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Explain the difference between magnification and resolution.

Magnification: Degree to which the size of the image is larger than the object.
Resolution: Degree to which it is possible to distinguish between two points that are close together.
State the resolution and magnification that can be achieved by a light microscope, TEM
and SEM and the need for staining samples.
Type of




X100 000


n Electron

X500 000



Extra information

Chemicals bind to allow it

to be seen. Bind to
specific structure.
Wax stops distorting
structure when cutting
Metal salts used to
scatter electrons =

Living and non-living

Lab, education and research.
Eyepiece magnify by x10.

Metal salts used to

scatter electrons =

Electrons dont pass through

specimen, provide 3D image.
Projected onto screen or
photographic paper.
Electrons pass through
specimen, show denser parts
of specimen. 2d image.

Explain the importance of the cytoskeleton in providing mechanical strength to cells,

aiding transport within cells and enabling cell movement
Cytoskeleton = network of protein fibres making up internal framework.
Functions: 1) Strengthen cell
shape. 2) Transport materials
Hair like structure on surface membrane.
in cell. 3) Support organelle. 4)
Move cell.
Longer, larger numbers.
Outer membrane, rind of 9
Actin filaments: move against
Protrude from cell surface
microtubules with one in the
each other, move organelles
and has membrane
inside cell.
Microtubules contract to
Microtubules allow cilia to
Microtubules: protein=tubulin.
move cell forward.
move and waft substances
Move through liquid or waft
past cell.
Provide pathway for organelles.
ATP used to drive movements
Recognise structure Undulipodia and cilia and outline functions

Outline the interrelationship between the organelles involved in the production and
secretion of proteins

Instructions in DNA (gene on chromosome) in nucleus

Instructions transcribed onto mRNA
mRNA leaves nucleus through nuclear pore and attach to ribosome (ER or not)
Ribosome read instructions and use codes to assemble amino acids (protein synthesis)
Protein pinched off in vesicle
Goes to Golgi apparatus
Protein modified (add carbohydrate) and package in vesicle
Move to cell surface membrane
Vesicle fuse with surface membrane
Cell surface membrane opens to release protein (secretion)




Largest organelle and has dark

patches of chromatin


Dense, spherical structure inside

Surrounds Nucleus. Has two
membranes with fluid between
them Nuclear pores go through
envelope, large enough for
molecules to pass through,
ER made of flattened membrane
bound sacs (cisternae) and
continuous with outer nuclear
membrane. Rough ER has
ribosomes. Smooth ER does not.
Spherical sacs surrounded by
single membrane
Stack of membrane-bound,
flattened sacs


Rough ER

Smooth ER


Cell Wall

Houses all genetic material.

Chromatin made of DNA and
proteins, instructions for making
proteins. When cells divide.
Chromatin condenses into
Makes RNA and ribosomes.

Transport proteins made on

attached ribosomes.
Makes proteins that are excreted
from cell.
Make lipids needed by cells.
Contain digestive enzymes to
break down materials.
Receives proteins from ER and
modifies them then packages
proteins into vesicles to be

-Outside cell membrane. Made of cellulose that forms sieve like network
that makes wall strong. Held rigid by turgid pressure it supports plant.
Maintains cell stability. Filled with water and solutes so pushes
cytoplasm against cell wall = turgid. All plant cells turgid, helps support
plant. Important in non woody plants.
Mitochondri Two membranes separated by fluid
Produce ATP during respiration.
filled space. Inner membrane
folded to form cristae. Central part
called matrix.
Stores starch in plants.
Tiny organelles. Some free in
Site of protein synthesis in cell
cytoplasm Prokaryote
and some bound to ER.
where proteins made. Free
make proteins that stay
in the cell cytoplasm.
Chloroplast Two membranes separated by fluid
Site of photosynthesis.
filled space. Inner membrane

continuous with network of

flattened sacsCellulos
Chlorophyll one thylakoid can
Cell Wall
membranes and internal


Small tubes of
Take part in cell division and form
spindle which moves

chromosomes during nuclear

Rough ER

Smooth ER


Golgi apparatus




















-No membrane bound organelles
-Cell wall of peptidoglycan
-Smaller ribosomes
-Plasmids no nucleus, general area is nucleoid

-ATP production in mesosomes

-Flagella (different structure to Undulipodia)
-Hair like pili
-Resistance eon plasmids which can be passed on.

