vienne
+43 (0)1 533 8812
Angela Baillou
BELGIQUE

PAYS-BAS

Amsterdam
+31 (0)20 57 55 255
REPUBLIQUE POPULAIRE DE CHINE

Bruxelles
+32 (0)2 512 88 30
Roland de Lathuy

Hong Kong
+852 2521 5396
RUSSIE
Moscou
+7 495 937 6364
+44 20 7389 2318
Anastasia Volobueva

FINLANDE ET ETATS BALTES


Helsinki
+358 (0)9 608 212
Barbro Schauman (Consultant)

ESPAGNE

FRANCE

Barcelone
+34 (0)93 487 8259
Carmen Schjaer

Bretagne
et Pays de la Loire
Virginie Greggory
(consultante)
+33 (0)6 09 44 90 78
Grand Est
Jean-Louis Janin Daviet
(consultant)
+33 (0)6 07 16 34 25
Nord-Pas de Calais
Jean-Louis Brmilts
(consultant)
+33 (0)6 09 63 21 02

Paris
+33 (0)1 40 76 85 85
Poitou-Charente
Aquitaine
Marie-Ccile Moueix
+33 (0)5 56 81 65 47

Madrid
+34 (0)91 532 6626
Juan Varez
Dalia Padilla
SUISSE

Genve
+41 (0)22 319 1766
Eveline de Proyart

Zurich
+41 (0)44 268 1010
Dr. Dirk Boll
EMIRATS ARABES UNIS

Dubai
+971 (0)4 425 5647
Chaden Khoury
GRANDE-BRETAGNE

AFFICHES
SK: +44 (0)20 7752 3208
ANTIQUITS
PAR: +33 (0)1 40 76 84 19
SK: +44 (0)20 7752 3219
APPAREILS PHOTO ET INSTRUMENTS
DOPTIQUE
SK: +44 (0)20 7752 3279
ARMES ANCIENNES ET MILITARIA
KS: +44 (0)20 7752 3119
ART AFRICAIN, OCANIEN ET
PRCOLOMBIEN
PAR: +33 (0)1 40 76 83 86
ART ANGLO-INDIEN
KS: +44 (0)20 7389 2570
ART BRITANNIQUE DU XXME SICLE
KS: +44 (0)20 7389 2684
ART CHINOIS
PAR: +33 (0)1 40 76 86 05
KS: +44 (0)20 7389 2577
ART CONTEMPORAIN
PAR: +33 (0)1 40 76 85 92
KS: +44 (0)20 7389 2920
ART CONTEMPORAIN INDIEN
KS: +44 (0)20 7389 2409
ART DAPRS-GUERRE
PAR: +33 (0)1 40 76 85 92
KS: +44 (0)20 7389 2450
ART DES INDIENS DAMRIQUE
NY: +1 212 606 0536

Londres
+44 (0)20 7839 9060

ART IRLANDAIS ET BRITANNIQUE


KS: +44 (0)20 7389 2682

Londres,
South Kensington
+44 (0)20 7930 6074

ART ISLAMIQUE
PAR: +33 (0)1 40 76 85 56
KS: +44 (0)20 7389 2700

Nord
+44 (0)7752 3004
Thomas Scott

ART JAPONAIS
PAR: +33 (0)1 40 76 86 05
KS: +44 (0)20 7389 2591

Dsseldorf
+49 (0)21 14 91 59 30
Andreas Rumbler

Sud
+44 (0)1730 814 300
Mark Wrey

ART LATINO-AMRICAIN
PAR: +33 (0)1 40 76 86 25
NY: +1 212 636 2150

Francfort
+49 (0)61 74 20 94 85
Anja Schaller

Est
+44 (0)20 7752 3310
Simon Reynolds

ART RUSSE
PAR: +33 (0)1 40 76 84 03
SK: +44 (0)20 7752 2662

Hambourg
+49 (0)40 27 94 073
Christiane Grfin zu Rantzau

Nord Ouest et Pays de Galle


+44 (0)20 7752 3376
Mark Newstead
Jane Blood

ARTS ASIATIQUES
PAR: +33 (0)1 40 76 86 05

Provence - Alpes Cte dAzur


Fabienne Albertini-Cohen +33 (0)6 71 99 97
67
Rhne Alpes
Dominique Pierron
(consultant)
+33 (0)6 61 81 82 53

