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Mathematicar Models for
Simple Harmonic Linear Water Waves
Wave Diffraction and Refraction

This thesis is also published as Delft Hydraulics Laboratory


Publication No. 163 (1976).

IVIathematical IVlodels
for
Simple Harmonie Linear Water Waves
Wave Diffraction and Refraction
P R O E F S C H R I F T ter verkrijging van
de graad van doctor in de
technische wetenschappen
aan de Technische Hogeschool Delft
op gezag van de rector magnificus
Prof. dr. ir. H. van Bekkum,
hoogleraar in de afdeling der
Scheikundige Technologie,
voor een commissie aangevi/ezen
door het college van dekanen
te verdedigen op
woensdag 7 april 1976 te 16.00 uur door
J U R I C O R N E L I S WILLEM BERKHOFF
wiskundig-ingenieur
geboren te Balig, Indonesi

Dit proefschrift is goedgekeurd door de promotor


PROF. DR. E. VAN S P I E G E L

This thesis was prepared while the author was employed at the
De Voorst Laboratory of the Delft Hydraulics Laboratory. The
investigation reported herein was partly conducted under contract
for the Dutch Ministry of Public Works (Rijkswaterstaat)

Contents
I

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Linear Surface Waves and Mathematical Models

'

1 .2

Literature

1.3

Outline

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION

2.1

General Equations

2.2

Energy Flux

2.3

Potential Formulation

2.4

Boundary Conditions

10

2.5

Linear Equations

1'

2.6

Harmonic Solutions

'2

2.7

Fundamental Solution

1^

2.8

Solution with Singularity Distributions

16

DIFFRACTION

20

3.1

The Diffraction Equation

20

3.2

Boundary Conditions

22

3.3

Some Analytical Solutions

25

3.4

Wave Penetration into Harbours

28

3.5

Harbour Oscillation

31

3.6

Numerical Method of Solution

34

3.7

Some Results

37

3.8

Discussion

38

3
<*

REFRACTION

45

4.1

The Refraction Equations

45

4.2

Boundary Conditions

54

4.3

Some Analytical Solutions

56

4.4

Numerical Method of Solution

58

4.5

Some Results

60

4.6

Discussion

64

REFRACTION-DIFFRACTION

65

5.1

The Refraction-Diffraction Equation

65

5.2

Boundary Conditions

69

5.3

Some Analytical Solutions

69

5.4

Variational Formulation

76

5.5

Numerical Method of Solution

79

5.6

Some Results

85

5.7

Discussion

96

CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES

NOTATION

SUMMARY

SAMENVATTING

1 Introduction
1.1

Linear Surface Waves and Mathematical Models

Propagation of water waves is a phenomenon that interests oceanographic, meteorologie and civil engineers.
The phenomenon in all its aspects is a very complex one, because several physical
processes play a part, such as the irregularity of the waves in nature, the breaking of the waves and other non-linear effects, energy dissipation due to friction
or turbulence, partial reflection, and the dependence of the wave celerity and
direction of propagation on the bottom lay-out.
It is nearly impossible to give a mathematical description of the phenomenon of
wave propagation in which all effects are included, and therefore some simplifications must be made depending on the aspects which are of interest.
The applicability of a mathematical description often depends on the number
of space dimensions

involved with the problem. In the case of a one-dimensional

model it is possible to include some non-linear effects without introducing


too many difficulties into the method of solution. However, in the case of twoand three-dimensional models the mathematical formulation is often restricted
to the linear simple harmonic wave theory.
The irregularity of the wave field is described then as a linear stochastic
phenomenon, characterised by an energy density function.
For practical applications even a three-dimensional linear wave model is not
applicable for problems dealing with wave propagation over a large area. A diminishing of the number of space variables to the two horizontal coordinates would
give a more applicable mathematical model. It is possible to formulate several
two-dimensional models, depending on some assumptions about the form of the solution domain and the behaviour of the solutions.
This present study deals with three mathematical models for wave propagation
problems in the horizontal plane. These models are called diffraction, refraction
and the combined form of refraction and diffraction. With the aid of Figure 1.1 it
is possible to show the restrictions and assumptions that lead to the several
mathematical models. It is an illustration of the characteristic quantities and
parameters, which are important in wave propagation problems.

-^>~^

ffD

-->
S=

H/IO

M'
D/IO
a. = H/D
= ff/M

Figure 1.1

D = mean water depth


H = wave height
fo= 9 / ' ^ '
cr = mean slope of the bottom
over a distance D

Characteristic Lengths and Parameters

For a linear wave model it is assumed that the wave steepness y ~ ^/l

is small

and in the case of a small water depth the ratio a = H/D must also be small.
For the diffraction model it is assumed that the bottom slope a over a distance
that corresponds to the water depth is so small, or the water is so deep,that
there is no influence of the bottom slope upon the surface waves. This assumption
can be described with the requirement e

1 in which = ol\x whith y = D/1 .

For greater values of the parameter E there is some influence of the bottom variation upon the surface waves. In the refraction theory it is assumed that the
variation of the bottom is moderately small and noticeable for the surface waves
(E < 1), Also it is assumed that the variation of the wave amplitude in the horizontal
plane depends only on the bottom variation and can be neglected in first approximation. This last assumption about the behaviour of the solution is a rigid one,
which gives rise to the problem of a caustic, where the solution of the refraction equations is not well defined. When caustics are present it is clear that
neglecting the curvature of the wave amplitude in the horizontal plane is not
allowed. Caustics can occur also in those cases when the slope of the bottom is
very small, so they are not only caused by the bottom variation but also by the
boundary conditions of the refraction equations.
In the combined refraction-diffraction mathematical model it is assumed again
that the variation of the bottom is moderately small and noticeable for the
surface waves (e < 1). However, the curvature of the wave amplitude is now taken

into account in some way, A two-dimensional equation in the horizontal plane is


obtained by integration over the water depth.
It is the purpose of this study to give a survey of the mathematical models
based on the simple harmonic linear wave theory with a derivation of the basic
differential equations and with a description of the methods of solution.

1 .2

Literature

A general mathematical description of the problems in fluid dynamics dealing with


wave propagation was given a long time ago and can be found in several handbooks such as Lamb (1963), Wehausen (1960), Stoker (1957) and many others.
There are many workers in the field of linear wave theory. A literature
survey about diffraction of water waves can be found in an article of Newman
(1972).
For three-dimensional linear wave problems, which are of interest for the computation of wave forces on structures, reference should be made to the work of Wehausen (1960), John (1950), Garrison (1972) and van Oortmersen (1972). Two-dimensional diffraction problems, such as wave penetration into harbours with a constant water depth and harbour oscillations, have been studied by Biesel and Ranson (1961), Daubert and Lebreton (1965), Barailler and Gaillard (1967), Lee (1969),
Lee and Raichlen (1971) and the author (1969).
The describing differential equations of the refraction problem usually are derived by means of the geometric laws of Snellius and on the assumption that the
wave energy flux between two wave rays is constant. Publications in this field
have been given by Munk and Arthur (1952), Griswold (1963), Lepetit (1964), Wilson (1966), Dobson (1967), Skovgaard (1973) and many others. However, it is possible to derive these equations by means of an asymptotic approximation, concerning which reference can be made to articles by Keller (1958), Battjes (1968) and
the author (1970).
In the past many attempts have been made to derive a two-dimensional equation
which describes the combined refraction-diffraction effects in an appropriate
way. Pierson (1951), Eckart (1952), Battjes (1968), Biesel (1972) and Ito (1972)
have made some suggestions, but none of these equations is applicable in the
whole field from deep to shallow water. The author (1972) and, independently of
him,Schnfeld (1972) have succeeded in deriving such an equation.

ir

1.3

Outline

It is important in the use of mathematical models to know the restrictions and


simplifications which have been made to obtain these models. It is also convenient when all these simplifications are mentioned in one study and therefore
Chapter 2 starts with a derivation of the general equations of motion for an
ideal fluid by means of the divergence theorem of Gauss. The Chapter continues
with the required simplifications to come to the three-dimensional linear simple
harmonic wave equations and gives a general method of solution based on singularity distributions.
The two-dimensional diffraction, refraction and refraction-diffraction models
are described in the Chapters 3, 4 and 5 respectively. In each Chapter there is
given a derivation of the leading differential equations, one or more analytical
solutions, a numerical method of solution, and some results together with a discussion about the applicability of the model.

2 Mathematical formulation
2.1

General Equations

In this study about mathematical models for linear simple harmonic water wave
propagation problems it will be useful to have an overview of all the restrictions that have been made in building these models. Therefore this Chapter starts
with a short derivation of the basic equations of continuity and motion in Eulerian form for an ideal (no viscosity) fluid, making use of the well-known divergence theorem of Gauss. The notation will be in vector form with the nabla and
delta operator. '
Let V be a fixed volume in the cartesian space spanned by the three orthogonal
X, y and z axes, 0 the surface area of the volume V and n the unit normal vector
of 0, positive in an outward direction (see Figure 2.1). The motion of the fluid
will be characterised by the scalar density p and by a velocity vector v =
(u, v, w) in which u, v and w are the components in the x, y and z direction respectively.

Figure 2.1

Definition Sketch

'' When IS a vector with the components a , a^ and a

and b is a scalar, then

the following vector operations will be used;


gradient of b

,8b
9b
9b,
^3x ' 9y ' 9z''

: Vb

Laplacian of b : Ab = A^b =

divergence of a: V.a
rotation of a

: V x a

9^b

1
9x
9a,
= (-

3y

9^b

S^b

8y^

h-z.'

3z
3a,

3z

3z

3a,

3a,

3x

3x

3y

The equation of continuity is based on the principle of conservation of mass. The


change of mass M in the fixed volume V per unit time equals the change of mass in
V due to the change in density p together with the outflow of mass per unit time
across the surface 0.

dM _ f [ | dV + f p v . n do
dt
Jj
If there is no production or loss of mass then

for with the divergence theorem of Gauss (///

I. 'If

V . a_ dV = 11

^ J. *iO)

V . p v) dV = 0,

and then, because of the arbitrariness of the volume V

+ V .p v = 0

(2.1.1)

Ot

which is the well known equation of continuity.


The equations of motion are based on the principle of Newton, laying down that
the change of momentum in V per unit time equals the total force acting on V:

( ^ ^ ^ ^ P (v.il)XdO= f|[ P F d V . If K
with F representing the force vector acting on the mass in V and K the force vector acting on the surface 0. When viscosity is neglected,the force acting on the
surface can be represented by a pressure function p :

K = - p ri

Thus
3pv dV +
V "'

p n do -

p (v . n) v do H
'^'o

''0

\((
p F dV = 0.
"'V

Forming the inner product with an arbitrary constant vector a^ and making use of
the divergence theorem of Gauss leads to the equation

[-""^

+ V . {p (a . v) v} + V . pa - a . p F J d V = 0.

After some vector manipulation, taking into account the constantness of the vector ji, the following expression can be derived.

iff

a . [ - ^ + (V . p v) V + p (v . V) v + Vp - pF ] dV = 0 .

The volume V and the vector a are arbitrarily chosen so

- ^ + (V . p v) v + p (v . V) V + Vp - pF = 0.

With the aid of the continuity equation (2.1.1) and the vector

rule

(v . V) V = ^ V (v . v) - V X (V X v ) ,

the equations of motion become

1= + I V (v . v) - V X (V X v) + - Vp - F = 0^.

(2.1.2)

In the case of an incompressible and homogeneous fluid the density p is a constant, giving the equation of continuity;

V . V = 0.

(2.1.3)

When the force vector F represents a conservative field,then F can be written

as
F = - Vf2,

in which ^ is the potential function of the force field. The vector equation of
motion is then:

l l + i V (v . v) - V X (V X v) + i Vp + Vf] = 0.

(2.1.4)

22

Energy Flux

In the following Chapters of this study a consideration about the energy flux
vector will be required and therefore a general expression of the energy flux
vector will now be derived.
The energy E enclosed in the volume V is given by the sum of the kinetic and
the potential energy of the fluid in V:

E = [[[ [ J p (v . v) + p[j] dV.


'V
The energy flux dE/dt in this fixed volume V is then
dE
d

! = fff^^[^ p ^^-^^ ^ p " ] " '

and, in the case f^, i s constant in time:

l= [{{ A^ [r ii p (v . v) ] dV.
dt
JJ) 3
Forming in Equation (2.1.4) the inner product with the velocity vector \7, and
taking into account the continuity Equation (2.1.1), the following expression for
the change of the kinetic energy can be derived:

[ J p (v . v) ] = - V . { 1 p (v . v) v} - V . Vp - pv . Vfi.

With this result and with p = constant, so V . v = 0, the energy flux becomes:
dE
jf = - III

[ V . { 1 p (v . v) v} + V . pv + V . pn v j ,

and with the divergence theorem of Gauss


dE

n . n p (v . v) + p + pf21 V do.

The energy flux vector P^ per unit surface area is now defined as:

P = [^ p (v . v) + p + pfll V.

(2.2.1)

2.3

Potential Formulation

For a potential formulation it is necessary to assume that the motion of fluid is


irrotational:

V X V = 0.

(2.3.1)

This assumption can be made plausible by saying that when the motion starts from
a situation of rest and the fluid is ideal,there is no mechanism to introduce rotation. Now a velocity potential function $ can be defined

from which the velo-

city field can be obtained by taking the gradient:

V = V*.

(2.3.2)

The field equation for the potential function $ can be obtained by the substitution
of (2.3.2) into the continuity Equation (2.1.3) for an incompressible and homogeneous fluid:

V<1> = 0

(2.3.3)

which is the well known equation of Laplace.


The vector equation of motion (2.1.4) now becomes

V I?- + V {^ (V* . V$)} + V + Vn = 0,


dL

(2.3.4)

which can be integrated with respect to the space coordinates, yielding the equation of Bernoulli:

| i + 1 ( W . V$) + + f2 = f(t)

(2.3.5)

with an integration "constant" f(t).


The velocity field will not be affected if an arbitrary function of time is
added to the potential $, so with no loss of generality the function f(t) can be
chosen identically zero. In a gravity field with an acceleration g in negative zdirection,the external force potential ^ is given by

fi = gz,

(2.3.6)

and then the equation of Bernoulli,

1^ + I (V* . v$) + + gz = 0 ,

(2.3.7)

frem which the pressure p can be computed.


The energy flux vector P becomes in the case of a potential flow with the aid
of Equation (2.3.7)
3$

2.4

(2.3.8)

Boundary Conditions

For solving Equations (2.3.3) and (2.3.7) for the unknown three-dimensional
potential function $ and pressure p,there must be given a set of conditions at
the boundaries of the solution domain.
If it is assumed that the free surface elevation is given by the relation
z = ri (x,y,t) (see Figure 2.2), then there must hold for a particle belonging to
the free surface the following kinematic equation;
dz^ _ 9ri _^ 9n dx
dt
3t
8x dt

at

dx

9ri dy
9y dt

3n
3y

and with the potential function $ :


Sn _, 3$ 3ri ^ 3$ 3n
3t
3x 3x
3y 3y

3$
3z

at z = n (x,y,t) .