Roles of membranes:
Separate contents

Cell recognition and

Hold components of
metabolic pathways in place
Regulate transport in or out
of cell

Internal membranes
Organelle contents from cytoplasm
Separate DNA from cytoplasm
Protect cell from lysosomes

Surface membranes
Separate contents from environment

Cell recognition and signalling

Cell to cell attachment
Prevent disruption of metabolic
reactions in organelles
Control movement in or out of cell
(Facilitated diffusion, active transport)

-Phosphate head is hydrophilic.

-Fatty acid tails are hydrophobic.
-Properties from way charges are distributed.
-Molecules with evenly distributed charges dont mix with water. Unevenly distributed molecules
can interact easily.
-phospholipid molecules mixed with water form layer at surface. Phosphate head in water and fatty
acid tail out of water.
-Phospholipid molecules completely surrounded, bilayer forms. Phosphate heads on each side and
fatty tails point towards each other so held away from water molecules.
-Phospholipid molecules can move freely.
-Phosphate head cant pass easily through hydrophobic region in middle of bilayer giving it stability.
-Phospholipid bilayer is basic structural component of all biological membranes.
-Hydrophobic layer creates barrier and separates contents.
-Single phospholipid bilayer is incapable of performing al functions and would be too fragile to
function as a barrier. It needs other components which varies according to the function of the
membrane which is part of differentiation.
State that plasma (cell surface) membranes are partially permeable.
-All membranes are permeable as water can diffuse through lipid bilayer.
-aquaporin make membranes more permeable.
-Partially permeable membranes are permeable to water and some solutes.
-Plasma membranes are permeable to small polar and non-polar molecules.
-Impermeable to large polar molecules, charged ionic molecules and water soluble molecules.
Describe the fluid mosaic model of membrane structure
-Main features:

Phospholipid bilayer
Protein molecules

--Fluid: phospholipid units not attached and

constantly moving
-Mosaic: plasma membrane comprised of many
different components
Describe the roles of the components of
the cell membrane, including
phospholipids, cholesterol, glycolipids,
proteins and glycoproteins.




Phosphate head, Fatty acid
Form mirror image, fatty acid
on inside, phosphate head on
Fits between fatty acid tails in
Type of lipid.
Phospholipid molecules with
carbohydrate attached.
Protein molecule with
carbohydrate attached

Forms phospholipid bilayer
Hydrophobic layer creates barrier and separate

Makes membrane more complete and stable,

less permeable.
Rigid at high temp. Fluid at low temp.
Stabilise membrane by forming hydrogen bonds
Acts as receptor
Cell recognition
Stabilise membrane by forming hydrogen bonds
Bind together in tissues
Channel protein
Carrier protein

Outline the effects of changing temperature on membrane structure and permeability.

-Increase in temperature increases kinetic energy of molecules making them more fluid.
-Temperature < 0oC =membrane rigid and components dont have much energy and dont move
much. Channel and carrier proteins denature increasing permeability.
- 0oC < Temperature < 45oC =phospholipid moves and not tight, membrane partially permeable.
- Temperature >45oC =bilayer breaks down and membrane more permeable. Chanel and carrier
proteins denature, increasing permeability.
Explain the term cell signalling
-Processes leading the communication and co-ordination between cells and can lead to
identification/recognition which can trigger a response.
-Communication via messenger molecule which has a complementary shape to the target receptor.
Explain the role of membrane bound receptors as sites where hormones and drugs can
-Cell with receptor for molecule is a target cell.
-Different receptors for different molecules. Shape must be complementary.
-Messenger molecules are drugs, neurotransmitters, hormones etc.
-Drugs can bind to the receptor sites.
-This can prevent the messenger molecule binding to the receptor (preventing normal molecule
binding therefore preventing response) or can bind to receptor and produce a response.
Describe and explain what is meant by passive transport (diffusion and facilitated
-Passive transport is when an input of energy is not require, and the movement of molecules is
from the kinetic energy already possessed by the molecules.
-Diffusion is the movement of molecule from a high concentration to a low concentration down a
concentration gradient.
-Living organisms maintain concentration gradient to prevent equilibrium.
-Factors affecting diffusion: Concentration, Temperature, Surface area, Distance, Movement, Size.
-Facilitated diffusion is the movement of small, charged particles or larger molecules through
membranes by proteins.
-Channel proteins form pores in membranes. Only allow one type of molecule through. May be

