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perception

RECEPTION

the selection, organisation


and interpretation of visual
sensations into meaningful
events and objects.
TAKING LIGHT IN

Sensory receptors detect the


presence of a stimulus
STAGE 1 of the visual perception Light enters the eye through the
cornea, passing through the pupil.
process
The lens focuses the light on the
retina which receives the figure.

TRANSDUCTION
STAGE 2 of the visual perception
process

transmission
STAGE 3 of the visual perception
process

TURNING LIGHT INTO


SIGHT
Sensory receptors convert
stimulus energy into impulses
of electrochemical energy for
neural activity.

FROM THE EYE TO


THE BRAIN
Neural impulses leave the
retina via the optic nerve and
travel to the occipital lobe in
the brain.

selection
STAGE 4 of the visual perception
process

organisation

STAGE 5 of the visual perception


process

INTERPRETATION
STAGE 5 of the visual perception
process

feature detector
cells

FEATURE DETECTORS
AT WORK

The process of feature


detector cells responding
to specific features of a
stimulus pattern.
Reassembling the features of
sensory stimuli in a meaningful
manner.
Image travels to the TEMPORAL
LOBE for identification and the
PARIETAL LOBE to judge where
the object is in space.

The process of
assigning meaning to
sensory stimuli so that it
can be understood.

Neurons specialised to respond to


specific perceptual features of a
stimulus pattern in visual perception.
Respond to basic visual features
such as lines,shapes,edges,spots
and colours.

lobes of the brain

FRONTAL LOBE
Planning,reasoning,emotions/personality.
PARIETAL LOBE
Spacial reasoning, sensory information.
OCCIPITAL LOBE
Visual perception
TEMPORAL LOBE
Memory, auditory perception.

the eye

IRIS: A coloured, circular muscle inside the eye that expands and contracts to
change the size of the pupil.
PUPIL: An adjustable opening in the centre of the eyes iris through which light
enters; appears as black
LENS: A transparent,convex structure behind the iris that changes shape to focus
light into an image on the retina.
RETINA: A light-sensitive membrane composed of a number of layers of
specialised neurons at the back of the eye.
FOVEA: A small,cup-shaped area in the middle of the retina containing only cones.
CILIARY MUSCLES: Muscles attached to each end of the lens that contract or
relax to change the shape of the lens so it can focus light images of objects at
varying distances.
CORNEA: Transparent, convex-shaped membrane that protects the front part of
the eye.
BLIND SPOT: The opening in the retina through which the optic nerve exists to
the brain.

sensation

A psychological process involving


sensory receptors detecting and
responding to the presence of a
stimuli.
PERCEPTION & SENSATION

Sensation refers to the process of sensing our


environment through touch,taste,sight,sound and
smell. Perception is the way we interpret these
sensations and therefore make sense of everything
around us,

the electromagnetic spectrum

The full range of electric and


magnetic wavelengths that exist in
the external environment.

VISIBLE LIGHT SPECTRUM


380 (purple/violet)-750(red) nanometres.
(Beyond this,human eyes are unable
respond to infrared and ultraviolet light)

rods

KEYWORDS
Visual Acuity: Sharpness of vision and ability to detect
fine detail.
Photoreceptors: Receptor cells located at the back of
the retina and specialised to detect and respond to light.

cones

KEYWORDS
Visual Acuity: Sharpness of vision and ability to detect
fine detail.
Photoreceptors: Receptor cells located at the back of
the retina and specialised to detect and respond to light.

visual
thresholds

Located mainly on the outer edges of


the retina.
Approx.100 million in each retina.
Low visual acuity.

Functions best in dim light.

Black & White vision

Responsible for PERIPHERAL VISION


and for DETECTING MOVEMENT.

Mainly in the centre of the retina


(fovea)
Approx.6.5 million in each retina.
High visual acuity.

Functions best in bright light.

Colour vision

THRESHOLD
Refers to the level of which a stimulus is strong
enough to trigger a neural response in a sense
organs sensory acceptors.

ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD
Minimum amount of light energy necessary for the
perception of a visual stimulus.
DIFFERENTIAL THRESHOLD
Just notice-able difference.

Minimum difference that a person can perceive


between the intensity of two visual stimuli.

gestalt
principles
(Figure-ground,closure,similarity,proximity)

figure-ground

A group of principles that


organise visual perceptual
features and that integrate
them into connected pattern
or whole forms.

Figure: the part of the visual field that is


being attended to.
The ground: the surrounds.

Figure and ground are separated by an


imaginary contour, there is a distinct
difference between the figure and the
background.

closure
similarity

Perceiving an image as being whole


despite it actually being incomplete.

The viewer has a tendency to


complete a figure by filling in an
imaginary contour line so that the
figure has a consistent overall form.

When an individual has the


tendency to perceive stimuli that
with similar visual features as
belonging together
(shape,colour,line,form)

proximity

depth
perception
principles

Stimuli close together are


perceived as belonging
together and forming a
meaningful single unit or
group.

The ability to add 3D


(height,length,width) from
2D images on our retina.

(adding a third dimension)

binocular
and
monocular
cues
RETINAL
DISPARITY

(BINOCULAR DEPTH CUE)

BINOCULAR
Require both eyes to work together to provide the
brain with information about depth and distance.

MONOCULAR
Require information from one eye only.