ALLEMAGNE

Munich
+49 (0)89 24 20 96 80
Marie Christine Grfin Huyn

Ecosse
+44 (0)131 225 4756
Bernard Williams
Robert Lagneau
David Bowes-Lyon (Consultant)

Stuttgart
+49 (0)71 12 26 96 99
Eva Susanne Schweizer

Ile de Man
+44 1624 814502
The Marchioness Conyngham (Consultant)

ISRAL
Tl Aviv
+972 (0)3 695 0695
Roni Gilat-Baharaff

Iles de la Manche
+44 (0)1534 485 988
Melissa Bonn

ITALIE

DPARTEMENTS

Milan
+39 02 303 2831

IRLANDE
+353 (0)59 86 24996
Christine Ryall

Rome
+39 06 686 3333
MONACO
+377 97 97 11 00
Nancy Dotta (Consultant)

TATS-UNIS

New York
+1 212 636 2000

ARTS DCORATIFS DU XXME SICLE


PAR: +33 (0)1 40 76 86 21
KS: +44 (0)20 7389 2140
BIJOUX
PAR: +33 (0)1 40 76 85 81
KS: +44 (0)20 7389 2383
CADRES
SK: +44 (0)20 7389 2763
CRAMIQUES EUROPENNES ET
VERRE
PAR: +33 (0)1 40 76 86 02
SK: +44 (0)20 7752 3026
COSTUMES, TEXTILES, VENTAILS ET
BAGAGES
SK: +44 (0)20 7752 3215
DESSINS ANCIENS ET DU XIXME
SICLE
PAR: +33 (0)1 40 76 83 59
KS: +44 (0)20 7389 2251