-Carrier proteins are shaped so a specific molecule fits in them at the membrane surface, change is
shape allows it through to the other side.
Describe the role of membrane proteins in passive transport
-Membrane made of phospholipids, fat soluble molecules pass through (steroid).
-Small molecules and ions small enough to pass through. (sometimes water).
-Different membranes have different carrier/channel proteins.
Substances moved by:
Simple diffusion
Facilitated diffusion using
channel proteins
Facilitated diffusion using
carrier proteins

Gases like oxygen and carbon dioxide. Lipid based molecules
like steroid hormones.
Ions like sodium and calcium
Large molecules like glucose and amino acids.

Describe and explain what is meant by active transport, endocytosis and exocytosis.
-Active transport is the movement of molecules from a low concentration to a high concentration
against a concentration gradient, using ATO to drive protein pumps.
-Difference between protein pumps and carrier proteins:

Molecules only go one way

Molecules accumulate
Opposite direction to concentration gradient

-Endocytosis is the bulk movement of large molecules into a cell.

-Exocytosis is the bulk movement of large molecules out of the cell.
-Bulk transport possible because membranes easily fuse, separate and pinch off. ATP needed to
form vesicle.
endo inwards
exo outwards
phago solid material
pino liquid material
Explain what is meant by osmosis, in terms of water potential
-Osmosis is the movement of water molecules from a region of high water potential to a region of
low water potential across a partially permeable membrane.
-Water molecules are small enough to pass through bilayer aquaporin make it more permeable.
-Movement of water affected be amount of water in cytoplasm and environment, solute
concentration, aquaporin presence and pressure on cell wall.
Type of cell

High water potential

Negative water potential
Water moves in
Water moves out
Cell bursts = haemolysed
Cell crenated
Water moves in, cell turgid
Water moves out. Cell plasmolysed.
Recognise and explain the effects that solutions of different water potentials can have
upon plant and animal cells
State the mitosis occupies only a small percentage of the cell cycle and that the
remaining percentage includes copying and checking of genetic information
-DNA wrapped around histones make up chromatin.
-DNA replicated before division, held together at centromere. Replicas = sister chromatids.
-Interphase made up of:

G1: Biosynthesis protein synthesis and organelle synthesis takes place.

S: Semiconservative replication DNA replicated to form sister chromatids
G2: Organelles grow, ATP store increases

-Replicated DNA proofread by enzymes, if not copied properly may cause mutations and cells cant
function properly.
Explain the significance of mitosis, for growth, repair and asexual reproduction in
animals and plants
-Growth meristem cells in plants. Found in Cambium, and root and shoot apex.
-Asexual reproduction
-Repair/replace damaged cells.
Describe, with the aid of diagrams, the stages of mitosis

Chromosomes supercoil and condense to become visible.

Nuclear envelope breaks down.
Centriole divides and moves to
opposite ends
Spindle fibres being to form.


Spindle fibres completely formed.

Chromosomes align on cell


Spindle fibres attach the

centromere of chromosomes and
pull them apart.
Spindle fibres shorted and pull
chromatids to opposite poles.


Spindle fibres break down.

Nuclear envelope and nucleolus
Chromosomes uncondense and are no longer visible.


Cell divides by constriction in animal cells

Cell plates form in plant cells

Define the term stem cell

Undifferentiated cells that are capable of becoming differentiated to a number of possible cell
types (omnipotent, totipotent, pluripotent).
Explain the meaning of the term homologous pair of chromosomes
-Chromosomes that have the same genes at the same loci,
-Members of a homologous pair up during meiosis.
-Diploid organisms produced by sexual reproduction have homologous pair of chromosomes, one
from each parent.
Outline the process of cell division by budding in yeast
-Yeast go through cytokinesis by producing a small bud that nips off the cell. Process called
State that cells produced as a result of meiosis are not genetically identical
-Diploid = two sets of chromosomes
-Daughter cells f meiosis are haploid.
-Produce genetic variety.
Define the term differentiation with respect to the production of erythrocytes and
neutrophils derived from stem cells in bone marrow and the production of ylem vessels
and phloem sieve tubes from cambium.
-Differentiation = change occurring in cells of multicellular organism so each different type of cell
becomes specialised to perform a special function.
-Cell can differentiate by changing number of organelles, shape of cell and contents of cell.
Describe and explain how cells become specialised for different functions, with
reference to erythrocytes, neutrophils, epithelial cells, sperm cells, palisade cells and
root hair cells.
Define the term differentiation with reference to the production of xylem vessels and
phloem sieve tubes from cambium.

