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THE UNIVERSITY OF ZAMBIA

SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

MASTER OF ENGINEERING
IN
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING

PROPOSED CURRICULUM
August 2014

Table of Contents
Section

page No.

Background ................................................................................................................................ 3

Rationale ..................................................................................................................................... 3

Programme Aim........................................................................................................................ 4

Goals ............................................................................................................................................. 4

Learning Outcomes ................................................................................................................. 5

Admission Criteria ................................................................................................................... 6

Curriculum .................................................................................................................................. 6

Part 1

Course Work ..................................................................................................................... 6

Part II

Research Work.................................................................................................................. 8

Course Descriptions .............................................................................................................. 10


CEE 6211

ADVANCED DESIGN OF PRESSTRESSED CONCRETE ....................................... 10

CEE 6241

ADVANCED DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES .................. 11

CEE 6242

ADVANCED DESIGN OF STEEL AND COMPOSITE STRUCTURES.................... 12

CEE 6282

ADVANCED CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY...................................................... 15

CEE 6252

NUMERICAL METHODS IN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING ................................ 16

CEE 6251

ADVANCED STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS .................................................................. 18

CEE 6142

ADVANCED MATERIALS AND CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY ................................ 19

CEE 6522

GEOMECHANICS AND GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING.................................... 21

CEE 6272

ADVANCED STRUCTURAL MECHANICS .............................................................. 23

CEE 6231

ADVANCED STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS................................................................. 24

CEE 6232

STABILITY OF STRUCTURES ................................................................................ 25

CEE 6261

FINITE ELEMENT TECHNIQUES AND STRESS ANALYSIS ................................ 27

CEE 6272

BRIDGE DESIGN ..................................................................................................... 29

CEE 6262

STRUCTURAL OPTIMISATION.............................................................................. 30

GES 5881

RESEARCH METHODS............................................................................................ 32

APPENDICES .................................................................................................................................... 34
APPENDIX 1:

CAREER PROSPECTS FOR GRADUATES .................................................. 34

APPENDIX 2: COMPARISON OF SIMILAR PROGRAMMES IN OTHER


UNIVERSITIES 36

1
Background
Zambia is embarking on massive development of infrastructure to improve the
livelihoods of its citizens. For this to happen, Structural Engineers are key to ensure
that the design and construction of infrastructure meets the design, construction,
operation and maintenance needs.
Structural Engineers have to work in partnership with other design and construction
professionals, such as civil engineers, architects, quantity surveyors to create all
kinds of infrastructure ranging from simple dwelling houses to, theatres and
conference centres, sports stadia, shopping complexes, hospitals, bridges, oil rigs
and space satellites. Furthermore, Structural Engineers are charged with developing
new methods of assessing and monitoring of existing structures to ensure that they
remain safe, fit for purpose and take into account environmental and sustainability
issues that may not have been obvious or understood when the structures were first
designed.
In addition to working in the infrastructure construction, structural engineers may
find themselves working in construction design, project/construction management,
research, disaster relief and academia.
The Sixth National Development Plan (SNDP) of the Government of Zambia which
covers the period 2011 2015, charts an ambitious path to transform the lives of
Zambians. This plan is the successor to the Fifth National Development Plan (FNDP),
2006 2010, the first in the series of medium term plans aimed at making Zambia a
prosperous middle-income country by 2030.
The theme of the SNDP is Sustained economic growth and poverty
reduction which will be achieved through accelerated infrastructure and human
development, enhanced economic growth and diversification, and promotion of rural
development.
Vision 2030-Zambia, is aimed at Transforming Zambia into a prosperous middleincome nation by 2030. The Vision 2030 is founded on seven key basic principles.
These principles are: (i) sustainable development; (ii) upholding democratic
principles; (iii) respect for human rights; (iv) fostering family values; (v) a positive
attitude to work; (vi) peaceful coexistence; and (vii) upholding good traditional
values.
2
Rationale
The undergraduate programme in Civil and Environmental Engineering at University
of Zambia does not fully address the demanding needs of structural engineers
professionals, in view of the new trends in design, materials of construction and
construction of infrastructure. A Master of Engineering programme in Structural

Engineering is therefore key to address accelerated infrastructure development and


sustainability to support both economic and human development.
The proposed programme has been developed for full-time academic training over a
period of two years. Programme participants will be drawn from construction
industry professionals within and outside Zambia. Participants, once they complete
the programme, will be competent enough to provide structural assessment, design
and construction supervision services, on civil and building construction projects.
The proposed programme will contribute to enhanced professional skills in Structural
Engineering, will contribute the body of knowledge in research and will overall
contribute to efficient, effective and optimal design of civil engineering
infrastructure.
The programme will follow the University of Zambia calendar which includes both
course work and a dissertation at the end of the programme.
3
Programme Aim
The aim of this programme is to equip structural engineering professionals with
skills to analyse, design and supervise the construction of new civil infrastructure as
well as assess, evaluate and monitor existing infrastructure.
The programme aims at equipping the students with knowledge on the formulation
of structural optimization problems, modern methods of structural modeling,
analysis and interpretation of results. The programme will expand on fundamental
knowledge on structural analysis, mechanics of materials and design in various
materials of construction, and will introduce the basic concepts of structural design
sensitivity analysis and structural identification, formulated as an optimization
problem. The emphasis is on the application of modern optimization techniques
linked to the numerical methods of structural analysis, particularly, the finite
element method.
4
Goals
The goals of the programme are to:

Impart a high quality education that develops and sustains analysis, design,
assessment, monitoring and construction supervision personnels skills,
knowledge and aspirations in the furtherance of their careers;
Produce structural engineers with a more holistic perspective of the construction
design process and integrated supply chain;
Equip Civil and Environmental Engineering graduates with an innovative and
forward looking approach to analysis, structural design, assessment, evaluation
monitoring and supervision processes;

Provide students with an appreciation and understanding of each aspect of


managing the project life cycle, from inception to completion, and successful
realisation of the project objectives;
Provide structural engineering professionals a balanced combination of design
and construction, business, management and ICT related knowledge and skills;
and
Equip structural engineering professionals the opportunity to develop their key
transferable skills, in assessment, design, evaluation and construction,
supervision.
Learning Outcomes

At the end of the programme, graduates will be expected to:


Demonstrate knowledge of in structural analysis, mechanics and design in
various materials of construction
Apply various computer based analysis and design tools and procedures to
design new structures
Carry out analysis, assessment and evaluation, and monitoring of existing
structures
Supervise the construction of various civil engineering structures
Demonstrate ability to work in multi-discipline design, and construction teams
Programme teaching, learning and assessment strategies
The programme has been designed to ensure interactive and innovative learning
and reflective thinking. The teaching strategies include lectures, tutorials,
workshops, practical sessions, and site visits. Since students on the programme may
have varied practical experiences, group work will be encouraged so that students
can learn from their different experiences and backgrounds. This will also impart
team building, an important element in any construction project.
Feedback will be provided to students on all the coursework covered on a
continuous basis. The end of programme examinations are used as summative
assessment.
Emphasis is placed on the application of modern optimisation techniques linked to
the numerical methods of structural analysis, particularly, the finite element method.