ESTAMPES ET LITHOGRAPHIES
PAR: +33 (0)1 40 76 85 71
KS: +44 (0)20 7389 2328

TABLEAUX DU XXME SICLE


PAR: +33 (0)1 40 76 85 92
SK: +44 (0)20 7752 3218

FUSILS
KS: +44 (0)20 7389 2025

TABLEAUX IMPRESSIONNISTES
ET MODERNES
PAR: +33 (0)1 40 76 8389
KS: +44 (0)20 7389 2452

HORLOGERIE
PAR: +33 (0)1 40 76 85 81
KS: +44 (0)20 7389 2224
ICNES
PAR: +33 (0)1 40 76 84 03
SK: +44 (0)20 7752 3261
INSTRUMENTS DE MUSIQUE
SK: +44 (0)20 7752 3365
INSTRUMENTS ET OBJETS DE MARINE
SK: +44 (0)20 7389 2782
INSTRUMENTS SCIENTIFIQUES
SK: +44 (0)20 7752 3284
LIVRES ET MANUSCRITS
PAR: +33 (0)1 40 76 85 99
KS: +44 (0)20 7389 2158
MARINES
SK: +44 (0)20 7752 3290
MINIATURES ET OBJETS
DE VITRINE
PAR: +33 (0)1 40 76 86 24
KS: +44 (0)20 7389 2347
MOBILIER AMRICAIN
NY: +1 212 636 2230
MOBILIER ANCIEN ET OBJETS DART
PAR: +33 (0)1 40 76 84 24
KS: +44 (0)20 7389 2482
MOBILIER ET OBJETS DE DESIGNERS
PAR: +33 (0)1 40 76 86 21
SK: +44 (0)20 7389 2142
MOBILIER ET SCULPTURES DU XIXME
SICLE
PAR: +33 (0)1 40 76 83 99
KS +44 (0)20 7389 2699
MONTRES
PAR: +33 (0)1 40 76 85 81
KS +44 (0)20 7389 2357
UVRES SUR PAPIER BRITANNIQUES
KS: +44 (0)20 7389 2278
UVRES TOPOGRAPHIQUES
PAR: +33 (0)1 40 76 85 99
KS: +44 (0)20 7389 2040
ORFVRERIE
PAR: +33 (0)1 40 76 86 24
KS: +44 (0)20 7389 2666
PHOTOGRAPHIES
PAR: +33 (0)1 40 76 84 16
SK: +44 (0)20 7752 3006
SCULPTURES
PAR: +33 (0)1 40 76 84 19
KS: +44 (0)20 7389 2331
SOUVENIRS DE LA SCNE ET DE
LCRAN
SK: +44 (0)20 7752 3275
TABLEAUX AMRICAINS
NY: +1 212 636 214
TABLEAUX ANCIENS ET DU XIXME
SICLE
PAR: +33 (0)1 40 76 85 87
KS: +44 (0)20 7389 2086
TABLEAUX AUSTRALIENS
KS: +44 (0)20 7389 2040
TABLEAUX BRITANNIQUES
(15001850)
KS: +44 (0)20 7389 2945

Indique une salle de vente


Renseignements Merci de bien vouloir appeler la salle de vente ou le bureau de reprsentation email info@
christies.com
La liste exhaustive de nos bureaux se trouve sur christies.com

Abrviations utilises
KS: Londres, King Street NY: New York, Rockefeller Plaza PAR: Paris, Avenue Matignon
SK: Londres, South Kensington

TABLEAUX DE LPOQUE
VICTORIENNE
KS: +44 (0)20 7389 2468
TAPIS
PAR: +33 (0)1 40 76 85 73
KS: +44 (0)20 7389 23 70
TIRE-BOUCHONS
SK: +44 (0)20 7752 3263
VINS ET ALCOOLS
PAR: +33 (0)1 40 76 83 97
KS: +44 (0)20 7752 3366

SERVICES LIS AUX VENTES


Christies Fine Art Security Services
Tel: +44 (0)20 7662 0609
Fax: +44 (0)20 7978 2073
cfass@christies.com
Collections dEntreprises
Tel: +33 (0)1 40 76 85 66
Fax: +33 (0)1 40 76 85 65
gdebuire@christies.com
Inventaires
Tel: +33 (0)1 40 76 85 66
Fax: +33 (0)1 40 76 85 65
gdebuire@christies.com
Services Financiers
Tel: +33 (0)1 40 76 85 78
Fax: +33 (0)1 40 76 85 57
bpasquier@christies.com
Successions et Fiscalit
Tel: +33 (0)1 40 76 85 78
Fax: +33 (0)1 40 76 85 57
bpasquier@christies.com
Ventes sur place
Tel: +33 (0)1 40 76 85 98
Fax: +33 (0)1 40 76 85 65
lgosset@christies.com

AUTRES SERVICES
Christies Education
Londres
Tel: +44 (0)20 7665 4350
Fax: +44 (0)20 7665 4351
education@christies.com
New York
Tel: +1 212 355 1501
Fax: +1 212 355 7370
christieseducation@christies.edu
Christies International Real Estates
(immobilier)
Tel: +44 (0)20 7389 2592
FAX: +44 (0)20 7389 2168
awhitaker@christies.com
Christies Images
Tel: +44 (0)20 7582 1282
Fax: +44 (0)20 7582 5632
imageslondon@christies.com

ABONNEMENT AUX CATALOGUES


expert knowledge beautifully presented

Code
A194
L194
L3
N194
P194
K194
K5
C110

Subscription Title
Impressionist and Modern
Modern Art
Impressionist and Modern Art
(includes German, Austrian and Surrealist Art)
Modern British and Irish Art
Impressionist & Modern Art
Impressionist and Modern Art
Impressionist and Modern Art
Modern British and Irish Art
Swiss Art