Produced from
stem cells in
bone marrow.

How differentiated to perform function

Lose nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus and rougher.
Packed full of haemoglobin.
Becomes biconcave.
Keep nucleus.
Flexible shape to engulf foreign bodies
Cytoplasm appear granules due to lysosomes.


Root hair

Epidermal layer
of plant roots
Meristem cells


Guard cells

Enzymes in lysosomes allow neutrophils to kill microorganisms

Have cilia to move particles
Microvilli to increase surface area
Mitochondria produce energy for Undulipodia movement
Contains lysosome acrosome to allow head to penetrate egg
Small, long, thin shape to ease movement
Tail propel up uterine tract
Half number of chromosomes
Chloroplasts to absorb light.
Thin walls, co2 diffuse in
Hair like projection from surface out into soil.
Increase surface area
Was elongate and waterproofed by lignin which kills contents and
ends break down forming long tubes with wide lumen.
Transport water up pant and support
Cells elongate, ends dont break down but form sieve plates. Next to
sieve plates are companion cells, metabolically active and move
photosynthesis products up and down plant
Thin outer wall, thick inner wall
In light absorb water, become turgid. Allows gas exchange.

Explain the meaning of the terms tissue, organ and organ system.
-A tissue is a collection of similar cells and perform a common function.
-An organ is a collection of similar tissues working together to perform a particular function.
-An organ system is made up of similar organs working together to perform an overall life function.
Explain, with the aid of diagrams and photographs, how cells are organised into tissues,
using squamous and ciliated epithelia xylem and phloem.
- There are four main types of animal tissue:

Epithelial tissue - Layers and linings

Connective tissues - Hold structures together and provide support
Muscle tissue - Cells specialised to contract and move parts of the body
Nervous tissue - Cells that convert stimuli to electrical impulses and conduct those

-Squamous epithelial tissue:

flattened thin cells

form a thing smooth flat surface
Fluid pass easily over them.
Provide short diffusion path for gas exchange.
Held in place by basement membrane. : made of collage and glycoproteins secreted by
epithelial cells

-Ciliated epithelial tissue:

Column shaped cells

Inner surface of tubes
Part of cell surface always exposed
Synchronised waves
Waft mucus


Made of xylem vessel cells and parenchyma cells

Parenchyma cells fill gaps between xylem provide support


Made of sieve tubes and companion cells

Companion cells highly metabolically active

Discuss the importance of cooperation between cells, tissues, organs and organ
- Movement: the muscular and skeletal system must work together for movement to take place,
but this can only happen if the nervous system instructs muscles to coordinate their actions. As

muscles and nerves work, they use energy, so they require a supply of nutrients and oxygen from
the circulatory system, which in turn receives the chemicals from the digestive and ventilation
Explain, in terms of surface area to volume ration, why multicellular organisms need
specialised exchange surfaces and single celled organisms do not
-Organisms need certain substances from environment and need to remove waste products.
-As the size of an organism increases, its surface area to volume ratio decreases.
-Required substances will not be able to get to core of body, only surface and will not exchange fast
enough to keep cells alive.
Describe the features of an efficient exchange surface with reference to diffusion of
oxygen and carbon dioxide across and alveolus
- Large surface area =more space for molecules to diffuse
-Short diffusion path = reduce diffusion distance, faster
-Maintain concentration gradient (fresh supply on one side, removal on other) =CO2 concentration
higher in blood than alveoli, diffuses across. Oxygen concentration higher in alveolus than blood.
-Removal = CO2 removed by breathing out. Oxygen removed by blood (red blood cells take to
Describe the features of the mammalian lung that adapt it to efficient gas exchange
-Alveoli have large surface area
-Alveolus wall is one cell thick. Capillary wall is one cell thick. Both made of squamous cells, in
close contact.
-Narrow capillaries, red blood cells close to wall, close to air.
Outline the mechanism of breathing (inspiration, expiration) in mammals, with
reference to the function of the rib cage, intercostal muscles and diaphragm.
Diaphragm flattens digestive organs
Intercostal muscles contract to raise ribs
Volume of chest cavity increases
Pressure drops below atmospheric
Air moves in

