'y^)2j
Mathematicar Models for
Simple Harmonic Linear Water Waves
Wave Diffraction and Refraction
IVIathematical IVlodels
for
Simple Harmonie Linear Water Waves
Wave Diffraction and Refraction
P R O E F S C H R I F T ter verkrijging van
de graad van doctor in de
technische wetenschappen
aan de Technische Hogeschool Delft
op gezag van de rector magnificus
Prof. dr. ir. H. van Bekkum,
hoogleraar in de afdeling der
Scheikundige Technologie,
voor een commissie aangevi/ezen
door het college van dekanen
te verdedigen op
woensdag 7 april 1976 te 16.00 uur door
J U R I C O R N E L I S WILLEM BERKHOFF
wiskundigingenieur
geboren te Balig, Indonesi
This thesis was prepared while the author was employed at the
De Voorst Laboratory of the Delft Hydraulics Laboratory. The
investigation reported herein was partly conducted under contract
for the Dutch Ministry of Public Works (Rijkswaterstaat)
Contents
I
INTRODUCTION
1.1
'
1 .2
Literature
1.3
Outline
MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION
2.1
General Equations
2.2
Energy Flux
2.3
Potential Formulation
2.4
Boundary Conditions
10
2.5
Linear Equations
1'
2.6
Harmonic Solutions
'2
2.7
Fundamental Solution
1^
2.8
16
DIFFRACTION
20
3.1
20
3.2
Boundary Conditions
22
3.3
25
3.4
28
3.5
Harbour Oscillation
31
3.6
34
3.7
Some Results
37
3.8
Discussion
38
3
<*
REFRACTION
45
4.1
45
4.2
Boundary Conditions
54
4.3
56
4.4
58
4.5
Some Results
60
4.6
Discussion
64
REFRACTIONDIFFRACTION
65
5.1
65
5.2
Boundary Conditions
69
5.3
69
5.4
Variational Formulation
76
5.5
79
5.6
Some Results
85
5.7
Discussion
96
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES
NOTATION
SUMMARY
SAMENVATTING
1 Introduction
1.1
Propagation of water waves is a phenomenon that interests oceanographic, meteorologie and civil engineers.
The phenomenon in all its aspects is a very complex one, because several physical
processes play a part, such as the irregularity of the waves in nature, the breaking of the waves and other nonlinear effects, energy dissipation due to friction
or turbulence, partial reflection, and the dependence of the wave celerity and
direction of propagation on the bottom layout.
It is nearly impossible to give a mathematical description of the phenomenon of
wave propagation in which all effects are included, and therefore some simplifications must be made depending on the aspects which are of interest.
The applicability of a mathematical description often depends on the number
of space dimensions
^>~^
ffD
>
S=
H/IO
M'
D/IO
a. = H/D
= ff/M
Figure 1.1
For a linear wave model it is assumed that the wave steepness y ~ ^/l
is small
and in the case of a small water depth the ratio a = H/D must also be small.
For the diffraction model it is assumed that the bottom slope a over a distance
that corresponds to the water depth is so small, or the water is so deep,that
there is no influence of the bottom slope upon the surface waves. This assumption
can be described with the requirement e
For greater values of the parameter E there is some influence of the bottom variation upon the surface waves. In the refraction theory it is assumed that the
variation of the bottom is moderately small and noticeable for the surface waves
(E < 1), Also it is assumed that the variation of the wave amplitude in the horizontal
plane depends only on the bottom variation and can be neglected in first approximation. This last assumption about the behaviour of the solution is a rigid one,
which gives rise to the problem of a caustic, where the solution of the refraction equations is not well defined. When caustics are present it is clear that
neglecting the curvature of the wave amplitude in the horizontal plane is not
allowed. Caustics can occur also in those cases when the slope of the bottom is
very small, so they are not only caused by the bottom variation but also by the
boundary conditions of the refraction equations.
In the combined refractiondiffraction mathematical model it is assumed again
that the variation of the bottom is moderately small and noticeable for the
surface waves (e < 1). However, the curvature of the wave amplitude is now taken
1 .2
Literature
ir
1.3
Outline
2 Mathematical formulation
2.1
General Equations
In this study about mathematical models for linear simple harmonic water wave
propagation problems it will be useful to have an overview of all the restrictions that have been made in building these models. Therefore this Chapter starts
with a short derivation of the basic equations of continuity and motion in Eulerian form for an ideal (no viscosity) fluid, making use of the wellknown divergence theorem of Gauss. The notation will be in vector form with the nabla and
delta operator. '
Let V be a fixed volume in the cartesian space spanned by the three orthogonal
X, y and z axes, 0 the surface area of the volume V and n the unit normal vector
of 0, positive in an outward direction (see Figure 2.1). The motion of the fluid
will be characterised by the scalar density p and by a velocity vector v =
(u, v, w) in which u, v and w are the components in the x, y and z direction respectively.
Figure 2.1
Definition Sketch
,8b
9b
9b,
^3x ' 9y ' 9z''
: Vb
Laplacian of b : Ab = A^b =
divergence of a: V.a
rotation of a
: V x a
9^b
1
9x
9a,
= (
3y
9^b
S^b
8y^
hz.'
3z
3a,
3z
3z
3a,
3a,
3x
3x
3y
dM _ f [  dV + f p v . n do
dt
Jj
If there is no production or loss of mass then
I. 'If
V . a_ dV = 11
^ J. *iO)
V . p v) dV = 0,
+ V .p v = 0
(2.1.1)
Ot
( ^ ^ ^ ^ P (v.il)XdO= f[ P F d V . If K
with F representing the force vector acting on the mass in V and K the force vector acting on the surface 0. When viscosity is neglected,the force acting on the
surface can be represented by a pressure function p :
K =  p ri
Thus
3pv dV +
V "'
p n do 
p (v . n) v do H
'^'o
''0
\((
p F dV = 0.
"'V
Forming the inner product with an arbitrary constant vector a^ and making use of
the divergence theorem of Gauss leads to the equation
[""^
+ V . {p (a . v) v} + V . pa  a . p F J d V = 0.
After some vector manipulation, taking into account the constantness of the vector ji, the following expression can be derived.
iff
a . [  ^ + (V . p v) V + p (v . V) v + Vp  pF ] dV = 0 .
 ^ + (V . p v) v + p (v . V) V + Vp  pF = 0.
With the aid of the continuity equation (2.1.1) and the vector
rule
(v . V) V = ^ V (v . v)  V X (V X v ) ,
1= + I V (v . v)  V X (V X v) +  Vp  F = 0^.
(2.1.2)
In the case of an incompressible and homogeneous fluid the density p is a constant, giving the equation of continuity;
V . V = 0.
(2.1.3)
as
F =  Vf2,
in which ^ is the potential function of the force field. The vector equation of
motion is then:
l l + i V (v . v)  V X (V X v) + i Vp + Vf] = 0.
(2.1.4)
22
Energy Flux
In the following Chapters of this study a consideration about the energy flux
vector will be required and therefore a general expression of the energy flux
vector will now be derived.
The energy E enclosed in the volume V is given by the sum of the kinetic and
the potential energy of the fluid in V:
l= [{{ A^ [r ii p (v . v) ] dV.
dt
JJ) 3
Forming in Equation (2.1.4) the inner product with the velocity vector \7, and
taking into account the continuity Equation (2.1.1), the following expression for
the change of the kinetic energy can be derived:
[ J p (v . v) ] =  V . { 1 p (v . v) v}  V . Vp  pv . Vfi.
With this result and with p = constant, so V . v = 0, the energy flux becomes:
dE
jf =  III
[ V . { 1 p (v . v) v} + V . pv + V . pn v j ,
n . n p (v . v) + p + pf21 V do.
The energy flux vector P^ per unit surface area is now defined as:
P = [^ p (v . v) + p + pfll V.
(2.2.1)
2.3
Potential Formulation
V X V = 0.
(2.3.1)
This assumption can be made plausible by saying that when the motion starts from
a situation of rest and the fluid is ideal,there is no mechanism to introduce rotation. Now a velocity potential function $ can be defined
V = V*.
(2.3.2)
The field equation for the potential function $ can be obtained by the substitution
of (2.3.2) into the continuity Equation (2.1.3) for an incompressible and homogeneous fluid:
V<1> = 0
(2.3.3)
(2.3.4)
which can be integrated with respect to the space coordinates, yielding the equation of Bernoulli:
 i + 1 ( W . V$) + + f2 = f(t)
(2.3.5)
fi = gz,
(2.3.6)
1^ + I (V* . v$) + + gz = 0 ,
(2.3.7)
2.4
(2.3.8)
Boundary Conditions
For solving Equations (2.3.3) and (2.3.7) for the unknown threedimensional
potential function $ and pressure p,there must be given a set of conditions at
the boundaries of the solution domain.
If it is assumed that the free surface elevation is given by the relation
z = ri (x,y,t) (see Figure 2.2), then there must hold for a particle belonging to
the free surface the following kinematic equation;
dz^ _ 9ri _^ 9n dx
dt
3t
8x dt
at
dx
9ri dy
9y dt
3n
3y
3$
3z
at z = n (x,y,t) .
(2.4.1)
2 = r (x.y.t)
//
.^^^^^^^^k^v^vv^^^^^^^ z =.h(x,y)
^^^^^^^'^^^^^^^^^^^^.V^.r^^^^^^^^^^
Figure 2.2
10
p = 0
1 ^ + i (V$ . V4>) + gn = 0
at z = n (x,y,t).
(2.4.2)
dt
UTT
9h
dy
V^7
0,
;^V~"*"^^":=^'^^r=0
9x 9x
9y dy
9z
atz = h(x,y).
'^
(2.4.3)
At other solid boundaries than the bottom also the normal velocity must be
prescribed,and in the case of an unbounded solution domain in the horizontal
plane some additional condition at infinity must be imposed.
Usually in diffraction problems the form of an incoming wave is prescribed and
a scattered wave will be sought, which satisfies the socalled radiation condition stating that the scattered wave is an outgoing and radiating wave.
2.5
Linear Equations
The nonlinear boundary conditions (2.4.1) and (2.4.2), and the fact that these
conditions are imposed upon the unknown free surface z = n (x,y,t),make it very
difficult to find an
11
tions is
Y = H/l
(wave steepness) ,
a = H/D
must be small.
A derivation of the infinitesimalwave approximation can be found in Lamb (1932),
Stoker (1957) and Wehausen (1960).