IMPRESSIONIST AND MODERN


Paintings, sculpture and works on paper by the most important artists of the late 19th century through the mid-20th century, including
Czanne, Matisse, Monet, Picasso, van Gogh and all those who
forged artistic movements such as Fauvism, Cubism and Surrealism.
Paintings, sculpture and works on paper by Swiss artists from the
early 19th to the late 20th century.

Location

Issues

UKPrice

US$Price

EURPrice

Amsterdam
King Street

2
5

27
143

44
238

40
219

King Street
New York
Paris
South Kensington
South Kensington
Zurich

4
4
2
3
4
2

95
141
38
43
57
48

152
228
61
71
95
76

144
213
57
66
87
72

www.christies.com/shop
Photographs, Posters and Prints Impressionist and Modern Art
Jewellery, Watches and Wine Antiquities and Tribal Art
Asian and Islamic Art Russian Art
Furniture, Decorative Arts and Collectables American Art and Furniture
Books, Travel and Science Design, Costume and Memorabilia
Post-War and Contemporary Art
Old Master Paintings and 19th Century Paintings

ORDRE DACHAT
Christies Paris
Mercredi 25 mars 2015
19 h lots 1-49
9, avenue Matignon, 75008 Paris

Merci de bien vouloir transmettre les ordres dachat au moins 24 heures avant le dbut de la vente.

CODE : RVERIE
NUMRO : 4053

Tel: +33 (0)1 40 76 84 13 - Fax: +33 (0)1 40 76 85 51 - En ligne www.christies.com

(Les coordonnes apparaissant sur la preuve dexportation


doivent correspondre aux noms et adresses des professionnels
facturs. Les factures ne pourront pas tre modifies aprs avoir
t imprimes.)
Laisser des ordres dachat en ligne sur christies.com

Numro de Client

4053
Numro de vente

Nom
Adresse

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de 0 1000 Euros
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de 5.000 10.000 Euros
de 10.000 20.000 Euros
de 20.000 30.000 Euros
de 30.000 50.000 Euros
de 50.000 100.000 Euros
de 100.000 200.000 Euros
Au-dessus de 200,000 Euros

par 50 Euros
par 100 Euros
par 200 Euros
par 200 ou
200, 500, 800 Euros
par 500 Euros
par 1.000 Euros
par 2.000 Euros
par 2.000 ou
2.000, 5.000, 8.000 Euros
par 5.000 Euros
par 10.000 Euros
la discrtion
du commissaire-priseur
habilit

Tlphone

Portable

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Email

Cochez cette case si vous ne souhaitez pas recevoir dinformations par e-mail sur nos ventes venir

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Jai pris connaissance des conditions gnrales, informations et avis imprims dans le catalogue et accepte dtre li(e) par leur
contenu ainsi que par toute modifcation pouvant leur tre apporte, soit par avis afch dans la salle de ventes, soit par annonce
faite avant ou pendant la vente. Je vous prie dacqurir pour mon compte personnel, aux limites indiques en Euros, les lots que
jai designs ci-dessous (les limites ne comprenant pas les frais la charge de lacheteur).
Nous pouvons notre entire discrtion vous demander soit de nouvelles rfrences bancaires soit un dpt dargent comme condition pralable lacceptation de vos enchres.