Diaphragm pushed up by digestive organs
Intercostal muscles relax and ribs fall
Chest cavity volume decreases
Pressure rises above atmospheric
Air moves out

Describe the distribution of cartilage, ciliated epithelium, goblet cells and smooth
muscles and elastic fibres in the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles and alveoli of the
mammalian gaseous exchange system
Describe the functions of cartilage, ciliated epithelium, goblet cells and smooth muscles
and elastic fibres in the mammalian gaseous exchange system
walls made
of several
layers of

Found in C
rings Trachea:
Bronchi: narrower,
less regular
Under epithelium

-Structural role, hold trachea and bronchi open.
-Prevent collapse when low pressure during inhalation.
-Incomplete rings make it flexible to allow movement of neck
and oesophagus.

Tiny, hair like appendages which move in synchronised

pattern to waft mucus up airway and to back of throat.
Secrete mucus that traps particles in air. Traps bacteria so it
can be removed without risk of infection
Contract to constrict lumen, restricting air flow


Used when allergic to airborne substances e.g. asthma

Smooth muscle constriction cannot be reversed. Elastic
fibres deformed during constriction. Smooth muscle relaxes,
elastic fibres recoil, helps dilate airways

Explain the meanings of the terms tidal volume and vital capacity
-Tidal volume volume of air moved in and out of the lungs with each breath when at rest (approx.
-Vital capacity the largest volume of air that can be moved into and out of the lungs in a single
Describe how a spirometer can be used to measure
Spirometer is a chamber filled with oxygen floating on a tank of water.
Person breaths through mouthpiece connected to oxygen.
When they take in oxygen, the chamber sinks down.
Breathe out, air pushed back in so chamber floats up.
Vital capacity: breathe in and out as much as they can
Tidal volume: breathe normally
Breathing rate: ask person to breath normally. Divide number of breaths by time.
Oxygen uptake: Difference in volume
Explain the need for transport systems in multicellular animal in terms of size, activity
and surface are to volume ratio
Size: The larger the animals, the smaller the surface area to volume ration, but the more cells,
therefore more substances are needed Cells deeper in the body will not get any needed
Level of activity: The more active an animal, the more oxygen used in respiration which supplies
the energy needed for movement.
Surface area to volume ratio: large animals need tissues and structure support for strength so body
gets thicker but surface area does not change. The surface area to volume ration decreases
therefore a transport system is needed to supply all the oxygen and nutrients required.
Explain the terms single and double circulatory system with references to the
circulatory systems of fish and mammals
-Single circulatory system= blood flows through heart once during each circulation e.g. fish ( heart
gills body heart)
Blood flows slower to rest of body after reduced to go through capillaries, limits rate of delivery.
Dont need to maintain body temperature.
-Double circulatory system= blood flows through heart twice during each complete circulation e.g.
body heart --< lungs heart)
heart increase pressure and fast delivery. Better for active animals to maintain body
Explain the meaning of the terms open and closed circulatory system with reference to
the circulatory system of fish and insects
-Open circulatory system = blood not always in vessels e.g. insects
-Closed circulatory system = blood is always in vessels e.g. fish
Describe the internal and external structure of the mammalian heart
-Four chambers
-Atria receive blood from major veins
-Ventricles separated by septum.
-Atrium and ventricles separated by
atrioventricular valves.
-Valves attached to tendinous cords.
Found in C shaped/incomplete rings

-Coronary arteries lie over surface of heart
(carry oxygenated blood)
-Atria in the middle of cavity.
-Firm red muscle = ventricles.

Explain the difference in thickness of the walls of the different chambers of the heart in
terms of their functions
-Atria: thin wall, doesnt need to create pressure as blood goes to ventricles
-Right Ventricle: thicker than atria, allows pump blood out heart. Thinner than left ventricle as
pumps blood to lungs, doesnt need to go far, capillaries are thin so low pressure needed to
prevent bursting.
-Left Ventricle: 2 or 3 times thicker than right ventricle. Needs sufficient pressure to overcome
resistance of systematic circulation.

