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Module 8

Deformation of pure metal

Lecture 8
Deformation of pure metal

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Keywords:elastic&plasticdeformation,physicalcharacter&representationofstress&strain,
introductiontoCartesiantensor,stressstrainrelation,elasticconstants,effectofcrystalsymmetry
onelasticconstants,isotropicelasticmaterial

Introduction
When a material is subjected to stress depending on whether it is tensile or compressive the
distance between atoms either increase or decrease. If it comes back to its initial state when the
stressiswithdrawnitisknownaselasticdeformation.Itdoesnotleaveanysignofchangeinshape
andsize.Asagainstthiswhenthestressexceedstheyieldstrengthofthematerialitleavesbehind
permanentsignsofdeformation.Inthismoduleweshalllearnabouttherepresentationofstresses
&strainsandtheirrelationship.Thenumberofelasticconstantsneededtodescribethesedepends
on the crystal structure. This is connected with the crystal symmetry. The concept of isotropy &
anisotropy will be introduced. We shall learn also about the basic difference between elastic &
plasticdeformation.

Elasticdeformation
Metals are crystalline. A normal solid is made of several grains. When it is subjected to tensile or
compressivestresseachofthegrainsundergoesidenticaldeformation.Grainsaremadeofregular
arrays of atoms. However the orientation of crystal planes and directions may vary from grain to
grain. In order to understand what happens during elastic deformation let us look at the atomic
arrayinoneisolatedcrystal.Thisisillustratedinfig1intheformofasetofsketchesshowingthe
effectofuniaxialstress.Notethatinthecaseoftensilestresstheatomsarepulledapartalongthe
direction of stress (aT > a) whereas in the transverse direction they move closer. In the case of
compressive loading atoms come closer (aC < a) in the direction of the stress whereas they move
apartinthetransversedirection.

a T

Tension

aC

Compression

Fig 1: Illustrates the effect of tension and compression on atomic arrangements within a crystal.
Interatomicspacingwhenthereisnostress(load)isa.Onapplicationoftensilestress theatoms
alongthedirectionofloadingarepulledapart.Interatomicspacingalongthisdirection isnowaT.
Tensilestrain(e)istherefore(aTa)/a;whichisgreaterthanzero(positive).Undercompressionthe
situationisjusttheopposite.Thisalsoshowsthestressstraindiagram.Thisislinearandreversible

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foralmostallmetalsandalloys.Thismeans =E whereErepresentselasticmodulus.Onunloading
thecrystalcomesbacktoitsinitialshapeandsize.
Asaresultofthedifferencebetweenlongitudinalandtransversestrainsthecrystaldoesnotretain
its original character. For example a cubic crystal may get converted into a tetragonal crystal.
Howeverthemaximumelasticstrainametalcanaccommodateisverysmall.HighlysensitiveXray
diffraction tools may be required to establish this. XRD is often used to estimate residual stresses
presentinmetals.Thisisbasedonprecisionlatticeparametermeasurements.

Physicalcharacter&representationofstresses&strainsatapoint
Stress( )isdefinedasload(orforce)perunitarea.Notethatbothforceandareaarevectors.Both
havemagnitudeanddirection.LetusrepresenttheforceFintermsofthreenormalcomponentsF1,
F2,&F3alongtheCartesianaxesX1,X2,X3.IngeneralacomponentofforcecanberepresentedasFi
wherethesubscripticanhavevalues1,2or3dependingonwhetheritactsalongaxisX1,X2orX3.
LikewisethecomponentsofanareaAcanberepresentedasAi.Thismeansthatacomponentofa
vector is represented by one subscript. Mathematically the stress relates two vectors (force and
area).Thebestwaytorepresentthisisasfollows:
Or

(1)

Note that to represent stress two subscripts have been used. Force & area vectors may be
considered as 1x3 matrices. To connect these two one needs a 3x3 matrix. This is the correct
descriptionofstress.Itisasecondordertensor.Allthethreeformsofequation1aresame.Thelast
expression uses repeated subscript j on its right hand side. This denotes summation over the
subscript j. This type of representation is not only short but also helps conversion of stress state
fromonereferenceaxestoanother.

X3

X1

X2

Fig 2: Illustrates the representation of stress at a


point by visualizing a small imaginary cube around
it. Note the use of two subscripts used to denote
stress.11isstressactingonplaneperpendicularto
X1andalongdirectionX1.12isstressactingonthe
same plane but along X2. The former is a normal
stresswhereasthelatterisashearstress.Unequal
subscriptsdenoteshearstress.Thestressatapoint
consistsof3normalandapairof3shearstresses.