(2.4.1)

2 = r| (x.y.t)

//

.^^^^^-^^^k^v^vv^^^^^^^ z =.h(x,y)
^^^^^^^'^^^^^^^^^^^^.V^.r^^^^^^^^^^
Figure 2.2

10

Definition Sketch of Free Surface and Bottom

A second condition at the unknown free surface z = n (x,y,t) is that of


atmospheric pressure, which can be taken as zero with no loss of generality. So
the dynamic condition at the free surface is

p = 0

or,with the aid of Bernoulli's Equation (2.3.7),

1 ^ + i (V$ . V4>) + gn = 0

at z = n (x,y,t).

(2.4.2)

dt

In the case of an impermeable bottom, given by the relation z = - h (x,y), the


normal velocity must be zero, leading to the equation:
3h
dx

UTT

9h
dy

V^7

0,

or with the potential function $:

;^V~"*"^^":=^'^-^r-=0
9x 9x
9y dy
9z

atz = -h(x,y).
'-^

(2.4.3)

At other solid boundaries than the bottom also the normal velocity must be
prescribed,and in the case of an unbounded solution domain in the horizontal
plane some additional condition at infinity must be imposed.
Usually in diffraction problems the form of an incoming wave is prescribed and
a scattered wave will be sought, which satisfies the so-called radiation condition stating that the scattered wave is an outgoing and radiating wave.

2.5

Linear Equations

The non-linear boundary conditions (2.4.1) and (2.4.2), and the fact that these
conditions are imposed upon the unknown free surface z = n (x,y,t),make it very
difficult to find an

applicable way of solving this three-simensional

problem. Therefore these boundary conditions will be linearised by means of a


series development with respect to a small parameter.
There are three characteristic lengths

in this problem (see Figure 2.1):

1 : the characteristic horizontal distance of the free surface disturbance,


o
D : the water depth, and
H

: the height of the disturbance.

11

tions is

Y = H/l

(wave steepness) ,

but in the case of shallow water also the parameter

a = H/D

must be small.
A derivation of the infinitesimal-wave approximation can be found in Lamb (1932),
Stoker (1957) and Wehausen (1960).
The resulting equations are:
A* = 0

(2.5.1)

3ri_ _ 3$
3t
3z

at z = 0

(2.5.2)

1 3*
n + - 5 - = 0
g 3t

a t z = 0

(2.5.3)

atz = -h(x,y).

(2.5.4)

and
3h ^ 3$ 3h

5 ^ 3 l ^ ^)y3 7
3yf 7 ' f i =

"Equations (2.5.2) and (2.5.3) can be combined by eliminating the free


function n to the equation
| i . i ^ = 0
3z
g 2
2.6

surface

a t z = 0.

(2.5.5)

Harmonic Solutions

Now that the equations have been linearised it is possible to seek a solution of
Equations (2.5.1)-(2.5.4) which is simple harmonic in time;

$ (x,y,z,t) = 0

(x,y,z) cos u)t + 0 (x,y,z) sin ujt,

(2.6.1)

in which oj is the angular frequency of the wave. The simple harmonic solution
(2.6.1) can also be written with the aid of a complex potential function

12

Re (0e

) with Re( ) indicating the real part of the ex-

pression between the brackets and i = - 1 . The complex potential function 0 must
satisfy Equations (2.5.1), (2.5.4) and (2.5.5) which turns into:

30 _ u^
3z

at z = 0-

(2.6.3)

Once the solution 0 has been found, all the other functions of interest can be
computed. The free surface function can be found with the aid of Equation (2.5.3)
giving:

ri (x,y,t) = Re (

0e

(2.6.4)

z=0'

The wave height, which is twice the amplitude of the free surface elevation, is
then :

(2.6.5)

"1 -^z'O
The phase S of the free surface elevation is given by

S = - arctan (0,/0) ,
1 2 Z=U

(2.6.6)

and the linearised pressure by

p (x,y,z,t) = - pgz + up (0

sin ut - 0

cos tot)

(2.6.7)

It may be useful here to summarise all restrictions of the mathematical


formulation up till now. They are:
-

An ideal fluid, which means no viscosity;


an incompressible and homogeneous fluid;
a gravity force field;
an irrotational motion, which leads to a potential formulation;

infinitesimally small amplitude waves; and


a motion

which is only simple harmonic in time.

13

2.7

Fundamental Solution

Assuming the bottom is horizontal, the bottom condition is


*i = 0
dz

at z = -h.

(2.7.1)

A solution of the Laplace Equation (2.5.1) with the boundary conditions


(2.6.3) and (2.7.1) in the z-direction can now be found by the method of separation
of variables. By writing
0 (x,y,z) = Z(z) <}. (x,y),

(2.7.2)

and substitution into the Laplace equation, it can be derived that

1 i!i = - 1 ((i!i
^^^ ++^ l!i
^^),
dz^

'*' 8x2

(2.7.3)

gy2

giving the two equations


}^=b2
dz

(2.7.4)

and

8x2

gy2

where b is a complex constant (eigenvalue).


The solution of Equation (2.7.4), satisfying the free surface condition and the
condition at the bottom, is given by:
Z (z;b) = C(b) cosh {b (z+h)},

(2.7.6)

provided that the eigenvalue b is a root of the dispersion relation


u^ = gb tanh (bh)

(2.7.7)

which can be derived by substitution of (2.7.6) into the boundary condition (2.6.3).
Equation (2.7.7) has the real roots b = k and an infinite number of pure
imaginary roots b = ik.; j = 1,2,3,

14

(see Figure 2.3).

2TT

3TT

_^kh

- t a n h (.kh)

u'h _L
9 kh

* kh
Figure 2.3

Roots of the Equation ti)^ = gb tanh (bh)

The solution can now be written as a superposition of all eigensolutions,


giving

(x,y,z) =

(2.7.8)

Z Z (z) (t).(x,y)
j=0 J
J

with

(2.7.9)

Z.(z) = C. cosh {T.(z+h)}

=k

; T . = i k . , j = l ,2,3,
J
J -^

and the two-dimensional potential functions (J).(x,y) which are solutions of the
equation

J + T.^ <t>. = 0.
J J

(2.7.10)

The eigenfunctions Z.(z) form a set of orthogonal functions in the interval


- h ^ z-^

0, which can be proved with the aid of the field Equation (2.7.4) and

the boundary conditions at the bottom and free surface. From Equation (2.7.4)
it can be shown that

(T.^
J

^) r z.

J
-h

r
Z

dz

d^z. d^z
(Z

-h

i - Z.
5i) dz,
"> dz^
J dz^

or, after partial integration of the right hand side.

15

r
(T.^ - T 2)
J
J
m

dZ 1 z=0
(dZ.
Tl
Z. Z dz = Z ^-J- - Z.
J m
[_ m dz
j dz
z=-h

and with the boundary conditions


dZ.
^-J- = 0
dz

at z = -h

and

dZ
2
- ^ = Z.
dz
g j

at z = O

for all j = 0,1,2,.... there can be found


O
(T.^

- T ^)
m

[
J
-h

Z. Z dz = 0,
J m

giving the orthogonality property


0
I
J

Z, Z dz = 0
J m

for ra ?* i.

(2.7.11)

The coefficients C. can be chosen arbitrarily because the function *. in the


J
J

solution (2.7.8) can take up also constant factors. These constants C. are taken in
such a way that the eigenfunctions Z.(z) now form an orthonormal set of functions
in the interval - h ^ z ^ 0.
Imposing

Z.

dz = 1

gives the result

for j = 0,1,2,

C.^
h (T.-" - V)

(2.7.12)

+ V

in which v = to /g.

2.8

Solution with Singularity Distributions

A solution of the three-dimensional problem of wave propagation in a certain


domain with obstacles and a variable water depth can often be found with the aid
of a singular source solution G(P;M), which possesses the following properties:

16

As a function of the coordinates of the point P the source potential


G(P;M) is a solution of the Laplace equation except at the source point M;

the source potential satisfies the free surface condition and the flat
. . 30
bottom condition 77 = 0 at z = -h;
dz
- G(P,M) satisfies the radiation condition at infinity, which is given by
lim JT

(1^ - ik G) = 0

(2.8.1)

r-j-to

with r the horizontal distance between the points P and M;


-

G(P,M) is defined and is regular analytic in the whole domain except at


the source point M; and
the singularity in G is of the form 1/R with R the distance between the
two points P and M, so the function G - 1/R is regular analytic in the
whole domain.

Looking at the fundamental solution given in section 2.7, an expression can


be found for the source potential function G(P;M), which is also symmetrical with
respect to the coordinates of P and M:
G(P;M) = T. C.2 cosh {T.(z+h)} cosh {T.(C+h)} 4^ H ^(T.r)
j=0 J
J
J
2i o J

(2.8.2)

with (x,y,z) = the coordinates of the point P


(?.r|jC) = the coordinates of the source M
r
H

= s/ (x-C)2 + (y-n)"'
(Tr)= a solution of the two-dimensional Equation (2.7.10), satisfying
the radiation condition (2.8.1) and possessing the apropriate singularity for r = 0 (Hankel function of the first kind and zero'th
order),

By separating the first term in the series development of (2.8.2), the source
potential G can be written in a somewhat different form, taking into account the
expressions x. = i k. ; i = 1,2,3,.... and T = k :
J
J
o
o
2(k^-v2)
G(P;M) =
cosh {k (z+h)} cosh {k (C+h)} ^r^ H ' (k r) +
o
o
2i o o
,
2(k.^+v2)
-- E
i
cos {k.(z+h)} cos {k.(C+h)} K (k.r)
^ j=l h(k.^fV^)-v
J
J
o J

(2.8.3)

with K (k.r) = Modified Bessel function of the first kind and zero'th order

[=-irV(^V)]

17

There exists also an integral expression for the function G(P;M), showing the
singularity like 1/R at the source point M:

2TTG(P;M) = - - -

R'

cosh (kh) {k tanh (kh) -v}

2ir(k 2-v^)
i

cosh {k (z+h)} cosh {k (C+h)} J (k r )


1 /,

2\

(2.8.4)

h(k ^-v )+V

with

R'

(x-C)' + (y-n)' + (z-C)''

/ ( x - C ) ' + (y-n)' + (z+<;+2h)2

J ( ) = Bessel function of the first kind and zero'th order


o
P.V.

= The principal value of the integral, because of the singularity of


the integrand for k = k .

The first term in the right-hand side of Equation (2.8.4) is a general solution
of the Laplace equation for an unbounded domain. The second term is needed to
satisfy the condition at the flat bottom and the other terms are required for
fulfilling the free surface condition at z = 0.
More about singular solutions and their representations by series developments
and integral expressions can be found in articles by John (1950), Thorne (1953)
and Wehausen

(1960).

The diffraction problem in three dimensions, which is to find the scattering of


an incoming wave due to the presence of obstacles and a variable water depth, can
be solved theoretically by distributing wave sources over the surfaces of the obstacles and variable bottom which disturb the incoming wave (see Figure 2.4):

0(P) = 0(?)

a(M) G(P;M) dOj^


0

in which 0
a(

18

= the known wave potential of the incoming wave,


) = the strength of the source distribution.

(2.8.5)

z=^(x.y.t)

,P(x.y,z)

H\Wy.^-JM^V/f^
W/'AVAWAWAV/AV-'AWAV)

Figure 2.4

Three-dimensional Source Distribution

The strength a of the source distribution can be found by the condition of reflection at the disturbing surfaces, giving the integral equation:

a(P) +

a(M)

3G
3n

(P;M)
^"M = - ^3^>P>

(2.8.6)

with both points P and M situated on the surface.


When a solution of this integral equation of the Fredholm type has been obtained the desired solution 0(P) at any point P can be computed with expression
(2.8.5).
This method of solution for wave propagation problems has been used by Garrison
(1972) and v. Oortmersen (1973) to compute the wave forces upon submerged obstacles due to an incoming wave. They solved the integral Equation (2.8.6) numerically using a technique that is very similar to the panel method in aerodynamics;
Hess (1971). However, to use this method for computing the wave propagation over
a large area, the computing time and computer storage will be excessive and therefore there is need for some simpler mathematical models restricted to the horizontal plane.

19

3 Diffraction
3.1

The Diffraction Equation

A reduction to a two-dimensional diffraction model can be obtained when the


variation of the bottom profile can be neglected (the mean slope of the bottom over
a certain characteristic distance, for instancethe water depth, is zero) and
when the obstacles are cylindrical extending from the bottom to the free surface.
In that case the solution can be written as a superposition of a known incident
wave potential 0 and a scattered wave potential 0

which has the form (2.7.8) as

has been derived in Section 2.7. The two-dimensional

Equation

(2.7.10), the re-

30^
30
flection condition -;r = - -jr at the contours of the obstacles, and the radiation
3n
dn
condition define the functions (J).(x,y) ; j = 0,1,2
The incident wave is given as a plane wave and has the form:
-?
cosh {k (z+h)} ^
0(.,y,.) = - I - ^ i
^^^^l^
^(x.y),
o
in which

^
i k (x cosg + y sing)
((i(x,y)=e

(3.1.1)

(3.1.2)

corresponding to a free surface elevation

n(x,y,t) = I H cos {k (x cosg + y sing) - a)t} ,

(3.1.3)

With H

wave height of the incident wave.


the angle between the direction of propagation and the positive x-axis.

the wave number belonging to the water depth h and the angular frequency O), accordingly to the dispersion relation (2.7.7).

The reflection condition = - -?T at the vertical walls can only be fulfilled
9n
dn

for all values of z, when


^ - 0
and

"5^
dn

20

dn

for j = 1 ,2,

(3.1 .4)

at the contours of the obstacles.


It can be shown now that the functions (j>.(x,y) for j = 1,2,.... must be identically zero. From Equation (2.7.10) it can be derived that for the area A (see
Figure 3.1) the following equality must hold (the nabla operator is now twodimensional) :

r ( V . ((). V(t>.) dA -

r r [(?<(). .^<i,.)

+ k . ^ ip^idA

= o.

or, with the divergence theorem of Gauss,

^ds-

'j 311

I [(V*. .V*.) .k.^ 0.^] dA

= 0.

r+c

Figure 3.1

Diffraction in the Horizontal Plane.

Taking now the limit r-''^ and taking into account that i^ . is an outdying radiating wave, which also satisfies condition (3.1.4) at F, there remains;

ff [m..V(i).)

+ k.^ (ti.n dA = 0.

Because of the fact that the integrant is positively definite, there must hold

.(x,y) = 0.

So only the function (J)

(3.1.6)

in the expression (2.7.8) for the scattered wave poten-

21

tial c|) needs to be computed. The differential equation for this function is thus:

3!i + 3!i + k 2 <j, = 0,

which is the so called Helmholtz

3.2

(3.1.7)

equation.