Admission Criteria
Graduates of the University of Zambia who have been admitted to the
appropriate Bachelors degree in Engineering or related field with at least a
Credit; or
(b) Graduates of other recognized universities who have been admitted to the
appropriate Bachelors degree in Engineering or related field with at least a
Lower second class honors; or,
(c) In exceptional circumstances, graduates who possess a Bachelors degree in
Engineering or related field with a pass or its equivalent, and have a
minimum of two years acceptable professional experience at an appropriate
level or other qualifications relevant to the pursuit of graduate studies may
be accepted for admission
(a)

7
Curriculum
Part 1
Course Work
The course work will include eight courses, out of which six will be compulsory
whilst two will be electives. This programme is the responsibility of the Department
of Civil and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Zambia.
The course work will be offered over a periods of one academic year.
The final assessment will be based on the performance in the final examination as
well as the assessment in tutorials, assignments, laboratory, field work and semester
tests. A candidate who fails in courses equivalent to more than one full course
credit shall be excluded from the programme. A candidate shall, at the end of Part I,
prepare his/her project proposal with the guidance of an academic supervisor.
A candidate shall take seven (7) core courses equivalent to 3.5 units. These are
compulsory. The candidate shall take one (1) elective course, equivalent to 3.5
units. Table 1 shows the curriculum.

Table 1

Curriculum Map

Year 1

MENG in Structural Engineering

Terms 1 and 2
Course
Code
CEE 6211

Description

Total Credits

Advanced Structural Analysis

3.5

CEE 6221

Finite Element Techniques and Stress


Analysis

3.5

CEE 6231

Numerical Methods in Structural Engineering 3.5

CEE 6241

Advanced Structural Dynamics

TOTAL

3.5
14.0

Terms 2 and 3
Course
Code
CEE 6222

Description

Total Credits

Advanced Design of Reinforced Concrete

3.5

CEE 6232

Advanced Design of Steel and Composite


Structures

3.5

GES 5881

Research Methods

3.5

Elective 1

3.5

TOTAL

14.0

Electives
Course
Code
CEE 6182

Description

Total Credits

Advanced Construction Technology

3.5

CEE 6192

Advanced Materials and Concrete


Technology

3.5

CEE 6242

Advanced Design of Prestressed Concrete

3.5

CEE 6252

Structural Optimization

3.5

CEE 6262

Bridge Design

3.5

CEE 6272

Structural Performance Assessment

3.5

CEE 6282

Stability of Structures

3.5

CEE 6292

Advanced Structural Mechanics

3.5

CEE 6512

Geomechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 3.5

Key to course coding system


Letters
CEE: Represents Civil and Environmental Engineering
Digits
The first digit represents the level of study, i.e. Masters level = 6.
The second digit indicates the area of specialization, i.e. 1 for Construction, 2 for
Structural Engineering and 5 for Geotechnical Engineering.
The third digit indicates the sequential numbering of the courses to uniquely identify
each course in the area of specialization.
The fourth digit indicates the time when the course is to be taught (i.e. 0: Full
course; 1: 1st and 2nd Term; 2: 2nd and 3rd Term ; 5: Either Session).
Year 2
Part II
Research Work
Part II shall comprise research work and a dissertation.
No candidate shall be permitted to register for Part II of the programme unless he
or she satisfies the requirement of Part I.

A candidate shall, at the end of his/her research work, and prior to the submission
of his or her dissertation, present the results of his/her research work at an open
Seminar organized by the Directorate of Research and Graduate Studies for the
purposes of discussion and comments.
The project supervisor(s) shall furnish a report on each candidate to the School of
Engineering Graduate Studies Committee and the Board of Graduate Studies at least
once every term. In case of serious delay in the students work from any cause
whatsoever, the supervisor(s) shall notify the Dean of the School of Engineering and
the Board of Graduate Studies through the relevant Head of Department.

Course Descriptions

CEE 6211

ADVANCED DESIGN OF PRESSTRESSED CONCRETE

Aim
The overall aim of the course is to provide strong skills in the understanding
structural behaviour, analysis and design of prestressed concrete structures.
Course Objectives
At the end of the course students should be able to:
Review the prestressed concrete concepts
Analyse and design and prestressed concrete structures
Conduct detailing using appropriate codes of practice
Apply appropriate construction technologies
Rationale
Prestressed concrete offers many advantages over the traditional reinforced
concrete especially for large span structures such as bridges and slabs. The
utilization of prestressed concrete has been limited in Zambia due to limited
exposure to the technology.
This course therefore imparts knowledge to the student to be able to undertake
analysis and design of prestressed concrete structures.
Content
Introduction to Prestressed concrete: Materials and their properties; Different
systems of prestressing; Pretensioning vs post-tensioning methods; Losses in
prestressing and special problems; Quality Control; Layout of wires, cables and
tendons; Grouting; Analysis of sections; Design of sections; Simple beams; Analysis
of continuous beams; Secondary moments; concordancy of cable profiles, trust
lines. Analysis and design of prestressed frames and trusses; Special problems with
analysis and design of water tanks; Circular prestressing: Prestressed concrete
slabs; Analysis and design of bridges; grids; End block design; Codes of practices;
Detailing.
Assessment
Continuous Assessment
Assignments
Tests
Laboratories/Field work
Sub Total
(%)
Final Examination (%)
Total
(%)