Small discrepancies between an image


that reaches the right eye and the other
that reaches the left eye, each retina
receives slightly different images.
Disparity between the images are picked
up in the OCCIPITAL and PARIETAL
lobes.
(used to make 3D movies)

convergence
(BINOCULAR DEPTH CUE)

Involves both eyes simultaneously turning


inwards as an object moves closer in
order to maintain focus.
Controlled by a group of muscle which
contract/relax, feeding information to the
brain to judge distance.
DISTANT: eyeballs are parallel
CLOSE: eyes will turn inwards.

accomModation
(MONOCULAR DEPTH CUE)

Ciliary muscles contract/relax altering the


shape of the lens in each eyes to focus
an object at varying distances.
Judges distances within a range of
20cm to 3m.
DISTANT: lens flatten to focus
CLOSE: lens bulge to focus

linear
perspective
(MONOCULAR DEPTH CUE)

The apparent convergence of parallel


lines creating the impression of
increasing distance.

(PICTORIAL CUE create the impression of depth where


depth does not exist, creating 3D out of 2D)

relative
size
(MONOCULAR DEPTH CUE)
(PICTORIAL CUE create the impression of depth where
depth does not exist, creating 3D out of 2D)

Involves two similar objects in the one


image.
The SMALLER image appears FURTHER
AWAY.
The LARGER of the image appears to be
CLOSER.

interposition
(MONOCULAR DEPTH CUE)

Occurs when one object partially blocks


another object and is perceived as being
in front of and therefore closer than the
object it covers.

(PICTORIAL CUE create the impression of depth


where depth does not exist, creating 3D out of 2D)

texture
gradient
(MONOCULAR DEPTH CUE)

The surface features of an object


become smaller and less detailed the
more distant an object becomes.

(PICTORIAL CUE create the impression of depth


where depth does not exist, creating 3D out of 2D)

height in the
visual
field
(MONOCULAR DEPTH CUE)

The height of objects in the visual field


(either above or below the horizon) act as a
depth cue.
CLOSE to the horizon: appear further away
BELOW the horizon: appear closer

(PICTORIAL CUE create the impression of depth


where depth does not exist, creating 3D out of 2D)

visual
constancies

Perception principles that


enable an individual to maintain
stable perception of a stimulus
(unchanging in terms of actual
size,shape brightness and
orientation)

orientational
constancy

shape
constancy
size
constancy
brightness
constancy

Perceiving an objects true orientation as


being unchanged despite changes in
the orientation of the objects image on
the retina.
Example: When watching TV, the subjects view of the
television maintains orientation constancy despite facing
the TV differently. (Image still appears upright)

An object is perceived to maintain its


known shape despite the changing
perspective from which it is observed.
Example: As a door opens towards us the shape of
the shape of the image of the door changes. Rather
than perceiving the door as changing shape, we
perceive that its shape remains constant and its
position as changing.

Maintaining a constant perception of an


objects size even though the size of the
image on the retina alters as the object
moves nearer or further away.
Example: Moving an apple closer towards you. The
perceives size of the apple is the same even though
the size of the image becomes larger on the retina.

Perceptual constancy whereby an


objects perceived level of brightness
relative to its surroundings stays the
same despite changing light conditions.

Example: A piece of paper physically doesnt change


in colour under different light conditions instead its
appearance does,due to the level of brightness
being reflected onto the retina.

perceptual
set
effect of past
experience

A readiness or predisposition to
perceive visual stimuli in a particular
way according to our expectations.
Psychological factors that influence the was we
perceive stimuli. These can be externally or internally
effected.

Prior exposure to stimuli and previous life


experiences.
The tendency to interpret new stimuli the same
way an individual has interpreted similar stimuli in
the past.

Example: Reading a magazine and failing to notice a


spelling error in a word- you perceive the word as
being correct.
Paris
in the
the spring.

context

The environment or setting in which a


perceived event/object exists. Provides a
framework to the serve the observer
circumstances and conditions which
surround it.

Example:

We expect to see a letter


in the context of other
letters of the
alphabet,where as we
expect to see numbers in
the context of other
numbers

MOTIVATION

effect of
motivation

Internal state that activates, directions


and sustains behaviour in relation to
achieving a specific goal. Motives can be
influenced by psychological factors e.g
interests,ambitions and desires.
Example: We see what we want to see,
rather than what is actually there.

EFFECT OF
EMOTIONAL
STATE

EMOTIONAL STATE
How an individual is feeling.
Example: A child who is afraid of being in
their darkened bedroom may interpret the
shadow of their dressing gown hanging
on their door as a ghost.

effect of
culture

The patterns of behaviour,values


and beliefs shared by a group.

effect of
suggestion or
instruction

Suggestions given by others or


by instructions we are given
before attempting to do
something which can influence of
perceptual set.

MllerLyer
illusion

A visual illusion in which two lines


of equal length one capped
with inward-pointing arrowheads,
the other capped with outwardpointing arrowheads are
perceived as being of different
lengths.

Example:

What do you see?


Which is nearer, the antelope or the elephant?
What is the man doing?' (Noted difficult among South
African tribes in interpreting depth cues in pictures.

Example: Seeing a newborn baby dressed in


blue or pink which suggests the gender of the
baby due to sex stereotypical colours.

ames room

ponzo ILLUSION

example of a
operational
hypothesis

An illusion caused by an intentionally


distorted room, viewed through a
peephole, disrupting perceptual
constancies and misleading the viewer to
perceive people changing size (shrinking or
growing) as they cross the floor from one
corner of the room to the corner diagonally
opposite.

An illusion where two horizontal lines


of equal length are drawn inside two
converging lines, but the line in the
narrower section of the converging
lines is perceived to be longer.

It is hypothesised that adolescent males


who sleep for less than six hours a
night will be more likely to to have
lower memory abilities,as measured
by scores on a comprehension test,
than adolescent males who sleep for six
or more hours a night.
POPULATION
PREDICTION
HOW VARIABLES ARE MANIPULATED (OPERATIONALISED IV)
HOW THE VARIABLES ARE MEASURE (OPERATIONALISED DV)