Boundary Conditions

It has been seen in the foregoing Section that the boundary conditions for the
two-dimensional scattered wave potential are:

~^=

-|i

(3.2.1)

at full reflecting contours F and a radiation condition


r-

lim

^*d

V^r i-j-

- i ^o 'J'd^ "

(3.2.2)

r->- CO

at infinity. With these conditions the scattered wave potential will be uniquely
defined.
In practical problems the walls of the obstacles are not always vertical and
often also not fully reflecting. To treat these boundaries in this diffraction
model the walls must be schematized as vertical, but it is possible to introduce
partial reflection into the model by using a mixed boundary condition for the total wave potential c|) = {[) + ,
d
Assume the condition

instead of the full reflection condition TT = 0.


dn

^ + k a (f) = 0
on
o

(3.2.3)

at the partial reflecting boundaries, in which a (= a +ia) is a theoretical nondimensional complex reflection coefficient.
With the aid of the expression (2.3.8) for the energy flux vector P it can be
shown that with this mixed boundary condition a mean normal energy flux through
the boundary will be imposed. The mean energy flux P, defined by
T

22

in which T is the period of the wave, is expressed in the potential function 0:

P = ^ p 10 i (0 V0 - 0 V0)

(3.2.4)

with an overbar indicating the conjugate complex value. Use of the expression
, ^

cosh {k (z+h)}

0(x,y,z) = - 2 if ^

cosh ( k h ) - '^('^'y)
O

for the two-dimensional diffraction model and computing the integrated mean energy flux P

, defined by

-h
gives the expression

P*=Yg- P 1 ^ Ujj i (()) W - * V * ) ,

(3.2.5)

o
with
" E = 2 " ^' * sinh (2k^h)^

' S""P

; phase velocity

= (jj/k

velocity

and the nabla operator V now two-dimensional. The mean integrated energy flux
normal to the boundary becomes, with the aid of the mixed boundary condition
(3.2.3),
- *

^2

<^B Z ) = - Yg- P Hg U ^ i (a - a) (J)(i) ,


or with i (a - a) = 2a

and ^^ = H^/H

, accordingly to definition (2.6.5)

of the wave height H,

(n . P *) = - -^ p g U^ a^ H 2 .

(3.2.6)

When the imaginary part of the theoretical reflection coefficient a is positive,


there is an energy flux at the boundary into the negative normal direction. This
absorbed energy flux is relative to the square of the wave height, assuming the
reflection coefficient a is independent of the potential function (|>.
The mixed boundary condition (3.2.3) can also be translated into two conditions
for the wave height H and the phase function S, which are defined by the expression

23

<f) = ^ e^ ^
H

(3.2.7)

These conditions are:


- 4 1 ^ = ^ a, and - 1 ^ = k a.
H dn
o 1
dn
o 2

(3.2.8)

It can be seen that when a- ?^ 0 the lines of equal wave height make a non-zero
angle with the normal at the boundary and that when a ^ 0 the lines of equal
phase make a non-zero angle with this normal.
In practical hydraulic work the reflection coefficient is introduced in a more
physical way and is defined as the ratio between a reflected wave and an incident
wave. This definition is only useful in the case of reflection of long-crested
plane wave against an infinitely long breakwater, assuming partial reflection has
no influence upon the plane wave form of the reflected wave. In that case it is
possible to obtain a relation between the theoretical reflection coefficient a
1R

(= a +ia ) and the practical coefficient p (= Re

) in which

R = amplitude reduction factor, and


B = phase shift.
Assume a

one-dimensional wave is partially reflected against a vertical wall

at X = 0. The total potential of the wave field is written as the superposition


of the incoming and a reflected wave;
(i> = j n

+ ^ H R e

At the reflecting wall the theoretical condition is:


TT- + k ai> = 0

dx

atx

0,

and substitution of the expression (3.2.9) into this condition gives the two
equations:
a

(1 + R cos g) - a

R sin B + a

R sin g = R sin B,

and
(1 + R cos B) = 1 - R cos B,

which have the solutions

24

(3.2.9)

In Figure 3.2 the values of a. and a^ are given as functions of the amplitude
reduction factor R for different values of the phase shift 3-

Figure 3.2

Relation between Theoretical and Practical Reflection


Coefficient

The mixed boundary condition is only applicable in the case that the theoretical reflection coefficient a is not dependent on the solution (J) (linear condition).
However, in general partial reflection is a non-linear phenomenon and therefore
the linear formulation can be wrong in the neighbourhood of partially reflecting
walls. But it might be possible that with this formulation of energy absorption
reasonable overall results can be obtained when the interest is only for an averaged wave height over some area.

3.3

Some Analytical Solutions

To get some idea of the diffraction phenomenon two analytical solutions will now
be given, one illustrating the scattering of an incident plane wave field by a
circular pile and the other showing the diffraction by a semi-infinitely long
fully reflecting vertical breakwater.
The solution of the diffraction around a circular pile (see Figure 3.3) has

25

been given by McCamy and Fuchs (1954) with the aid of a Bessel series development.

Figure 3.3

;.PCre.z)

Definition Sketch of Circular Pile

If (r,0,z) are the cylindrical coordinates of the point P, then the solution in
this point is given by:
c o s h {k

5(r,9,z) = - i 2 g
2 0)

(z+h)}

c o s h (k h)

(3.3.1)-

(t>(r,9)

with

Kr,e)

i n which

S e i
m
m=0

= 1

A (k r ) =
m o

(3.3.2)

A (k r ) c o s (mO)
m o

= 2

for m =

1,2,3,

J (k r ) Y ' (k a ) + J '
m o
m o
m
J ' (k a ) + i Y
m o

(k a ) Y (k r )
o
m o
' (k a )
m o

J ( ) = Bessel function of the first kind and m-th order,


m
'
Y ( ) = Bessel function of the second kind and m-th order,
m
'
a

= radius of the pile.

and a prime indicating a differentiation with respect to the argument. The wave
height pattern and the phase lines are shown in Figure 3.4a and Figure 3,4b for
the case k a = 1,

26

Figure 3.4a

Diffraction around Cir-

Figure 3.4b

Diffraction around Cir-

cular Pile; Lines of Equal Wave Height

cular Pile; Lines of Equal Phase every

every 0.1 unit.

7T/4 rad.

In front of the cylinder a reflection pattern can clearly be seen and behind the
pile the influence of the diffraction effect.
The problem of diffraction around a semi-infinite breakwater has been solved by
Sommerfeld and a numerical evaluation of the solution can be found in Shou-Shan
Fan (1967) and Born (1965). The incident wave is making an angle of B degrees
with the positive x-axis (see Figure 3.5).
y
^

incident w

//
e
y\

/
\

breakwater
X

y
/

Figure 3.5

Definition Sketch of Semi-infinite Breakwater

The solution at a point P with cylindrical coordinates (r,0,z) is given by

27

!Z;(r,e,z) =

cosh {k (z+h)}

2 O)

cosh (k h)

1 Hg

<l>(r,e).

(3.3.3)

with
i k r cos(9-6)
(i>(r,e) = f(aj)e

i k r cos(e+6)

H^)i

(3.3.4)

k r
0 = 2

in which

a, = - 2

and

f (a) = i ^

TT

sin j

(9-3)

k r
,/ - ^ sin 1 (8+6)

^-^^'i'l^

dq.

The wave height pattern in the case of a normally (g = 270) incident wave is
sho\m in Figure 3.6 (Shou-Shan Fan) and more in detail in Figures 3.7 and 3.8 (Born)
There can be distinguished the region of reflection in front of the breakwater,
the region of shadow behind the breakwater, and the region of transmission, where
wave heights greater than one can occur due to diffraction effects. The phase
function shows undefined points in the reflection area corresponding to points
with a minimum in the wave height. An explanation of

the existence of these

points can be found in a report of Radder (1974).

Figure 3.6

Diffraction by a Semi-infinite Breakwater;


Lines of Equal Amplitude (after Shou-Shan Fan)

28

Figure 3.7

Diffraction by a Semi-infinite Breakwater;


Lines of Equal Amplitude (after Born)

Figure 3.8

Diffraction by a Semi-infinite Breakwater;


Lines of Equal Phase (after Born)

29

3.4

Wave Penetration into Harbours

The mathematical model for computing the wave penetration into a harbour of arbitrary shape is based on finding the solution of the diffraction equation (3.1.7)
in an area which is bounded by vertical barriers and an aperture to the open sea
(see Figure 3.9).

Figure 3.9

Definition Sketch of Harbour Diffraction Problem

A reflection condition can be imposed at the barriers, while at the entrance of


the harbour the incident wave is given and the radiation condition also taken
into account.
For the method of solution it is convenient to distinguish two areas: Area I
inside the harbour and Area II outside the harbour. Both areas

are assumed to

have the same constant water depth and therefore also the same wave number k .
o
The boundary between the two areas

is indicated by C. In Area II the

solution will be written as a superposition of the known incident wave (fi and a
diffracted wave (j), caused by the presence of the harbour and coming only from the

30

aperture C. In this outside area reflections from the breakwaters and the coast
are ignored, so the total potential function in this area is:

* = ^ + 4)^ .

(3.4.1)

Inside the harbour the solution will be indicated by the potential i);.
Both (J) andii will be sought with the aid of singularity distributions. The
source solution of the Helmholtz equation

satisfying the radiation condition is

given by

G(P;M) = ^ H '(k r)
zi o
o

(3.4.2)

The diffracted wave (fi in Area II is written as a superposition of


source potentials coming from points situated only at the aperture C.

<1>,(P') =
d

r y^/M') -!v H ^ k r') ds


_/

II

2i

f^i

(3.4.3)
^,

C
The inside potential ijj in the point P can be written as:

i^m

Pj(M) 2jH^'(k^r) dsjj.

(3.4.4)

r+c
In these expressions y (M')
and y

is the intensity of the source M

holding for Area I

(M) is the intensity of the source M holding for Area II (see Figure 3.9)

Imposing the reflection conditions at the boundary F and requiring continuity


conditions for the normal velocity and wave height at the aperture C, the unknown
intensity functions y

and y

must satisfy the following integral equations:

(|^)_ = ^i^^)^{/i3!^[rV(V']<^^
p

c+r

^ii(^> - ^iiir[T\'^\'A^'

"^5)

31

and

c+r

for P situated on the aperture C and

J
C+r

I dn

L zi

J
r

I 2i

ei A T'i
(.j-^-/^

for P situated on the reflecting contour F with the theoretical reflection coefficient a (see section 3.2). With these integral equations the source intensity
functions \i

and \i

are uniquely defined and can be solved numerically.

Once the intensity functions have been found the potential at each point in
Area I or Area II can be computed according to the expressions (3.4,4) and
(3.4.3).
For complicated harbours with many basins (see Figure 3.10) it is possible to
split up the harbour into more

areas corresponding to the basins and to express

the solution in each area as a source integral over the boundaries of that area.

All'
Figure 3.10

Harbour with Multiple Connected Basins

Requirements of continuity for the normal velocity and wave height at the boundary between two areas

create a set of integral equations for the unknown inten-

sity functions y of all basins.

32

3.5

Harbour Oscillation

The mathematical model for wave penetration into harbours of arbitrary shape can
also be used for the computation of harbour oscillation. In that case the
interest is in the wave heights at several points of the harbour as a function of
the period of a disturbance at the entrance. For some periods the wave height
shows a maximum and the corresponding frequencies are called the resonance frequencies of the harbour. These resonance frequencies are not much effected by the
form of the disturbance at the entrance,but the value of the wave height depends
on the incoming normal energy flux and therefore on the width of the entrance. As
an illustration of the harbour resonance phenomenon,a simple example of the oscillation modes of a long rectangular harbour with a full open entrance is given in
Figure 3.11.

Figure 3.11

Harbour Resonance Curve

33

It is assumed that the wave form in the harbour is nearly one-dimensional, so in


Area I the wave potential is given by:
i k X
-i k X
+ Be
,

(t)^(x) = Ae

(3.5.1)

with A and B integration constants.


In the area outside the harbour the wave potential (|)

is a superposition of a

CO

known disturbance (() and a diffracted wave (j) , which can be written as a source
integral over the entrance C:
+ Jb
*jj = * +

-ib

y(y) 21 H Q ^ V ^ ''y '

(3.5.2)

with b the width of the harbour entrance. The reflection condition - i = 0 at the
an
end X = L of the harbour, together with the two continuity conditions:
a*
3<t>
<i>^ = ^^^ and ~
=^ ^
(3.5.3)
^I
^11
an
dn
at the entrance x = 0, give three equations for the three unknowns A, B and y.
From the reflection condition there can be derived:
(() = C cos {k (x-L)},

(3.5.4)

with C a new integration constant. The two continuity conditions (3.5.3) give the
equations
+ lb
?|

U(y) 21 "o'^'^ol^l^ "^^ " ^ ''"^ ^""o^^

(3.5.5)

-jb

and
C k sin (k L) = - -^1
+ \i .
o
o
dx
'x=0

(3.5.6)

Assuming the disturbance c|) is an incident wave travelling in positive x-direction and that there is no reflection outside the harbour, then
* = ^H e

34

and
I't

-i k X

|i =- l H ik
dx

The e q u a t i o n s f o r

t h e unknown C and y become

Dp - C c o s (k L) = - TT H
o
I
and

u + k

1
<^
C s i n (k L) = - 77 i k H ,
o
2
o

which have the

solutions
1 - i k

,<>
5H

c o s (k L) + k
00
sin

, ,
5 k

-?
H

D sin

(k L) + i c o s

_o

c o s (k L) + k
0
0

(k 1)

D sin

n 8 o-,

(k L)
o

with D =

Yi Ho'(kjyl) dy.

The c o e f f i c i e n t

D can be approximated for

(3.8.7)

(k L)
o

^ )

s m a l l v a l u e s of k

by

b r 2

.[1 (Y_, + In (Ik^ b)} - i] ,

with Y = 0.5772157

(3.8.9)

(Eulers constant).

Figure 3.11 shows the value of C/^H as a function of the wave length
for different values of the width b. In the limit b -> 0 the resonance wave
lengths X, are given by

T=2Fr

i=0.'.2.

(3.8.10)

35

Both the three-dimensional and the two-dimensional diffraction problem lead to an


integral equation for the source intensity function over the surface or contour of the
obstacle. As these integral equations

cannot be solved analytically for surfaces

or contours of arbitrary shape, a numerical method must be applied. For three-dimensional problems reference can be made to

the work of Garrison (1972) and for

two-dimensional problems to Daubert and Lebreton (1965).


The method will be illustrated in this section for the two-dimensional problem
of diffraction around a single cylindrical full-reflecting obstacle. The method
is also applicable with slight modifications to the problem of wave penetration
into harbours with partial reflecting walls. The numerical method of solution can
be classified as a finite element method because of the following three steps:
-

The contour of the obstacle will be split up into a number of finite segments;
in each segment the unknown intensity function will be approximated by a function with some parameters; and

continuity conditions between the approximation functions in the connection


points together with the integral equation define uniquely the unknown parameters of the whole problem.
y

r/

J -

^ -P

^
(a)

Figure 3.12

Definition Sketch Method of Solution of Two-dimensional


Diffraction Problem

The integral equation for this problem is given by:

,(P) .,() _|_ [^H^(V)]^3=-(g)

(3.6.1)

and after splitting the contour F into a finite number of segments P. ; j = 1,2,
, N; by:

36

N
y(p) + r

r. " (M) ^diL,

r^H

L 2i

i(kr)]ds^ = -(!*)
o

^on'o

(3.6.2)

This integral relation will now be imposed in a finite number of discrete points
P ; m = !,2,
,N (collocation points), which are the centre points of the segm
ments (see Figure 3.12):
N

V(^J

V(M)

3
9n^

r ' H >(k r)] ds = -(|i)


L 2i o
o J M
^'^"'p

(3.6.3)

Not only must the intensity function p be approximated piecewise but also the
form of each contour segment

to carry out the integration in expression (3.6.3).