20
20
10
50
50
100

10

Prescribed Text
1. Antoine E. Naaman (2012), Prestressed Concrete Analysis and Design, Third
Edition, Techno Press, ISBN-10: 0967493927, ISBN-13: 978-0967493923
Recommended Texts
1. Lin, TY & Burns, N (1981) Design of prestressed concrete structures, 3rd edition,
Wiley, New York.
2. Nawy E.G., (2006) Prestressed Concrete, A fundamental approach, 5th edition,
Pearson Prentice Hall
3. Yew-Chaye Loo, Sanaul Huq Chowdhury (2013), Reinforced and Prestressed
Concrete Analysis and Design with Emphasis on Application of AS3600-2009, 2nd
Edition, ISBN: 9781107637863
Journals
1. PCI Journal, University of California, USA
2. Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN) Journal of Engineering and Applied
Sciences, ISSN 1819-6608
3. Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE
4. Structural Concrete, Journal of the fib, Ernst and Sohn, Online ISSN: 1751-7648
CEE 6241

ADVANCED DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

Aim
The overall aim of this course is to provide strong skills in the analysis and design of
reinforced concrete structures. Code requirements for fire safety, robustness,
stability and durability will also be reviewed.
Course Objectives
At the end of this course, students should be able to:
Review the reinforced concrete concepts
Conduct the analysis and design and reinforced concrete structures
Conduct detailing using appropriate codes of practice
Apply the construction technologies
Review detailing and the codes of practice
Rationale
Reinforced concrete offers many advantages over other construction materials such
as flexibility in design and construction, stability and durability.
This course therefore imparts knowledge to the student to be able to undertake
analysis and design of reinforced concrete structures of varying sizes, shapes and
complexity.

11

Content
Philosophy of limit state design; Critical analysis/Rational comparison of various
design codes; Design of continuous beams and curtailment; Members subjected to
complex forces: Design of members subjected to biaxial bending and axial forces;
Design for torsion; Design of deep beams; Design of large frames; Design of water
tanks; Design of chimneys, silos and towers; Design of plates: Simple shell design
and folded plates; load combination and moment redistribution; Problems of
scaffoldings and centering; Detailing techniques and CAD.
Assessment
Continuous Assessment
Assignments
Tests
Laboratories/Field work
Sub Total
(%)
Final Examination (%)
Total
(%)

20
20
10
50
50
100

Prescribed Text
1. O'Brien Eugene, Dixon Andrew, Emma Sheils (2012), Reinforced and Prestressed
Concrete Design to EC2: The Complete Process, Second Edition, ISBN-10:
0415571952, ISBN-13: 978-0415571951
Recommended Texts
1. Mosley W.H., Ray Hulse, and Bungey J.H (2012) , Reinforced Concrete Design:
to Eurocode 2, 7th edition, ISBN-10: 0230302858, ISBN-13: 978-0230302853
2. Foster, Kilpatrick, Warner (2010), Reinforced concrete basics 2E: analysis and
design of reinforced concrete structures, Pearson.
Journals
1. International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, Springer Open, ISSN:
2234-1315 (electronic version), Journal No. 40069
CEE 6242

ADVANCED DESIGN OF STEEL AND COMPOSITE STRUCTURES

Aim
The overall aim of this course is to equip structural engineering professionals with
knowledge and skills to analyse, design, and assess structural steel, cold formed
steel and composite structures. Students will also be exposed to various codes of
practice and foundation design.
Course Objectives

12

At the

end of the course, students will able to:


Analyse and design steel and composite structures
Analyse and design cold formed steel members
Detail steel and composite structures, including connections
Review and apply various codes of practice
Check instability and buckling of structural members
Design foundations for steel and composite structures

Rationale
Steel and composite construction offers many opportunities for optimal utilization of
materials of construction and speed of construction. Cold formed steels sections
offer many advantages over the traditional structural steel and composite
construction.
Content
Important characteristics of structural steelwork; limit state design of tension,
compression, beam and beam-column members; principles of plastic design;
analysis and design of single- and multi-bay industrial buildings; portal frame
stability, sway, snap-through and deflection calculations; analysis and design of
welded and bolted connections; design of cold-formed steel elements; Instability
and buckling; Tall building Frames; Three-Dimensional Frames; Transmission
towers, special structures; Connections.
Composite construction; composite vs. non-composite behaviour; shored vs.
Unshored construction; stability of frames; elastic analysis of frames including
second order effects; Strength of members subject to combined flexure and axial
compression; plate girders; Vertical flange buckling; flexural and shear strength;
flexure and shear interaction; stiffener requirements
Foundations; Codes of practice; Detailing and fabrication of steel and composite
members.
Assessment
Continuous Assessment
Assignments
Tests
Laboratories/Field work
Sub Total
(%)
Final Examination (%)
Total
(%)

20
20
10
50
50
100

Prescribed Text

13

1. Trahair, N. S., Bradford, M. A., Nethercot, D. A. and Gardner, L. (2008), The Behaviour
and Design of Steel Structures to EC3. Taylor & Francis.

Recommended Texts
1. Davison, B and Owens, G. W. (Editors). (2012). Steel Designers' Manual, Seventh
Edition. The Steel Construction Institute. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.

2. Gardner, L. and Nethercot, D. A. (2011). Designers' Guide to EN 1993-11: Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures, Second Edition, Thomas Telford
Publishing, UK.
3. Buick Davison, Graham W. Owens (2012), SCI (Steel Construction Institute) , 7th
Edition, ISBN-10: 1405189401, ISBN-13: 978-1405189408
4. Standards Australia, AS2327.1:2003, Composite structures Part 1: Simply
supported beams, Standards Australia.
5. Nethercot D. (2003), Composite construction. Routledge
6. Oehlers DJ and Bradford MA (1995), Composite steel and concrete structural
members: fundamental behavior, Pergamon Press.
7. Johnson RP (2004), Composite structures of steel and concrete. Blackwell
Scientific Publications
8. Johnson RP and Anderson D. (2004), Designers handbook to Eurocode 4.
Thomas Telford
9. British Standards Institution, Eurocode 4:2004, EC4 Design of composite steel
and concrete structures Part 1.1: general rules and rules for buildings, British
Standards Institution. Steel Designers' Manual [Hardcover]
Journals
1. Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, University of Michigan, ISSN: 0733-9445
eISSN: 1943-541X
2. Engineering Structures, Elsevier, ISSN: 0141-0296
3. International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering (IJASE), ISSN: 20083556 (print version), ISSN: 2008-6695 (electronic version), Journal No. 40091
4. Structural Engineering International (SEIx IABSE), Switzerland, ISSN 1016-8664,
E-ISSN 1683-0350
5. Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering, ISSN 0976 4399,
http://www.ipublishing.co.in/jcsindex.html#sthash.BbtK8UEH.dpuf
6. Journal of Civil Engineering Research, open access scientific journal, p-ISSN:
2163-2316 e-ISSN: 2163-2340, Website: http://journal.sapub.org/jce
7. International Journal of Advanced Structures and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN
2319-5347, Scientific Journal Impact Factor: 3.929, ICV 4.94, Indexed in Google
Scholar, Index Copernicus

14

CEE 6282

ADVANCED CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY

Aim
The course aims at imparting knowledge to structural professionals on a wide range
of topics; from planning and interpretation of construction drawings and
specifications, to construction technologies and practices such as reinforced concrete
framed buildings, industrial ground slabs,
Course Objectives
At the end of the course, students should be able to:

Explain the factors affecting the choice of structural system, the choice of
construction materials, and the construction process for commercial buildings;
Differentiate the roles and responsibilities of the designers, builders and other
parties involved in the design and construction of a commercial building;
Read and interpret construction drawings;
Communicate construction solutions by means of sketches and drawings;
Propose and evaluate alternative construction systems.

