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Ministry of Higher Education

Scientific Research
University Of Technology
Chemical Engineering Department
Equipment Design With The
Aid Of Computer
Third Year
Dr.Khalid A.Sukkar

Equipments Design
with the Aid of Computer Programming
Theoretical 2 hr/week

1 hr/week


3 hr/week :Using Simulation by HYSYS Program.


1- Ludwig E.E. (1999) Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical
Plants, Volume 1, Third Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann.
2- Ludwig E.E. (1999) Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical
Plants, Volume 3, Third Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann.

3- Peters, M. S., and Timmerhaus K. D. (1991). Plant Design and Economics for
Chemical Engineers, 4th edition, McGraw Hill.
4- McCabe, W., Smith, J. and Harriott, P. (2004). Unit Operations of Chemical
Engineering, 7th Edition, McGraw Hill.

5- Perry, Robert H. and Green, Don W. (1984). Perry's Chemical Engineers'

Handbook, 6th Edition, McGraw-Hill.
6- Kister, Henry Z. (1992). Distillation Design, 1st Edition, McGraw-Hill.

Part (A)
1. Process Planning:
Scheduling and flow sheet design. Flow sheet types and designation. Block
diagram. Process flow sheet. Piping and instruments diagram. Utility flow
sheet. Equipment layout and plot plan. Project evaluation. Feasibility studies.
Site selection. Project cost estimation.
2. Piping networks and pumps:
Pipe fittings, valves. Steam traps. Piping design standards. Piping
material and selection. Pump specifications and data sheets. Optimum diameter.
Types of pumps. Hydraulic characteristics for centrifugal pumps.

3. Vessels and Tanks:

Types of vessels. Flash drums. LPG tanks. Criteria in vessel design. Stress
considerations. Design of tall vertical vessel. Design of pressure vessels.
Supports and foundations
4. Heat transfer equipment:
Types of exchangers and applications. Exchanger ratings. Exchanger
design. Exchanger specification sheets. Furnaces. Convection and radiation
zones. Types of fuels. Burners and arrangements. Steam boilers, types of
5. Mass Transfer Equipment:
Types of columns. Plate and packed Types of plates and packing. Design

Part (B) : Complete equipment design of each of the following units:

1. Pressure vessels, pumps and compressors:
Flash drum. Gas-liquid separator, LPG storage tanks. Cyclone separators.
Gas movers and compressors. Pumps. Piping network. etc.
2. Heat Equipment:
Shell and tube heat exchangers. Plate heat exchanger. Boilers. Furnaces.
Vaporizers. Air coolers. Coil type heaters. Condensers. etc.
3.Mass transfer equipment and reactors:
Distillation column. Absorber. Extractor. Dryer. Absorption towers.
Leaching equipment. Scrubbers. Stripping towers. Reactors.

Equipments Design
with the Aid of Computer Programming
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Equipment Design
Process design is the design of processes for desired physical and/or chemical
transformation of materials. Process design is central to chemical engineering and it
can be considered to be the summit of chemical engineering, bringing together all of
the components of that field.
Process design can be the design of new facilities or it can be the modification or
expansion of existing facilities. The design starts at a conceptual level and ultimately
ends in the form of fabrication and construction plans.

Transport Processes in Chemical Engineering Field

1- Momentum Transfer (Fluid Flow)
2- Heat Transfer
3- Mass Transfer
and reaction kinetic and mechanism

Then, in Chemical Engineering the equipments are classified to:

1- Fluid flow equipments (such as: pipes, pumps, storage tanks and vessels..)
2-Heat transfer equipments ((such as: coolers, heat exchangers, boilers, reboilers,
heaters, condensers, furnaces, .)
3- Mass transfer equipments (such as: distillation column, absorption column, leaching,
dryer, crystallizer, .)
4- Reaction units (such as: CSTR, tubular reactor, fixed bed reactor, fluidized bed reactor,
biological reactor (fermenter),

Petroleum refinery

Tray in a distillation column


Oil Refinery

Chemical plant near the river

Chemical Engineer (Process Engineer)

He has the following responsibilities:1. Prepares studies of process cycles and systems for various product productions.
2. Prepares economic studies associated with process performance.
3. Design and /or specifies items of equipment required to define the process flow sheet
or flow system.
4. Evaluates competitive bids for equipment.
5. Evaluates operating data for existing or test equipment.
6. Guides flow sheet draftsmen in detailed flow sheet preparation.

Flow Sheet Types

There are several types of flow sheets:-

1- Pictorial Flow Diagram

2- Block Diagram
a) Usually used to set for the a preliminary or basic processing concept with
out details,
b) The blocks represent the steps of process without details.
c) Each block represents a manufacturing step in the process.
d) It is used in survey studies to management, research summaries and
process proposals.

3. Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

A. Used to present the heat and mass balances of the process.
B. Show all production steps, starting from raw material to final products.
C. Show the operating conditions of each production step in the process (operating conditions
are: Temperature, Pressure, Flowrate, -----).
D. Show the type and quantities of utilities that required for the process (such as: water,
steam, O2, H2, -----)
E. Shows the process equipments and their conction pipes.
F. Gives some details for the main process equipments (such as: distiallion column: its
diameter, height, type of internals (trays or packing types), material of construction,
thickness, ---)
G. Show the main control system (type of instruments) required for the process.
H. Used as data base for Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (PID) and for equipment
schedule (equipment summary).