Describe the cardiac cycle with reference to the actions of the valves in the heart

Atria and Ventricles relaxed

Open atrioventricular valves

Atria contract

Ventricles full, begin

Blood fills AV valves (snap
Pressure in arteries higher
than ventricles, semi lunar
valves shut.
Ventricles contract (start at
Ventricles >arteries,
semilunar valves pushed
Ventricles relax


Direction of
blood flow
Major veins
into atrium
Atrium to
ventricles full
of blood

Part of cardiac

Ventricles up to


Stage of

Atrial systole

Heart starts to

-AV valves: open when ventricles<atria. Close when ventricles>atria.

-Semilunar valves: open when ventricles>arteries. Close when ventricles<arteries.
Describe how heart action is co-ordinated with reference to the sinoatrial node (SAN),
the atrioventricular node (AVN) and Purkyne tissues.
-Wave starts at SAN node and travels down walls of atrium causing atrial systole.
-Base of atria is a disc of tissue that cant conduct the wave so it cant spread to ventricles.
-AVN is the only way through the non-conductive disc.
-AVN on septum separating ventricles.
-Non-conductive tissue causes delay in node.
-Delay allows atria to finish emptying before ventricles contract.
-Wave excitement from AVN to Purkyne tissue (special conducting tissue) and at base of septum,
excitement goes up walls of ventricles. Spreads from base, therefore ventricles contract from the
bottom, pushing blood up out of the heart.
Interpret and explain electrocardiogram (ECG) traces with reference to normal and
abnormal heart activity
-P = atria excitement
-GRS = ventricles excitement
-T = diastole
-Arrhythmia = irregular beating
-Fibrillation = uncoordinated (small unclear P wave)
-Heart attack = myocardial infraction (ST elevated)
-Hypertrophy = increase in muscle thickness (deep S wave)
Describe the structures and functions of arteries, veins and capillaries
- Arteries:

Carry blood away from heart

High pressure small lumen to maintain pressure. Wall thick with collagen to give strength.
Elastic tissue to allow wall to stretch and recoil (felt as pulse + recoil maintains high
Smooth muscle to contract and constrict artery
Endothelium folded and can unfold when artery stretches


Carry blood away from heart

Has valves to stop backflow
Lumen large to ease flow of blood
Wall have thinner layers of collage, smooth muscle and elastic tissue and it does need to
stretch and recoil


Thin walls
Allow exchange of materials via tissue fluid
Single layer of endothelial cells reduce diffusion distance
Lumen narrow, squeeze red blood cell

Explain the difference between blood, tissue fluid and lymph


Erythrocytes, Leucocytes,
Hormones and plasma
Transported as
A lot

Tissue fluid
Phagocytic white blood
Hormones, proteins







More than in blood

Describe how tissue fluid is formed from plasma

-Arterial end =Blood at high pressure due to contractions (hydrostatic pressure).
-Pushes blood fluid out capillaries through tiny gaps in capillary walls
-Fluid made of plasma with dissolved nutrients and oxygen.
How does the fluid return to the blood?
-Fluid itself has hydrostatic pressure that pushes fluid back into capillaries.
-Tissue fluid has negative water potential (due to solutes) which is less negative than blood so
water moves back in by osmosis
-Venous end of capillary, blood has lost hydrostatic pressure
-Not all tissue fluid returns, some drained back into lymphatic system
-Lymph contains lymphocytes
-Lymph re-joins blood in chest cavity.
Describe the role of haemoglobin in carrying oxygen
haemoglobin + oxygen oxyheamoglobin
-Haemoglobin has 4 subunits, each made of polypeptide (protein) chain and haem (non protein)
-Haem contains single iron atom as Fe2+.
-Haem has affinity for oxygen.
-Each haemoglobin molecule can hold four molecules of oxygen.
-Oxyheamoglobin releases oxygen to respiring tissues in dissociation.
-Ability of haemoglobin to take up/release oxygen depends on partial pressure (relative pressure
oxygen contributes to mixture of gases/ oxygen tension)
-Haemoglobin takes up oxygen in way that produces S shape curve called oxyheamoglobin
dissociation curve.
-Low partial pressure: does not readily take u oxygen as haem group in centre of haemoglobin
molecule making it hard for oxygen to reach haem group and associate with it.
-Partial pressure rises, diffusion gradient increases.
-One molecule diffuses and associates causing change in haemoglobin molecule = conformational
change allowing more oxygen molecules to diffuse and associate.
-Difficult for 4th molecule to disuse and associate so hard to achieve 100% saturation even at high
oxygen tension
-High partial pressure in lungs in mammals and low in respiring tissues to cause oxygen
Explain the significance of different affinities for oxygen of foetal haemoglobin and
adult haemoglobin
- Foetal has higher affinity so can pick up oxygen from environment where adult haemoglobin
releases it.
-In placenta, foetal haemoglobin absorb oxygen from fluid in mothers blood, reducing tension
making maternal haemoglobin release it.
-Foetal haemoglobin curve is to left of adult haemoglobin.