Rationale
Each project has characteristic structural forms and resultant methods of
construction. Structural design concepts for steel and reinforced concrete are
analysed and their influence on construction methods assessed. Planning issues are
also of primary importance in construction.
Content
Basic problems in construction; Co-ordination between planning, designing and
construction; Modern materials of construction; Slip form construction for tall
building; Chimneys and towers; Lift slab construction: Problems and techniques of
shell construction; basement construction and site retention methods, piling systems
and construction methods to suit various geotechnical conditions, composite
construction, tilt slab construction methods, precast concrete building systems and
hybrid construction systems.
Folded plates; Infilled structures; Structure - infill interaction problems; soil
structure interaction; Scaffolding and their techniques; Heavy concreting;
Underwater construction problems; structural modification and maintenance; Heavy
construction machinery and equipment: Organisational problems; Material
transportation.
Human settlements - urban community and regional planning; natural resources
administration; Environmental systems analysis concepts and approaches to
systems design; mathematical models; application of techniques of systems for
environmental quality management; Environmental engineering seminars -

15

discussion and analysis of topics dealing with technical processes and innovations,
institutions, planning and administration in terms of general application and specific
case studies.
Assessment
Continuous Assessment
Assignments
Tests
Laboratories/Field work
Sub Total
(%)
Final Examination (%)
Total
(%)

20
20
10
50
50
100

Prescribed Text
1. Chudley and Greeno, Building Construction Handbook, Seventh Edition,
Butterworth-Heinemann.
Recommended Texts
1. Wayne. (2007), Architectural structures, John Wiley and Sons.
Dietmar Gross (2009), Engineering mechanics. 1, Statics [electronic resource],
Springer.
2. Hosford (2010), Solid mechanics [electronic resource], Cambridge University
Press
Journals
1. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering. ISSN: 1226-7988
2. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, ASCE
3. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology Research
(IJCECTR), online and open journal.

CEE 6252

NUMERICAL METHODS IN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING

Aim
The course aims at presenting of some mathematical results that are at the basis of
numerical approximation for partial differential equations, and on the analysis of
some of these numerical procedures (boundary element, finite element and spectral
methods). Theoretical results are described with the aim of placing the numerical
methods on a solid ground and permitting their stability and convergence analysis.
Course Objectives
At the end of the course, students should be able to:
Acquire knowledge of basic element types

16

Acquire knowledge on the use of finite element methods for solving problems
in structural and geotechnical engineering applications
Formulate finite element equations
Apply finite elements to solve civil engineering problems
Apply finite element programming and modelling.

Rationale
Numerical methods are important in solving structural engineering problems,
especially with the use of computers, due to the large amounts of data generated
during the solution of structural engineering problems.
Content
Introduction to morphology of structural analysis and design; Mathematical
complexities in analysis and design; Mathematical tool; closed and open bound
solutions to design problems; Approximations, idealisations and assumptions;
Numerical techniques as tools.
Structural problems leading to simultaneous equations; Non-linearity in structures;
Solutions of non-linear equations; Differential equations in structures and their
solutions; Solutions of partial differential equations (elliptic equations, parabolic
equations, hyperbolic equations, boundary value problems); Finite difference
techniques; Southwells relaxation techniques; Moment distribution methods;
Deterministic vs probabilistic techniques; Formulation of probabilistic design
problems and their solutions; Variational techniques in mechanics; Virtual work and
energy methods; Dynamics of structures; Formulation and solution of different
cases. Basics of optimisation techniques.
Assessment
Continuous Assessment
Assignments
Tests
Laboratories/Field work
Sub Total
(%)
Final Examination (%)
Total
(%)

20
20
10
50
50
100

Prescribed Text
1. Steven C. Chapra, Raymond P. Canale (2010), Numerical Methods for Engineers,
Sixth Edition, ISBN 9780073401065, MHID 0073401064, Global
Publisher: Raghothaman Srinivasan
Recommended Texts
1. Hughes Thomas J. R. (2000), The Finite Element Method, Linear Static and
Dynamic Finite Element Analysis

17

Michael Schfer (2006) Computational Engineering - Introduction to Numerical


Methods, Springer, ISBN: 3540306854, 9783540306856
3. Anthony M. Waas and Joe G. Eisley (2011), 1st Edition, Wiley, ISBN-10:
0470977620, ISBN-13: 978-0470977620
2.

Journals
1. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering , John Wiley & Sons,
Ltd, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-0207
2. International Journal on Numerical and Analytical Methods in Engineering
(IRENA), Print ISSN: 2281-7026, cD-Rom ISSN: 2281-7034

CEE 6251

ADVANCED STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

Aim
This course examines the links between form, geometric shape, and design. It deals
with different ways of breaking up a continuum, and how this affects global
structural properties; structural concepts and preliminary design methods that are
used in the design of structures.
Course Objectives
At the end of the course, students should be able to:
Apply advanced analytical concepts to solve structural engineering problems
Analyse frame structures using matrix methods and the finite element
method
Utilize commercial software for structural analysis
Rationale
Structural is key to the design of structures and in fact analysis and design is a cyclic
process. In order to carry out a successful structural analysis, understanding of the
basic concepts is prime importance in the use of commercial software for analysis
and design.
Content
Muller Breslaus principles and their general application to structural analysis; Betti's
Reciprocal theorem; Influence lines for determinate trusses and frames; Advanced
problems in moment distribution; Analysis of structural members with varying
sections; Composite sections; Kani's method for complex frames; Concepts of
flexibility and stiffness methods; Flexibility and stiffness matrix inter-relationships;
Systematic methods of formulation of these matrices; Solutions by different
techniques; Three dimensional frames and trusses; Computer applications;
Simplified techniques for complex structures; Analysis of plates and shells.