Thestateofstressaroundapointisthusrepresentedmathematicallyasfollows:
3
(2)

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Notethatthestateofstressinasolidshouldbeunderequilibrium.Thisissatisfiedif ij= ji.Inother


words the stress matrix should be symmetric. A general state of stress at a point thus has 6
components.
Likestressstrain( )tooatapointcanberepresentedbyasecondordersymmetrictensorasgiven
below:
;Where

(3)

Note if the two subscripts of stress (or strain) are identical then it denotes normal stress (it in a
direction perpendicular to the plane). For example 11 represents stress acting on a plane
perpendicular to axis X1 and along the direction X1. If the subscripts are not the same then it is a
shearstress.Whilespecifyingstressstateonemustspecifythereferenceaxesaswell.Forexample
letusconsideracaseofuniaxialstressasdescribedinfig3awithrespecttotheaxesX1,X2&X3.Its
stateofstresscanalsobedenotedbyadifferentsetofaxesX1,X2&X3asshowninfig3b.Table1
givesthedirectioncosinesbetweenthetwosetsofreferenceaxes.
X3

X3

X2

X2

X1

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0

0
0

2
2

X1

Fig 3: (a) Stress at a point with respect to the first reference axes. Note that it is uniaxial. Only
nonzero term is 33. (b) Shows stress states on planes having different orientation with respect to
theplanesin(a).Thenewreferenceaxeshaveadefiniterelationshipwiththeoldreferenceaxes.
Thenewaxeshavebeenobtainedbyananticlockwiserotationbyanangle aboutX1.Thereare
fournonzerostresscomponents.
Table1

Newaxes

Directioncosinesbetweentheoldandthenewaxes
Oldaxes

OX1
OX2
OX3

OX1
a11
a21
a31

OX2
a12
a22
a32

OX3
a13
a23
a33

The stress state with respect to the set of axes can be obtained using the following rules of
transformation:
forconversionfromoldtonewreferenceaxes(4)

forconversionfromnewtooldreferenceaxes(5)

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Transformation of strain tensor from one reference axes to the other would also follow identical
relations. Assume that the new axes have been obtained by rotation about X1. Let the angle of
rotationbe .Thedirectioncosinematrixshouldbegivenby:
1
[a]= 0
0

0
(6)

Theonlynonzeroterminthestressmatrixis

33.Therefore:

.Usingequation6all

theotherelementsofthestressmatrixcanbeobtained.ThestressstatefortheaxesXisthusgiven
by the expressions indicated in fig 3. This shows even though the stress is applied along one
directiononasolidthereareplanesonwhichbothnormalandshearstressesarepresent.Itisthe
shearstressthatcanhelpapartofthecrystaltoslideovertheother.Whenthismovementisless
thanoneatomicdistanceitcancomebacktoitsoriginalpositiononcethestressisremoved.Thisis
known as elastic deformation. If the sliding is more than one atomic distance the crystal cannot
come back to its initial position. The deformation is permanent (plastic). Figure 4 illustrates the
micromechanismofelasticandplasticdeformation.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig4:Sketchshowingthemicromechanismsofelasticandplasticdeformationsinsolids.(a)Shows
atomicarrangementsonthetwooppositesidesofaplaneina crystallinesolid(saymetal).When
thereisnostresstheatomsinthetoplayeroccupythevalleycreatedasaresultofclosedpackingof
atoms.(b)Onapplicationofshearstress thetoplayerwouldtendtoslideoverthebottomlayer.
Here it is not high enough to move the top layer over the hump. When the stress is withdrawn it
wouldfallbacktoitsinitialpositionasin(a).Thisrepresentselasticdeformation.(c)Whentheshear
stress is large enough to move the top layer over the hump it cannot come back to its original
positiononwithdrawalofappliedstress.Thedeformationisthereforepermanent.Thisrepresents
plasticdeformation.
Strainlikestressisasecondordertensor.Equation3(noteitssimilaritywithequation2forstress)
representsstrainsonvariousfacesofaunitcubeasinthecaseofstress(seefig2).Thistoowould
followthetransformationrulesgivenbyequation4&5.