Rsultats des Ventes: +33 (0)1 40 76 84 13


Christies se charge dexcuter les ordres dachat qui lui sont
confs en particulier pour les amateurs ne pouvant assister la
vente. Ni Christies, ni ses employs ne pourront tre tenus responsables en cas derreurs ventuelles et ces enchres seront en
accord avec les conditions de la vente imprimes en fn de catalogue. Lorsque deux ordres dachat sont identiques, la priorit
revient au premier ordre reu.
En cas dadjudication, le prix payer sera le prix marteau ainsi que les
frais, au taux en vigueur au moment de la vente, la TVA payable sur les
lotset/oulesfraisainsiquetousdboursdusChristies(voirlasection
Informations importantes pour les acheteurs). Afn de faciliter
lenregistrement des enchres et la livraison des objets, les
acheteurs potentiels devront communiquer leurs rfrences
bancaires ou toutes autres rfrences ncessaires sufsamment
lavance afn quil soit possible de les vrifer avant la vacation.
Dans le cadre de ses activits de vente aux enchres et de vente de
gr gr, de marketing et de fourniture de services, et afn de grer
les restrictions denchrir ou de proposer des biens la vente,
Christies France est amene collecter des donnes caractre
personnel concernant le vendeur et lacheteur destines aux
socits du groupe Christies. Le vendeur et lacheteur disposent
dun droit daccs, de rectifcation et de suppression des donnes
caractre personnel les concernant, quils pourront exercer en
sadressant leur interlocuteur habituel chez Christies France.
Christies pourra utiliser ces donnes caractre personnel
pour satisfaire ses obligations lgales, et sauf opposition des
personnes concernes aux fns dexercice de son activit et
notamment pour des oprations commerciales et de marketing.

Banque
Adresse
Tlphone
Numro du compte
Code banque / Code guichet

MERCI DE BIEN VOULOIR CRIRE LISIBLEMENT


Numro de lot
(dans lordre)

Enchre maximum EURO


(sans les frais acheteur)

Numro de lot
(dans lordre)

Enchre maximum EURO


(sans les frais acheteur)

If you are registered within the European Community for VAT/IVA/TVA/BTW/MWST/MOMS


Please quote number below:

ABSENTEE BIDS FORM


Christies Paris
Wednesday 25 March 2015
at 7 pm lots 1-49
9, avenue Matignon, 75008 Paris

Absentee bids must be received at least 24 hours before the auction begins. Christies will confrm all bids
received by fax by return fax. If you have not received confrmation within one business day, please contact the
Bid Department.
Tel: +33 (0)1 40 76 84 13 - Fax: +33 (0)1 40 76 85 51 - Online: christies.com

CODE : RVERIE
NUMRO : 4053
(Dealers billing name and address must agree with taxe exemption
certificate. Invoices cannot be changed after they have been
printed.)
Bid online for this sale at christies.Com

4053
Client Number (if applicable)

Sale Number

Billing Name (please print)


BIDDING INCREMENTS

Address

Bidding generally opens below the low estimate and advances in increments
of up to 10%, subject to the auctioneers discretion. Absentee bids that do
not conform to the increments set below may be lowered to the next bidding
interval.

0 to 1000 Euros
1.000 to 2.000 Euros
2.000 to 3.000 Euros
3.000 to 5.000 Euros
5.000 to 10.000 Euros
10.000 to 20.000 Euros
20.000 to 30.000 Euros
30.000 to 50.000 Euros
50.000 to 100.000 Euros
100.000 to 200.000 Euros
Above 200,000 Euros

by 50 Euros
by 100 Euros
by 200 Euros
by 200 or
200, 500, 800 Euros
by 500 Euros
by 1.000 Euros
by 2.000 Euros
by 2.000 or
2.000, 5.000, 8.000 Euros
by 5.000 Euros
by 10.000 Euros
at auctioneers discretion