The resulting equations are:
A* = 0
(2.5.1)
3ri_ _ 3$
3t
3z
at z = 0
(2.5.2)
1 3*
n +  5  = 0
g 3t
a t z = 0
(2.5.3)
atz = h(x,y).
(2.5.4)
and
3h ^ 3$ 3h
5 ^ 3 l ^ ^)y3 7
3yf 7 ' f i =
surface
a t z = 0.
(2.5.5)
Harmonic Solutions
Now that the equations have been linearised it is possible to seek a solution of
Equations (2.5.1)(2.5.4) which is simple harmonic in time;
$ (x,y,z,t) = 0
(2.6.1)
in which oj is the angular frequency of the wave. The simple harmonic solution
(2.6.1) can also be written with the aid of a complex potential function
12
Re (0e
pression between the brackets and i =  1 . The complex potential function 0 must
satisfy Equations (2.5.1), (2.5.4) and (2.5.5) which turns into:
30 _ u^
3z
at z = 0
(2.6.3)
Once the solution 0 has been found, all the other functions of interest can be
computed. The free surface function can be found with the aid of Equation (2.5.3)
giving:
ri (x,y,t) = Re (
0e
(2.6.4)
z=0'
The wave height, which is twice the amplitude of the free surface elevation, is
then :
(2.6.5)
"1 ^z'O
The phase S of the free surface elevation is given by
S =  arctan (0,/0) ,
1 2 Z=U
(2.6.6)
p (x,y,z,t) =  pgz + up (0
sin ut  0
cos tot)
(2.6.7)
13
2.7
Fundamental Solution
at z = h.
(2.7.1)
(2.7.2)
1 i!i =  1 ((i!i
^^^ ++^ l!i
^^),
dz^
'*' 8x2
(2.7.3)
gy2
(2.7.4)
and
8x2
gy2
(2.7.6)
(2.7.7)
which can be derived by substitution of (2.7.6) into the boundary condition (2.6.3).
Equation (2.7.7) has the real roots b = k and an infinite number of pure
imaginary roots b = ik.; j = 1,2,3,
14
2TT
3TT
_^kh
 t a n h (.kh)
u'h _L
9 kh
* kh
Figure 2.3
(x,y,z) =
(2.7.8)
Z Z (z) (t).(x,y)
j=0 J
J
with
(2.7.9)
=k
; T . = i k . , j = l ,2,3,
J
J ^
and the twodimensional potential functions (J).(x,y) which are solutions of the
equation
J + T.^ <t>. = 0.
J J
(2.7.10)
0, which can be proved with the aid of the field Equation (2.7.4) and
the boundary conditions at the bottom and free surface. From Equation (2.7.4)
it can be shown that
(T.^
J
^) r z.
J
h
r
Z
dz
d^z. d^z
(Z
h
i  Z.
5i) dz,
"> dz^
J dz^
15
r
(T.^  T 2)
J
J
m
dZ 1 z=0
(dZ.
Tl
Z. Z dz = Z ^J  Z.
J m
[_ m dz
j dz
z=h
at z = h
and
dZ
2
 ^ = Z.
dz
g j
at z = O
 T ^)
m
[
J
h
Z. Z dz = 0,
J m
Z, Z dz = 0
J m
for ra ?* i.
(2.7.11)
solution (2.7.8) can take up also constant factors. These constants C. are taken in
such a way that the eigenfunctions Z.(z) now form an orthonormal set of functions
in the interval  h ^ z ^ 0.
Imposing
Z.
dz = 1
for j = 0,1,2,
C.^
h (T."  V)
(2.7.12)
+ V
in which v = to /g.
2.8
16
the source potential satisfies the free surface condition and the flat
. . 30
bottom condition 77 = 0 at z = h;
dz
 G(P,M) satisfies the radiation condition at infinity, which is given by
lim JT
(1^  ik G) = 0
(2.8.1)
rjto
(2.8.2)
= s/ (xC)2 + (yn)"'
(Tr)= a solution of the twodimensional Equation (2.7.10), satisfying
the radiation condition (2.8.1) and possessing the apropriate singularity for r = 0 (Hankel function of the first kind and zero'th
order),
By separating the first term in the series development of (2.8.2), the source
potential G can be written in a somewhat different form, taking into account the
expressions x. = i k. ; i = 1,2,3,.... and T = k :
J
J
o
o
2(k^v2)
G(P;M) =
cosh {k (z+h)} cosh {k (C+h)} ^r^ H ' (k r) +
o
o
2i o o
,
2(k.^+v2)
 E
i
cos {k.(z+h)} cos {k.(C+h)} K (k.r)
^ j=l h(k.^fV^)v
J
J
o J
(2.8.3)
with K (k.r) = Modified Bessel function of the first kind and zero'th order
[=irV(^V)]
17
There exists also an integral expression for the function G(P;M), showing the
singularity like 1/R at the source point M:
2TTG(P;M) =   
R'
2ir(k 2v^)
i
2\
(2.8.4)
with
R'
The first term in the righthand side of Equation (2.8.4) is a general solution
of the Laplace equation for an unbounded domain. The second term is needed to
satisfy the condition at the flat bottom and the other terms are required for
fulfilling the free surface condition at z = 0.
More about singular solutions and their representations by series developments
and integral expressions can be found in articles by John (1950), Thorne (1953)
and Wehausen
(1960).
0(P) = 0(?)
in which 0
a(
18
(2.8.5)
z=^(x.y.t)
,P(x.y,z)
H\Wy.^JM^V/f^
W/'AVAWAWAV/AV'AWAV)
Figure 2.4
The strength a of the source distribution can be found by the condition of reflection at the disturbing surfaces, giving the integral equation:
a(P) +
a(M)
3G
3n
(P;M)
^"M =  ^3^>P>
(2.8.6)
19
3 Diffraction
3.1
Equation
30^
30
flection condition ;r =  jr at the contours of the obstacles, and the radiation
3n
dn
condition define the functions (J).(x,y) ; j = 0,1,2
The incident wave is given as a plane wave and has the form:
?
cosh {k (z+h)} ^
0(.,y,.) =  I  ^ i
^^^^l^
^(x.y),
o
in which
^
i k (x cosg + y sing)
((i(x,y)=e
(3.1.1)
(3.1.2)
(3.1.3)
With H
the wave number belonging to the water depth h and the angular frequency O), accordingly to the dispersion relation (2.7.7).
The reflection condition =  ?T at the vertical walls can only be fulfilled
9n
dn
"5^
dn
20
dn
for j = 1 ,2,
(3.1 .4)
r ( V . ((). V(t>.) dA 
r r [(?<(). .^<i,.)
+ k . ^ ip^idA
= o.
^ds
'j 311
= 0.
r+c
Figure 3.1
Taking now the limit r''^ and taking into account that i^ . is an outdying radiating wave, which also satisfies condition (3.1.4) at F, there remains;
ff [m..V(i).)
+ k.^ (ti.n dA = 0.
Because of the fact that the integrant is positively definite, there must hold
.(x,y) = 0.
(3.1.6)
21
tial c) needs to be computed. The differential equation for this function is thus:
3.2
(3.1.7)
equation.
Boundary Conditions
It has been seen in the foregoing Section that the boundary conditions for the
twodimensional scattered wave potential are:
~^=
i
(3.2.1)
lim
^*d
V^r ij
 i ^o 'J'd^ "
(3.2.2)
r> CO
at infinity. With these conditions the scattered wave potential will be uniquely
defined.
In practical problems the walls of the obstacles are not always vertical and
often also not fully reflecting. To treat these boundaries in this diffraction
model the walls must be schematized as vertical, but it is possible to introduce
partial reflection into the model by using a mixed boundary condition for the total wave potential c) = {[) + ,
d
Assume the condition
^ + k a (f) = 0
on
o
(3.2.3)
at the partial reflecting boundaries, in which a (= a +ia) is a theoretical nondimensional complex reflection coefficient.
With the aid of the expression (2.3.8) for the energy flux vector P it can be
shown that with this mixed boundary condition a mean normal energy flux through
the boundary will be imposed. The mean energy flux P, defined by
T
22
P = ^ p 10 i (0 V0  0 V0)
(3.2.4)
with an overbar indicating the conjugate complex value. Use of the expression
, ^
cosh {k (z+h)}
0(x,y,z) =  2 if ^
cosh ( k h )  '^('^'y)
O
for the twodimensional diffraction model and computing the integrated mean energy flux P
, defined by
h
gives the expression
(3.2.5)
o
with
" E = 2 " ^' * sinh (2k^h)^
' S""P
; phase velocity
= (jj/k
velocity
and the nabla operator V now twodimensional. The mean integrated energy flux
normal to the boundary becomes, with the aid of the mixed boundary condition
(3.2.3),
 *
^2
and ^^ = H^/H
(n . P *) =  ^ p g U^ a^ H 2 .
(3.2.6)
23
<f) = ^ e^ ^
H
(3.2.7)
(3.2.8)
It can be seen that when a ?^ 0 the lines of equal wave height make a nonzero
angle with the normal at the boundary and that when a ^ 0 the lines of equal
phase make a nonzero angle with this normal.
In practical hydraulic work the reflection coefficient is introduced in a more
physical way and is defined as the ratio between a reflected wave and an incident
wave. This definition is only useful in the case of reflection of longcrested
plane wave against an infinitely long breakwater, assuming partial reflection has
no influence upon the plane wave form of the reflected wave. In that case it is
possible to obtain a relation between the theoretical reflection coefficient a
1R
) in which
+ ^ H R e
dx
atx
0,
and substitution of the expression (3.2.9) into this condition gives the two
equations:
a
(1 + R cos g)  a
R sin B + a
R sin g = R sin B,
and
(1 + R cos B) = 1  R cos B,
24
(3.2.9)
In Figure 3.2 the values of a. and a^ are given as functions of the amplitude
reduction factor R for different values of the phase shift 3
Figure 3.2
The mixed boundary condition is only applicable in the case that the theoretical reflection coefficient a is not dependent on the solution (J) (linear condition).
However, in general partial reflection is a nonlinear phenomenon and therefore
the linear formulation can be wrong in the neighbourhood of partially reflecting
walls. But it might be possible that with this formulation of energy absorption
reasonable overall results can be obtained when the interest is only for an averaged wave height over some area.
3.3
To get some idea of the diffraction phenomenon two analytical solutions will now
be given, one illustrating the scattering of an incident plane wave field by a
circular pile and the other showing the diffraction by a semiinfinitely long
fully reflecting vertical breakwater.