18

Assessment
Continuous Assessment
Assignments
Tests
Laboratories/Field work
Sub Total
(%)
Final Examination (%)
Total
(%)

20
20
10
50
50
100

Prescribed Text
1. Karnovsky, Igor A., Lebed, Olga (2010), Advanced Methods of Structural Analysis
XXIV, ISBN 978-1-4419-1047-9
Recommended Texts
1. Ashwini Kumar (2004), Stability of Structures, Allied Publishers, ISBN
9788170238041
2. Chai H. Yoo and Sung Lee (2011), Stability of Structures-Principles and
Applications, ISBN: 978-0-12-385122-2, Elsevier Inc
3. NGR Iyengar (2007), Elastic Stability of Structural Elements, Macmillan India,
ISBN 023063186X, 9780230631861

Journals
1. International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering, Springer Open Journal
2. The Structural Engineer, The Institution of Structural Engineers, United Kingdom
CEE 6142

ADVANCED MATERIALS AND CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY

Aim
This course aims at relating concepts of mechanics of materials and structural
systems construction technologies and practices. Various forms of structural systems
such as masonry, timber, reinforced concrete and steel construction will be
investigated and practical examples given.
Course Objectives
At the end of the course, students should be able to:
Acquire a fundamental understanding of the properties of engineering materials
and how these mechanical properties influence the selection of materials for
application in contemporary buildings;
Acquire sound theoretical background in statics, mechanics and structural
analysis for understanding the choice of materials and structural systems;

19

4.

Develop the capacity to evaluate the effects of loads and actions in the
behaviour of structural systems; and
Apply the principles of concrete technology

Rationale
It is important to relate engineering materials to structural systems and construction
technologies and practices. This course provides a general understanding of
engineering materials and discusses how these materials are incorporated in various
types of construction.
Content
Critical comparison of steel, Concrete, wood glass, aluminium and plastics as
structural materials; Economics of their utilisation, local conditions and associated
material problems; Structural composites of two or more materials; Mechanical and
structural properties of these materials; Theory of stress analysis in composite
materials; cracking and failure theories; Concrete as a structural materials;
Mechanics and production of good structural concrete; Mix design; Fibre reinforced
concretes, Glass reinforced concretes; Light weight concrete; Modern Structural
materials Cold drawn sections of high strength steel, High strength bolts and welds;
Creep in structural materials and their effects; weathering action.
Assessment
Continuous Assessment
Assignments
Tests
Laboratories/Field work
Sub Total
(%)
Final Examination (%)
Total
(%)

20
20
10
50
50
100

Prescribed Texts
1. Zongjin Li (2011), Technology & Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN
0470902434, 9780470902431
2. John Brian Newman, B. S. Choo (2003), Advanced Concrete Technology:
Constituent Materials, Butterworth-Heinemann 0750651032, 9780750651035
Recommended Text
1. John Newman, B S Choo (2003), Architecture, Butterworth-Heinemann, ISBN
0080490018, 9780080490014
Journals
1. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, University of Miami, ASCE, ISSN:
0899-1561, eISSN: 1943-5533

20

International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, ISSN: 2234-1315


(electronic version)
3. Advances in Civil Engineering Materials (ACEM), ASTM, ISNN: 2165-3984
4. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, ASCE, ISSN: 1822-3605
2.

CEE 6522

GEOMECHANICS AND GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING

Aim
The course aims to provide an understanding of sub-surface geology and rock
mechanics and its influence on the engineering design of slopes, tunnels and
foundations. Some aspects associated to testing of rocks and soil both in the
laboratory and in-situ are also discussed.
The course also provides an overview of groundwater flow through soil and rocks as
well as introducing techniques for the in-situ measurement of permeability and
methodologies for site investigation in dewatering projects.
Course Objectives
At the end of the course, students should be able to:
Describe sub-surface geology and rock mechanics and its influence on the
engineering design of slopes, tunnels and foundations;
Test rocks and soil both in the laboratory and in-situ;
Design and analyze foundation systems; and
Design and analyze support systems for unstable soil or rock masses
Rationale
Geomechanics and geotechnical engineering are of prime importance in the design
of foundations and underground structures such as tunnels. With more complex
structure and advances in construction technologies there is need for comprehensive
knowledge of the sub-surface conditions and appropriate foundations and support
systems for unstable soil or rock masses.
Content
Applications of rock mechanics; investigation of rock masses; in situ and laboratory testing
of rocks, their applications and limitations, and their interpretation; rock mass classification
systems; rock parameter assessment; rock support and excavation lining systems; and
analytical and numerical analyses of rock masses, including example applications to rock
slopes, underground excavations in rock, and rock support and excavation lining systems.

Equilibrium of stresses Elastic stress analysis; plastic stress analysis; Plane strain
and plane stress conditions; Theory of consolidation; Theory and techniques of soil
stabilisation; Two dimensional failure theories; Radial failure; Stability of slopes; Soil
exploration; Classification of soils in Zambia; Shallow foundations; Pile foundations;
Diaphragm walls; Foundation construction.
21

Assessment
Continuous Assessment
Assignments
Tests
Laboratories/Field work
Sub Total
(%)
Final Examination (%)
Total
(%)

20
20
10
50
50
100

Prescribed Texts
1. Chandrakant S. Desai, Musharraf Zaman (2012), Advanced Geotechnical
Engineering: Soil-Structure Interaction using Computer and Material Models, CRC
Press
2. Duncan C. Wyllie , Chris Mah (2004), Rock Slope Engineering, Fourth Edition, 4th
Edition, Amazon, ISBN-10: 041528001X, ISBN-13: 978-0415280013
3. William G. Pariseau (2011), Design Analysis in Rock Mechanics, Second Edition,
Amazon, ISBN-10: 0415893399, ISBN-13: 978-0415893398
Recommended Texts
1. John P Harrison , John A Hudson (2000), ENGINEERING ROCK MECHANICS - AN
INTRODUCTION TO THE PRINCIPLES, 1st edition, Amazon, ISBN-10:
0080438644, ISBN-13: 978-0080438641
2. Jonathan Knappett , R.F. Craig (2012), Craig's Soil Mechanics, Eighth Edition,
ISBN-10: 0415561264, ISBN-13: 978-0415561266
3. Thomas Benz, Steinar Nordal (2010), Numerical Methods in Geotechnical
Engineering (NUMGE), CRC Press
4. Braja M. Das (2009), Shallow Foundations: Bearing Capacity and Settlement,
Second Edition, CRC Press
Journals
1. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering journal
2.