At this stage both these approximations must be attuned to each other, because it is
useless to obtain an accurate solution belonging to a bad contour approximation. In
general, both approximations must be of the same order. Let the form of the contoursegment r. be approximated by a polynomial expression (spline) of some order. Depending on the order of this spline, continuity conditions for the derivatives between the splines can be imposed to obtain a smooth approximation of the curve T.
In the same way the unknown intensity function in segment T. will be approximated
by the spline Li,(s:a. , a.,,
^
J
Jo' jl'

,a. ) of order p, in which a. , a.,, etc. are


' jp
_
^'
JO* jl'

the p+1 parameters of the spline. With a cubic spline (p=3) continuity conditions
for the intensity function itself as well as the first and second derivates can be
imposed in the connection points, by which only one unknown parameter per segment
remains. These parameters can now be computed with the aid of the discrete integral relation (3.6.3), which gives a set of linear equations for the unknown parameters.
It is obvious that by taking higher order splines for the approximation of both
the contour ,3nd the intensity function along the contour a lot of work must be
done to compute the coefficients of the ultimate set of linear equations. In general, the integration over each segment must be done numerically because of the
complicated source function. On the other hand, the gain of all this work can be a
saving in the number of segments and therefore a saving in computing time to get
a solution of the set of linear equations.
The simplest way to do the numerical computation is to split the contour into a number of straight~line segments and taking both the intensity function and
the source function in expression (3.6.3) as a constant. The work of computing
the coefficients of the system of linear equations is now minimal and also the
approximation of the contour is very simple. Of course, sufficient segments must be

37

taken to approximate the curved contour m

an appropriate way and

to adequately

represent the exact intensity function in discrete points.


In practical computations this most simple numerical method of solution will be
used because for practical problems such as wave penetration into harbours

the

requirements for the accuracy of the results are not severe, taking into account
the uncertainty of the input data of the model.
An indication of the influence of the number of computing points upon the results can be obtained from some computations in the case of diffraction around a
circular pile (see Figures 3.13a and 3.13b for a three-dimensional computation and
Figure 3.14 for a two-dimensional computation).

Figure 3.13a

Amplitude of the Wave Po-

Fig. 3.13b

Phase of the Wave Poten-

tential 0(x,y,z) along the Surface of a

tial (|)(x,y,z) along the Surface of a

Pile for Different Schematizations.

Pile for Different Schematizations.

= number of points along the circu-

= number of points along the verti-

lar contour

cal

It seems that a minimal number of computing points over a distance of one wave
length has to be maintained to ensure reasonable results. For practical problems
this number must be five or more.
About the influence of higher order spline approximations the reader is referred to the work of Botta (1975) and Labruyere (1972), both working with similar

38

problems in the field of aerodynamics.

- - exact
simple method
+ constant intensity
polygon appr
quadratic intensity-

A constant i n t e n s i t y ,

circular appr

> numerical

6 segments

:-4

H/H

,4'

< '"-.-1

' \
Figure 3.14

Influence of the Number of Computing Points upon


the Wave Height at r = 30

3.7

Some Results

It is not the purpose of this study to give very accurate and detailed solutions
of some diffraction problems, but more to illustrate the possibilities of the
diffraction models for practical problems.
First the results of a harbour diffraction computation are compared with some
measurements in a hydraulic model, in which the walls were vertical and fully
reflecting, the bottom horizontal and the incoming wave sinusoidal, to ensure the
best possible simularity with the mathematical model. The lay-out of the
harbour can be seen in Figure 3.15 and also the measuring-points in the harbour.
In Figure 3.16 the wave heights, relative to the incoming wave height, at the
measuring-points are given for both the computation and the measurement. The
agreement between measurement and computation is very good, especially the transition to higher wave heights. The computed wave heights, however, can deviate

39

The last result belongs to a harbour resonance problem (seiche) for a harbour
of arbitrary shape. In Figure 3.23 the relative wave heights at points A and
B of the harbour are given as a function of the period of the incoming disturbance

at the entrance. The walls of the harbour are fulfy ref1ecting and the dis-

turbance is given as a plane

wave normal to the entrance. In this Figure the

wave heights show some peaks, and the corresponding periods are called the periods
of resonance. When these periods are out of the range of periods for all possible
disturbances at the entrance, then the harbour will have no resonance problem. Because of the longer periods, which will be considered, the number of computing
points along the contour is not very high, thus allowing a repetition of the computation for more periods within a reasonable computing time.

40

Figure 3.15

Lay-out of the Harbour

Figure 3.15

Measured and Computed Wave Heights

41

ncident

f-"'"-^

Figure 3.17

Wave Height Contours

incident

Figure 3.18

42

wave

Wave Height Contours

wave

Figure 3.19

aj = O, 82 = 1/3

Figure 3.20

aj = 0.4, a2 = 0

Figure 3.21

= 0.4, a^ = 1/3

Diffraction Around a Partial Reflecting Circular Island


Lines of Equal Wave Height every 0.1 unit

^"'\
Figure 3.22a

Diffraction Around a Partial Reflecting Circular Island (a. = 0,


a

Figure 3.22b

D i f f r a c t i o n Around a P a r t i a l Reflecting Circular Island (a. = 0,


a

44

= 1). Lines of Equal Wave Height every O.I unit

= 1 ) . Lines of Equal Phase every TT/4 r a d .

50

100

150

200
>

Figure 3.23

250
300
period (sec)

350

400

450

500

Harbour Oscillation Curves

3. 8

Discussion

In spite of the restrictions for the diffraction models and mainly the requirement of linearity, it appears that the results give qualitatively

and in some cases

also quantitatively reasonable answers to the problems. Of course, the phenomenon of


separation of flow and the creating of vortices are not included in this linear
mathematical modeland therefore the results for structures or harbours with
sharp corners will be less accurate, especially in the neighbourhood of these
points.
In the case of wave force computations Garrison (1972) made some comparisons
with measurements on a smooth obstacle and found reasonable results.
In harbour diffraction problems the lines of equal wave height correspond very
well to the measurements, and for practical problems of harbour design this will be
sufficiently

accurate. Requiring more accurate results will not be meaningfull

because of the uncertainties in the boundary conditions in nature, such as period


and direction of the incident wave. Also the phenomenon of partial reflection of
the breakwaters gives rise to the problem of choosing the appropriate reflection
coefficients. Partial reflection has been observed in the past mainly for perpendicular incident plane waves. Measurements show that partial reflection, in which
the breaking of the waves is included, is a non-linear phenomenon, depending on
the slope and roughness of the breakwater and on the wave length and wave height
near the breakwater. This means that the theoretical reflection coefficient introduced in Section 3.2 will depend in general on the wave potential. It might be
possible, however, that the linear formulation as a mechanism of energy dissipation along the boundaries will give reasonable overall results,although this must be
shown

by extensive measurements in a hydraulic model. Also there is only a little

knowledge of reflection coefficients in the case of obliquely incident waves,


and the aspect of the phase shift due to reflection has had little attention by
workers in this field.
Results of harbour oscillations computations have been compared by Lee and
Raichlen (1971) with measurements in a hydraulic model and the agreement in resonance periods is good. Of course,the values of the wave height belonging to
these resonance frequencies are not realistic, because loss of energy in the solution domain is not possible in this mathematical model.

46

4 Refraction
4.1

The Refraction Equations

The phenomenon

which is called as refraction of waves

can be described as the

change in the direction of wave propagation, in the wave length and in the wave
height due only to a slow variation of the bottom. Reflections of the waves
against boundaries in the horizontal plane can be ignored.
The differential equations

which describe the refraction phenomenon

can be

derived from the basic linear potential equation (2.5.1) and the conditions at
the free surface (2.5.5) and at the bottom (2.5.4) by means of an asymptotic approximation. In this theory it is assumed that, corresponding to a slow variation
of the water depth,the variation of the potential in the horizontal plane is
much less than that in the vertical direction. The refraction equations derived with this theory are essentially the same as the classical equations, which
can be derived in a geometrical way using the laws of Snellius. The asymptotic
approach

used

in this Section

assumes in advance

differs slightly from that of Keller (1958), who

that the phase function is only a function of the horizontal

coordinates.
Assuming a slow variation of the bottom, the gradient of the water depth in the
bottom condition (2.5.4) can be made of the order one by taking new horizontal coordinates (x,y) in the water depth function h(x,y):

(x,y) = ^ (x,y)

in which (see Figure 1.1) D = the mean water depth, and


a = the mean slope over a distance D,
giving:

Vh = ^ Vh

(4.1.1)

with V and V the two-dimensional nabla operators (7- , -;--) and (;?= , 77=) respect9x

3y

9x

3y

ively.
The other coordinates are made dimensionless
characteristic length 1

with the aid of the free surface

= g/u^

47

(x', y', z'.h') = y- (x,y,z,h).


o
The equations written in these quantities, omitting the primes for simplicity
in notation, are now:

i!l.^.^=0,
8x2 3y2
32^
1^ - 0 = 0
dz
8 . , ( | | h ^ 3 0 3h
3z
dx 3x
3y 3y

(4.1.2)

at z = 0,

(4.1.3)

^ ^ _

with e = a/u and y = D/1 .


o
Essential for the refraction approximation is the assumption of slow variation
of the potential in the horizontal plane. Mathematically the horizontal coordinates X and y in the potential function are scaled with the parameter e, giving
the equations:
,2 ( 0 . 1 ) , 3 ! 0 . O ,
9x2
3y2 3z2

1^ - 0 = 0

(4.1.5)

at z = 0,

(4.1.6)

,^ , - V,
at z - -h,

ri , 7-,
(4.1.7)

dz
30
^ ^

2 ,30 9h ^ 30 3h. _ ^ ^3 35 ^ ^ 3 f ^ -

in which it is assumed that all quantities, except the parameter G, are of the
order one.
There is now introduced an amplitude function A(x,y,z) and a phase function
S(x,y,z) by writing:

0 = A e"- ^.

Substitution of this expression in Equations (4.1.5)-(4.1.7) gives the equations:

48

-2 ri
z^
{| V^A - (VS .VS)}

1 8^A

,8S

(ff)^ = '

e^ V.A^VS + ^ (A^ 1^) = O,


dz

(4.1.9)

dz
at z = O,

dz
1^ + E^ (VA . Vh) = 0

(4.1.10)

(4.1.11)

dz

at z = O,

3z
e^ (VS . Vh) = 0

3z

(4.1.8)

(4.1.12)

(4.1.13)

Equation (4.1.9) is the equation for the energy flux and can be integrated over
the water depth,thus:

z-0
V . A^VS dz + A^

3z
z=-h

or, using the boundary conditions (4.1.12) and (4.1.13),

V . A^VS dz + A^ (VS . Vh)|


-h

V .

=0

'z=-h

-h

A'^VS dz = 0.

(4.1 .14)

Now solutions of the functions A and S will be sought in the form of series developments with respect to powers of the parameter e. An approach with the aid of
order functions, as is treated by v. Dyke (1964), is more general, but this
method will complicate the derivation and will give no other results. It appears
that the series development is in even powers of G, so:

A = A

+ e^A, + e'A^
1
2

and

(4.1.15)
S = E fs

+ c^S, + e''s
L o
1
2

49

with m a power, which must be defined later on. Substitution of these developments into Equation (4.1.9) and condition (4.1.12) gives, in first approximation
for small values of e,
~

3S

dz

dz

or,after integration and using (4.1.9),

=0,

which means S

(4.1.16)

= S (x,y). Using these results and substituting the series devel-

opments in equation (4.1.8) gives:

e^V^A

- e^^*^A
L

3^A

(VS . VS ) + e^ {A, (VS . VS ) + 2A


o o o
l o o

3^A,
+ e^

3z2

^
e

9z2

3S,
(~)^ + 0 ( e ) + 0(e
9z

(VS .VS,)}1 +
o o l j

) = 0.

Depending on the value of the power m,three possiblities can be distinguished.


First,m > O gives in first approximation the equation
3^A

= 0,

and with the aid of condition (4.1.11)


9A

or A

is only a function of the horizontal coordinates x and y. However, condi-

tion (4.1.10) requires then the only possible trivial solution A

= 0.

In the second case, m < - 1 the first approximation is:


A

(VS

. VS ) = 0,

3S
c
which means that both -^ as -^

"3x

are identically zero,giving a constant phase

function as the only possible trivial solution.

50

The remaining possibility is -1 < m < 0, giving the equation:


3^A
- A

(VS

^2

dz

. VS ) = 0

, 3^A
= (VS
o 9z

. VS ) .

As the right-hand side of this equation is only a function of x and y, so also


must the left-hand side be a function of only x and y. Let

(VS

. VS ) = K^(x,y),
o

(A.) .17)

then the amplitude function A

must be a solution of the equation

a^A
- K^A

=0

(4.1.18)

3z^
with the boundary conditions
3A
^

=0

at z = -h

(4.1.19)

A normalized
solution of these equations is:
3A
- ^ - A = 0
at z = 0.
3z
o {K(h+z)}
cosh
a (x,y),
o
cosh (Kh)

(4.1.20)

dz
and

(4.1.21)

provided that the variable dimensionless wave number K is the real root of the
dispersion relation

1 = K tanh (<h).

(4.1 .22)

The two-dimensional amplitude function a (x,y) can be computed with Equation


(4.1. 14), giving:

51

V .(

^
K

VS ) = o

(4.1 .23)

o
O

because of the identity

/na
/ A ^ dz =
J
o
2
-h

Ir,
2<h
1
with n = - {1 + . , .. , .J .
2
s m h (2<h)

Summarizing,the two refraction equations, written in dimensional form are:


The "eiconal" equation defining the phase function S (x,y)

(^)^.(^)^ = V
with k

(^-'-^^^

the variable real wave number, depending on the variable local water

depth h by the dispersion relation

m^ = gk
o

tanh (k h ) .
o

(4.1.25)

The two-dimensional energy flux equation, defining the amplitude function a (x,y),

n a ^ as
. n a ^ as
#- ( - ^ ) + f (-^
^ ) = 0,
3x j^ 2
ax
3y ,^ 2 ay
o

(4.1.26)

in which
2k h
n = i {1 + K^i, t,J
2
sinh (2k h)
o

(4.1.27)

is a variable shoaling coefficient.


The eiconal Equation (4.1.24) is a well-known equation in the theory of geometrical optics, defining the path of a wave ray.
Equation (4.1.26) is the energy flux equation from which can be derived the law
of conservation of energy flux between two wave rays. This can be shown by applying the divergence theorem of Gauss to the closed contour ABB'A'A of Figure 4.1.