The solution of the diffraction around a circular pile (see Figure 3.3) has
25
been given by McCamy and Fuchs (1954) with the aid of a Bessel series development.
Figure 3.3
;.PCre.z)
If (r,0,z) are the cylindrical coordinates of the point P, then the solution in
this point is given by:
c o s h {k
5(r,9,z) =  i 2 g
2 0)
(z+h)}
c o s h (k h)
(3.3.1)
(t>(r,9)
with
Kr,e)
i n which
S e i
m
m=0
= 1
A (k r ) =
m o
(3.3.2)
A (k r ) c o s (mO)
m o
= 2
for m =
1,2,3,
J (k r ) Y ' (k a ) + J '
m o
m o
m
J ' (k a ) + i Y
m o
(k a ) Y (k r )
o
m o
' (k a )
m o
and a prime indicating a differentiation with respect to the argument. The wave
height pattern and the phase lines are shown in Figure 3.4a and Figure 3,4b for
the case k a = 1,
26
Figure 3.4a
Figure 3.4b
7T/4 rad.
In front of the cylinder a reflection pattern can clearly be seen and behind the
pile the influence of the diffraction effect.
The problem of diffraction around a semiinfinite breakwater has been solved by
Sommerfeld and a numerical evaluation of the solution can be found in ShouShan
Fan (1967) and Born (1965). The incident wave is making an angle of B degrees
with the positive xaxis (see Figure 3.5).
y
^
incident w
//
e
y\
/
\
breakwater
X
y
/
Figure 3.5
27
!Z;(r,e,z) =
cosh {k (z+h)}
2 O)
cosh (k h)
1 Hg
<l>(r,e).
(3.3.3)
with
i k r cos(96)
(i>(r,e) = f(aj)e
i k r cos(e+6)
H^)i
(3.3.4)
k r
0 = 2
in which
a, =  2
and
f (a) = i ^
TT
sin j
(93)
k r
,/  ^ sin 1 (8+6)
^^^'i'l^
dq.
The wave height pattern in the case of a normally (g = 270) incident wave is
sho\m in Figure 3.6 (ShouShan Fan) and more in detail in Figures 3.7 and 3.8 (Born)
There can be distinguished the region of reflection in front of the breakwater,
the region of shadow behind the breakwater, and the region of transmission, where
wave heights greater than one can occur due to diffraction effects. The phase
function shows undefined points in the reflection area corresponding to points
with a minimum in the wave height. An explanation of
Figure 3.6
28
Figure 3.7
Figure 3.8
29
3.4
The mathematical model for computing the wave penetration into a harbour of arbitrary shape is based on finding the solution of the diffraction equation (3.1.7)
in an area which is bounded by vertical barriers and an aperture to the open sea
(see Figure 3.9).
Figure 3.9
are assumed to
have the same constant water depth and therefore also the same wave number k .
o
The boundary between the two areas
solution will be written as a superposition of the known incident wave (fi and a
diffracted wave (j), caused by the presence of the harbour and coming only from the
30
aperture C. In this outside area reflections from the breakwaters and the coast
are ignored, so the total potential function in this area is:
* = ^ + 4)^ .
(3.4.1)
Inside the harbour the solution will be indicated by the potential i);.
Both (J) andii will be sought with the aid of singularity distributions. The
source solution of the Helmholtz equation
given by
G(P;M) = ^ H '(k r)
zi o
o
(3.4.2)
<1>,(P') =
d
II
2i
f^i
(3.4.3)
^,
C
The inside potential ijj in the point P can be written as:
i^m
(3.4.4)
r+c
In these expressions y (M')
and y
(M) is the intensity of the source M holding for Area II (see Figure 3.9)
and y
(^)_ = ^i^^)^{/i3!^[rV(V']<^^
p
c+r
^ii(^>  ^iiir[T\'^\'A^'
"^5)
31
and
c+r
J
C+r
I dn
L zi
J
r
I 2i
ei A T'i
(.j^/^
for P situated on the reflecting contour F with the theoretical reflection coefficient a (see section 3.2). With these integral equations the source intensity
functions \i
and \i
Once the intensity functions have been found the potential at each point in
Area I or Area II can be computed according to the expressions (3.4,4) and
(3.4.3).
For complicated harbours with many basins (see Figure 3.10) it is possible to
split up the harbour into more
the solution in each area as a source integral over the boundaries of that area.
All'
Figure 3.10
Requirements of continuity for the normal velocity and wave height at the boundary between two areas
32
3.5
Harbour Oscillation
The mathematical model for wave penetration into harbours of arbitrary shape can
also be used for the computation of harbour oscillation. In that case the
interest is in the wave heights at several points of the harbour as a function of
the period of a disturbance at the entrance. For some periods the wave height
shows a maximum and the corresponding frequencies are called the resonance frequencies of the harbour. These resonance frequencies are not much effected by the
form of the disturbance at the entrance,but the value of the wave height depends
on the incoming normal energy flux and therefore on the width of the entrance. As
an illustration of the harbour resonance phenomenon,a simple example of the oscillation modes of a long rectangular harbour with a full open entrance is given in
Figure 3.11.
Figure 3.11
33
(t)^(x) = Ae
(3.5.1)
is a superposition of a
CO
known disturbance (() and a diffracted wave (j) , which can be written as a source
integral over the entrance C:
+ Jb
*jj = * +
ib
(3.5.2)
with b the width of the harbour entrance. The reflection condition  i = 0 at the
an
end X = L of the harbour, together with the two continuity conditions:
a*
3<t>
<i>^ = ^^^ and ~
=^ ^
(3.5.3)
^I
^11
an
dn
at the entrance x = 0, give three equations for the three unknowns A, B and y.
From the reflection condition there can be derived:
(() = C cos {k (xL)},
(3.5.4)
with C a new integration constant. The two continuity conditions (3.5.3) give the
equations
+ lb
?
(3.5.5)
jb
and
C k sin (k L) =  ^1
+ \i .
o
o
dx
'x=0
(3.5.6)
Assuming the disturbance c) is an incident wave travelling in positive xdirection and that there is no reflection outside the harbour, then
* = ^H e
34
and
I't
i k X
i = l H ik
dx
The e q u a t i o n s f o r
Dp  C c o s (k L) =  TT H
o
I
and
u + k
1
<^
C s i n (k L) =  77 i k H ,
o
2
o
solutions
1  i k
,<>
5H
c o s (k L) + k
00
sin
, ,
5 k
?
H
D sin
(k L) + i c o s
_o
c o s (k L) + k
0
0
(k 1)
D sin
n 8 o,
(k L)
o
with D =
Yi Ho'(kjyl) dy.
The c o e f f i c i e n t
(3.8.7)
(k L)
o
^ )
s m a l l v a l u e s of k
by
b r 2
with Y = 0.5772157
(3.8.9)
(Eulers constant).
Figure 3.11 shows the value of C/^H as a function of the wave length
for different values of the width b. In the limit b > 0 the resonance wave
lengths X, are given by
T=2Fr
i=0.'.2.
(3.8.10)
35
or contours of arbitrary shape, a numerical method must be applied. For threedimensional problems reference can be made to
The contour of the obstacle will be split up into a number of finite segments;
in each segment the unknown intensity function will be approximated by a function with some parameters; and
r/
J 
^ P
^
(a)
Figure 3.12
(3.6.1)
and after splitting the contour F into a finite number of segments P. ; j = 1,2,
, N; by:
36
N
y(p) + r
r^H
L 2i
i(kr)]ds^ = (!*)
o
^on'o
(3.6.2)
This integral relation will now be imposed in a finite number of discrete points
P ; m = !,2,
,N (collocation points), which are the centre points of the segm
ments (see Figure 3.12):
N
V(^J
V(M)
3
9n^
(3.6.3)
Not only must the intensity function p be approximated piecewise but also the
form of each contour segment
At this stage both these approximations must be attuned to each other, because it is
useless to obtain an accurate solution belonging to a bad contour approximation. In
general, both approximations must be of the same order. Let the form of the contoursegment r. be approximated by a polynomial expression (spline) of some order. Depending on the order of this spline, continuity conditions for the derivatives between the splines can be imposed to obtain a smooth approximation of the curve T.
In the same way the unknown intensity function in segment T. will be approximated
by the spline Li,(s:a. , a.,,
^
J
Jo' jl'
the p+1 parameters of the spline. With a cubic spline (p=3) continuity conditions
for the intensity function itself as well as the first and second derivates can be
imposed in the connection points, by which only one unknown parameter per segment
remains. These parameters can now be computed with the aid of the discrete integral relation (3.6.3), which gives a set of linear equations for the unknown parameters.
It is obvious that by taking higher order splines for the approximation of both
the contour ,3nd the intensity function along the contour a lot of work must be
done to compute the coefficients of the ultimate set of linear equations. In general, the integration over each segment must be done numerically because of the
complicated source function. On the other hand, the gain of all this work can be a
saving in the number of segments and therefore a saving in computing time to get
a solution of the set of linear equations.
The simplest way to do the numerical computation is to split the contour into a number of straight~line segments and taking both the intensity function and
the source function in expression (3.6.3) as a constant. The work of computing
the coefficients of the system of linear equations is now minimal and also the
approximation of the contour is very simple. Of course, sufficient segments must be
37
to adequately
the
requirements for the accuracy of the results are not severe, taking into account
the uncertainty of the input data of the model.
An indication of the influence of the number of computing points upon the results can be obtained from some computations in the case of diffraction around a
circular pile (see Figures 3.13a and 3.13b for a threedimensional computation and
Figure 3.14 for a twodimensional computation).
Figure 3.13a
Fig. 3.13b
lar contour
cal
It seems that a minimal number of computing points over a distance of one wave
length has to be maintained to ensure reasonable results. For practical problems
this number must be five or more.
About the influence of higher order spline approximations the reader is referred to the work of Botta (1975) and Labruyere (1972), both working with similar
38
  exact
simple method
+ constant intensity
polygon appr
quadratic intensity
A constant i n t e n s i t y ,
circular appr
> numerical
6 segments
:4
H/H
,4'
< '".1
' \
Figure 3.14
3.7
Some Results
It is not the purpose of this study to give very accurate and detailed solutions
of some diffraction problems, but more to illustrate the possibilities of the
diffraction models for practical problems.
