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Load ability of a transmission line is defined as the optimum power transfer capability of a transmission line under a
specified set of operating criteria. The load ability of short transmission lines is limited by the thermal rating of the
conductors, medium line voltages regulation and long lines by stability consideration which is lower than the
thermal rating. Compensation can be used to increase load ability of long lines toward their thermal limit.
1. To understand the use of series compensation for increasing transmission line loadability.
2. To compare effect of compensation at receiving end, sending end and at both ends.
THEORY:- There are some physical properties associated to the transmission system that limit power transfer in
spite of the capability of the generator or the requirement of the load. Transmission systems are designed to operate
according to specific voltage levels.
Depending on the characteristic of the transferred power, the voltage at the transmission line ends, for instance, can
be either below or above certain limits, modifying the system capacity to transfer power. Actions are frequently
taken to recover the assigned voltage levels, allowing the system to attend to the power demand at adequate
operating condition.
The physical parameters of transmission lines, which depend upon the line length and voltage level, strongly restrain
power transfer. As stated before, the load ability of short transmission lines is limited by the thermal rating of the
conductors. This is the magnitude of the current, continuing over time and increasingly heating the conductor that
limits the loading. As the conductor heats up, the resistance of the conductor increases with temperature, it stretches,
and the line sags (can be irreversible).
Series and shunt compensations have been traditionally used to modify the natural parameters of transmission lines.
Compensation generally describes the intentional insertion of reactive power devices (inductive or capacitive) into a
power network to achieve a desired effect.
Series capacitors are sometimes used in long lines to increase the load ability. Capacitor banks are installed in series
with each phase conductor at selected points along the line. They reduce the net series impedance of the line in
series with the capacitor bank thereby reducing line voltage drops and increasing the steady state stability limit.
A disadvantage of series capacitor banks is that automatic protective devices have to be installed to bypass high
currents during faults and to re-instate the capacitor banks after the fault has passed. They can also excite low
frequency oscillations (sub-synchronous resonance) which may damage turbine-generator shafts. However, there are
techniques to counteract this effect such as use of static filters.
The characteristic of power transfer (P-V characteristic) relates the voltage at the receiving-end bus bar to the active
power reaching it, for a given sending-end voltage, power factor and impedance of transference. It is affected by
changes either in the sending-end voltage magnitude or in the impedance of transference between sending and
receiving ends, or even in the transfer power factor.
The graph below depicts a P-V characteristic where curves 1, 2 and 3 depict reactance X1, X2 and X3 respectively
where X1> X2> X3.The line VSM shows the point with maximum power transfer.

For the VLvs. PL curve, it is observed that an increase in the line loadability leads to a decrease in the receiving end
voltage until the point where maximum amount of power transfer is attained.Beyond this point the system is
unstable thus a blackout occurs.
This corresponding real power at this point is highest for the system compensated at both ends (2200 MW), followed
by those compensated at either the receiving of sending end (1800 MW) and lastly is the system that has no
compensation (1600 MW).
The effect of transmission line reactance on the curve is to increase the maximum real power that can be transferred
at a given receiving end voltage as is clearly depicted by the curves of the graph.The line that is compensated on
both ends allows for the maximum transfer of power as compared to the rest.
For the QSvs. PL curve, it is observed that as you increase the line loading the reactive power increases in an
exponential mannerfrom negative values to positive ones.QS is negative for PL<PO(where PO is the surge impedance
loading)and the system absorbs reactive power. This is when we have light loading.
When PL>PO, QS is positive and reactive power is supplied to the line. This is known as heavy loading. The effect of
series compensation on the QSvs. PLcurve is to increase the maximum power that can be transmitted for a specific
value of QS. It is also noted that when there is compensation at both ends, the highest value of PLis attained.
Series compensation by using capacitors reduces the net series impedance of the line in series with the capacitor
bank thus increasing the line loadability (power transfer can be increased). From the graph ofQS vs. PL, we observe
that when series compensation is introduced, we have an increase in the maximum power that can be transmitted for
a specific value of QS.
The lines compensated at either the receiving end or the sending end have almost similar power transfer (P-V
characteristic). However, the line compensated at both ends leads to the most reduction in series impedance, and as a
result, to the largest increase in line loadability.