Geotechnical Engineering journal

3.

ASCE Journal of Geotechnical & Geoenvironmental Engineering

4.

Geotechnical and Geological Engineering

5.

Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics journal

6.

Computers and Geotechnics journal

22

CEE 6272

ADVANCED STRUCTURAL MECHANICS

Aim
The course aims at equipping structural engineers with knowledge and skills to carry
out analysis of structural components and varying stress conditions. It also imparts
plastic analysis knowledge.
Course Objectives
At the end of the course, students should be able to:
Analyse structural components under various stresses components
Apply approximate and exact solution techniques
Apply plastic analysis to structural elements
Rationale
Analysis of complex structures requires understanding and application of advanced
techniques in structural engineering, such as the Finite Element Method.
Content
Theory of elasticity; Stress functions; Development of field equations; Stress
analysis problems in simple elements; Torsion; Strain energy and virtual work
techniques; Theories of failure of elements; Temperature stress in Simple elements;
Buckling of slender members; Behaviours of elements subjected to complex
stresses;
Approximate and exact solutions; Application of numerical techniques to elasticity
problems; Elements of plasticity and viscoelasticity; Mechanics of development of
field equations and general mathematical techniques for their solutions; Yield
surfaces; Upper and lower bound theorems; Uniqueness of solutions; Plastic
analysis of simple elements.
Assessment
Continuous Assessment
Assignments
Tests
Laboratories/Field work
Sub Total
(%)
Final Examination (%)
Total
(%)

20
20
10
50
50
100

Prescribed Text
1. Keith D. Hjelmstad (2007), Fundamentals of Structural Mechanics, 2nd Edition,
Springer Scientific, ISBN: 0-387-23330-X , eISBN 0-387-23331-8

23

Recommended Texts
1. David Johnson (2000), Advanced Structural Mechanics, 2nd edition, Hardbound
ISBN: 978-0-7277-2860-9, Paperbound ISBN: 978-0-7277-4095-3 , ebook ISBN
978-0-7277-3714-4
2. R. O. Davis , a. P. S. Selvadurai (2002), Plasticity and Geomechanics, ISBN 0
521 81830 3
Journals
1. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE, ISSN: 0733-9399 eISSN: 1943-7889
CEE 6231

ADVANCED STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS

Aim
The main aim of this course is to provide a general grounding in the basic principles
of dynamics applied to structures and their interaction with soils in foundations, by
applying the principles to practical problems. A secondary aim is to show how
problems of structural dynamics can be expressed as equivalent problems of statics,
thereby allowing students to draw upon their well-established knowledge of the
equilibrium of structures.
Course Objectives
On successfully completing this course, students will be able to:
Demonstrate the requirements for modelling structures for dynamic analyses;
Demonstrate the validity of modelling structures as single or multiple degreeof-freedom systems;
Explain the role of damping and its influence upon structural response;
Limit the possibility of their structures being influenced by resonance;
Model systems using lumped masses, generalised co-ordinates or a
combination of these;
Model the response of soil deposits as discrete and continuous media.
Rationale
Structural engineers need to understand how real-world systems may be modelled
as equivalent single or multi-degree of systems, and how to use numerical methods
to solve the equation of motion.
Content
Basic concepts of dynamical behaviour of structures; Revision of basic concepts of
rigid body dynamics; Modification due to electricity of elements; Causes and effects
of dynamic behaviour of elements; Dynamic loadings, Impact loadings; Blast
loadings; Earthquakes effects; Natural and Forced vibrations; Generation of field
equations; Mathematical methods of solving them; Eigen values and eigen modes;
damping effects in actual structures. Damping models; Analysis of large frames;

24

Design principles for dynamic effects. Earthquake resistant design of structures Earthquake zones and loadings; Dynamic response of soil deposits (Energy
dissipation in soils, Response of soils modelled as discrete or continuous media,
Numerical integration schemes); Explicit and implicit schemes (central difference
method, Newmark's method, Wilson-0 method), Analysis of nonlinear systems
Assessment
Continuous Assessment
Assignments
Tests
Laboratories/Field work
Sub Total
(%)
Final Examination (%)
Total
(%)

20
20
10
50
50
100

Prescribed Text
1. Craig RA and Kurdila J, (2006), Fundamentals of Structural Dynamics, Wiley
Publishers, ISBN 10-0-471-43044-5, ISBN 13-9780-471-43044-7
Recommended Text
1. Paz, Mario (2005), Structural Dynamics-Theory and Computation, 4th Edition,
Kulwr Academic Publishers, ISBN 0-412-07461-3
Journals
1. International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics, Print ISSN: 02194554, Online ISSN: 1793-6764
2. International Journal of Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics: John
Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Baffins Lane, Chichester, Sussex, England. r, quarterly Bulletin

of the Seismological Society of America February 1973 63:332

CEE 6232

STABILITY OF STRUCTURES

Aim
The overall aim is give students understanding of the fundamental principles of
structural stability and become familiar with common types of bifurcation and
buckling phenomena and to formulate methods capable of dealing with
geometrically non-linear structural behaviour.
Course Objectives
At the end of the course, students should be able to:

Explain the theory of structural stability and nonlinear structural behaviour;


Determine the potential failure modes that can occur due to geometric
nonlinearity;
Explain the techniques to classify post-buckling phenomena;
25

Acquire the techniques to analyse geometrically perfect and imperfect systems


for structural stability;
Differentiate between linear and nonlinear buckling analysis;
Demonstrate how basic structural components and systems behave when they
are subject to instability;
Use various techniques to analyse basic structural components and systems that
are susceptible to instability;
Apply the fundamental basis of design rules concerned with structural instability.

Rationale
With more slender structural elements, arising from more refined analysis and
design procedures, instability of structure requires special attention.
Content
Concepts of stability of simple axially loaded member; Beam columns and beam
ties; Torsional stability; Stability of frames; stability of shells; Inelastic instability.
Assessment
Continuous Assessment
Assignments
Tests
Laboratories/Field work
Sub Total
(%)
Final Examination (%)
Total
(%)

20
20
10
50
50
100

Prescribed Text
Bazant ZP and Cedolin L (2010), Stability of structures: Elastic, Inelastic, Fracture
and damage, World Scientific, ISBN 9814317020, 9789814317023
2. N.S. Trahair, M.A. Bradford, D.A. Nethercot and L. Gardner (2008), The
behaviour and design of steel structures to EC3, 4th Edition, Spon
1.