Stressstrainrelationship

Elasticstrainisdirectlyproportionaltostress.Formostmetalsandalloystherelationshipislinear.
TheratioofstressoverstrainunderuniaxialloadingiscalledYoungsmodulus.Howeverthisdoes
notexplicitlydefinetherelationshipbetweenallthecomponentsofstressandstrain.Eachofthese
has six components. Therefore there must be several other elastic constants as well. Using the
tensornotationintroducedinthislecturethisisbestrepresentedbythefollowingequation:
:Cisknownasstiffnesscoefficient.(7)
:Sisknownaselasticcompliance.(8)
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NotethattheconstantsC&Shavefoursubscripts(ijkl).Eachcanhavevaluesfrom1to3.Therefore
thenumberofconstantsneededis81(3x3x3x3).Howeverstressandstraintensorsaresymmetric.
Thismeansthat:
&
.
Consequently:
&
.Thusthe numberof constantsrequiredisreduced to
36.Insteadofusing4indicestorepresentstiffnesscoefficientsletususecontractednotationsusing
thefollowingrules:
111,222,333,234,135,126(9)
ThustheuseofcontractednotationwouldchangeC2323toC44,C1322toC52, andC2121toC66 andso
on.Usingtheserulesthestressandstrainmatrixatapointwouldappearas:

(10)

Therelationbetweenstressandstraincanthereforebewrittenas:

(11)

Thesubscriptsinequation11canhavevaluesfrom1to6.Notethatapartfromtheincorporationof
a factor of for the shear strains it is also necessary to have the following change in the
representationofelasticcomplianceS.Thesearenecessarytoretaintherelationshipbetween and
.
2

:whenonlyoneofthetwosubscriptsnmiseither4,5or6

:whenonlynoneofthetwosubscriptsnmis1,2or3

ForexampleS11=S1111,S66=4S1212andS14 =2S1123. Thechangein elasticenergy(dw)storedperunit


volume is given by:
. The use of repeated notation denotes summation. This is
independentofpath.Ifaunitcubeisgivenadeformation 1keepingallotherstraincomponentas
zerothestoredenergyisgivenby:

(12)

Onthisnowimposeastrain 2.Theworkdoneinthisstepisgivenby:
(13)
Thetotalstoredenergyisthusgivenby: w

.Nowifthe

unitcubeisgiventhesamestraininareversesequence;firststrainitto 2keepingallotherstrain
6

constant and subsequently add

the stored energy here become: w

. The two must be equal if elastic stored energy is independent of path. This is so only if:



. The total number of constants needed to define the stress
strain relationship is therefore 21. Triclinic crystal having the least symmetry must have 21 elastic
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constants. With increasing number of symmetry elements the number of independent elastic
constantneededbecomesmuchless.Table2givesthenumberofaxesofrotationalsymmetryfor
sevencrystalsystemalongwiththenumberofelasticconstantsitcanhave.
Table2
Crystal
Triclinic
Monoclinic

Axisofrotation
None
1twofoldsymmetry

Numberofconstants
21
13

Orthorhombic

2twofoldsymmetry

Tetragonal

1fourfoldsymmetry

Rhombohedral
Hexagonal
Cubic

1threefoldsymmetry
1sixfoldsymmetry
4threefoldsymmetry

7
5
3

List
Cij=Cji
C11, C22, C33, C23, C13, C12,
C44, C55, C66, C36, C26, C16,
C45
C11, C22, C33, C23, C13, C12,
C44,C55,C66
C11,C33,C13,C12,C44,C66,
C16

C11,C33,C13,C12,C44
C11,C12,C44

One2foldAxisofsymmetry:
Let us now look at the implication of symmetry elements on the number of independent elastic
constants.Takethecaseofone2foldaxisofsymmetry.Figure4showstwosetsofreferenceaxes.
Theprimedaxeshavebeenobtainedbyarotationof180()aboutX3.Notethedirectioncosine
matrixforthenewaxeswithrespecttotheoldone.

X3
X3

X1

X1
X2
X3

X2

X2

X1

X2 X3

1
0
0

0
1
0

0
0
1

X1
Fig5:Showstheorientationrelationbetweentheoldaxes(OX1,OX2,OX3)andthenewaxes(OX1,
OX2, OX3). This also includes the direction cosine matrix. Since this happens to be an axis of

&

symmetry
Therefore stress strain relation with respect to either reference axes can be written as

.Usethedirectioncosinematrixgiveninfig5andtheequation4toestablishthe
&

relationship between the stress tensors in the two reference axes. For example 1 in contracted

1
1
notation is 11. Thus:
. Similar relation would hold for

thestraintensoraswell.Ingeneralitcanbedescribedas
and
fork=1,2,3&6.