First the results of a harbour diffraction computation are compared with some
measurements in a hydraulic model, in which the walls were vertical and fully
reflecting, the bottom horizontal and the incoming wave sinusoidal, to ensure the
best possible simularity with the mathematical model. The layout of the
harbour can be seen in Figure 3.15 and also the measuringpoints in the harbour.
In Figure 3.16 the wave heights, relative to the incoming wave height, at the
measuringpoints are given for both the computation and the measurement. The
agreement between measurement and computation is very good, especially the transition to higher wave heights. The computed wave heights, however, can deviate
39
The last result belongs to a harbour resonance problem (seiche) for a harbour
of arbitrary shape. In Figure 3.23 the relative wave heights at points A and
B of the harbour are given as a function of the period of the incoming disturbance
at the entrance. The walls of the harbour are fulfy ref1ecting and the dis
wave heights show some peaks, and the corresponding periods are called the periods
of resonance. When these periods are out of the range of periods for all possible
disturbances at the entrance, then the harbour will have no resonance problem. Because of the longer periods, which will be considered, the number of computing
points along the contour is not very high, thus allowing a repetition of the computation for more periods within a reasonable computing time.
40
Figure 3.15
Figure 3.15
41
ncident
f"'"^
Figure 3.17
incident
Figure 3.18
42
wave
wave
Figure 3.19
aj = O, 82 = 1/3
Figure 3.20
aj = 0.4, a2 = 0
Figure 3.21
= 0.4, a^ = 1/3
^"'\
Figure 3.22a
Figure 3.22b
44
50
100
150
200
>
Figure 3.23
250
300
period (sec)
350
400
450
500
3. 8
Discussion
In spite of the restrictions for the diffraction models and mainly the requirement of linearity, it appears that the results give qualitatively
46
4 Refraction
4.1
The phenomenon
change in the direction of wave propagation, in the wave length and in the wave
height due only to a slow variation of the bottom. Reflections of the waves
against boundaries in the horizontal plane can be ignored.
The differential equations
can be
derived from the basic linear potential equation (2.5.1) and the conditions at
the free surface (2.5.5) and at the bottom (2.5.4) by means of an asymptotic approximation. In this theory it is assumed that, corresponding to a slow variation
of the water depth,the variation of the potential in the horizontal plane is
much less than that in the vertical direction. The refraction equations derived with this theory are essentially the same as the classical equations, which
can be derived in a geometrical way using the laws of Snellius. The asymptotic
approach
used
in this Section
assumes in advance
coordinates.
Assuming a slow variation of the bottom, the gradient of the water depth in the
bottom condition (2.5.4) can be made of the order one by taking new horizontal coordinates (x,y) in the water depth function h(x,y):
(x,y) = ^ (x,y)
Vh = ^ Vh
(4.1.1)
with V and V the twodimensional nabla operators (7 , ;) and (;?= , 77=) respect9x
3y
9x
3y
ively.
The other coordinates are made dimensionless
characteristic length 1
= g/u^
47
i!l.^.^=0,
8x2 3y2
32^
1^  0 = 0
dz
8 . , (   h ^ 3 0 3h
3z
dx 3x
3y 3y
(4.1.2)
at z = 0,
(4.1.3)
^ ^ _
1^  0 = 0
(4.1.5)
at z = 0,
(4.1.6)
,^ ,  V,
at z  h,
ri , 7,
(4.1.7)
dz
30
^ ^
2 ,30 9h ^ 30 3h. _ ^ ^3 35 ^ ^ 3 f ^ 
in which it is assumed that all quantities, except the parameter G, are of the
order one.
There is now introduced an amplitude function A(x,y,z) and a phase function
S(x,y,z) by writing:
0 = A e" ^.
48
2 ri
z^
{ V^A  (VS .VS)}
1 8^A
,8S
(ff)^ = '
(4.1.9)
dz
at z = O,
dz
1^ + E^ (VA . Vh) = 0
(4.1.10)
(4.1.11)
dz
at z = O,
3z
e^ (VS . Vh) = 0
3z
(4.1.8)
(4.1.12)
(4.1.13)
Equation (4.1.9) is the equation for the energy flux and can be integrated over
the water depth,thus:
z0
V . A^VS dz + A^
3z
z=h
V .
=0
'z=h
h
A'^VS dz = 0.
(4.1 .14)
Now solutions of the functions A and S will be sought in the form of series developments with respect to powers of the parameter e. An approach with the aid of
order functions, as is treated by v. Dyke (1964), is more general, but this
method will complicate the derivation and will give no other results. It appears
that the series development is in even powers of G, so:
A = A
+ e^A, + e'A^
1
2
and
(4.1.15)
S = E fs
+ c^S, + e''s
L o
1
2
49
with m a power, which must be defined later on. Substitution of these developments into Equation (4.1.9) and condition (4.1.12) gives, in first approximation
for small values of e,
~
3S
dz
dz
=0,
which means S
(4.1.16)
e^V^A
 e^^*^A
L
3^A
3^A,
+ e^
3z2
^
e
9z2
3S,
(~)^ + 0 ( e ) + 0(e
9z
(VS .VS,)}1 +
o o l j
) = 0.
= 0,
or A
= 0.
(VS
. VS ) = 0,
3S
c
which means that both ^ as ^
"3x
50
(VS
^2
dz
. VS ) = 0
, 3^A
= (VS
o 9z
. VS ) .
(VS
. VS ) = K^(x,y),
o
(A.) .17)
a^A
 K^A
=0
(4.1.18)
3z^
with the boundary conditions
3A
^
=0
at z = h
(4.1.19)
A normalized
solution of these equations is:
3A
 ^  A = 0
at z = 0.
3z
o {K(h+z)}
cosh
a (x,y),
o
cosh (Kh)
(4.1.20)
dz
and
(4.1.21)
provided that the variable dimensionless wave number K is the real root of the
dispersion relation
1 = K tanh (<h).
(4.1 .22)
51
V .(
^
K
VS ) = o
(4.1 .23)
o
O
/na
/ A ^ dz =
J
o
2
h
Ir,
2<h
1
with n =  {1 + . , .. , .J .
2
s m h (2<h)
(^)^.(^)^ = V
with k
(^'^^^
the variable real wave number, depending on the variable local water
m^ = gk
o
tanh (k h ) .
o
(4.1.25)
The twodimensional energy flux equation, defining the amplitude function a (x,y),
n a ^ as
. n a ^ as
# (  ^ ) + f (^
^ ) = 0,
3x j^ 2
ax
3y ,^ 2 ay
o
(4.1.26)
in which
2k h
n = i {1 + K^i, t,J
2
sinh (2k h)
o
(4.1.27)
52
wave fronts
s=constant
Figure 4.1
According
P
to the expression (3.2.5) for the integrated mean energy flux vector
P * = l p ^ n a ^ VS
(4.1.28)
Along a wave ray, defined as the orthogonal of the line of equal phase S
(see
(m . VS ) = 0 ,
so the divergence theorem of Gauss gives the result, using Equation (4.1.26):
(m . P *) dn =
1
(m' . P *) dn'
(4.1.29)
1'
which means that the energy flux between the two wave rays is constant.
The partial differential equation (4.1.24) can be transformed into a set of ordinary first order differential equations with the aid of the characteristic direction of the equation. This characteristic direction appears to be the direction
of a wave ray, which is defined as the orthogonal of a line of equal phase (see
Figure 4.1).
The normal direction n at a line of equal phase (S = constant) is given by:
I
/
,3S 3S,
' 'Sx ' 3y''
'3X'
^Sy'
53
Omitting the subscript zero of the asymptotic approximation for the sake of simplicity in notation, and putting (p,q) = (TT , TT) and using the eiconal equation
ox
dy
E " ^
(p,q).
o
(4.1.30)
and
dy ^ _q_
d?
(4.1.31)
9p dy
dC ~ 3x df" "^ y d
dp
1 , 8p ^
3p,
'
^,
, ^.
3p
3q , 3'S
3^S ,
or, using the relation K ^ = 5^ (^3 = ^ ^ )
dy
dx dydx
dxdy
dp
, 3p ,
3q,
df = IT (P 3^ " ^ af)
o
which can be written with the aid of the eiconal equation as
3k
= ^
(4 1 32)
(4 1 33)
(.t.i.Jj;
The differential Equations (4.1.30)(4.1.33) define the path of the wave ray.
The phase along the wave ray can be computed with:
54
dS ^ 3S dx ^ 3 dy
dC
3x dC
3y dS
d5 " i r (p ^1 ) .
or
^ = k
d^
o
(A.1.34)
Also the energy flux equation can be transformed into an ordinary differential
equation along a wave ray. If
0
then Equation (A. 1.26) can be written in the form:
dx
dy
dx
3y
k
o
, p
, q .
d C = 3 ^iT^ * 37 ^iT^o
^
(4.1.36)
only p and q and its derivatives with respect to E, will be computed in the wave
ray equations.
To overcome this difficulty,both sides of the equation are differentiated with
respect to the current variable E, along the wave ray, and after some formula manipulation, using the equations for p and q, the following differential equation
for the function 3 can be obtained:
+ P   + QB = 0 ,
(4.1.37)
in which the coefficients P and Q are only functions of p, q, the known wave number k
ak
3k
55
Q =
,
o
(q  5
o.
2pq
(q^
3x^
8=^k
8^k
8^k
3k
9x9y
3y^
(1952),
4.2
Boundary Conditions
The set of differential equations derived in the foregoing Section requires a number
of boundary conditions to produce a
tic approximation is a lowering of the order of the leading differential e q u a tions compared with the original Laplace equation. The eiconal equation is of the
first order, and the energy flux equation is also of the first order in the u n known w a v e amplitude function a. Therefore it is not possible to impose boundary
conditions along the whole boundary of the solution d o m a i n , as was the case for
the diffraction problem.
Giving n o w the amplitude function and the phase function along some starting
curve C (see Figure 4.2) in the horizontal plane will be_sufficient to define the
refraction solution in the whole field.
Figure 4.2
Jc
. 5c
IT
C!)
: Oc
(IJ)
Let a (ri) and S (n) be the k n o w n amplitude and phase function respectively
along the given starting curve C described by the coordinate functions x (n) and
y (ri) . To obtain a solution of the set of equations in the whole field, the following starting vklues along the curve C must be computed: p (r), q (r) , p (n)
dfi
c
c
c
and (7=) . The starting values p and q can be computed from the equations
dS
dy.
c
"dn"
56
i^c
dT
(4.2.1)
and
P ' * q '.