Recommended Texts
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Simitses G and Hodges D (2005), Fundamentals of Structural Stability, ISBN:


978-0-7506-7875-9, Butterworth Heinemann
J.M.T. Thompson and G.W. Hunt (1984), Elastic instability phenomena, Wiley
J.M.T. Thompson and G.W. Hunt (1973), A general theory of elastic stability,
Wiley
H.G. Allen and P.S. Bulson (1980), Background to buckling, McGraw-Hill
Z.P. Bazant and L. Cedolin (1991), Stability of structures, Dove)
S.P. Timoshenko and J.M. Gere (1961), Theory of elastic stability, McGraw-Hill

26

Journals
1. International journal of structural stability and dynamics (Online), ISSN 02194554, OCLC 49333919
2. International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering (online), Springer
CEE 6261

FINITE ELEMENT TECHNIQUES AND STRESS ANALYSIS

Aim
The aim of the course is to demonstrate the use and usefulness of the finite element
method for the solution of engineering problems, and acquaint students with typical
commercial software packages.
Course Objectives
At the end of the course students should be able to:

Acquire the basic principles of generating a finite element model


Demonstrate the formulation of problems, solution techniques and
interpreting the results
Apply of the FEM methods to various problems
Review and apply commercially available software on the market.

Rationale
The Finite Element Method (FEM) is the most commonly used tool in practice for the
structural design and analysis of bridges, buildings and other types of structures. In
order to carry out a successful FE analysis, a basic knowledge of the theory behind
the FEM is required as well as an understanding of the applications to different types
of structural elements and analyses. This course covers both of these two aspects,
which are essential for learning how to perform a FE analysis.
Content
The concept of considering an engineering structure as an assembly of elements
whose properties are pre-defined. The integration of this concept with the matrix
displacement/stiffness/finite element method.

The basic steps in a finite element analysis.


Use of commercial software to analyse structures comprised of onedimensional bar and beams elements:
o pin-jointed plane frames,
o rigid-jointed plane frames,
o generalised plane frames,
o use of symmetry and skew symmetry.
Exact and approximate solutions; consideration of round off, discretisation
and approximation errors.

27

Use of commercial software to solve the following categories of twodimensional and a quasi-two-dimensional stress analysis problems:
o structures in a state of plane stress,
o structures in a state of plane strain,
o axisymmetric structures,
o plates in bending.
Use of commercial software to solve two-dimensional steady state field
problems.
Assessment

Continuous Assessment
Assignments
Tests
Laboratories/Field work
Sub Total
(%)
Final Examination (%)
Total
(%)

20
20
10
50
50
100

Prescribed Texts

1. Singiresu S. RAO (2010), The Finite Element Method in Engineering, Fifth Edition, ISBN13: 978-1856176613 ISBN-10: 1856176614 , Butterworth-Heinemann
2. Cook, R. D. (2007). CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS OF FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS,
4TH ED: Wiley India Pvt. Limited.

Recommended Texts
1. Seshu, P (2003), TEXTBOOK OF FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS, 4th Edition, ISBN
81-203-2315-7, Prentice Hall of India
2. S. S. Quek and G.R. Liu (2003), Finite Element Method: A Practical Course, 1st
edition, ISBN-13: 978-0750658669 ISBN-10: 0750658665
3. Thomas J. R. Hughes (2000), The Finite Element Method: Linear Static and
Dynamic Finite Element Analysis, Dover Civil and Mechanical Engineering, ISBN13: 978-0486411811 ISBN-10: 0486411818
4. Kenneth H. Huebner, Donald L. Dewhirst , Douglas E. Smith and Ted G. Byrom
(2001), The Finite Element Method for Engineers, 4th Edition, ISBN-13: 9780471370789 ISBN-10: 0471370789, Wiley-Interscience
5. Rao S S (2011), The Finite Element Method in Engineering, Fifth Edition, ISBN:
978-1-85617-661-3, Elsevier Inc
Journals
1. Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, ELSEVIER, ISSN: 0168-874X
2. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, John Wiley & Sons,
Ltd., Online ISSN: 1097-0207
3. International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering, Springer Online

28

CEE 6272

BRIDGE DESIGN

Aim
This course aims at imparting the fundamentals of bridge theory, analysis, and
design, including single and continuous span bridge structures. Other topics covered
in the course include connection design and construction, fatigue analysis, deck
design and bearing design.
Course Objectives
At the end of the course, students should be able to:
Select appropriate bridge types and materials
Select and apply appropriate design codes
Analyse and design bridges
Rationale
Bridges form an integral part for any transport system and structural engineers need
to be exposed to the various types of bridges and materials of construction, analysis
and design techniques and construction technologies.
Content
Basic aspects of bridge design; Different types of bridges; Structural analysis;
Components; Classification and loading on bridges; codes of practices; Design
techniques; Detailing and constructional problems, Bearings and expansion joints.
Time-temperature-dependent superstructure deformations, construction methods,
load conditions. Special problems in analysisbox girders, curved and skewed
bridges, environmental and seismic loads.
Assessment
Continuous Assessment
Assignments
Tests
Laboratories/Field work
Sub Total
(%)
Final Examination (%)
Total
(%)

20
20
10
50
50
100

Prescribed Texts
1. D. Johnson Viktor (2008), Essentials of Bridge Design, Oxford & IBH Publishing
Company Pvt. Limited
2. W.F. Chen, Lian Duan (2003), Bridge Engineering: Substructure Design, ISBN10: 0849316847, ISBN-13: 978-0849316845
3. Chen W.F., Lian Duan (2003), Bridge Engineering: Construction and Maintenance
(Principles and Applications in Engineering), Fifth Edition, ISBN: 0849316812

29

Recommended Texts
1. Wai-Fah Chen , Lian Duan (2014) , Bridge Engineering Handbook, Five Volume
Set, 2nd edition, ISBN-10: 1439852057, ISBN-13: 978-1439852057
2. Ioannis Vayas, Aristidis Iliopoulos (2013), Design of Steel-Concrete Composite
Bridges to Eurocodes, Amazon, ISBN-10: 1466557443, ISBN-13: 9781466557444
3. Jim Zhao, Demetrios Tonias (2012), Bridge Engineering, Third Edition, ISBN-10:
0071752498, ISBN-13: 978-0071752497
Journals
1. Journal of Bridge Engineering, ASCE, ISSN: 1084-0702 eISSN: 1943-5592
2. International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, ISSN: 2234-1315
(electronic version), Journal No. 40069
CEE 6262