Describe the role of haemoglobin in carrying carbon dioxide

5% dissolved in plasma
10% forms carboaminohaemoglobin
85% transported as hydrogen carbonate ions
-Carbon dioxide combines with water to form carbonic acid, catalysed by carbonic anhydrase. CO 2
+ H2O H2CO3
-Carbonic acid dissociates to form hydrogen carbonate ions and hydrogen ions H 2CO3 H+ + HCO3
-Hydrogen carbonate ions diffuse out red blood cell into plasma. Charge in red blood cell
maintained by chloride shift
-Hydrogen ions taken up by haemoglobin to form haemoglobic acid, acts as a buffer.
Describe and explain the significance of the dissociation curves of adult
oxyheamoglobin at different carbon dioxide levels (the Bohr effect)
-Oxygen tension of respiring tissues less that in lungs, as oxygen sued up in respiration therefore
oxyheamoglobin dissociates and releases oxygen.
-Hydrogen ions from dissociation of carbonic acid compete for space on haemoglobin molecule.
When CO2 present, hydrogen ions displace oxygen on haemoglobin. More oxygen released.
-When CO2 present, haemoglobin less saturated with oxygen. Moves dissociation curve downwards
and to the right.
-Results in oxygen being more readily released, when CO2 produced from respiration.
Explain the need for transport systems in multicellular plants in terms of size and
surface area to volume ratio
- Living things need to take and return substances.
-Ell in plant needs regular supply of water and nutrients.~
-Epithelial cells gain what they need by diffusion but cells inside plant dont receive enough to
-Roots can obtain water, not sugars and leaves can produce sugar but cant get water form air.
Describe the distribution of xylem and phloem tissues in roots, stems and leaves of
dicotyledonous plants
- Roots: xylem is arranged in X shape. Phloem found between arms of xylem.
-Stem: Vascular bundles around outside of stem in ring shape. Xylem on inside, Phloem on outside,
separated by cambium layer.
-Leaves: Xylem on top of phloem in veins of leaf.
Describe the structure and function of xylem vessels, sieve tube elements and
companion cells


on cells



Lignin waterproofs walls of cells, so cells die and end

walls and contents break down leaving column of
dead cells. Lignin strengthens wall, prevent collapse
when water in short supply.
Patters on walls prevent vessel being too rigid,
allowing flexibility
Pits/Bordered pits in wall where lignification
incomplete, allows water to join or leave vessel.
Not tube cells, have little cytoplasm and no nucleus
Lined up to form a tube.
Sieve plates at intervals: thin walls, 5/6 sided

To transport water up the


Between sieve tubes

Dense cytoplasm, large nucleus and mitochondria
for ATP
Many plasmodesmata between companion cells,
allow communication and flow of materials between

Use ATOP as energy source to

load sucrose into phloem

Transport sugars (e.g.


Define the term transpiration

the loss of water through the ariel parts of a plant due to evaporation
Explain why transpiration is a consequence of gaseous exchange
-Exchange of gases requires stomata of plants to be open, easy route for water loss.
-Plants have structure and behaviour adaptations to reduce water loss:

Waxy cuticle = waterproofs leaf, preventing water loss through epidermis

Stomata open on underside of leaf, reduce evaporation to direct heat
Stomata close at night (no light) no need for gaseous exchange
Decificous plants lose leaves when temps low, frozen ground (no water, therefore plants

