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CIVE3400: Open Channel Hydraulics

Unsteady Flow Examples


(See www.efm.leeds.ac.uk/CIVE/CIVE3400 for assistance)
SOLUTIONS
Q1.The flow in a rectangular channel of width 5m, slope 0.001 and a Chezy C of
25is uniform and has a depth of 1.5m. A gate at the downstream end increases the
depth by 10%. How long will it take this change in depth to affect levels in the
river 0.5 km upstream?
B = 5m
i = 0.001
C = 25
d = 1.5m
Uniform flow
765.0001.05.1255.15252=×+×=+==vidBBdCvmiCv
Downstream end so have a forward characteristic
()ollppjigcvcv−=−−+22
as uniform flow i = j
10% increase in depth so
()65.1/023.41.15.181.92===××=gcdcppp
Therefore
()smccvvpllp/391.02=−+=
To find the time for this depth change to move upstream we look at the equation of
the characteristic travelling away from the boundary – i.e. a backward
characteristic. This has the equation:
cvdtdx−=
dx = 500m, v = vp, c = cp
sec137023.4391.0500=−−=dt 1
Q2. At a certain instant in time the depth and velocities of flow at three points
in a channel are known and give in the table below:
Point
Chainage
Velocity
Depth
(km)
(m/s)
(m)
A
1.0
1.0
1.0
B
2.0
0.8
1.2
C
3.0
0.8
1.3
Using the method of characteristics calculate the flow conditions at point B at
maximum stable time step forward in time. Channel Slope is 0.0005 and Chezy C =
40.
NOTE: The channel slope has changed from the original handout.
ΔxPWORL E
ΔxΔxΔxLRtt+tΔΔt
Point A is equivalent to W, point B to O and point C to E
ΔX = 1000m
Calculate time step using cvdtdx+=for point O.
Interpolate the values at L and R using the values at O to get ΔXL and ΔXR.
Approximate the energy terms for left and right characteristics at O
The solve the problem using:
()(ORLRLPjigtccvvv−Δ+−++=2
)
24RLRLPccvvc++−=
Following this procedure we get
scvxtoo35.236=+Δ=Δ
2
()()8.6211000−=Δ−=Δ=Δ+=ΔtcvXtcvXooRooL
Interpolating:
For the left points we do not need to interpolate as this is the same as the node
W.
For the right
()()518.38.0=−ΔΔ−==−ΔΔ−=EoRoREoRoRccxxccvvxxvv
The energy term at O is (assuming a wide channel so m = d)
00164.02.1408.00005.081.92222=

−=

−=oodCvigE
So
()smvP/9.000164.035.236518.3132.328.00.1=×+−++=
smcP/372.32518.3132.348.00.1=++−=
mgcdpp16.1/2==
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Q3.A long wide channel flows with uniform flow of 3.0 m3/s/m. Over a half hour
period the upstream depth increases by 25%. Calculate:
i) the upstream flow at the time of this depth measurement and
ii) estimate how long it will take for this depth change to reach 1km downstream.
NOTE: the original handout omitted the Chezy C = 40 and slope i = 0.001
q = 3.0 m3/s /m,
i = 0.001
Chezy C = 40
Calculate normal depth
miACQmiCV==
For wide channel m = d and Q given in flow per m width, q, so
idCdqnn=
Pboundary
t+

322iCqdn=
Δ
t
dn = 1.7784 m
t
O
E
dR = dn = 1.7784
R
smgdcR/1768.4==
vR = 3.0/1.7784 = 1.687 m/s
vR < cR so sub critical.
Backward characteristic:
(vP – 2 cP) - (vR – 2 cR) = dt g (i-j)
Approximation the energy term at the know time level, i.e. at R then i = j
But as we have normal flow then the energy term is zero.
Therefore
vp = vR + 2(cP – cR)
25% increase in depth so
dp = 1.25 dn = 2.223 m
cP = 4.67 m/s
giving
vP = 2.673 m/s
which is still subcritical.
Δ
x
Δ
x
R 4
qp = dp vp = 5.94 m3/s /m
Time to reach 1km downstream:
()18.13667.4673.21000=+=Δ+=ΔΔtcvtx
136 seconds to travel downstream.
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