52

wave orthogonals (rays)

wave fronts
s=constant

Figure 4.1

According
P

Definition Sketch Wave Rays and Wave Fronts

to the expression (3.2.5) for the integrated mean energy flux vector

, this vector can be written as:

P * = l p ^ n a ^ VS

(4.1.28)

Along a wave ray, defined as the orthogonal of the line of equal phase S

(see

Figure 4.1), there must hold:

(m . VS ) = 0 ,

so the divergence theorem of Gauss gives the result, using Equation (4.1.26):

(m . P *) dn =
1

(m' . P *) dn'

(4.1.29)

1'

which means that the energy flux between the two wave rays is constant.
The partial differential equation (4.1.24) can be transformed into a set of ordinary first order differential equations with the aid of the characteristic direction of the equation. This characteristic direction appears to be the direction
of a wave ray, which is defined as the orthogonal of a line of equal phase (see
Figure 4.1).
The normal direction n at a line of equal phase (S = constant) is given by:

I
/

,3S 3S,
' 'Sx ' 3y''-

'-3X-'

^Sy'

53

Omitting the subscript zero of the asymptotic approximation for the sake of simplicity in notation, and putting (p,q) = (TT , -TT) and using the eiconal equation
ox
dy

E " ^

(p,q).
o

The coordinates of the orthogonal (wave ray) as a function of the distance E,


along the ray are now given by:
dx _ p
dC " k

(4.1.30)

and
dy ^ _q_

d?

(4.1.31)

Also there must hold


dp _ 9j) dx

9p dy

dC ~ 3x df" "^ y d

dp

1 , 8p ^

3p,
'

^,
, ^.
3p
3q , 3'S
3^S ,
or, using the relation K ^ = -5^ (^-3 = ^ ^ )
dy
dx dydx
dxdy
dp

, 3p ,

3q,

df = IT (P 3^ " ^ af)
o
which can be written with the aid of the eiconal equation as

3k
= ^

(4 1 32)

In the same way there can be derived:


3k
^ = ^
dC
3y

(4 1 33)
(.t.i.Jj;

The differential Equations (4.1.30)-(4.1.33) define the path of the wave ray.
The phase along the wave ray can be computed with:

54

dS ^ 3S dx ^ 3 dy
dC
3x dC
3y dS

d5 " i r (p ^1 ) .
or
^ = k
d^
o

(A.1.34)

Also the energy flux equation can be transformed into an ordinary differential
equation along a wave ray. If

0
then Equation (A. 1.26) can be written in the form:

dx

dy

dx

3y

k
o

or with (4.1.30) and (4.1.31), as:


I dg

, p

, q .

d C = 3 ^iT^ * 37 ^iT^o

-^

(4.1.36)

The right hand side of the last equation cannot

be computed easily, because

only p and q and its derivatives with respect to E, will be computed in the wave
ray equations.
To overcome this difficulty,both sides of the equation are differentiated with
respect to the current variable E, along the wave ray, and after some formula manipulation, using the equations for p and q, the following differential equation
for the function 3 can be obtained:

+ P | | + QB = 0 ,

(4.1.37)

in which the coefficients P and Q are only functions of p, q, the known wave number k

and its derivatives with respect to x and y.


IT

ak

3k

55

Q =

,
o
(q - 5

o.

2pq

(q^
3x^

8=^k

8^k

8^k

3k

9x9y

3y^

Equation (4.1.37) is identical to that presented by Munk and Arthur

(1952),

The obtained set of ordinary differential equations (4.1.30)-(4.1.37) defines


the solution of the refraction problem in quantities along wave r a y s , provided
that sufficient b o u n d a r y conditions are given.

4.2

Boundary Conditions

The set of differential equations derived in the foregoing Section requires a number
of boundary conditions to produce a

unique solution. The result of the asympto-

tic approximation is a lowering of the order of the leading differential e q u a tions compared with the original Laplace equation. The eiconal equation is of the
first order, and the energy flux equation is also of the first order in the u n known w a v e amplitude function a. Therefore it is not possible to impose boundary
conditions along the whole boundary of the solution d o m a i n , as was the case for
the diffraction problem.
Giving n o w the amplitude function and the phase function along some starting
curve C (see Figure 4.2) in the horizontal plane will be_sufficient to define the
refraction solution in the whole field.

Figure 4.2

Jc
. 5c

IT
C!)

: Oc

(IJ)

Refraction Computation; Starting Curve

Let a (ri) and S (n) be the k n o w n amplitude and phase function respectively
along the given starting curve C described by the coordinate functions x (n) and
y (ri) . To obtain a solution of the set of equations in the whole field, the following starting vklues along the curve C must be computed: p (r|), q (r|) , p (n)
dfi
c
c
c
and (-7=) . The starting values p and q can be computed from the equations
dS

dy.
c

"dn"

56

i^c

dT

(4.2.1)

and
P ' * q '.

V ^ ' ^ c ' yc>

(4.2.2)

The starting value g (r|) along the curve C is given by

(x , y )
c ^c

n (x . y^)
and the derivative with respect to ^ with the help of Equation (4.1.36)

,d6

which can also be written in the form:

# c = 3c[^^i--^i^if)^p^ifj
The values for TT^ , TT^ , TT^- and -r-^ along the curve C can be obtained from the
3x
3y
3x
9y
equations:
J
dx
dy .
dp ^
c dp ^
c dp
dn
dn 3x
dn 3y
dq ^ ^c 3q ^ ^c 9_q
dn
dn 8x
dn 3y
3k
o dx

p 3P + q
M
'^c 3x
^c 3x

o 3y

"^c 3y

^c 3y

In general, the starting curve C will correspond to a wave front (line of equal
phase), which means -^ = 0. In the case of a straight wave front and a constant
dn
water depth along the front, then (-ri-) = 0.
'
d^ c

57

4.3

Some Analytical Solutions

The success of an analytical approach to obtain the solution of the refraction equations depends greatly

upon the bottom configuration.

In the case of straight and parallel bottom contour lines (see Figure 4.3), an
analytical approach is possible.

Figure 4.3

Refraction by Straight and Parallel Depth Lines

In that case the wave number k

is only a function of the y-coordinate, so along

a wave ray the equation must be:


dp

dS

(4.3.1)

= 0 ,

resulting in p = p

(constant) and with the aid of the eiconal equation

(4.3.2)

" = * yv-Pc^
The path of the wave ray is determined by the equation:

^ = 3.
dx
p

dx

P^

giving after integration


y
X - X

= p
c
^

/
j

dy.
V

58

(4.3.3)

The phase function S along a wave ray follows from:

^ = k
d5
o

dS
dy

/V

and thus
S - S

(4.3.4)

dy
V

The foregoing results can be worked out when the variation of the wave number k
with respect to the y-coordinate is given in analytical form.
Considering only shallow water for which the wave number is given by the expression

k^ = to/\/gir ,
and taking a water depth variation like h = y , then a solution for the path of a
wave ray can be obtained in closed form.
Integration of Equation (4.3.3) with k

= A/y (A = a/\/g)

gives the result:

(X - x ^ ) ^ . y'

in which

(4.3.5)

J^^

x^ = x^ + ^

- p^^ y^^'

c
R

= A/p

indicating a circular path with the centre point at (x^, o) and with a radius R.
The phase function S along the wave ray can be computed from Equation (4.3.4) giving (see Figure 4.3):

tg (IT/4 + I a)
S

= A In

tg (Tr/4
in which

(4.3.6)

i
2

st^

the angle of the wave ray with the p o s i t i v e x - a x i s , and

59

= the starting angle of the wave ray, related to p

by the

A cos a ^.

The separation function 6(S) along the wave ray will be constant when the initial
conditions 6 = 1 and -rjr = 0 are imposed for = 0, because this is the only possible solution of Equation (4.1.37) in which the coefficient Q = 0. The relative
wave amplitude is then given by:

(4.3.7)

4.4

Numerical Method of Solution

For practical refraction problems there is no analytical expression for the water
depth function h. In general only the values of h in the grid points of a rectangular grid represent the bottom configuration of the area of interest. For the
numerical integration of the refraction equations (4.1 .30)-(4.1 .37) there are reqi^ired the values of the wave number and its first and second partial derivatives in the
computing points, which can be situated within a mesh of the grid. To obtain these
values there must be some interpolation between the values in the nearby grid points.
Instead

of working with the wave number k

and its derivatives,it is convenient

to work directly with the water depth and its derivatives. The relations between
these quantities are given by the following expressions:

gk

tanh (k h)
.,

3^k

3k

- Bk^
f
o 3x

3x
o

3x2

(4.4.1)

and

/ = -Bko fl
3y
3^k

Bko ^'^
;
g^a

Cko (f)2
3x

= Ck
3y2

'. \.

. ,3h,,3h, _ ,,.
i^h
= Ck (^) (^) - Bk ^r-n^
3x3y
o dx 3y
o 3x3y

with B
h (k

B k '^ V
and

2B^

(k

60

(4.4.2)

3y

v^)'

(ly
3y

Bk

3"h
3y^
(4.4.3)

The partial derivatives of the water depth in the grid points are computed by
means of finite difference formulae, for instance, central differences (see Figure
4.4).
i+2

J+2
Ay

J-1

i+1

Figure 4.4

i+2

D e f i n i t i o n of G r i d

Points

h.
'3X-'. .
i.J

2Ax

.2^
(3__h)
3x^ i , j

'

'3y''.

.
i.J

. , - h.

. ,

2Ay

h. , . - 2h. . + h . , .
i+'.J
i.J
1-1.J
(Ax)'

(4.4.4)
2,
3 h,
9y'

_
i,j

_3fh_
^Kdy'.

h . . , - 2h. . + h. , .
i,J+l
i,j
1-1,J
(Ay)'

^ ''i+l,j +l
.

''i+l,j-l

" " i - L j + l "" ^ i - l , j - l

4 (Ax) (Ay)

with Ax

mesh width in x-direction and

Ay

mesh width in y-direction.

The interpolation function, which will be used for both the water depth and its
partial derivatives to compute the values in the interior point P of a m e s h , is
of the Lagrange type (see Figure 4 . 4 ) :

f(P) = (l-x)(l-y) f._. + x (1-y) f.^j^. + (l-x)y f.^^^, + xy fi^.,_j +


(4.4.5)
with f representing the water depth or one of its partial derivatives. The advant^

61

of this approach is that the contLnuity of the interpolated quantities by transition from one mesh to another will be guaranteed.
The set of ordinary differential equations can be solved numerically with one
of the well known standard Runge-Kutta integration methods, for which error estimates are available and which can be found for instance in an article by Ralston
(1962).
The accuracy of the whole numerical method of solution, however, depends mainly
upor the accuracy of the interpolation method and upon the computation of the partial derivatives of the water depth. Inherent from the fact that the problem is an
initial value problem,the deviation of the numerical solution at the start of the
computation has a great influence upon the solution later on. It does not, however,
seemuseful to use sophisticated interpolation and integration techniques when the
uncertainties of the input data such as the water depth variations in practical
problems are taken into account.

4.5

Some Results

The numercial method of solution has been verified with the aid of the analytical
solution of Section 4.3. In that problem the path of a wave ray is given by a
circular segment. The numerical result is shown in Figure 4.5 giving the path of
a wave ray with a starting angle of incidence of zero degrees and showing the influence of the step-size on the path. Changing the grid-size for the representation
of the bottom by a factor two or four, either the rotation of the grid over an angle
of thirty degrees nor an analytical computation of the derivatives of the water
depth gives any appreciable deviations in the solution. The computed separation function B fromEquation (4.1.37) with the initial conditions g = 1 and -re = 0 at
^ = 0 does not deviate more than one percent from the theoretical value 3 = 1
along the ray. Apparently the Lagrange interpolation and the numerical integration method is sufficiently accurate for this problem.
The refraction of plane waves due to a circular shoal with a parabolic bottom
profile has had much attention in the past; Pierson (1951), Whalin (1972) and
Biesel (1972). This problem is interesting because of the existence of a socalled "caustic". This is defined as the envelope of the intersection points
of nearby wave rays. Such an intersection point, defined by the property (see
Figure 4.3):

lim ^ = 0
1 -^-o o

62

(4.5.1)

with 1
1
o

the distance between two wave rays and

the initial distance between these two wave rays,

can be detected in the computational results by the value 6 = 0. In the intersection points the wave height must be theoretically infinite, according to the refraction equations. Of course, such a solution is not realistic and the existence
of a caustic is an indication that the asymptotic approximation leading to the
refraction equations is not valid and that diffraction effects must be taken into
account.
The refraction solution of the shoal problem outside the caustic region is given in Figure 4.6 in the form of wave rays and wave fronts and in Figure 4.7 in
the form of lines of equal wave height. The refraction solution outside the caustic region appears to agree in a reasonable way with measurements in a hydraulic
model made by Holthuyzen (1971).

63

100

>

e -

- - ^
90

80

70

60

50

exact
step size ^ X

ti

\
^

40

O O

Step size a l / 4 5.
mesh size

30

T = lOs

20

\
10

]
10

20

30

40

50

60

1,0
MOO^

-^

^ _ _
o

20

40

60
> y

Figure 4.5

64

70

Refraction Computation Circular Ray

r^

80

100

80

90

100

wav8 length

wave front

Figure 4.6 Refraction of Plane Waves by a Circular


Shoal; Wave Rays and Wave Fronts

Figure 4.7 Refraction of Plane Waves by a Circular


Shoal; Wave Heights

wm

4.6

Discussion

The asymptotic approximation leading to the refraction equations causes implicitly the elimination of the phenomena of diffraction and reflection. The curvature
of the wave amplitude V a is neglected and therefore the order of the differential equation is lowered, making it impossible to satisfy all boundary conditions
in the horizontal plane. The boundary conditions at sea (wave height, direction
of propagation, phase and the curvature of the wave front) define the whole solution, so other conditions at breakwaters or at the shoreline cannot be satisfied.
The wave ray solution will be influenced only by the local variations of the water
depth. It is clear that in those cases where the curvature of the wave amplitude
cannot be neglected, the refraction theory fails. This will be the case in the
neighbourhood of a caustic and near the shore, where the wave height becomes
infinite too.
In practical refraction problems, where the bottom configuration is arbitrary,
the refraction diagrams can show a lot of crossing orthogonals and caustics,
which makes it very difficult to interprete these diagrams and to derive any quantitative information about the wave height distribution over a particular area.
A useful approach in doing practical refraction computations is to smooth the
bottom lay-out by drawing smooth bottom contour lines and by ignoring some details
in the bottom lay-out before the bottom configuration is represented into a grid
schematization. The results of such a computation will show a reasonably ordered
wave ray pattern, from which it is possible to obtain some quantitative information about the wave height distribution. Taking the rough bottom lay-out as the
basis of the grid schematization will result in general in a mess of crossing
wave rays, from which it is very difficult to derive the desired information.
Interesting questions in these refraction problems are: Which rate of detail
in the bottom lay-out is important, and What is the influence of a caustic upon
the results at a certain distance from that caustic?
The refraction theory has the advantage that the method of solution is only
restricted to the computation of a wave ray and that the solution can be obtained
in a reasonably simple way. However, the number of problems which can be solved
fully with the refraction theory appears to be small.