Describe the factors that affect transpiration rate

Number of leaves: more leaves, more surface area for water loss
Number, size and position of stomata: Larger stomata, more water loss. Stomata on lower
surface, water loss slower.
Light: In light, stomata open to allow gas exchange
Presence of cuticle: Waxy cuticle prevents water loss
Temperature: Higher temp, increase evaporation, diffusion and decrease water vapour in
air, causing diffusion of water out (negative water potential in environment)
Relative humidity: reduce rate, smaller water potential gradient
Air movement:: carry water vapour away, increase water loss by maintaining high gradient
Water availability: little water in soil, water loss reduced by closing stomata

Describe how a photometer is used to estimate transpiration rates

1. Cut healthy shoot underwater (stop air entering)
2. Cut at slant to increase surface area
3. Apparatus full of water with only desired air bubble
4. Insert shoot in apparatus underwater
5. Remove photometer from water, ensure airtight around shoot
6. Dry leaves
7. Conditions constant: allow acclimatise
8. Shut screw clip
9. Scale fixed and record air bubble position
10. Measure distance moved in time
Explain, in terms of water potential the movement of water between plant cells and
between plant cells and the environment
-Between pant cells: move from cell with high water potential to cell with lower water potential
-Between plant cells and environment: moves down water potential gradient. Water potential
greater, water moves out cell by osmosis.
Describe, with the aid of diagrams, the pathway by which water is transported from the
root cortex to the air surrounding the leaves, with reference to the Casparian strip,
apoplast pathways, symplast pathway, xylem and stomata
-Water enters root hair cells by osmosis.
-Minerals actively pumped from root cortex into xylem
-Water moves along symplast pathway to follow xylem.
-Symplast pathway: water enters cytoplasm and travels along plasmodesmata and can move
through the continuous strand of cytoplasm
-Apoplast pathways: water travels between cell walls without passing throw plasma membranes
-Casparian strip blocks apoplast pathway between cortex and xylem, so water must join symplast
-Water reaches top of xylem, enters leaves and leaves through stomata
-Vacuolar pathways is similar to symplast but not confined to cytoplasm and able to enter and pass
through vacuoles.
Explain the mechanism by which water is transported from the root cortex to the air
surrounding the leaves, with reference to adhesion, cohesion and the transpiration
-Adhesion: water molecules in xylem form hydrogen bonds with walls of xylem vessel. Xylem
narrow, hydrogen bonds pull water up sides of vessel.
-Cohesion: water molecules attracted to each other by cohesion forces. Forces strong enough to
hold molecules together in long chain, molecules lost from top pulling chain up column known as
transpiration stream.
Describe with aid of diagrams, how leaves of some xerophytes are adapted to reduce
water loss by transpiration

Smaller leaves: less surface area

Densely packed spongy mesophyll: reduced exposed surface area
Thicker waxy cuticle
Closing stomata when less water available

Hair on surface of leaf: trap layer of air close to leaf that become saturated with moisture,
reducing diffusion out of stomata as water potential gradient has been changed
Stomata in pits
Rolling leaves, lower epidermis not exposed to atmosphere
Low water potential inside cell: changing water potential gradient

Describe the mechanism of transport in phloem involving active loading at the source
and removal at the sink, and the evidence for and against this mechanism

ATP used by companion cells to transport protons out of cytoplasm into surrounding tissue
Set up diffusion gradient. Hydrogen ions diffuse back into cells
Done through cotransported proteins. Allow hydrogen ions bring sucrose back with them
Sucrose concentration builds up and diffuse into sieve tube elements through
5. Sucrose in sieve tube elements reduces water potential
6. Water enters, increase hydrostatic pressure
7. Water moves down sieve tube element from higher to lower hydrostatic pressure art sink
8. Sucrose moves (diffusion/active transport) from sieve tubes to surrounding cells
9. Increases water potential in sieve tube element, water move in
10. Reduce hydrostatic pressure at sink

Phloem used (radioactive CO appears in phloem, removing phloem in trees, result in

sugars collecting above ring, aphid takes food from phloem)
Needs ATP (mitochondria in companion cells, translocation stopped by ATP inhibition, rate
of sugar flow too fast for diffusion only)
Ph of companion cells higher than surrounding (H+ pumped out), concentration of sucrose
higher in source than sink


Not all solutes in phloem move at same rate

Sucrose moves to all parts of plant at same rate
Role of sieve plates unclear

Explain translocation as an energy requiring process transporting assimilates