Repeattheabovestepstoshowthat
and
fork=4&5.Onthebasisofthisthe
followingexpressionscanbewrittenfor inwithrespecttothetworeferenceaxes.

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(14)
(15)

Thetwoshouldbeidenticalbecauseofsymmetry.ThisispossibleifC14=C15=0.Similarlyequating

2& 2 , 3& 3 ,
4& 4 , 5& 5 and
6& 6 itcanbeshownthatC24=C25=C34=C35=C46=C56
=0.Thusthenumberofelasticconstantsifacrystalhasone2foldaxisofsymmetryisreducedto13
from21(seetable1).
Two2foldaxisofsymmetry(Orthorhombiccrystal/orthotropicmaterial)):
Assume that in addition to X3, X1 too is a 2 fold axis of symmetry. Figure 5 represents the
orientationrelationbetweenthetwosetsofaxes.Italsoindicatesthedirectioncosinematrix.

X3

X1

X2

X1

X2

X1

X1
X2
X3

1
0
0

X2 X3
0
1
0

0
0
1

X3

Fig 6: Shows the orientation relations between two sets of axes. Here OX1 is an axis of 2 fold

symmetry.Usingthedirectioncosinematrixitcanbeshownthatas
and
fork=1,

2,3&4.Repeattheabovestepstoshowthat
and
fork=5&6.
Since X3 is also an axis of 2 foldsymmetry more numbers of elastic constants must be equal to 0.
Usingthetransformationruleintroducedhereitcanbeshownthat:
(16)

(17)

Thetwoequationsmustgivethesamevaluefor 1.ThusC16=0.Followingthesamelogicitcanbe
shownthatC26=C36=0.Equate 4and 4usingthefollowingexpressions:
(17)

(18)

ThetwoareequalonlyifC45 =0.Thusthenumber ofelasticconstantsfororthorhombic crystalis


reducedto9(seetable1).
Additionallyifthereisatleastone4foldaxisofsymmetryitcaneasilybeshownthatthenumberof
nonzeroelasticconstantsreducesfurther.
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X3
X3

X2

X1

X2

X1
X2
X3

X1

X2 X3

0
1
0

1
0
0

0
0
1

X1

Fig 7: Illustrates the orientation relation between new and old axes if OX3 is also a 4 fold axis of
symmetry.Theangleofrotationis/4.Thecorrespondingdirectioncosinematrixbetweentheold
(OX)andthenew(OX)axesarealsogiven.(Refertoequation6butnotethathereX3istheaxisof
symmetrynotX1asinFig3).
Using the direction cosine matrix given in fig 7 it can be shown that

;
;
;
;
;
an=d
;
;
.Thus:

(19)

(alsonotethatCmatrixissymmetric).

Thisispossibleif

Similarly

(20)

This is possible if C11 = C22. This procedure can be extended to show that cubic crystal has only 3
independentelasticconstants.Therelationbetweenthesecanberepresentedasfollows:C11=C22=
C33;C12=C13=C23;C44=C55=C66.
Thereforetheelasticstiffnessandelasticcompliancematrixforcubiccrystalcanbewrittenas:

C11
C12
C12
0
0
0

C12
C11
C12
0
0
0

C12
C12
C11
0
0
0

0
0
0
C44
0
0

0
0
0
0
C44
0

0
0
0
0
0
C44

S11
S12
S12
0
0
0

Stiffnessmatrix

S12
S11
S12
0
0
0

S12
S12
S11
0
0
0

0
0
0
S44
0
0

0
0
0
0
S44
0

0
0
0
0
0
S44

RelationbetweenC&S

Theproductofthetwo
isaunitmatrix.

Compliancematrix

Note that there is an inverse relation between the two matrices. The product of the two is a unit
matrix.Thiscanbeusedtoestablishthefollowingrelationsforelasticconstantsofcubiccrystal.
(21)
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(22)
(23)

Derivation:
Thefirsttwotermsofthefirstrowoftheproductof[C][S]foracubiccrystalareasfollows:
2

1(24)

0(25)

Solvethetwosimultaneousequations24&25togetequation21&23.Multiplythefourthrowof
[C]withthefourthcolumnof[S]toget
1

(26)

Conditionforisotropy:
Materialshavingidenticalsetsofelasticconstantsforalldirectionsareknownasisotropicmaterial.
Take a cubic crystal having maximum symmetry. It has 3 independent elastic constants. Assume
another set of axis obtained by rotation of an angle about X3. Figure 7 describes the relation
betweenthetwosetsofaxes.