(4.2.2)
(x , y )
c ^c
n (x . y^)
and the derivative with respect to ^ with the help of Equation (4.1.36)
,d6
# c = 3c[^^i^i^if)^p^ifj
The values for TT^ , TT^ , TT^ and r^ along the curve C can be obtained from the
3x
3y
3x
9y
equations:
J
dx
dy .
dp ^
c dp ^
c dp
dn
dn 3x
dn 3y
dq ^ ^c 3q ^ ^c 9_q
dn
dn 8x
dn 3y
3k
o dx
p 3P + q
M
'^c 3x
^c 3x
o 3y
"^c 3y
^c 3y
In general, the starting curve C will correspond to a wave front (line of equal
phase), which means ^ = 0. In the case of a straight wave front and a constant
dn
water depth along the front, then (ri) = 0.
'
d^ c
57
4.3
The success of an analytical approach to obtain the solution of the refraction equations depends greatly
In the case of straight and parallel bottom contour lines (see Figure 4.3), an
analytical approach is possible.
Figure 4.3
dS
(4.3.1)
= 0 ,
resulting in p = p
(4.3.2)
" = * yvPc^
The path of the wave ray is determined by the equation:
^ = 3.
dx
p
dx
P^
= p
c
^
/
j
dy.
V
58
(4.3.3)
^ = k
d5
o
dS
dy
/V
and thus
S  S
(4.3.4)
dy
V
The foregoing results can be worked out when the variation of the wave number k
with respect to the ycoordinate is given in analytical form.
Considering only shallow water for which the wave number is given by the expression
k^ = to/\/gir ,
and taking a water depth variation like h = y , then a solution for the path of a
wave ray can be obtained in closed form.
Integration of Equation (4.3.3) with k
= A/y (A = a/\/g)
(X  x ^ ) ^ . y'
in which
(4.3.5)
J^^
x^ = x^ + ^
 p^^ y^^'
c
R
= A/p
indicating a circular path with the centre point at (x^, o) and with a radius R.
The phase function S along the wave ray can be computed from Equation (4.3.4) giving (see Figure 4.3):
tg (IT/4 + I a)
S
= A In
tg (Tr/4
in which
(4.3.6)
i
2
st^
59
by the
A cos a ^.
The separation function 6(S) along the wave ray will be constant when the initial
conditions 6 = 1 and rjr = 0 are imposed for = 0, because this is the only possible solution of Equation (4.1.37) in which the coefficient Q = 0. The relative
wave amplitude is then given by:
(4.3.7)
4.4
For practical refraction problems there is no analytical expression for the water
depth function h. In general only the values of h in the grid points of a rectangular grid represent the bottom configuration of the area of interest. For the
numerical integration of the refraction equations (4.1 .30)(4.1 .37) there are reqi^ired the values of the wave number and its first and second partial derivatives in the
computing points, which can be situated within a mesh of the grid. To obtain these
values there must be some interpolation between the values in the nearby grid points.
Instead
to work directly with the water depth and its derivatives. The relations between
these quantities are given by the following expressions:
gk
tanh (k h)
.,
3^k
3k
 Bk^
f
o 3x
3x
o
3x2
(4.4.1)
and
/ = Bko fl
3y
3^k
Bko ^'^
;
g^a
Cko (f)2
3x
= Ck
3y2
'. \.
. ,3h,,3h, _ ,,.
i^h
= Ck (^) (^)  Bk ^rn^
3x3y
o dx 3y
o 3x3y
with B
h (k
B k '^ V
and
2B^
(k
60
(4.4.2)
3y
v^)'
(ly
3y
Bk
3"h
3y^
(4.4.3)
The partial derivatives of the water depth in the grid points are computed by
means of finite difference formulae, for instance, central differences (see Figure
4.4).
i+2
J+2
Ay
J1
i+1
Figure 4.4
i+2
D e f i n i t i o n of G r i d
Points
h.
'3X'. .
i.J
2Ax
.2^
(3__h)
3x^ i , j
'
'3y''.
.
i.J
. ,  h.
. ,
2Ay
h. , .  2h. . + h . , .
i+'.J
i.J
11.J
(Ax)'
(4.4.4)
2,
3 h,
9y'
_
i,j
_3fh_
^Kdy'.
h . . ,  2h. . + h. , .
i,J+l
i,j
11,J
(Ay)'
^ ''i+l,j +l
.
''i+l,jl
4 (Ax) (Ay)
with Ax
Ay
The interpolation function, which will be used for both the water depth and its
partial derivatives to compute the values in the interior point P of a m e s h , is
of the Lagrange type (see Figure 4 . 4 ) :
61
of this approach is that the contLnuity of the interpolated quantities by transition from one mesh to another will be guaranteed.
The set of ordinary differential equations can be solved numerically with one
of the well known standard RungeKutta integration methods, for which error estimates are available and which can be found for instance in an article by Ralston
(1962).
The accuracy of the whole numerical method of solution, however, depends mainly
upor the accuracy of the interpolation method and upon the computation of the partial derivatives of the water depth. Inherent from the fact that the problem is an
initial value problem,the deviation of the numerical solution at the start of the
computation has a great influence upon the solution later on. It does not, however,
seemuseful to use sophisticated interpolation and integration techniques when the
uncertainties of the input data such as the water depth variations in practical
problems are taken into account.
4.5
Some Results
The numercial method of solution has been verified with the aid of the analytical
solution of Section 4.3. In that problem the path of a wave ray is given by a
circular segment. The numerical result is shown in Figure 4.5 giving the path of
a wave ray with a starting angle of incidence of zero degrees and showing the influence of the stepsize on the path. Changing the gridsize for the representation
of the bottom by a factor two or four, either the rotation of the grid over an angle
of thirty degrees nor an analytical computation of the derivatives of the water
depth gives any appreciable deviations in the solution. The computed separation function B fromEquation (4.1.37) with the initial conditions g = 1 and re = 0 at
^ = 0 does not deviate more than one percent from the theoretical value 3 = 1
along the ray. Apparently the Lagrange interpolation and the numerical integration method is sufficiently accurate for this problem.
The refraction of plane waves due to a circular shoal with a parabolic bottom
profile has had much attention in the past; Pierson (1951), Whalin (1972) and
Biesel (1972). This problem is interesting because of the existence of a socalled "caustic". This is defined as the envelope of the intersection points
of nearby wave rays. Such an intersection point, defined by the property (see
Figure 4.3):
lim ^ = 0
1 ^o o
62
(4.5.1)
with 1
1
o
can be detected in the computational results by the value 6 = 0. In the intersection points the wave height must be theoretically infinite, according to the refraction equations. Of course, such a solution is not realistic and the existence
of a caustic is an indication that the asymptotic approximation leading to the
refraction equations is not valid and that diffraction effects must be taken into
account.
The refraction solution of the shoal problem outside the caustic region is given in Figure 4.6 in the form of wave rays and wave fronts and in Figure 4.7 in
the form of lines of equal wave height. The refraction solution outside the caustic region appears to agree in a reasonable way with measurements in a hydraulic
model made by Holthuyzen (1971).
63
100
>
e 
  ^
90
80
70
60
50
exact
step size ^ X
ti
\
^
40
O O
Step size a l / 4 5.
mesh size
30
T = lOs
20
\
10
]
10
20
30
40
50
60
1,0
MOO^
^
^ _ _
o
20
40
60
> y
Figure 4.5
64
70
r^
80
100
80
90
100
wav8 length
wave front
wm
4.6
Discussion
The asymptotic approximation leading to the refraction equations causes implicitly the elimination of the phenomena of diffraction and reflection. The curvature
of the wave amplitude V a is neglected and therefore the order of the differential equation is lowered, making it impossible to satisfy all boundary conditions
in the horizontal plane. The boundary conditions at sea (wave height, direction
of propagation, phase and the curvature of the wave front) define the whole solution, so other conditions at breakwaters or at the shoreline cannot be satisfied.
The wave ray solution will be influenced only by the local variations of the water
depth. It is clear that in those cases where the curvature of the wave amplitude
cannot be neglected, the refraction theory fails. This will be the case in the
neighbourhood of a caustic and near the shore, where the wave height becomes
infinite too.
In practical refraction problems, where the bottom configuration is arbitrary,
the refraction diagrams can show a lot of crossing orthogonals and caustics,
which makes it very difficult to interprete these diagrams and to derive any quantitative information about the wave height distribution over a particular area.
A useful approach in doing practical refraction computations is to smooth the
bottom layout by drawing smooth bottom contour lines and by ignoring some details
in the bottom layout before the bottom configuration is represented into a grid
schematization. The results of such a computation will show a reasonably ordered
wave ray pattern, from which it is possible to obtain some quantitative information about the wave height distribution. Taking the rough bottom layout as the
basis of the grid schematization will result in general in a mess of crossing
wave rays, from which it is very difficult to derive the desired information.
Interesting questions in these refraction problems are: Which rate of detail
in the bottom layout is important, and What is the influence of a caustic upon
the results at a certain distance from that caustic?
The refraction theory has the advantage that the method of solution is only
restricted to the computation of a wave ray and that the solution can be obtained
in a reasonably simple way. However, the number of problems which can be solved
fully with the refraction theory appears to be small.
66
5 Refraction  diffraction
5.1
In the foregoing Chapter about wave refraction it was pointed out that the refraction theory fails when caustics, a shore line or other boundaries in the horizontal plane are present. In that case also diffraction and reflection of the
waves play a part.
Of course, it is possible to return to the threedimensional model, but this will
be a very rigorous step in practical problems. It would be more convenient to
maintain a twodimensional model in which the diffraction effects can be taken
into account in some way.
A twodimensional differential equation which describes the combined effect of
refraction and diffraction of water waves has been sought in the past by many
workers in this field, such as Pierson (1951), Eckart (1952), Battjes (1968),
Biesel (1972) and Ito (1972). The disadvantage of the equations given by these
authors is that they do not reduce to the appropriate refraction equations
(4.1.24) and (4.1.26) after substitution of the expression (f) = ae
and neglect
ing the curvature V \ of the amplitude function. Also these equations do not pass
to the wellknown linear shallow water equation in the case of a small water
depth.
In this present study an equation is given which has the properties just mentioned. Independently from the author, Schonfeld (1972) derived the same equation in
another way and written in another but not so compact form. Also Svendson (1967)
derived the same equation as Schonfeld but only for one horizontal dimension, as
is pointed out by Jonsonn and BrinkKjear (1973).
