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Handover Success Rate KPI Improvement Theory The HOSR is an important KPI of the
call hold type. According to the processes, this KPI can be divided into two types:
Handover Success Rate and Radio Handover ...
Posted May 9, 2011 1:25 PM by gulzar singh

How to Improve TCH Assignment Success Rate Definition of TCH Assignment Success
Rate The TCH assignment success rate refers to the rate that the TCHs assigned by the
BSC are successfully seized. Successful TCH assignment indicates the ...
Posted May 9, 2011 12:58 PM by gulzar singh

How to reduce Call Drops In a GSM Network Meaning The TCH call drop rate refers to
the ratio of call drops to successful TCH seizures after the BSC successfully assigns
TCHs to MSs. The TCH call drop rate ...
Posted May 9, 2011 1:13 PM by gulzar singh

## Frequency Planning for 2G Frequency Planning for 2G...Content will be added

Posted May 9, 2011 11:55 AM by gulzar singh

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Handover Success Rate KPI Improvement
posted May 9, 2011 11:35 AM by gulzar singh [ updated May 9, 2011 1:25 PM ]
Theory
The HOSR is an important KPI of the call hold type. According to the processes, this KPI can be
divided into two types: Handover Success Rate and Radio Handover Success Rate. According to

the relations between involved network elements (NEs), this KPI can be divided into three types:
Success Rate of Intra-BSC Handover, Success Rate of Incoming BSC Handover, and Success Rate
of Outgoing BSC Handover. The HOSR is an important KPI assessed by operators because the
value of the HOSR directly affects the user experience.

Recommended Formula
The HOSR is obtained through traffic measurement. The recommended formula for calculating this
KPI is as follows:
Handover Success Rate = Successful Handovers/Handover Requests
Radio Handover Success Rate = Successful Handovers/Handover Commands

Measurement Point

## Definition of TCH Assignment Success Rate

The TCH assignment success rate refers to the rate that the TCHs assigned by the BSC are
successfully seized. Successful TCH assignment indicates the procedure from the BSC receiving
the Channel Request message sent by the MSC to receiving the Assignment Complete message.
TCH Assignment Success Rate is one of accessibility KPIs. It indicates the rate of the MSs
successfully seizing the TCHs to make calls. This KPI directly affects the user experience.

Recommended Formula
The TCH assignment success rate is obtained through the traffic statistics. The recommended
formula is as follows:
TCH Assignment Success Rate = (Completed TCH Assignments/TCH Assignment
Requests) x 100%

## How to reduce Call Drops In a GSM Network

Meaning
The TCH call drop rate refers to the ratio of call drops to successful TCH seizures after the BSC
successfully assigns TCHs to MSs. The TCH call drop rate can be measured from the following
aspects:
TCH call drop rate (including handover)
TCH call drop rate (excluding handover)
The TCH call drop rate, one of the most significant KPIs for telecom operators, is related to
retainability. It indicates the probability of call drops due to various reasons after MSs access
TCHs. A too high TCH call drop rate adversely affects the user's experience.
Recommended Formulas
TCH call drop rate (including handover) = Number of call drops on TCH/(Number of successful
TCH seizures (signaling channel) + Number of successful TCH seizures (TCH) + Number of
successful TCH Seizures in TCH handovers (TCH)) x 100%
TCH call drop rate (excluding handover) = Number of call drops on TCH/Number of successful
TCH seizures (TCH) x 100%
Factors That Affect the TCH Call Drop Rate
According to user complaints and network optimization experience, the major factors
that affect the TCH call drop rate are as follows:

Hardware failure
Transmission problem
Parameter setting
Intra-network and inter-network interference
Coverage problem
Antenna system problem
Repeater problem
1.1 Hardware Failure
When a TRX or a combiner is faulty, seizing the TCH becomes difficult, and thus the
TCH call drop rate increases.
1.2 Transmission Problem
The TCH call drop rate increases in the following conditions:
The transmission quality on the A or Abis interface is poor for various reasons.
After the BTS version or BSC version is upgraded, the BTS version may be
incompatible with the BSC version, and the parameters and algorithms in the new
version may be changed. In this case, the TCH call drop rate increases.
1.4 Parameter Setting
The settings of some parameters on the BSC and MSC sides may affect the TCH call
drop rate. If the following situations occur, the TCH call drop rate may increase:
1. The parameters SACCH Multi-Frames and Radio Link Timeout are set to too small
values.
2. The parameter RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN is set to a too small value.
3. The
parameter RACH Min. Access Level is set to a too small value.
4. The parameters Min DL Power on HO Candidate Cell and Min Access Level Offset are
inappropriately set.
5. The length of timer T3103 (this timer is set to wait for a Handover Complete
message) is set to a too small value.
6. The length of timer T3109 (this timer is set to wait for a Release Indication
message) is set to a too small value.
7. The length of timer T3111 (this timer specifies the connection release delay) is set
to a too small value.
8. The length of timer T305/T308 is set to an invalid or too great value.
9. The parameter TCH Traffic Busy Threshold is set to a too small value.
10. The parameter Call Reestablishment Forbidden is set to Yes.
11. The parameters related to edge handover are inappropriately set.
12. The parameters related to BQ handover are inappropriately set.
13. The parameters related to interference handover are inappropriately set.
14. The parameters related to concentric cell handover are inappropriately set.
15. The parameters related to power control are inappropriately set.
16. T200 and N200 are set to too small values.
17. Some neighboring cell relations are not configured.
18. The parameter MAIO is inappropriately set.

19. The parameter Disconnect Handover Protect Timer is set to a too small value.
20. The parameter TR1N is set to a too small value.
21. The parameters Software Parameter 13 and MAX TA are set to too small values.
22. If a repeater is used, the parameter Directly Magnifier Site Flag is set to No.
1.5 Intra-Network and Inter-Network Interference
If inter-network interference and repeater interference exist, or if severe intra-network
interference occurs because of tight frequency reuse, call drops may occur on TCHs
because of poor QoS. This adversely affects the TCH call drop rate.
The following types of interference may occur:
1. Inter-network interference from scramblers or privately installed antennas
2. Interference from the CDMA network of China Unicom
3. Repeater interference
4. Inter-modulation interference from BTSs
5. Intra-network co-channel and adjacent-channel interference
1.6 Coverage Problem
The following coverage problems may affect the TCH call drop rate.
1.
Discontinuous coverage (blind areas)
The voice quality at the edge of an isolated BTS is poor and calls cannot be handed
over to other cells. In this case, call drops may occur.
In complex terrains such as mountainous regions, the signals are blocked and thus the
transmission is discontinuous, leading to call drops.
2. Poor indoor coverage
Densely distributed buildings and thick walls cause great attenuation and low indoor signal
level, which causes call drops.
3. Cross coverage (isolated BTS)
The serving cell causes cross coverage due to various reasons (such as excess
power). An MS cannot be handed over to another cell due to no suitable neighboring
cells. In this case, the signal level becomes low and the voice quality of the MS
deteriorates. Thus, call drops occur.
4. Insufficient coverage
If the signal from an antenna is blocked or the BCCH TRX is faulty, call drops may occur
because of discontinuous coverage.
1.7 Antenna System Problem
The following antenna system problems may affect the TCH call drop rate
1. If the transmit antennas of two cells are improperly connected, the uplink signal
level in each cell is much lower than the downlink signal level in the cell. Therefore, call
drops are likely to occur at places far away from the BTS.
2. If a directional cell has main and diversity antennas, the BCCH and SDCCH of the
cell may be transmitted from different antennas. If the two antennas have different pitch
angles or azimuths, the coverage areas of the two antennas are different. In this case,
the following result may occur: An MS can receive the BCCH signals from one antenna;
when a call is made, the MS cannot seize the SDCCH transmitted by the other antenna
and thus a call drop occurs.
3. If the feeder is damaged, water leaks in the feeder, or the feeder and the connector
are not securely connected, both the transmit power and receiver sensitivity of the
antenna are reduced. Thus, call drops may occur.

The difference between the uplink signal level and the downlink signal level may be
great in the following conditions:
The transmit power of the BTS is high.
The tower mounted amplifier (TMA) or BTS amplifier does not work properly.
The antenna and the connector are not securely connected.
As a result, call drops may occur at the edge of the BTS coverage area.
1.9 Repeater Problem
If a cell is installed with a repeater, BTS coverage problems may occur in the case that
the repeater is faulty or that the uplink and downlink gain is inappropriately set.
Therefore, the TCH call drop rate increases.
If a wide-frequency repeater is used and the gain is set to a great value, strong
interference may be caused. As a result, the network quality is adversely affected and
the TCH call drop rate increases.