X3
X3

X1
X2

X1
X2
X3

X2

X1

X2

X3

0
0
1

X1

Fig 8: Illustrates the orientation relation between two sets of axes OX & OX. Note the direction
cosine matrix. For isotropic material elastic constants with respect to both the axes should be
identical:Cij=Cij.
Usingtransformationrulesforconversionofstressfromonereferenceaxestoanother:

10

(using2indexnotation)

(usingcontractednotation)

(using2indexnotation)

(usingcontractednotation)

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Notethatwiththeintroductionofcontractednotationitbecomesnecessarytohaveamultiplying
2
factorof2toconvertshearstrains.
However

Substitutetheexpressionfor intheaboveequationtoget
&

Notethat
youget

(27)

.Subtractingonefromtheother
(28)
2

Thustheconditionforisotropyis

.(29)

It appears that most crystals (even those having maximum symmetry) are anisotropic. As the
numberofsymmetryelementsincreasesthenumberofindependentelasticconstantsforamaterial
decreases.Cubiccrystalhas3independentelasticconstants.Bestknownmetalliccrystalsatisfying
the condition for isotropy is tungsten (W). However invariably metals we use are made of several
crystals. If these are randomly oriented we expected them to exhibit isotropy. Isotropic materials
haveonly2independentelasticconstants.Usuallythesearedenotedas (=C12)and
C .
The latter is more commonly known as shear modulus. In many text books symbol G is used for
shearmodulus.Thestiffnessofanisotropicmaterialinmatrixformisthereforerepresentedas:

(30)

For most applications engineers prefer to use Youngs modulus (E) and Poisson ratio ( ). Let us
explore how these could be related to the elastic constants introduced here. Consider a case of
. Using
uniaxial loading (all stresses except 11 are zero). Here
&
contracted notation these can be represented as
. Multiplying strain
&
matrixwiththestiffnessmatrixandsubstitutingtheaboverelationsonegets
2

2
2

(31)

0(32)

Solvethesetwotoget
&

(33)

Summary
11

Thismodulegivesanoverviewofelasticdeformationofmetals.Thisisreversible.Theeffectremains
as long as the stresses are present. The atomic level displacements are less than inter atomic
spacing.Theconceptsofstressandstraintensorshavebeenintroduced.Wealsolearntaboutthe
stressstrainrelationsformaterialshavingdifferent crystalstructures.Thesearerelatedthrougha
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setofconstantscalledstiffnessandcompliance.Oneistheinverseoftheother.Weonlylookedat
linear elastic behaviour. Most metallic materials exhibit linear elastic behaviour. The number of
elasticconstantsneededtorelatedependsoncrystalsymmetry.Tricliniccrystalhavingnosymmetry
needs 21 elastic constants whereas cubic crystal having highest number of symmetry elements
needs3elasticconstantstodescribestressstrainrelations.Asagainstthisisotropicmaterialshave
only two independent elastic constants. Tungsten crystals are known to be isotropic. Although
crystalsdoexhibitanisotropymostmaterialsareisotropic.Thisisbecausethesearemadeofseveral
crystals having random orientation. The whole aggregate behaves as an isotropic material. The
relations between stiffness and commonly used elastic constants by engineers (Youngs modulus,
Poisson ration) have been derived. An attempt has been made to illustrate how stress, strain and
elastic constants represented with respect to one set of reference axes can be converted to
represent the same in another frame of reference. You would find it useful in understanding the
mechanismsofplasticdeformationofmetals.

Exercise:
1. S11,S44&S12oftungstenare0.257,0.660&0.073(unit:1011m2/N)respectively.Checkisthis
isotropic?
2. C11, C44 & C12 of a cubic crystal with respect to its crystal axes are 267, 82.5 & 161 GPa
respectively. Estimate its elastic compliances and Youngs modulus along [100]. Will this be the
samealong[110]or[111]?

Answer:

1. Ifthematerialisisotropicthen
that

.
.

1 .Onsubstitutingthenumericalvaluesitisfound

1Thereforeitisisotropic.

0.00866

2.
0.00258GPa1&

GPa1,
0.0117GPa1Youngsmodulus=1/S11

=1/0.00866=146GPa.Noitrepresentsmodulusalongcubedirectionsonly.Modulusalong[110]
&[111]willbedifferent.

12

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