Piping and instrument diagram (PID)

1) Prepared by chemical engineer with the aid of mechanical and


2) Regarded as a data base for mechanical engineer for manufacturing of vessels,
Heat exchangers, Machines and controllers.
3) This diagram flows the PFD configuration.
4) Show piping details (diameter, length, type of flowing material, material of
construction, flow direction, design pressure, type of instillation and pipe position
in the process.
5) Show the position of measurement points for T, P and sample point.
6) Show all equipment in the process with details.
7) Used as data base for preparation of detailed design.

4. Utility Diagram (UD)

A. Utilities are:-cooling water, steam, air, O2, N2, H2, Flue gas, fire
B. This diagram shows the quantities of required utilities for each
production step.
C. Show the operating conditions of utilities tat to be supplied
(specification, T, P)
D. This diagram regarded as a Complementary diagram for ( PID) and

1- It is a small three dimensional sample of the original plant shows all
instruments, pipes and carrying pipes.
2- It has a great advantage in the designing faults correction of instruments
location and pipes; directions and pathways before project establishing.
2- Useful in the training purposes as well as explaining the project to the
visitors after its done.

Three dimensional plant models

Plot Plans (Plant layout)

Actual north

Pipe Racks



storage tank

Power station



storage tank


Input of raw material

Out put of products

Symbology and Designation    1 ) R





River water


Treated water


Sea water

Low pressure steam


150 Psi steam


400 Psi steam





Sulfuric acid

Data sheet or Schedule or Equipment summary

-Section pressure
-Discharge pressure
- Net Position Section Head (NPSH)
-Quality of flow
-Type of fluid
-Type of material of Construction
-Physical properties of fluid (, , -----)

-Material of construction
-Operating pressure
-Design pressure
-Test pressure
-Internal (trays or packing, -----------)

-Material of construction
-operating pressure
-Design pressure
-Test pressure
-Type of flowing fluid and physical properties

Pressure Types in Design Work

- Design pressure
- Operating pressure
- Test pressure

Design pressure = Operating pressure + 20% (Operating pressure)

Test pressure = 2Design pressure

Activity analysis
Activity analysis


Process design calculations


Conferences and consultion




Preparation of chart


Marking, chart and reviewing


Group meeting




Coffee breaks




Estimated Equipment Calculation Man-Hours

Manhour: - for a specific calculation vary with process equipment, process system,
physical properties and familiarity of process engineer with design work.

Estimated total Job process Engineering =Estimated equipment Man-hours


Man hour patterns

Assignment of Personnel
It is important to plan ahead for the proper assignment of qualified engineering to various
projects as they arise.
The consideration selected for engineering works:1. Basic ability to understand the process under consideration.
2. Compatibility with the project

engineer and other key decision making

representatives with whom they will be in daily contact.

There are two approaches to developing personnel

1. The generalist approached

2. The specialist approach

Pb= Pa ( Cb/ Ca )0.6

Pb:- cost of plant or section of plant of new capacity "b"

Pa:- cost of plant or section of plant of original

capacity "a"

Cb:- capacity of plant or section of new requirements.

Ca:- capacity of plant or section of original


Design of Drums

There are three main types of drums:-

A. Liquid Surge Drums

B. Liquid -Liquid Separators
C. Vapoure-Liquid Separators or Vapour-Two Liquid Separators

Liquid Surge Drums

Surge time (ts)

ts: - depends on a functionality and location of surge drum.

Position of Surge Drum



Distillation reflux drum

5 minute


Surge drum between two distillation column

8 minute


Feeding a furnaces or reactor

12 minute


Checking drum or drum feeding unite

20 minute

Liquid surge time (ts) :- should be corrected for:1. Operators experience = ts1
= ts 1.5

for fully experience

for inexperience

2. Correction for the type of instrumentation

= ts1

for fully instrumented

= ts 1.5

for poorly instrumented

Design Surge Drum

-Material of construction (function temperature)
-Nozzle (location and size)
- Length/Diameter ratio (L/D) : it is related to pressure

Three ranges of (L/D)


for low pressure range (1.5-3) bar

(L/D)= 3

for pressure range (4-42) bar

(L/D)= 5

for pressure greater than 42 bar

Material of Construction it is Depends on Temperature

-For operating temperature -45 to 200 0C we used carbon steel (C.S) where, its
Tensile Strength (F) =950 Kg/cm2

-For operating temperature -45 to -104 0C we used 3( 1 ) Nickel where, its


Tensile Strength (F) =1150 Kg/cm2

-For operating temperature -104 to -196 0C we used stainless steel where its
Tensile Strength (F) =1400 Kg/cm2

Liquid liquid Separators (For two immiscible liquids)

Mechanism of Liquid-Liquid Separation
In separation of two liquids of marked densities differences, separation will occur by
settling. Therefore, the droplets of heavy phase (water droplet) will have a tendency to
full down and out of light phase under the influence of gravitational forces. The heavy
droplets accelerate until frictional force balance the gravitation force, at this point the
heavy droplet will continue to full down (phase out ) of the light phase at a constant
velocity which is the (terminal velocity ) until it reach the interface.
An analogy mechanism applies to separation of light phase droplets that may be present
in heavy phase (water) except that in this case the motion is up wards and the drag
frictional forces opposed by bouncy force.




Design of Bubble Cap Trays