66

5 Refraction - diffraction
5.1

The Refraction - Diffraction Equation

In the foregoing Chapter about wave refraction it was pointed out that the refraction theory fails when caustics, a shore line or other boundaries in the horizontal plane are present. In that case also diffraction and reflection of the
waves play a part.
Of course, it is possible to return to the three-dimensional model, but this will
be a very rigorous step in practical problems. It would be more convenient to
maintain a two-dimensional model in which the diffraction effects can be taken
into account in some way.
A two-dimensional differential equation which describes the combined effect of
refraction and diffraction of water waves has been sought in the past by many
workers in this field, such as Pierson (1951), Eckart (1952), Battjes (1968),
Biesel (1972) and Ito (1972). The disadvantage of the equations given by these
authors is that they do not reduce to the appropriate refraction equations
(4.1.24) and (4.1.26) after substitution of the expression (f) = ae

and neglect-

ing the curvature V \ of the amplitude function. Also these equations do not pass
to the well-known linear shallow water equation in the case of a small water
depth.
In this present study an equation is given which has the properties just mentioned. Independently from the author, Schonfeld (1972) derived the same equation in
another way and written in another but not so compact form. Also Svendson (1967)
derived the same equation as Schonfeld but only for one horizontal dimension, as
is pointed out by Jonsonn and Brink-Kjear (1973).
The derivation of the two-dimensional refraction-diffraction equation starts
with the non-dimensional equations (4.1.2), (4.1.3) and (4.1.4), which are repeated here for convenience;

8^0

+ -i ^ . i ^

= o,

(5.1.1)

3x^
8y^

30
32

3z^

0
=0

at z = 0,

(5.1.2)

67

90
3z

80 8h
e (^
^=
3x 3x

with e = a/v

30 3h

-h(x,y).

3y 3y

and ]i = D/l

(5.1.3)

(see Figure 1.1).

The assumption of a slow variation of the potential function 0 in the horizontal


plane will lead to the refraction equations. Therefore something else must now be
assumed to come to a two-dimensional description of the phenomenon.
On the analogy of the diffraction and refraction theory the three-dimensional
potential will be written as the product of two functions

(5.1.4)

= Z(h,z) (|)(x,y,z),

with the function Z given as

Z(h,z)

cosh { K (h+z)}
cosh (KTh)

(5.1.5)

in which K is again the real positive wave number defined by the non-dimensional
dispersion relation

(5.1.6)

1 = K tanh (Kh) .

Later on it will be assumed that with expression (5.1.5) the dependency of the
potential 0 with respect to the vertical coordinate z has been largely taken into
account. In the function Z also the influence of the bottom variation is allowed
for by means of the variable water depth function h(x,y).
Substitution of the expression (5.1.4) into Equations (5.1.1), (5.1.2) and
(5.1.3) gives:

Z V^O. + 2VZ . V* + <t, V^Z + * ^


3z^
|i= 0

+ 2 1^ |i + Z - ^ = 0 ,
^' 3^
9z^
at z = 0 ,

and

Z | i + E [(VZ . Vh) (t) + Z (V<f. . Vh)] = 0


Now

68

at z = -h

VZ = IIVh
dh
V^z = e'l ^

(V^. Vh) + If V^h 1

and
^

= K^Z .

With these expressions, the equations become:

{ ^

9h2

(Vh . Vh) + I I V^h}1 + f 2 | f (Vh.V*)l .


3h

ZV^*.K^Z*.2|f|i.z3-l=0
3z 8z

dz

(5.1.7)

3z^

= O

(5.1.8)

at z = O

and

e^ [ I l (Vh . Vh) f] + e [ Z

(V* . Vh)

+ Z 1^ = O

at z = -h.

(5.1.9)

To consider the mean wave energy flux, as was done in the refraction theory
for obtaining the amplitude equation. Equation (5.1.7) will be integrated
over the water depth after multiplication with the function Z. Using the boundary
conditions (5.1,8) and (5.1.9),the following two-dimensional equation must hold:

r z ( ^ (Vh . Vh)
L I

-h

I I (Vh . Vcf)) dz

+ 1 1 V^h} ({) dz

3h2

Z^ (V^* + K^<i>) dz + E \Z^

(Vh . V(t>)l
z"-h

+ E^ fZ i ? - (Vh . Vh) i\

0.

3h

"z=-h
(5.1.10)

Now it is assumed that the potential (Ji is only a weak function of the vertical
coordinate z, which can be expressed with the aid of a Taylor series development
with respect to the coordinate Oz. Because of the symmetry condition (5.1.8), only

69

even powers of this coordinate have to be taken into account, thus:

Kx,y,z) = (t>^(x,y) + a^z^ <)>, (x,y) + ff^z^^^Cx.y) +

Substitution of this development into Equation (5.1.10) yields:

e' I *_ {(

dz) (Vh . Vh) + i (

II

dz) V^h)

-n

( / I f dz) (Vh . V(t>^)+

Z^

-h

Z^dz)(V^((i^ + K'-ipJ

1 3Z'
2 3h

(Vh . Vcf) )
o
lz=h

(Vh . Vh) * 11 ++ 0(e"o


0(e"o") = 0 ,
z=-h

with m 5- 2 and n > 0.

Neglecting terms of the order O(e^) and 0(e a ) , with m > 2 and n ^ 0, and
using the property
o

-h

-h

'2=-h

gives the equation:

/'

Z^dz) (V^(t) + K^cJ) ) + (t) 4 : ( /


o
o
dn
J

V . ( /
J
-h

Z^dz) V*
o

+ K^ ( /
J
-h

Z^dz) (Vh . Vcf. ) = 0


o

Z^dz) ()> = 0
o

which can be written in dimensional form as:

V . (-^ V* ) + n
^ 2 0

70

=0

(5.1.11)

or
V . (cc

c
V* ) + (1)^ - ^ (
|
)= 0 ,

g o

(5.1.12)

C O

1
^""^o*^
with n = ^ { 1 + . . ,,r-r-}
2
sinh (2k h)

c = nc
g
c = co/k
o
Equation (5.1.12) describes both the refraction and the diffraction phenomena
Substitution of the expression (J) = a e

and neglect of the variation of the am-

plitude function in the horizontal plane give rise to the refraction equations
(4.1.24) and (4.1.26). In the case of deep water or a constant water depth, the
equation becomes the diffraction Helmholtz equation. With a small water
depth,the equation corresponds to the linear shallow water equation, which can
be derived also with the shallow water approximation.

5.2

Boundary Conditions

Because of the elliptic nature of the partial differential equation (5.1.11) a


set of conditions at the whole boundary of the solution domain must be given.
These boundary conditions in the horizontal plane are similar to those of the
diffraction problem and therefore reference should be made to the corresponding
Section (3.2) in the description of the diffraction theory in Chapter 3.

5.3

Some Analytical Solutions

For a verification of the method of solution, given in Sections 5.4 and 5.5, an
analytic solution for a special problem can be of great help, and so in this Section
two analytical approaches for obtaining a solution of Equation (5.1.11) are given.
First the problem of the response of a circular island with a parabolic bottom
profile (see Figure 5.1) to very long plane waves (c = \/gh) is dealt with.

71

'

\\

0i
--

-I--

\\

X........V
7

Vi ^J

11

\\

11
1
1

^,

^y

.^

,f ho

^
y

T-

'1
Figure 5.1

"

^
T^

ro"".

^^^

h
hi
?

Definition Sketch of Refraction-diffraction in a


Circular Island Problem

Vastano and Reid (1967) used this analytical solution for the verification of
their numerical finite difference method. The water depth h is given by the rela
tion:

h = h

for r s< r < r.

1 r,^

h = h,

for r > r,

in which r

= the radius of the island,


o
r = the radius of the circular area with a parabolic bottom profile,

= the distance from the origin,

= the water depth at r = r , and


o
"^
o'
h. = the water depth at r = r .

The solution of the two-dimensional equation (5.1.11) at r = r

I' .
c = c

72

= v/gh IS given by the expression:

with n = 1 and

e
i(r

,6) = - ^

TTO)

= 2 ; e

with e

cos(m9)
m

Z
m=o

TQ^

=1

(5.3.1)
(T)

'

for m = 1,2,3,

m
= rj/r^

\^

T)

; T = (orj/v/ih^

= { J ' ( T ) + i Y ' ( T ) } c o s h (a

I n p) +

[ J ' ( T ) + i Y ' ( T ) - - { J ( T ) + i Y ( T ) } (a ^-1 )1 s i n h


a L m
m
T m
m
m
j

( a I n p)
m

1 + m^

A second analytical approach can be obtained in the case of propagation of


obliquely incident plane waves over an underwater talud (see Figure 5.2). Chao
(1970) and Booy (1973) have studied this problem because of the presence of a
straight caustic, when the problem is solved with the refraction equations.

HI
x=o

x=L

"7777777777777,

> ^
Figure 5.2

'777777777777777777777777

Definition Sketch of Propagation Problem of Obliquely Incident


Plane Waves over an Underwater Talud

Because of the extension of the underwater bottom disturbance from -<^ < y < +'^,
the wave amplitude function a will be independent of the y-coordinate along the
talud, so:

t>(x,y) = a(x) e

i S(x,y)

(5.3.2)

73

There are three areas

to be distinguished (see Figure 5.2). In Area I the so-

lution is written as the superposition of the incident and a reflected plane wave:
^

i k,(x cos a+y sin a)

|)j(x,y) = J H e

i{k.(-x cos a+y sin a) + B.}

t^-KHe
(5.3.3)

with

amplitude reduction factor,

B,

phase shift, and

wave number in Area 1.

In Area III the solution is written as a transmitted plane wave propagating into a direction

which makes an angle of y degrees with the positive x-axis:

<(.jjj=iTffe

with

i{k (x cos Y+y sin y) + S,}


3

amplitude transmission factor.

Bo

phase shift, and

wave number in Area III.

(5.3.4)

In Area II the following two equations for the amplitude function a(x) and
phase S(x,y) must be satisfied:

^ -

cc

dx

(ec

^ ) + a f k ^ ^ - {(|1)2 + (|^)'}1= 0
g dx

L 2

dx

dy

(5.3.5)

and
^
(cc a^
3x
g
with k
= the
As in the Areas

1^) + ^ (cc a^ |^) = 0,


(5.3.6)
8x
3y
g
3y
variable wave number in Area II.
I and Til, the phase function S in Area II is written in the form:

S(x,y) = ly + S'(x) ,

(5.3,7)

giving the equations:


J_
cc

74

d
dx

da
g dx

r 2 _ ^^2 ^ (dS')2j-| ^ 0
L 2
dx
J

(5.3.8)

and
d ,
;;- (cc a
dx
g

dS s

-5 ) = 0 .
dx

The last equation can be integrated with respect to the variable x, giving:

dS'
dx

(5.3.10)

with E some integration constant. Substitution of (5.3.10) into (5.3.8) yields this
equation for the unknown amplitude function a(x) in Area II;

'
cc

d r
da, , r, 2
,2
-T- (cc -3-) + a k ^ - 1^ dx
g dx
12

(5.3.11)

The unknown quantities E, 1, 6. Y, 3o> R and T and the required boundary


conditions for

Equations (5.3.10) and (5.3.11) can be obtained by imposing con-

tinuity conditions for the functions a and S and its partial derivatives at the
boundaries between the different areas.
3S
9S
The continuity conditions for the functions -5 , ir- and S at the boundary x = L
between Areas II and III give the following relations respectively:

E = a cc

1 = k

S' = k

k^ cos Y
3

(5.3.12)

sin Y

(5.3.13)

L cos Y+ 83

(5.3.14)

and at the boundary x = 0


(1-R^) k| cos

a
(5.3.15)

1+R^ + 2R cos S,

1 = k

sin a

R sin I
S' = arc tan {
1+R cos

(5.3.16)

=>

(5.3.17)

da
The continuity conditions for the functions and a at the boundary x = L give

75

respectively

^S- = O and

(5.3.18)

dx

a = y T H ,

(5.3.19)

and at the boundary x = 0:


to

H R k
22. =
dx

cos a sin B,

\ / I + R'' + 2R cos 6j

a = |- H

and

1+R^ + 2R cos gj

(5.3.20)

(5.3.21)

From Equations (5.3.13) and (5.3.16) the angle Y f the transmitted wave can
be computed
^1
Y = arcsin ( sin a ) .
kj

If the incident angle a is greater than the critical value ex,

^3
a, = arcsin (-),
kr
''i

given by:

(5.3.22)

then no solution for the angle y can be found. In that case there is a full
reflection of the incident wave by the talud and the assumption about a transmitted
wave is not valid. This special case is treated later on in this Section. Because
of the linearity of the problem, the amplitude function can be taken relative to
the transmitted amplitude,and thus introduce:

a*(x) = - 2 ^ .
2 T H

(5.3.23)

The value of the integration constant E can now be computed with (5.3.12), giving

E = | T ^ H ^ C C

k,

cos

Y,

(5.3.24)

and the differential equation (5.3.11) for the relative amplitude function a (x)

76

can be solved numerically for a given bottom profile using the boundary conditions :

a* = 1

and

-p
dx

= 0

at x = L.

(5.3.25)

With the aid of this solution,the values of a

and -^
dx

it is possible to obtain the values for R, T and 3

at x = 0 are known and now

from the set of Equations

(5.3.15), (5.3.20) and (5.3.21). The initial condition for the differential equation (5.3.10) can how be obtained from Equation (5.3.17)and after integration of
this differential equation the value of S' at x = L gives the possibility to compute the last unknown quantity 8, with the help of Equation (5.3.14).
In the case of full reflection,the value of E will be zero and the amplitude
function in Area III must satisfy the equation:

^-^ + a (k.^ - 1^) = 0,


dx^
^
with 1 = k

(5.3.26)

sin a.

A solution of this equation, vanishing at infinity x =co and having the value
a = 1 at X = L,is given by:

= ^-m(x--L)

ifor X 5- L ,

(5.3.27)

with

sj^" -

s'

The differential equation in Area II is now:

-L- :^ (cc 1^) + a (k2 - 1^) = 0,


cc

dx

e dx

^ 2

(5.3.28)

'

8
with the boundary conditions

a = 1

and

da
^ = -m
dx

at x = L ,

(5.2.29)

which can be solved numerically for a given bottom profile over Area II.
An illustration of the influence of the angle of incidence upon the solution of
this propagation problem is given in Figure 5.3 for special bottom profile
and wave period. For angles of incidence lower than the critical angle,there is a

77

partial reflection of the incoming wave and the wave amplitude is constant after
crossing the talud. The value of the wave amplitude behind the talud can be consid
erably

higher than that of the incoming wave because the distance between the

wave rays has become much smaller. For angles of incidence higher than the critical value there is a full reflection and the wave amplitude goes exponential to
zero behind the talud.

^^^^^^^^^^,^^^^j^:,^777777^777777777fm7777777r7777777777777m77777T.

Figure 5.3

Solution of the Wave Propagation problem of Obliquely


Incident waves over an Underwater Talud

5.4

Variational Formulation

The leading partial differential equation for the refraction-diffraction problem


is of the elliptic type and therefore suitable for a variational formulation.
The problem of finding a solution of Equation (5.1.12) over an arbitrary
Area A can be replaced by the problem of finding that function cj) for which the
real functional
J = 1

{cc

(V(t> . V(|)) - U)^ - (|)(f)} dx dy

(5.4.1)

has an extremum; see Courant and Hilbert (1962). In this expression the overbar
denotes the conjugate complex value and the subscript zero has been omitted for
simplicity in notation. Extremizing the functional (5.4.1) gives a solution of
Equation (5.1.12) with the natural boundary condition

78

at the total boundary of the solution domain A.


This condition corresponds to the full reflection condition. When the boundary
condition at a part of the boundary is given by another condition, say,

(5.4.3)

dn = f.

with an arbitrary function f^then the following term must be added to the functional :

il

(f<i> + f if)

cc

ds.

(5.4.4)

in which s is a current variable along the relevant boundary T .