The derivation of the twodimensional refractiondiffraction equation starts
with the nondimensional equations (4.1.2), (4.1.3) and (4.1.4), which are repeated here for convenience;
8^0
+ i ^ . i ^
= o,
(5.1.1)
3x^
8y^
30
32
3z^
0
=0
at z = 0,
(5.1.2)
67
90
3z
80 8h
e (^
^=
3x 3x
with e = a/v
30 3h
h(x,y).
3y 3y
and ]i = D/l
(5.1.3)
(5.1.4)
= Z(h,z) ()(x,y,z),
Z(h,z)
cosh { K (h+z)}
cosh (KTh)
(5.1.5)
in which K is again the real positive wave number defined by the nondimensional
dispersion relation
(5.1.6)
1 = K tanh (Kh) .
Later on it will be assumed that with expression (5.1.5) the dependency of the
potential 0 with respect to the vertical coordinate z has been largely taken into
account. In the function Z also the influence of the bottom variation is allowed
for by means of the variable water depth function h(x,y).
Substitution of the expression (5.1.4) into Equations (5.1.1), (5.1.2) and
(5.1.3) gives:
+ 2 1^ i + Z  ^ = 0 ,
^' 3^
9z^
at z = 0 ,
and
68
at z = h
VZ = IIVh
dh
V^z = e'l ^
and
^
= K^Z .
{ ^
9h2
ZV^*.K^Z*.2fi.z3l=0
3z 8z
dz
(5.1.7)
3z^
= O
(5.1.8)
at z = O
and
e^ [ I l (Vh . Vh) f] + e [ Z
(V* . Vh)
+ Z 1^ = O
at z = h.
(5.1.9)
To consider the mean wave energy flux, as was done in the refraction theory
for obtaining the amplitude equation. Equation (5.1.7) will be integrated
over the water depth after multiplication with the function Z. Using the boundary
conditions (5.1,8) and (5.1.9),the following twodimensional equation must hold:
r z ( ^ (Vh . Vh)
L I
h
I I (Vh . Vcf)) dz
+ 1 1 V^h} ({) dz
3h2
(Vh . V(t>)l
z"h
+ E^ fZ i ?  (Vh . Vh) i\
0.
3h
"z=h
(5.1.10)
Now it is assumed that the potential (Ji is only a weak function of the vertical
coordinate z, which can be expressed with the aid of a Taylor series development
with respect to the coordinate Oz. Because of the symmetry condition (5.1.8), only
69
e' I *_ {(
II
dz) V^h)
n
Z^
h
Z^dz)(V^((i^ + K'ipJ
1 3Z'
2 3h
(Vh . Vcf) )
o
lz=h
Neglecting terms of the order O(e^) and 0(e a ) , with m > 2 and n ^ 0, and
using the property
o
h
h
'2=h
/'
V . ( /
J
h
Z^dz) V*
o
+ K^ ( /
J
h
Z^dz) ()> = 0
o
V . (^ V* ) + n
^ 2 0
70
=0
(5.1.11)
or
V . (cc
c
V* ) + (1)^  ^ (

)= 0 ,
g o
(5.1.12)
C O
1
^""^o*^
with n = ^ { 1 + . . ,,rr}
2
sinh (2k h)
c = nc
g
c = co/k
o
Equation (5.1.12) describes both the refraction and the diffraction phenomena
Substitution of the expression (J) = a e
plitude function in the horizontal plane give rise to the refraction equations
(4.1.24) and (4.1.26). In the case of deep water or a constant water depth, the
equation becomes the diffraction Helmholtz equation. With a small water
depth,the equation corresponds to the linear shallow water equation, which can
be derived also with the shallow water approximation.
5.2
Boundary Conditions
5.3
For a verification of the method of solution, given in Sections 5.4 and 5.5, an
analytic solution for a special problem can be of great help, and so in this Section
two analytical approaches for obtaining a solution of Equation (5.1.11) are given.
First the problem of the response of a circular island with a parabolic bottom
profile (see Figure 5.1) to very long plane waves (c = \/gh) is dealt with.
71
'
\\
0i

I
\\
X........V
7
Vi ^J
11
\\
11
1
1
^,
^y
.^
,f ho
^
y
T
'1
Figure 5.1
"
^
T^
ro"".
^^^
h
hi
?
Vastano and Reid (1967) used this analytical solution for the verification of
their numerical finite difference method. The water depth h is given by the rela
tion:
h = h
1 r,^
h = h,
for r > r,
in which r
I' .
c = c
72
with n = 1 and
e
i(r
,6) =  ^
TTO)
= 2 ; e
with e
cos(m9)
m
Z
m=o
TQ^
=1
(5.3.1)
(T)
'
for m = 1,2,3,
m
= rj/r^
\^
T)
; T = (orj/v/ih^
= { J ' ( T ) + i Y ' ( T ) } c o s h (a
I n p) +
( a I n p)
m
1 + m^
HI
x=o
x=L
"7777777777777,
> ^
Figure 5.2
'777777777777777777777777
Because of the extension of the underwater bottom disturbance from <^ < y < +'^,
the wave amplitude function a will be independent of the ycoordinate along the
talud, so:
t>(x,y) = a(x) e
i S(x,y)
(5.3.2)
73
lution is written as the superposition of the incident and a reflected plane wave:
^
)j(x,y) = J H e
t^KHe
(5.3.3)
with
B,
In Area III the solution is written as a transmitted plane wave propagating into a direction
<(.jjj=iTffe
with
Bo
(5.3.4)
In Area II the following two equations for the amplitude function a(x) and
phase S(x,y) must be satisfied:
^ 
cc
dx
(ec
^ ) + a f k ^ ^  {(1)2 + (^)'}1= 0
g dx
L 2
dx
dy
(5.3.5)
and
^
(cc a^
3x
g
with k
= the
As in the Areas
S(x,y) = ly + S'(x) ,
(5.3,7)
74
d
dx
da
g dx
r 2 _ ^^2 ^ (dS')2j ^ 0
L 2
dx
J
(5.3.8)
and
d ,
;; (cc a
dx
g
dS s
5 ) = 0 .
dx
The last equation can be integrated with respect to the variable x, giving:
dS'
dx
(5.3.10)
with E some integration constant. Substitution of (5.3.10) into (5.3.8) yields this
equation for the unknown amplitude function a(x) in Area II;
'
cc
d r
da, , r, 2
,2
T (cc 3) + a k ^  1^ dx
g dx
12
(5.3.11)
tinuity conditions for the functions a and S and its partial derivatives at the
boundaries between the different areas.
3S
9S
The continuity conditions for the functions 5 , ir and S at the boundary x = L
between Areas II and III give the following relations respectively:
E = a cc
1 = k
S' = k
k^ cos Y
3
(5.3.12)
sin Y
(5.3.13)
L cos Y+ 83
(5.3.14)
a
(5.3.15)
1+R^ + 2R cos S,
1 = k
sin a
R sin I
S' = arc tan {
1+R cos
(5.3.16)
=>
(5.3.17)
da
The continuity conditions for the functions and a at the boundary x = L give
75
respectively
^S = O and
(5.3.18)
dx
a = y T H ,
(5.3.19)
H R k
22. =
dx
cos a sin B,
\ / I + R'' + 2R cos 6j
a =  H
and
1+R^ + 2R cos gj
(5.3.20)
(5.3.21)
From Equations (5.3.13) and (5.3.16) the angle Y f the transmitted wave can
be computed
^1
Y = arcsin ( sin a ) .
kj
^3
a, = arcsin (),
kr
''i
given by:
(5.3.22)
then no solution for the angle y can be found. In that case there is a full
reflection of the incident wave by the talud and the assumption about a transmitted
wave is not valid. This special case is treated later on in this Section. Because
of the linearity of the problem, the amplitude function can be taken relative to
the transmitted amplitude,and thus introduce:
a*(x) =  2 ^ .
2 T H
(5.3.23)
The value of the integration constant E can now be computed with (5.3.12), giving
E =  T ^ H ^ C C
k,
cos
Y,
(5.3.24)
and the differential equation (5.3.11) for the relative amplitude function a (x)
76
can be solved numerically for a given bottom profile using the boundary conditions :
a* = 1
and
p
dx
= 0
at x = L.
(5.3.25)
and ^
dx
(5.3.15), (5.3.20) and (5.3.21). The initial condition for the differential equation (5.3.10) can how be obtained from Equation (5.3.17)and after integration of
this differential equation the value of S' at x = L gives the possibility to compute the last unknown quantity 8, with the help of Equation (5.3.14).
In the case of full reflection,the value of E will be zero and the amplitude
function in Area III must satisfy the equation:
(5.3.26)
sin a.
A solution of this equation, vanishing at infinity x =co and having the value
a = 1 at X = L,is given by:
= ^m(xL)
ifor X 5 L ,
(5.3.27)
with
sj^" 
s'
dx
e dx
^ 2
(5.3.28)
'
8
with the boundary conditions
a = 1
and
da
^ = m
dx
at x = L ,
(5.2.29)
which can be solved numerically for a given bottom profile over Area II.
An illustration of the influence of the angle of incidence upon the solution of
this propagation problem is given in Figure 5.3 for special bottom profile
and wave period. For angles of incidence lower than the critical angle,there is a
77
partial reflection of the incoming wave and the wave amplitude is constant after
crossing the talud. The value of the wave amplitude behind the talud can be consid
erably
higher than that of the incoming wave because the distance between the
wave rays has become much smaller. For angles of incidence higher than the critical value there is a full reflection and the wave amplitude goes exponential to
zero behind the talud.
^^^^^^^^^^,^^^^j^:,^777777^777777777fm7777777r7777777777777m77777T.
Figure 5.3
5.4
Variational Formulation
{cc
(5.4.1)
has an extremum; see Courant and Hilbert (1962). In this expression the overbar
denotes the conjugate complex value and the subscript zero has been omitted for
simplicity in notation. Extremizing the functional (5.4.1) gives a solution of
Equation (5.1.12) with the natural boundary condition
78
(5.4.3)
dn = f.
with an arbitrary function f^then the following term must be added to the functional :
il
(f<i> + f if)
cc
ds.
(5.4.4)
..'".,\
B
Figure 5.4
Now the solution in Area A will be found by extremizing the functional (5.4.1)
79
and tTe solution in Area B with the aid of a source distribution along the boundary r_ between the two areas. With this method the radiation condition for the
disturbance of the incident wave at infinity is satisfied automatically,but now
the intensity of the source distribution along the contour T
This intensity function, however, can be computed from continuity conditions for
the wave height and normal velocity at the boundary r.