Auction results: +33 (0)1 40 76 84 13


Christies will use reasonable eforts to carry out written bids delivered by clients who are not present at the auction in person. Nor
Christies nor its employees can be held liable for errors in connection with an absentee bid, and the execution of absentee bids will
be made in accordance with the Conditions of Sale included in the
catalogue. When two absentee bids are identical, priority goes to
the frst one received. If your bid is successful, the purchase price
payable shall be the aggregate of the fnal bid, the buyers premium,
at the then applicable rate at the day of the sale, any V.A.T. chargeable on the fnal bid and such premium and/or any expenses due
to Christies (in accordance with the section Buying at Christies).
To ensure that bids will be accepted and that delivery of lots is not
delayed, intending buyers should supply bank or other suitable
references to Christies. The references should be supplied in good
time to be taken up before the sale.
In the framework of its auction and private sales, marketing activities,
and services, and in order to manage some restrictions about bidding
and consigning, Christies France will collect personal data regarding
the seller and the buyer that will be shared among Christies group of
companies. The seller and the buyer can have access, oppose to the
use, inform Christies of any modification or ask for the deletion of their
personal data by contacting their usual contact person at Christies
France. Christies shall be entitled to use these personal data to comply
with its legal obligation, and use it for the purpose of its activity and in
particular for commercial and marketing purposes, unless the concerned person expresses his disagreement.

Post Code
Daytime Telephone

Evening Telephone

Fax (Important)

Email

Please tick if you prefer not to receive information about our upcoming sales by email

Signature

New clients, or those who have not made any purchase from any Christies ofce within the last two years, will be asked to supply a
bank reference. If you are bidding on behalf of a client known to Christies, you will need to present a signed letter of authorisation
and two forms of identifcation to register. Please be advised that existing clients wishing to spend an amount inconsistent with
their previous buying pattern, will also be asked to supply a new bank reference. We also request that you complete the section
below with your bank details:
We may at our option ask you for a fnancial reference or a deposit as a condition of allowing you to bid.

Name of Bank(s)
Address if Bank(s)
Bank Telephone Number
Account Number(s)
Name of Account Ofcer(s)

PLEASE PRINT CLEARLY


Lot Number

Maximum Bid EURO

Lot Number

Maximum Bid EURO

(in numerical order)

(excluding buyers premium)

(in numerical order)

(excluding buyers premium)

If you are registered within the European Community for VAT/IVA/TVA/BTW/MWST/MOMS


Please quote number below:

CHRISTIES
CHRISTIES INTERNATIONAL PLC
Patricia Barbizet, Chairman
Steven P. Murphy, Chief Executive Officer
Stephen Brooks, Chief Operating Officer
Loc Brivezac, Gilles Erulin,
Gilles Pagniez, Franois-Henri Pinault
Sophie Carter, Company Secretary
CHRISTIES EXECUTIVE
Steven P. Murphy,
Stephen Brooks, Kerry Chandler,
Franois Curiel, Marc Porter,
Jussi Pylkknen, Doug Woodham
Charles Cator, Deputy Chairman,
Christies International
CHRISTIES EUROPE
CHAIRMANS OFFICE
Jussi Pylkknen, President
Orlando Rock, Deputy Chairman
DIRECTEURS SENIOR
Mariolina Bassetti, Giovanna Bertazzoni,
Olivier Camu, Philippe Garner,
Richard Knight, Francis Outred,
Andreas Rumbler, Franois de Ricqls

CHRISTIES FRANCE SAS


Franois de Ricqls, Prsident,
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Florence de Botton, Vice-President
COMMISSAIRES-PRISEURS HABILITS
Franois Curiel,
Grgoire Debuire,
Victoire Gineste,
Lionel Gosset,
Franois de Ricqls,
Marie-Laurence Tixier
CONSEIL DE CHRISTIES FRANCE
Jean Gueguinou, Prsident,
Jos Alvarez, Patricia Barbizet,
Jeanne-Marie de Broglie,
Batrice de Bourbon-Siciles,
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Jacques Grange, Terry de Gunzburg,
Hugues de Guitaut, Guillaume Houz,
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Hlie de Noailles, Christian de Pange,
Maryvonne Pinault, Sylvie Winckler