The boundary conditions for the refraction-diffraction problem are restricted
to the full reflection condition at rigid walls and to the radiation condition
for the disturbance of the incident wave at infinity.
The radiation condition at infinity makes it difficult to obtain a solution in
a straightforward numerical way, and therefore the condition at infinity will be
brought back to a condition at a finite boundary by dividing the whole solution
domain into two sub-areas. Sub-area A corresponds to a region in which the water
depth variation must be taken into account, and sub-area B is the area in which the
water depth can be assumed to be deep or constant (see Figure 5.4) .

..'".,\
B

Figure 5.4

Definition Sketch Method of Solution of Refraction-diffraction


Problem

Now the solution in Area A will be found by extremizing the functional (5.4.1)

79

and tTe solution in Area B with the aid of a source distribution along the boundary r_ between the two areas. With this method the radiation condition for the
disturbance of the incident wave at infinity is satisfied automatically,but now
the intensity of the source distribution along the contour T

will be the unknown.

This intensity function, however, can be computed from continuity conditions for
the wave height and normal velocity at the boundary r.
The solution at a point P of the Area B is given by (see Section 3.4 of Chapter
3):

*g(P) = *(P) +

y(M) 2T "o' ^ V ^ '^''M '

(5.4.5)

in which k is the constant wave number in Area B and calculated from the dispero
sion relation

0)2 = g k

tanh (k h) .

(5.4.6)

The unknown intensity function y must now satisfy the following integral equation with both points P and M situated on the boundary T'

(5.4.7)
p

The solution <|)

r^

in Area A can be found by extremizing the functional

A
1

(5.4.8)
(fif^ + f(t>j) cc^ d s .

r
The three equations (5.4.5), (5.4.7) and (5.4.8) are matched at the boundary V
by the continuity conditions

*g(P)=<^^(F)

and

(^)

=(-g^)

=f(P),

(5.4.9)

for P situated on r, giving a set of equations by which the unknown functions

80

y(s) and (|) (x,y) can be obtained.


Once the intensity function y of the source distribution has been computed, the
solution <{) in Area B can be obtained at any desired point P with the aid of ex

pression (5.4.5).

5.5

Numerical Method of Solution

When a variational formulation of some problem exists a numerical treatment with


the aid of finite elements is obviously to be preferred above a finite difference
technique, because of the following advantages:
An easy way to represent boundaries of arbirary shape;
the possibility to use small elements in areas where a strong variation of the
solution can be expected; and
the possibility to use algorithms or programme parts of standard finite element
software packages, including plotting facilities.
For this refraction-diffraction problem the numerical treatment is based on the
finite element method in combination with a finite source distribution method to
compute the intensity function of the source distribution along the boundary T^.
The finite element method in its most simple form with triangular elements and
linear approximation functions is used here.
For more information about the theory of the finite element method reference
should be made to the book of Zienkiewicz and Cheung (1970). An application in the
field of harbour oscillations can be found in an article by Taylor, Patil and
Zienkiewicz (1969).
Splitting up Area A into N elements of triangular form, and approximating
both the real and imaginary parts of the potential function (J) in each element by
a linear expression of the variables x and y, gives:

(J)^(x,y) = N^(x,y) . ^^

(5.5.1)

in which the subscript A has been omitted for simplicity in notation and
e

.
.
.
the angular points

the vector of values of the potential function m


of the e-th element (cf). , 0. , 4).), and
1
J
k

N
-

the vector of coefficients (N. , N,, N, ) , which are functions of the


_
1
J
k
coordinates x and y.

81

The vector of coefficients for the e-th element is given by (see Figure 5.5):

N (x,y)

e
a.
I

, e
e
b. c.
l l

e
a.
J

, e
e
b. c.
J
J

\
with

a.

b.

, e

, e

(5.5.2)

=k
e

e.

= -^TT (y- ~ y, ) and c.


2A
j
K
1

(5.5.3)

, e

e.

and a. , a , b. , n , c. and c following by changing i, j and k in a cyclic


J
k
J
K
J
K
order.

x = (x^t x?+x)/3

y = (yf*yr+y?)/3

Figure 5.5

Definition Sketch of Triangular Element

Substitution of the linear approximation (5.5.2) into the expression of the


functional (5.4.8) gives a quadratic function in the M nodal values of the potential function for the total number of nodal points in Area A:

E J ff
[cc
e=l
^J^ L g
e
R
II f
=1 J
m=l

{V(N'' .^'')

. V(N^ .^^)

- k^2(N^ .i^)(N'^ -i^)}] dx dy

[cc {(if . T ) f + (N-^.T) f}] ds,


L

with L = the segment of the boundary F belonging to the m-th element


m
z
R

82

(5.5.4)

and

= the number of elements with one side coinciding with the boundary F

Also the intensity function y of the source distribution along the contour r
can be treated in the most simple way by taking v constant in each element:

V (s)

1 ,2,.

P_

(5.5.5)

The i n t e g r a l e x p r e s s i o n s for the source d i s t r i b u t i o n function

in the c e n t r e points

P of the segments a r e t h e n , w r i t t e n in d i s c r e t e form by t a k i n g a c o n s t a n t


grand

(see Figure

inte-

5.6)
R

f(P) = (\ o1n^/ ) + p(P) + _K mu d A


r ' H (k or ) lj Li
n L ^ i o

(5.5.6)

K P ) = <t)(P) +

(5.5.7)

m=l

and

Figure 5.6

I V ^ H 1 (k r ) L .
, m 2i o
o
m
m=l

Definition Sketch of Finite Source Distribution Method

Now the functional (5.5.4) must have an extreme

value with respect to varia-

tions in the M nodal values of both the real and imaginary parts of the potential
function, giving twice a set of linear equations:
3J

=0

in which ^

for k = 1,2,.

(5.5.8)

,M

is either the real or the imaginary part of the value of the poten-

tial function in the k-th node. There is only a contribution to the summation in
expression (5.5.4) when the k-th node corresponds to one of the three angular points
of an element. By assuming that the k-th node corresponds ro the point i of the
e-th element, the following set of equations arises:
'^k
E

{(b! b? + c^ c?)

{(b. b. + c.
J

c.)
1

ff

cc

cc

dx dy - u^

dx dy

ff

n N^ N^ dx dy} (j)^ +

n N. N. dx dy} .
J 1
^ '^'j

83

{(b.', b . +.C, c . )

kK. 1i

K.

cc

dx dy - )^

n N, N. dx dy}

JJ

k i

E f(P )
r=l
"^ J

with N

cc

N^ ds,
^ '

(5.5.9)

= the number of elements for which the k-th node corresponds to one of
the three angular points of the element,

R, = the number of these elements situated along the boundary F^, and
P

= the centre point of the segment L .

The integral expressions //

cc

dx dy, //

/cc
T

n N

N. dx dy for m = i,i and k and

N. ds are approximated numerically by (cc ) ,

A , (n)
e

/T
e //

N^ N? dx dy

JJ k

r
and (cc )^
g P

"e
f N. ds r e s p e c t i v e l y , in which Z i s the c e n t r e point of the e-th
/ i
e
'^
r

element (see Figure 5.5). Now there come:

//
//

N^ N dx dy = A
m i

N (x,y) N? (x,y) +
e m ^ i

.e^eAefe

, 2

,e

\Z.i^

~\^~\

(b! Cf . b? C!) ^ [(y^7)^(y%7)^(y^-7)^]


m i

i m

12

' i TT [*^^i"^)<^yi'"y)"*'(^^"^)(y^"y)+(\"^)(y^"y)J
and N. ds = 0

when the point i is an interior point of Area A

but

/ N. ds = y L

when the point i is situated on the boundary F.

Substitution of the expression (5.5.6) for the value of f at the centre point
P into Equation (5.5.9) for the real and imaginary parts of the complex quan-

84

titles gives twice a set of M linear equations for the nodal values of the potential function and the intensity function of the source distribution along the
boundary r.
Taking the value of the potential in each centre point as the average of the
values in the neighbouring nodal points on the boundary (see Figure 5.6), gives:

(5.5.10)

<)(P^) = [ {0(P.) + 0(Pj)} ,

and then Equation (5.5.7) supplies a set of R linear equations for the complex values
of the potential function in the nodal points and the intensities in the centre
points on the boundary r.
In matrix form the following set of equations for the complex unknowns must be
solved:

L_,

(5.5.11)

Thus
A((i + By = r
(5.5.12)
C0 + Dy = r

with A

a real synmetrix MxM matrix with a band structure generated by the finite element method,
a complex MxR matrix with non-zero values in the rows that correspond
with the nodal points situated on the boundary r,
a real RxM matrix generated by the averaging procedure

(5.5.10),

a complex RxR matrix with coefficients consisting of Hankel functions


according to Equation

(5.5.7),

the vector of unknown complex values of the potential (() in the M nodal
points of Area A,
the vector of unknown complex values of the intensity function y in

85

the R source points situated on the boundary V


r

a known vector provided by the normal derivative of the incident wave


potential, and

r. =

a known vector provided by the incident wave potential.

The set of Equations (5.5.12) will be solved by a direct method of solution.


First, the vector of intensity values along the boundary T is computed according
to the expression:

U = (D - CA-^B)"^ (2 - CA'^rj) ,

(5.5.13)

and then the vector of the potential values in the nodal point of Area A by

i = A-^ (r^ - Bu) .

(5.5.14)

Not the inverse A"'^ will be computed but only the L-R decomposition of A, taking
into account the symmetrical band structure of the matrix.
With respect to the accuracy of the method of solution, it is necessary to deal
with the accuracy of the finite element method, with the accuracy of the finite
source distribution method for the treatment of the boundary condition at sea, and
with the influence of both methods upon each other.
An analytical approach to the aspect of the overall accuracy of the numerical
method of solution is very difficult because of the number of factors playing a
part, such as:
-

The magnitude of the elements,


the orientation of the elements in relation to the direction of wave propagation,
the rate of approximation of the unknown functions in each element or segment,
the representation of the boundary by a polygon,
the accuracy of the numerical method of integration over each element or segment, and

the accuracy of the method of solution

used for solving the ultimate set of

linear equations.
For some information about the accuracy of the finite element method the work of
Zlamal (1968), Bramble and Zlamal (1970), Babuska (1971), Fix and Larsen (1971),
Strang (1972) and Dailey and Pierce (1972), should be consulted.
Some remarks about the accuracy of the method of solution for the integral equation

86

have been given in the Chapter about diffraction.

To obtain a practical estimation of the total error of the numerical method of


solution, some computations have been carried out for the trivial problem of wave
propagation over a horizontal bottom without

the presence of obstacles. The re-

sults of these computations give the impression that the total error in the wave
height is a function of the number of computing points over a distance of one
wave length into the direction of propagation (see Figure 5,7).

I 20V.-

\ o\y^,
I

...

o
01
02
03
04
stop siza ralative to tha wave langth

Figure 5.7

Empirical Relation between the Error in the Numerical Solution


and the Step Size

Of course, more advanced finite element techniques can give more accurate results, maintaining the same number of computing points, but the accuracy of both
the finite element method and the finite source distribution method must be attuned to the rate of uncertainty in the input data of practical refraction-diffraction problems and to the overall accuracy

which is required for these pro-

blems.

5.6

Some Results

For a verification of a mathematical model, two aspects are important. First, it


must be verified whether the method of solution is correct in the sense that the
numerical solution is in agreement with the exact solution of the mathematical
equations. Secondly,it must be verified whether the mathematical description of
the problem and the corresponding solution agree in an appropriate way with the
desired physical process. This last verification gives the most problems, because
the physical process always has some effects which do not satisfy the restrictions
of the mathematical formulation. To quantify the influence of these effects
is very difficult,

but a

verification of the refraction-diffraction model has

been done with the aid of some measurements in a hydraulic model concerning the
problem of the propagation of obliquely incident plane waves over a step of the
bottom, for which an analytical approach has been given in Section 5.A; see
Figures 5.2 and 5.3. In Figure 5.8 a comparison has been made between the

87

measurements in the hydraulic model and the mathematical results. For more information about the measurements reference can be made to a Report of the Delft Hydraulics Laboratory (1974). There is a reasonable agreement between the mathematical model and the physical process, taking into account the number of disturbing
factors in the hydraulic model,such as the finite size of the step in the bottom
lay-out in a lateral direction, the presence of second harmonic waves due to the
wave maker, the reflection of the waves at the boundaries of the hydraulic model,
the non-linear effects,and the bottom friction. The fit between measurement and
computation seems to be the best in the case of full reflection of the waves. It
is clear that with the refraction-diffraction model the difficulty of the presence of a caustic line, which occurs in the refraction theory, has been overcome
and that the results obtained are qualitatively in good agreement with the physical process.
The two-dimensional numerical method of solution has been verified with the aid
of the analytical solution for the problem of wave propagation of very long waves
around a circular island with a parabolic bottom profile, which has been given in
Section 5.4. Figures 5.9 to 5.11

show the finite element schematization and the

computed wave heights compared with the analytical solution. For short wave
Deriods, the deviation between the numerical solution and the analytical solution
is rather large, which is an indication that the finite element schematization
used is not sufficient to represent the variations of the solution in an appropriate way and that more elements must be used to improve the numerical results.
It is possible now with this two-dimensional method of solution to obtain the solution of the problem of wave propagation over a circular shoal with a parabolic
bottom profile also in the region behind the caustic curve; see Figures 4.6 and 4.7.
To save computing time and computer memory, only a part of the circle
has been schematized into finite elements (Figure 5.12). Upto

the line OA it is

assumed that the refraction solution is a sufficiently good approximation of the


total solution, which is in reasonable agreement with measurements in a hydraulic
model; see Holthuyzen (1971). The solution of the refraction ray method has been
imposed as a boundary condition at the boundary AO. The results of the computation are given as lines of equal amplitude every 0.25 unit in Figure 5.13, as
lines of equal phase every 7r/4 rad in Figure 5.14,and as lines of equal water
elevation at some time every 0.5 unit in Figure 5.15. The phase contours show
some remarkable points in which the phase is not defined uniquely, corresponding
to points with a zero wave amplitude, just as in the diffraction problem of a
semi-infinite breakwater (Figure 3.8). The water elevation contours can be used
to compare, the results with a simultaneous photograph of the wave field. The

88

results agree very well in a qualitative way with those of a hydraulic nodel;
Holthuyzen (1971). A quantitative comparison with the measurements of Holthuyzen
above the shoal is not possible because of the lack of information about the
phase and because of the unreliability of the quantitative results of the measurements .
Another comparison has been made with hydraulic model results in the case of
wave propagation of obliquely incident waves over an area with a constant slope
of the bottom and with the presence of two fully reflecting breakwaters; see
Figure 5.16. In this problem all aspects of refraction, diffraction and reflection
of the waves must be taken into account. An additional difficulty is the dissipation of energy at the shore due to the breaking of the waves. The boundary
condition of full energy absorption at the breaker line has been treated numerically with the aid of a fictive area behind the breaker line with the breaker depth
as the water depth, where the waves can propagate in a radiating way to infinity.
The schematization of the area into finite elements is given in Figure 5.17, and
the comparison between the mathematical results and the measurements for three
different angles of incidence are given in the Figures 5.18 to 5.20 as lines of
equal wave heights. Again there is a reasonable agreement in qualitative sense,
looking at the areas of maxima and minima, but the agreement in a quantitative
sense is not so good. It appears, after all, that in the hydraulic model a secondary current was created from the right to the left along the shore, which had, of
course, some influence upon the wave field. The effect of this current will be an
increase of the wave height in the left part of the model and a decrease in the
right part. This tendency corresponds to the deviation from the mathematical
results. Also other effects, such as second harmonic waves, non-linearity and
friction, contribute to the deviation between the mathematical and the hydraulic
model.