The solution at a point P of the Area B is given by (see Section 3.4 of Chapter
3):
*g(P) = *(P) +
(5.4.5)
in which k is the constant wave number in Area B and calculated from the dispero
sion relation
0)2 = g k
tanh (k h) .
(5.4.6)
The unknown intensity function y must now satisfy the following integral equation with both points P and M situated on the boundary T'
(5.4.7)
p
r^
A
1
(5.4.8)
(fif^ + f(t>j) cc^ d s .
r
The three equations (5.4.5), (5.4.7) and (5.4.8) are matched at the boundary V
by the continuity conditions
*g(P)=<^^(F)
and
(^)
=(g^)
=f(P),
(5.4.9)
80
pression (5.4.5).
5.5
(J)^(x,y) = N^(x,y) . ^^
(5.5.1)
in which the subscript A has been omitted for simplicity in notation and
e
.
.
.
the angular points
N

81
The vector of coefficients for the eth element is given by (see Figure 5.5):
N (x,y)
e
a.
I
, e
e
b. c.
l l
e
a.
J
, e
e
b. c.
J
J
\
with
a.
b.
, e
, e
(5.5.2)
=k
e
e.
(5.5.3)
, e
e.
x = (x^t x?+x)/3
y = (yf*yr+y?)/3
Figure 5.5
E J ff
[cc
e=l
^J^ L g
e
R
II f
=1 J
m=l
{V(N'' .^'')
. V(N^ .^^)
82
(5.5.4)
and
= the number of elements with one side coinciding with the boundary F
Also the intensity function y of the source distribution along the contour r
can be treated in the most simple way by taking v constant in each element:
V (s)
1 ,2,.
P_
(5.5.5)
in the c e n t r e points
(see Figure
inte
5.6)
R
(5.5.6)
K P ) = <t)(P) +
(5.5.7)
m=l
and
Figure 5.6
I V ^ H 1 (k r ) L .
, m 2i o
o
m
m=l
tions in the M nodal values of both the real and imaginary parts of the potential
function, giving twice a set of linear equations:
3J
=0
in which ^
for k = 1,2,.
(5.5.8)
,M
is either the real or the imaginary part of the value of the poten
tial function in the kth node. There is only a contribution to the summation in
expression (5.5.4) when the kth node corresponds to one of the three angular points
of an element. By assuming that the kth node corresponds ro the point i of the
eth element, the following set of equations arises:
'^k
E
{(b! b? + c^ c?)
{(b. b. + c.
J
c.)
1
ff
cc
cc
dx dy  u^
dx dy
ff
n N^ N^ dx dy} (j)^ +
n N. N. dx dy} .
J 1
^ '^'j
83
{(b.', b . +.C, c . )
kK. 1i
K.
cc
dx dy  )^
n N, N. dx dy}
JJ
k i
E f(P )
r=l
"^ J
with N
cc
N^ ds,
^ '
(5.5.9)
= the number of elements for which the kth node corresponds to one of
the three angular points of the element,
R, = the number of these elements situated along the boundary F^, and
P
cc
dx dy, //
/cc
T
n N
A , (n)
e
/T
e //
N^ N? dx dy
JJ k
r
and (cc )^
g P
"e
f N. ds r e s p e c t i v e l y , in which Z i s the c e n t r e point of the eth
/ i
e
'^
r
//
//
N^ N dx dy = A
m i
N (x,y) N? (x,y) +
e m ^ i
.e^eAefe
, 2
,e
\Z.i^
~\^~\
i m
12
' i TT [*^^i"^)<^yi'"y)"*'(^^"^)(y^"y)+(\"^)(y^"y)J
and N. ds = 0
but
/ N. ds = y L
Substitution of the expression (5.5.6) for the value of f at the centre point
P into Equation (5.5.9) for the real and imaginary parts of the complex quan
84
titles gives twice a set of M linear equations for the nodal values of the potential function and the intensity function of the source distribution along the
boundary r.
Taking the value of the potential in each centre point as the average of the
values in the neighbouring nodal points on the boundary (see Figure 5.6), gives:
(5.5.10)
and then Equation (5.5.7) supplies a set of R linear equations for the complex values
of the potential function in the nodal points and the intensities in the centre
points on the boundary r.
In matrix form the following set of equations for the complex unknowns must be
solved:
L_,
(5.5.11)
Thus
A((i + By = r
(5.5.12)
C0 + Dy = r
with A
a real synmetrix MxM matrix with a band structure generated by the finite element method,
a complex MxR matrix with nonzero values in the rows that correspond
with the nodal points situated on the boundary r,
a real RxM matrix generated by the averaging procedure
(5.5.10),
(5.5.7),
the vector of unknown complex values of the potential (() in the M nodal
points of Area A,
the vector of unknown complex values of the intensity function y in
85
r. =
U = (D  CA^B)"^ (2  CA'^rj) ,
(5.5.13)
and then the vector of the potential values in the nodal point of Area A by
(5.5.14)
Not the inverse A"'^ will be computed but only the LR decomposition of A, taking
into account the symmetrical band structure of the matrix.
With respect to the accuracy of the method of solution, it is necessary to deal
with the accuracy of the finite element method, with the accuracy of the finite
source distribution method for the treatment of the boundary condition at sea, and
with the influence of both methods upon each other.
An analytical approach to the aspect of the overall accuracy of the numerical
method of solution is very difficult because of the number of factors playing a
part, such as:

linear equations.
For some information about the accuracy of the finite element method the work of
Zlamal (1968), Bramble and Zlamal (1970), Babuska (1971), Fix and Larsen (1971),
Strang (1972) and Dailey and Pierce (1972), should be consulted.
Some remarks about the accuracy of the method of solution for the integral equation
86
sults of these computations give the impression that the total error in the wave
height is a function of the number of computing points over a distance of one
wave length into the direction of propagation (see Figure 5,7).
I 20V.
\ o\y^,
I
...
o
01
02
03
04
stop siza ralative to tha wave langth
Figure 5.7
Of course, more advanced finite element techniques can give more accurate results, maintaining the same number of computing points, but the accuracy of both
the finite element method and the finite source distribution method must be attuned to the rate of uncertainty in the input data of practical refractiondiffraction problems and to the overall accuracy
blems.
5.6
Some Results
but a
been done with the aid of some measurements in a hydraulic model concerning the
problem of the propagation of obliquely incident plane waves over a step of the
bottom, for which an analytical approach has been given in Section 5.A; see
Figures 5.2 and 5.3. In Figure 5.8 a comparison has been made between the
87
measurements in the hydraulic model and the mathematical results. For more information about the measurements reference can be made to a Report of the Delft Hydraulics Laboratory (1974). There is a reasonable agreement between the mathematical model and the physical process, taking into account the number of disturbing
factors in the hydraulic model,such as the finite size of the step in the bottom
layout in a lateral direction, the presence of second harmonic waves due to the
wave maker, the reflection of the waves at the boundaries of the hydraulic model,
the nonlinear effects,and the bottom friction. The fit between measurement and
computation seems to be the best in the case of full reflection of the waves. It
is clear that with the refractiondiffraction model the difficulty of the presence of a caustic line, which occurs in the refraction theory, has been overcome
and that the results obtained are qualitatively in good agreement with the physical process.
The twodimensional numerical method of solution has been verified with the aid
of the analytical solution for the problem of wave propagation of very long waves
around a circular island with a parabolic bottom profile, which has been given in
Section 5.4. Figures 5.9 to 5.11
computed wave heights compared with the analytical solution. For short wave
Deriods, the deviation between the numerical solution and the analytical solution
is rather large, which is an indication that the finite element schematization
used is not sufficient to represent the variations of the solution in an appropriate way and that more elements must be used to improve the numerical results.
It is possible now with this twodimensional method of solution to obtain the solution of the problem of wave propagation over a circular shoal with a parabolic
bottom profile also in the region behind the caustic curve; see Figures 4.6 and 4.7.
To save computing time and computer memory, only a part of the circle
has been schematized into finite elements (Figure 5.12). Upto
the line OA it is
88
results agree very well in a qualitative way with those of a hydraulic nodel;
Holthuyzen (1971). A quantitative comparison with the measurements of Holthuyzen
above the shoal is not possible because of the lack of information about the
phase and because of the unreliability of the quantitative results of the measurements .
Another comparison has been made with hydraulic model results in the case of
wave propagation of obliquely incident waves over an area with a constant slope
of the bottom and with the presence of two fully reflecting breakwaters; see
Figure 5.16. In this problem all aspects of refraction, diffraction and reflection
of the waves must be taken into account. An additional difficulty is the dissipation of energy at the shore due to the breaking of the waves. The boundary
condition of full energy absorption at the breaker line has been treated numerically with the aid of a fictive area behind the breaker line with the breaker depth
as the water depth, where the waves can propagate in a radiating way to infinity.
The schematization of the area into finite elements is given in Figure 5.17, and
the comparison between the mathematical results and the measurements for three
different angles of incidence are given in the Figures 5.18 to 5.20 as lines of
equal wave heights. Again there is a reasonable agreement in qualitative sense,
looking at the areas of maxima and minima, but the agreement in a quantitative
sense is not so good. It appears, after all, that in the hydraulic model a secondary current was created from the right to the left along the shore, which had, of
course, some influence upon the wave field. The effect of this current will be an
increase of the wave height in the left part of the model and a decrease in the
right part. This tendency corresponds to the deviation from the mathematical
results. Also other effects, such as second harmonic waves, nonlinearity and
friction, contribute to the deviation between the mathematical and the hydraulic
model.