CONSEIL DE CHRISTIES EUROPE


Pedro Girao, Chairman,
Christopher Balfour, Patricia Barbizet,
Arpad Busson, Kemal Has Cingillioglu,
Ginevra Elkann, I. D. Frstin zu Frstenberg,
Rmi Gaston-Dreyfus, Laurence Graff,
H.R.H. Prince Pavlos of Greece,
Alicia Koplowitz, Viscount Linley,
Robert Manoukian,
Countess Daniela Memmo dAmelio,
Rosita, Duchess of Marlborough,
Dimitri Mavrommatis, Usha Mittal,
Leopoldo Rods, igdem Simavi

Christophe Durand-Ruel,
Patricia de Fougerolle,
Elvire de Maintenant
Spcialistes Senior
Latitia Bauduin,
Frdrique Darricarrre-Delmas,
Hippolyte de la Fronnire,
Flavien Gaillard, Charles-Wesley Hourd,
Nicolas Kaenzig, Emmanuelle Karsenti,
lodie Morel, Paul Nyzam,
Tiphaine Nicoul, Hlne Rihal,
Tatiana Ruiz Sanz, Philippine de Sailly,
Pauline De Smedt, Jonas Tebib
Spcialistes
Fanny Saulay
Spcialistes Associs
Mathilde de Backer, Zheng Ma,
Stphanie Joachim, Etienne Sallon,
Olivia de Fayet
Spcialistes Junior

DIRECTEURS
Dirk Boll, Roland de Lathuy,
Eveline de Proyart, Roni Gilat-Baharaff,
Paul Hewitt, Clarice Pecori Giraldi,
Christiane Rantzau, Edouard Boccon-Gibod
Jop Ubbens, Juan Varez

The Paper used in this catalogue


has been manufactured at a
mill which has been awarded
the ISO 14001 for Environment
Management and is a registered
mill within EMAS (the EU EcoManagement and Audit Scheme)

DPARTEMENTS SPCIALISS
Isabelle de Conihout, Marine de Cenival,
Mathilde Courteault, Tudor Davies,
Grgoire Debuire, Isabelle Degut,
Edmond Francey, Sonja Ganne,
Lionel Gosset, Ketty Gottardo,
Anika Guntrum, Matthieu Humery,
Herv de La Verrie, Olivier Lefeuvre,
Pierre-Emmanuel Martin-Vivier,
Simon de Monicault, Marie-Laurence Tixier
Directeurs

Catalogue Photo Credits: Marina Gadonneix


Maquet te: Sbastien Fernandes
Printed in England
C h r i s t i e , M a n s o n & Wo o d s L t d . (2 0 1 5 )

124

INDEX

Balthus, 27

Kupka, F., 6

Barye, A.-L., 49
Bazille, F., 34
Bernard, E., 30
Bonnard, P., 35
Boudin, E., 37

C
Calder, A., 7
Czanne, P., 13
Chagall, M., 28
Courbet, G., 33

L
Lacombe, G., 45
Le Corbusier, 25
Lger, F., 5, 8

M
Millet, J.-F., 39
Moreau, G., 31
Morisot, B., 38

Picabia, F., 24

Dal, S., 23

Picasso, P., 3, 10

De Feure, G., 18

Pissarro, C., 15, 40

de La Fresnaye, R., 11
Delacroix, F.-E.-D., 32
Delaunay, R., 1
Denis, M., 43
Derain, A., 17
Diebenkorn, R., 26
Dubois-Pillet, A., 46

E
E nsor , J., 48

R
Ranson, P., 19
Redon, O., 20
Renoir, P., 14
Rodin, A., 36
Roussel, K., 44

S
Schuffenecker, C.-E., 41
Severini, G., 9

F
Filiger, C., 21
Forain, J.-L., 42

Signac, P., 16, 47

T
Toorop, J., 22, 29

G
Gonzlez, J., 2
Gris, J., 4

V
Vallotton, F., 12