89

h-:i = 0.233 m

T=0.94 s

ho^O.222 m

hl =0.155 m

computed
measured range
Figure 5.8

Propagation of Obliquely Incident Plane Waves over an


Underwater Talud; Comparison between Computation and
Measurement; Wave Heights in Percents of Incoming Wave

90

o< Figure 5.9

Configuration of
Elements

Figure 5.10

Wave Heights in the case of

Figure 5.11

a Constant Depth (h = 4000 m)

Wave Heights in the case of a


Variable Depth

(h = 4000 m) ,

along the Shore (r = r )

Tsunami Response for a Circular Shoal

HlM

MHMI

Figure 5.12

Figure 5.13

Wave Propagation over a Circular Shoal; Configuration of Elements

Wave Propagation over a Circular Shoal with


Wave Height Contours every 0-25 unit

92

Figure 5,14

Wave Propagation over a Circular Shoal with


Phase Contours every Tr/4 rad.

Figure 5,15

Wave Propagation over a Circular Shoal with


Water Elevation Contours every 0,5 unit

93

- breaker line

- breakwater

breakwater -

bottom slope 1 30

: 1.4 5
= 0 03n-

water

depth 0 24 i

angle of incidence

Figure 5.16

Refraction-diffraction Problem:
Hydraulic Model

\
X
^
\
^
"
/x
^
\
^
"^ x
/ ^
\ "x
^ ^x'
"
/x
^ x'
"/x"
\

Figure 5.17

/ ^
" \
\
/ ^
/ / \
\
^
\
\
^
/^ \
\
^
^ \

x'

x'

K
/ /^x^

\
/
\
/
\
/
\
/

/
\
/
\
/

\
/
\
/

7\/\7W\/\/
\7\/\7\/\/\
Z'^7\7\7\/\/
\7\7\7\/\7\
/\7\7\/\7\7
\7\/\/\/\A
/\7y\7\/y
\7\7\/\/\7\
/\7\7\7\7\7
\7\7\7\7\7\
Z\7\/\7\/\/
\7\7\7\7\t\

ss
s
/
/ \
\ /
/ \
/
/ \
\ /

Refraction-diffraction Problem:
Configuration of Elements

94

Figure 5.18a

Refraction-diffraction Problem (a = 67,5 )


Wave Height Contours (Measurement)

Figure 5.18b

Refraction-diffraction Problem (a = 57.5 )


Wave Height Contours (Computation)

95

Figure 5.19a

Refraction-diffraction Problem (a = 45 )
Wave Height Contours (Measurement)

Figure 5.19b

Refraction-diffraction Problem (a = 45 )
Wave Height Contours (Computation)

96

Figure 5.20a

Refraction-diffraction Problem (a = 22.5)


Wave Height Contours (Measurement)

Yi i\
\o\
1
1/^

it^

v^
\

4 0 ;.
60 ;.

eov.
100 /.
120 /.
1 4 0 /.
160'/.

Figure 5.20b

Refraction-diffraction Problem (a = 22.5)


Wave Height Contours (Computation)

5.7

Discussion

The derived equation (5.1.12) for the mathematical description of the combined
effect of refraction and diffraction seems to be valid for the whole range from
deep to shallow water. Compared with the two-dimensional diffraction equation
(3.1 7) there are two differences. One difference is the variation of the wave
number in the horizontal plane,and the other is the addition of a term caused by
the shoaling effect and the slope of the bottom-The last contribution becomes
more important when the water becomes more shallow. So therefore the equation

l!i+ 8!i + k ^(x,y) * = 0 ,


in which only the variation of the wave number has been taken into account and
which has been used by Ito (1972) and also by Biesel (1972), will give deviating
results in the case of shallow water.
The method of solution is very flexible for two reasons. One is the use of the
finite element method, which is attractive for problems with boundaries of arbitrary shape, and the other is the partial analytical treatment of the radiation
condition of Sommerfeld to reduce the size of the area of elements. It is shown
by Chen and Mei (1974) that the continuity conditions at the boundary between the
two areas A and B can be included in some way in the functional expression by
taking into account also the variation of the solution in Area B. This method has
the advantage that the ultimate set of equations is symmetrical. Theoretically,
however, both formulations are proper formulations in the sense of giving the same
unique solution of the problem.
A disadvantage of this mathematical model is the numerical requirement to maintain a certain number of computing points along a distance of one wave length,
giving considerable limitations to the practical applicability of the mathematical model. These limitations, however, can be reduced by using more efficient
programming techniques and by the development of larger computers.

88

Conclusions
It appears for practical wave propagation problems that the linear wave theory
gives reasonable qualitative and often also quantitative results. Therefore the
development of mathematical models based on this linear theory is useful

for en-

gineering purposes to obtain some insight into the phenomena and also to derive
some quantitative information about the wave heights.
It may be useful to give here a short survey of the differences in the mathematical
description of the three models for the two-dimensional wave propagation problem.
In the diffraction model the water depth is a constant, or the water is deep and
the wave potential function <|) is a solution of the Helmholtz equation with a constant wave number k :

= 0
3x2

gy2

or,after introduction of a wave amplitude function a and a phase function S by


i S

)
3y2

+ (|^)^ + # ) 2
3^
8y

= 0

- k

and

3x

(a2 r
3S
, ) + TT- (a TT)
dx
dy
dy

In the refraction model a slow variation of the water depth has been taken into
account, but the variation of the wave amplitude in the horizontal plane has been
ignored, giving the uncoupled equations:

(|^)2

+ (|^)2 - k 2 = 0

3x

3y

and
3X-'

in which now k

3y

l>='

is a variable wave number corresponding to the local water depth

h and n a variable shoaling coefficient, which is also a function of h. In the refractiondiffraction model again a slow variation of the water depth has been taken into

99

account, but now the variation of the wave amplitude is included in the formulation;
1 ,8 a , 3 a>. . o ['9a 3 / n .
a , 2
'^ 2
na L ox dx , 2
dx
dy
K.

, da 3 / n \ l ,
dV 3y , 2 J
K

/9S.2
3x

. /3S.2
dy

i 2
o

and
3,n
2 3S, , 3 , n
23S,
_.
^ (
3-5-) + ^- (
a'' ^
= 0 ,
dx
2
ox
y v 2
oy
in which again k

and n are functions of the local water depth. These equations

can be combined to the equation:

3 .n
ox ^ 2
o

30, , 3 , n
3x
3y ^ 2
o

90.
3y

The character of the equations in che three models determines the method of solution. The method (ray method) used in the refraction model is the simplest
one, consisting of finding the solution of a set of ordinary differential equations. The diffraction equation can be solved with the aid of a source distribution along the boundary of the solution domain, because of the fact that the wave
number is a constant in the whole field. The method of solution consists of finding the solution of a one-dimensional Fredholm integral equation. The diffractionrefraction model has the most complex method of solution with computing points in
the whole two-dimensional field, due to the presence of variable coefficients in
the leading partial differential equation.
For practical problems the user of the mathematical models must decide
which model is the most appropriate one to solve his problem, taking into account
the aim of the computation, the desired accuracy, the practical applicability, and
the computing time.
Often a problem can be solved with each of the models mentioned more or less
with some modifications. An example of this approach is given here for the problem of wave propagation to the shore with reflecting breakwaters, which has been
treated also in Section 5.6. One possible approach is to neglect the slope of the
bottom to the shore and to solve the problem with the diffraction model. Figure
6.1 gives the result of this computation,showing the wave height pattern due to
a plane wave with an angle of incidence of 22.5 degrees.

100

Figure 6.1

Wave Diffraction and Reflection (a = 22.5 )


Wave Height Contours

A second possible approach is to compute the paths of the incident wave rays over
the slope of the bottom until they meet the reflecting barrier. It is assumed
then that the wave rays follow the reflection laws of Snellius, giving the possibility to continue the wave ray computation after reflection; see Figure 6.2.
The total wave pattern can be obtained by superposition of the incident and reflected wave fields.A rough sketch of the resulting wave height distribution is
shown in Figure 6.3. The refraction-diffraction results have been given already
in Section 5.6; Figure 5.20. Comparing the results of the different models gives
the impression that the refraction-diffraction model fits the measuremerts in the
best way in spite of all its imperfections.
However, the combined refraction-diffraction model has the great disadvantage
of the great amount of computing time needed to obtain a solucion over a
large area in the horizontal plane. Therefore it is recommended to use the more
simple refraction or diffraction models where possible,and if necessary - for instance in the region of a caustic - to use the combined m.odel and then connect

101

wave ra y
wave front

Figure 6.2

Wave Refraction with Reflection (a = 22.5 )


Wave Rays and Wave Fronts

14 71

12 Tt

lOt

H2

wave ray
I phase lines
-I

Figure 6.3

nnaxima
nninima

Wave Refraction with Reflection (a = 22.5 )


Sketch of Wave Height Maxima and Minima

102

the different solutions to each other in an appropriate way.


The use of the mathematical models described in addition to hydraulic models
can give a considerable reduction of model investigations by the possibility to
exclude some alternatives in advance with the aid of the mathematical computations.

103

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Notation
The following list shows the most important symbols which have been used in the
text, but not including those variables which have only been used locally. All
symbols are also, in addition to this list, defined when they are used in the
text for the first time.

three-dimensional wave amplitude


two-dimensional wave amplitude
wave celerity
group velocity
g
D

mean water depth

G(P;M)

potential in P due to a point source in M

acceleration due to gravity

wave height

m
h

Hankel function of the first kind and m-th order


local water depth

imaginary unit i

\()

Bessel function of the first kind and m-th order

= - 1

modified Bessel function of the first kind and zero-th order


k

o
k.
J
1
o

wave number
roots of the equation to = - gk tan (kh)
characteristic length g/w

normal vector

normal vector

surface area

energy flux vector

P*

integrated mean energy flux vector

pressure

m^
Nm"'S~'

Nm~^

horizontal distance between two points

phase function
current variable along a contour

wave period

time
energy velocity

ms

component of fluid velocity in x-direction

ms

volume
velocity vector

ms

component of fluid velocity in y-direction

ms~

component of fluid velocity in z-direction

longitudinal coordinate
m

Bessel function of the second kind and m-th order

lateral coordinate

function of h and z

vertical coordinate

a( )

two-dimensional intensity function

ratio H/D

separation function

boundary contour

Y
e

wave steepness H/1

ratio a/u

free surface elevation function

angular coordinate

dimensionless wave number

wave length

y( )

one-dimensional intensity function

shallow water parameter D/1

wave number for deep water (co /g)

IT

pi (3.141

current variable

P
a

density
mean bottom slope

T.
J

eigenvalues

real potential function of x,y,z and t

complex potential function of x,y, and z

0,,02

real and imaginary values of 0 respectively

<)>

two-dimensional complex potential function


real and imaginary values of cfi respectively
angular frequency

Summary
This study gives a description of some mathematical models for wave propagation
problems, which are based on the linear simple harmonic wave theory. The models
can be divided into a refraction model, a diffraction model and a model for the
combined effect of refraction and diffraction of water waves.
For each model a derivation of the basic differential equations, some analytical solutions, a numerical method of solution, some computational results, and a
discussion of the applicability of the model are given.
It is not the intension of this study to give accurate solutions of some wave
propagation problems but rather to give some insight into the possibilities of
the models and the interrelationship between them.

Samenvatting
In deze studie worden enkele wiskundige modellen voor golfvoortplantingsproblemen
beschreven, die gebaseerd zijn op de lineaire enkelvoudig harmonische golftheorie.
Onderscheid wordt gemaakt in een refractie model, een diffractie model en een model voor het gekombineerde refractie-diffractie verschijnsel van watergolven
Voor elk model wordt een afleiding van de desbetreffende differentiaalvergelijkingen, enkele analytische oplossingen, een numerieke oplossingsmethode, enkele
rekenresultaten en een discussie over de toepasbaarheid van het model gegeven.
Het ligt niet in de bedoeling om nauwkeurige oplossingen voor een aantal golfvoorplantingsproblemen te geven, maar meer om het onderlinge verband tussen de
modellen en de mogelijkheden ervan aan te duiden.

Be^UKt

STELLINGEN

1.
Een wiskundige randvoorwaarde in het oneindige is veelal
numeriek gezien onaantrekkelijk. Het koppelen van volledig of
gedeeltelijk analytische oplossingsmethoden aan zuiver numerieke oplossingstechnieken kan in dat geval grote voordelen
bieden.
2.
Bij praktijkproblemen tracht men vaak ten onrechte te veel
kwantitatieve informatie te halen uit refractieberekeningen.
3
Bij het fysisch onderzoek naar partile reflectie van watergolven
is het aspect van faseverschuiving tot nu toe stiefmoederlijk behandeld.
4.
D bewering van H. S. Chen en C. C. Mei, dat de in dit proefschrift gegeven formulering van de functionaal behorend bij het
refractie-diffractie probleem niet juist zou zijn, is niet terecht.
H. S. Chen en C. C. Mei, Oscillations and wave forces in
an offshore harbor; MIT Report No, 190; 1974.
5.
Indien een eindige elementen methode wordt gedefinieerd door
de volgende bewerkingsgangen:
i Opsplitsing van het oplossingsgebied in een aantal eindige
deelgebieden (elementen);
ii Per deelgebied de onbekende functie(s) benaderen door bekende functies met een aantal onbekende parameters;
lil Het voldoen aan een bepaald criterium, v/aardoor de onbekende parameters worden vastgelegd;
dan kunnen ook de eindige differentie methoden tot de eindige
elementen methoden gerekend worden.

6.
Bij een optimaliseringsprobleem uit de praktijk ligt de grootste
moeilijkheid vaak niet in de oplossingsmethode zelf maar in het
vaststellen en formuleren van alle mogelijke beperkingen.
7.
Het zou een uitkomst zijn, indien de hoeveelheid extra informatie, die men krijgt uit een hydraulisch model na automatisering van de gegevensverwerking, vooraf kan worden uitgedrukt
in geld ter motivatie voor de aanschaf van een informatieverwerkend systeem.
8.
Het ontwikkelen van wiskundige modellen voor fysische problemen zal in de toekomst nauwelijks meer behoren tot het
werkterrein van de wiskundig ingenieur gezien het huidige studiepakket voor de wiskundig ingenieur.
9.
In een instituut, waar zowel speurwerk als opdrachtwerk wordt
gedaan door dezelfde personen, moet er voor gewaakt worden
dat er in werkelijkheid ook voldoende tijd voor het speurwerk
overblijft.

10.
Er zijn een aantal zaalsporten, zoals zaalhandbal en in mindere
mate basketbal, waarbij de strijd zich voor een zeer groot deel
van de speeltijd slechts op de helft van het speelveld afspeelt.
De vraag kan gesteld worden of door aanpassing van de spelregels niet een efficinter gebruik van de sportzaal verkregen
kan worden.