89
h:i = 0.233 m
T=0.94 s
ho^O.222 m
hl =0.155 m
computed
measured range
Figure 5.8
90
Configuration of
Elements
Figure 5.10
Figure 5.11
(h = 4000 m) ,
HlM
MHMI
Figure 5.12
Figure 5.13
92
Figure 5,14
Figure 5,15
93
 breaker line
 breakwater
breakwater 
bottom slope 1 30
: 1.4 5
= 0 03n
water
depth 0 24 i
angle of incidence
Figure 5.16
Refractiondiffraction Problem:
Hydraulic Model
\
X
^
\
^
"
/x
^
\
^
"^ x
/ ^
\ "x
^ ^x'
"
/x
^ x'
"/x"
\
Figure 5.17
/ ^
" \
\
/ ^
/ / \
\
^
\
\
^
/^ \
\
^
^ \
x'
x'
K
/ /^x^
\
/
\
/
\
/
\
/
/
\
/
\
/
\
/
\
/
7\/\7W\/\/
\7\/\7\/\/\
Z'^7\7\7\/\/
\7\7\7\/\7\
/\7\7\/\7\7
\7\/\/\/\A
/\7y\7\/y
\7\7\/\/\7\
/\7\7\7\7\7
\7\7\7\7\7\
Z\7\/\7\/\/
\7\7\7\7\t\
ss
s
/
/ \
\ /
/ \
/
/ \
\ /
Refractiondiffraction Problem:
Configuration of Elements
94
Figure 5.18a
Figure 5.18b
95
Figure 5.19a
Refractiondiffraction Problem (a = 45 )
Wave Height Contours (Measurement)
Figure 5.19b
Refractiondiffraction Problem (a = 45 )
Wave Height Contours (Computation)
96
Figure 5.20a
Yi i\
\o\
1
1/^
it^
v^
\
4 0 ;.
60 ;.
eov.
100 /.
120 /.
1 4 0 /.
160'/.
Figure 5.20b
5.7
Discussion
The derived equation (5.1.12) for the mathematical description of the combined
effect of refraction and diffraction seems to be valid for the whole range from
deep to shallow water. Compared with the twodimensional diffraction equation
(3.1 7) there are two differences. One difference is the variation of the wave
number in the horizontal plane,and the other is the addition of a term caused by
the shoaling effect and the slope of the bottomThe last contribution becomes
more important when the water becomes more shallow. So therefore the equation
88
Conclusions
It appears for practical wave propagation problems that the linear wave theory
gives reasonable qualitative and often also quantitative results. Therefore the
development of mathematical models based on this linear theory is useful
for en
gineering purposes to obtain some insight into the phenomena and also to derive
some quantitative information about the wave heights.
It may be useful to give here a short survey of the differences in the mathematical
description of the three models for the twodimensional wave propagation problem.
In the diffraction model the water depth is a constant, or the water is deep and
the wave potential function <) is a solution of the Helmholtz equation with a constant wave number k :
= 0
3x2
gy2
)
3y2
+ (^)^ + # ) 2
3^
8y
= 0
 k
and
3x
(a2 r
3S
, ) + TT (a TT)
dx
dy
dy
In the refraction model a slow variation of the water depth has been taken into
account, but the variation of the wave amplitude in the horizontal plane has been
ignored, giving the uncoupled equations:
(^)2
+ (^)2  k 2 = 0
3x
3y
and
3X'
in which now k
3y
l>='
h and n a variable shoaling coefficient, which is also a function of h. In the refractiondiffraction model again a slow variation of the water depth has been taken into
99
account, but now the variation of the wave amplitude is included in the formulation;
1 ,8 a , 3 a>. . o ['9a 3 / n .
a , 2
'^ 2
na L ox dx , 2
dx
dy
K.
, da 3 / n \ l ,
dV 3y , 2 J
K
/9S.2
3x
. /3S.2
dy
i 2
o
and
3,n
2 3S, , 3 , n
23S,
_.
^ (
35) + ^ (
a'' ^
= 0 ,
dx
2
ox
y v 2
oy
in which again k
3 .n
ox ^ 2
o
30, , 3 , n
3x
3y ^ 2
o
90.
3y
The character of the equations in che three models determines the method of solution. The method (ray method) used in the refraction model is the simplest
one, consisting of finding the solution of a set of ordinary differential equations. The diffraction equation can be solved with the aid of a source distribution along the boundary of the solution domain, because of the fact that the wave
number is a constant in the whole field. The method of solution consists of finding the solution of a onedimensional Fredholm integral equation. The diffractionrefraction model has the most complex method of solution with computing points in
the whole twodimensional field, due to the presence of variable coefficients in
the leading partial differential equation.
For practical problems the user of the mathematical models must decide
which model is the most appropriate one to solve his problem, taking into account
the aim of the computation, the desired accuracy, the practical applicability, and
the computing time.
Often a problem can be solved with each of the models mentioned more or less
with some modifications. An example of this approach is given here for the problem of wave propagation to the shore with reflecting breakwaters, which has been
treated also in Section 5.6. One possible approach is to neglect the slope of the
bottom to the shore and to solve the problem with the diffraction model. Figure
6.1 gives the result of this computation,showing the wave height pattern due to
a plane wave with an angle of incidence of 22.5 degrees.
100
Figure 6.1
A second possible approach is to compute the paths of the incident wave rays over
the slope of the bottom until they meet the reflecting barrier. It is assumed
then that the wave rays follow the reflection laws of Snellius, giving the possibility to continue the wave ray computation after reflection; see Figure 6.2.
The total wave pattern can be obtained by superposition of the incident and reflected wave fields.A rough sketch of the resulting wave height distribution is
shown in Figure 6.3. The refractiondiffraction results have been given already
in Section 5.6; Figure 5.20. Comparing the results of the different models gives
the impression that the refractiondiffraction model fits the measuremerts in the
best way in spite of all its imperfections.
However, the combined refractiondiffraction model has the great disadvantage
of the great amount of computing time needed to obtain a solucion over a
large area in the horizontal plane. Therefore it is recommended to use the more
simple refraction or diffraction models where possible,and if necessary  for instance in the region of a caustic  to use the combined m.odel and then connect
101
wave ra y
wave front
Figure 6.2
14 71
12 Tt
lOt
H2
wave ray
I phase lines
I
Figure 6.3
nnaxima
nninima
102
103
References
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322333
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e
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Notation
The following list shows the most important symbols which have been used in the
text, but not including those variables which have only been used locally. All
symbols are also, in addition to this list, defined when they are used in the
text for the first time.
G(P;M)
wave height
m
h
imaginary unit i
\()
=  1
o
k.
J
1
o
wave number
roots of the equation to =  gk tan (kh)
characteristic length g/w
normal vector
normal vector
surface area
P*
pressure
m^
Nm"'S~'
Nm~^
phase function
current variable along a contour
wave period
time
energy velocity
ms
ms
volume
velocity vector
ms
ms~
longitudinal coordinate
m
lateral coordinate
function of h and z
vertical coordinate
a( )
ratio H/D
separation function
boundary contour
Y
e
ratio a/u
angular coordinate
wave length
y( )
IT
pi (3.141
current variable
P
a
density
mean bottom slope
T.
J
eigenvalues
0,,02
<)>
Summary
This study gives a description of some mathematical models for wave propagation
problems, which are based on the linear simple harmonic wave theory. The models
can be divided into a refraction model, a diffraction model and a model for the
combined effect of refraction and diffraction of water waves.
For each model a derivation of the basic differential equations, some analytical solutions, a numerical method of solution, some computational results, and a
discussion of the applicability of the model are given.
It is not the intension of this study to give accurate solutions of some wave
propagation problems but rather to give some insight into the possibilities of
the models and the interrelationship between them.
Samenvatting
In deze studie worden enkele wiskundige modellen voor golfvoortplantingsproblemen
beschreven, die gebaseerd zijn op de lineaire enkelvoudig harmonische golftheorie.
Onderscheid wordt gemaakt in een refractie model, een diffractie model en een model voor het gekombineerde refractiediffractie verschijnsel van watergolven
Voor elk model wordt een afleiding van de desbetreffende differentiaalvergelijkingen, enkele analytische oplossingen, een numerieke oplossingsmethode, enkele
rekenresultaten en een discussie over de toepasbaarheid van het model gegeven.
Het ligt niet in de bedoeling om nauwkeurige oplossingen voor een aantal golfvoorplantingsproblemen te geven, maar meer om het onderlinge verband tussen de
modellen en de mogelijkheden ervan aan te duiden.
Be^UKt
STELLINGEN
1.
Een wiskundige randvoorwaarde in het oneindige is veelal
numeriek gezien onaantrekkelijk. Het koppelen van volledig of
gedeeltelijk analytische oplossingsmethoden aan zuiver numerieke oplossingstechnieken kan in dat geval grote voordelen
bieden.
2.
Bij praktijkproblemen tracht men vaak ten onrechte te veel
kwantitatieve informatie te halen uit refractieberekeningen.
3
Bij het fysisch onderzoek naar partile reflectie van watergolven
is het aspect van faseverschuiving tot nu toe stiefmoederlijk behandeld.
4.
D bewering van H. S. Chen en C. C. Mei, dat de in dit proefschrift gegeven formulering van de functionaal behorend bij het
refractiediffractie probleem niet juist zou zijn, is niet terecht.
H. S. Chen en C. C. Mei, Oscillations and wave forces in
an offshore harbor; MIT Report No, 190; 1974.
5.
Indien een eindige elementen methode wordt gedefinieerd door
de volgende bewerkingsgangen:
i Opsplitsing van het oplossingsgebied in een aantal eindige
deelgebieden (elementen);
ii Per deelgebied de onbekende functie(s) benaderen door bekende functies met een aantal onbekende parameters;
lil Het voldoen aan een bepaald criterium, v/aardoor de onbekende parameters worden vastgelegd;
dan kunnen ook de eindige differentie methoden tot de eindige
elementen methoden gerekend worden.
6.
Bij een optimaliseringsprobleem uit de praktijk ligt de grootste
moeilijkheid vaak niet in de oplossingsmethode zelf maar in het
vaststellen en formuleren van alle mogelijke beperkingen.
7.
Het zou een uitkomst zijn, indien de hoeveelheid extra informatie, die men krijgt uit een hydraulisch model na automatisering van de gegevensverwerking, vooraf kan worden uitgedrukt
in geld ter motivatie voor de aanschaf van een informatieverwerkend systeem.
8.
Het ontwikkelen van wiskundige modellen voor fysische problemen zal in de toekomst nauwelijks meer behoren tot het
werkterrein van de wiskundig ingenieur gezien het huidige studiepakket voor de wiskundig ingenieur.
9.
In een instituut, waar zowel speurwerk als opdrachtwerk wordt
gedaan door dezelfde personen, moet er voor gewaakt worden
dat er in werkelijkheid ook voldoende tijd voor het speurwerk
overblijft.
10.
Er zijn een aantal zaalsporten, zoals zaalhandbal en in mindere
mate basketbal, waarbij de strijd zich voor een zeer groot deel
van de speeltijd slechts op de helft van het speelveld afspeelt.
De vraag kan gesteld worden of door aanpassing van de spelregels niet een efficinter gebruik van de sportzaal verkregen
kan worden.