STRUCTURAL OPTIMISATION

Aim
The aim of this course is to acquaint the students with the formulation of a
structural optimization problem, modern methods of nonlinear mathematical
programming and interpretation of the results. To introduce the basic concepts of
structural design sensitivity analysis and structural identification, formulated as an
optimization problem.
Course Objectives
At the end of the course, students should be able to:
Demonstrate modern concepts of optimal design of structures, by use simple
design examples.
Apply analytical and numerical methods
Use of numerical simulation methods in the design process
Use concepts of structural design sensitivity analysis and approximation
methods will be Apply modern optimization techniques linked to the
numerical methods of structural analysis, particularly, the finite element
method.
Rationale
Structural optimization ensures rational and cost effectiveness in the design of
structures. The use of modelling techniques such as the Finite Element Method
facilitates the optimization process.
Content
Criteria of structural efficiency. Formulation of an optimisation problem as a
nonlinear mathematical programming problem.

30

Choice of design variables and an objective function. Formulation of typical


constraints imposed on structural behaviour.
The relationships between fully-stressed and minimum weight structures.
Maxwell-Michell structural continua. Topology optimisation.
Global and local optima. Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions.
Classification of structural optimisation problems. Constrained and
unconstrained problems. Multi-objective problems. Pareto optimum solutions.
Basic approaches to the formulation of a combined criterion.
Numerical optimisation techniques. Local and global one-dimensional
optimisation. Unconstrained multi-parameter optimisation techniques. Linear
programming. Geometric programming. General constrained optimisation
techniques. Random search, genetic algorithms, neural networks.
Approximation techniques. Local, mid-range and global approximations, used
in conjunction with the finite element structural analysis.
Design sensitivity analysis based on the finite element modelling of structural
behaviour. Analytical, semi-analytical and finite difference techniques.
Structural identification problems: finite element model identification, material
parameter identification, structural damage recognition. Formulation of an
identification problem as a general optimisation problem.
Real-life examples of structural optimisation and identification. Availability and
use of commercial software.

Assessment
Continuous Assessment
Assignments
Tests
Laboratories/Field work
Sub Total
(%)
Final Examination (%)
Total
(%)

20
20
10
50
50
100

Prescribed Texts
1. Christensen, Peter W., Klarbring, Anders (2009), An Introduction to Structural
Optimization, eBook, ISBN 978-1-4020-8666-3
2. Cavazzuti, Marco (2013), Optimization Methods, from Theory to Design, Scientific
and Technological Aspects in Mechanics, eBook, ISBN 978-3-642-31187-1
Recommended Texts
1. Yannis Tsompanakis, Nikos D. Lagaros, Manolis Papadrakakis
(2008),Structural Design Optimization Considering Uncertainties: Structures &
Infrastructures Book , Vol. 1, Series, Series Editor: Dan M. Frangopol, Series:
Structures and Infrastructures, CRC Press
2. Kirsch, U. (1993), Structural Optimization: fundamental and applications,
Springer-Verlag.

31

3. Adeli, H. (1994), Advances in Design Optimization. Chapman & Hall


4. Atrek, E.; Gallagher, R.H.; Ragsdell, K.M.; Zienkiewicz, O.C. (1984), New
Directions in Optimum Structural Design. Wiley & Sons
5. Bunday, B.D. (1984): Basic Optimisation Methods. Edward Arnold
6. Gallagher, R.H.; Zienkiewicz, O.C. (1973), Optimum Structural Design. Theory
and Applications. Wiley & Sons
7. Haftka, R.T.; Grdal, Z. (1992): Elements of Structural Optimization. 3rd ed.,
Kluwer Academic Publishers
8. Hemp, W.S. (1973), Optimum Structures. Clarendon Press
9. Kamat, M.P (1993), Structural Optimization : Status and Promise,
Washington, DC: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
10. Majid, K.J.(1974), Optimum Design of Structures. Newness-Butterworth
11. Vanderplaats, G.N.(1984), Numerical Optimization Techniques for Engineering
Design, McGraw-Hill, New York
Journals
1. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, the official journal of the
International Society of Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, Springer
Verlag, ISSN: 16151488, 1615147X
2. Computers & Structures, ELSEVIER, ISSN: 0045-7949
GES 5881

RESEARCH METHODS

Aim
On completion of this course, the student should be able to apply research
methodologies to conduct research and prepare a dissertation.
Course Objectives
development of a research proposal
review of relevant literature
selection of research methodology
collection of data
data analysis
preparation of research report
Rationale
Development of research proposals requires careful thought and thorough literature
review to rationalize the research. Collection of data requires adequately prepared
research methodologies and tools. Analysis of data requires various tools to enable
meaningful analysis and draw meaningful conclusions.

32

This course therefore prepares the student to undertake research and produce a
meaningful dissertation.
Contents

Research process

Includes an overview of the research process, planning of a successful research


endeavor, development of a research proposal, review of relevant literature,
selection of research methodology literature review, qualitative and quantitative
research methods

Conducting research

Collection of data, data analysis using various analysis procedures and tools

Preparation of the dissertation

Preparation of research report as per set guidelines


Ethics in research publication
Assessment
Continuous Assessment
Assignments
Tests
Laboratories/Field work
Sub Total
(%)
Final Examination (%)
Total
(%)

20
20
10
50
50
100

Prescribed Book
Recommended Book
Journals

33

APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1:

CAREER PROSPECTS FOR GRADUATES

Introduction
The ultimate aim of a learning programme at advanced level is to produce graduates
who will add an extra dimension to their future activities. Career prospects for
graduates who follow the MEng Programme in Structural Engineering are discussed
below in relation to various aspects.
Growth in the Construction Sector
The growth on the construction sector demands well grounded structural engineers
who can deal with the complexities in the design and construction of infrastructure
and the downstream monitoring, assessment and maintenance. Hence the need for
a MEng in Structural Engineering.
Government Policy and Employment in Public Service
Construction Policy
PPP Policy
Housing Policy
Private Sector Involvement and Job Opportunities
Private sector participation in structural engineering by way of infrastructure
development and sustainability can be supported by funding facilitated by the
private sector and government agencies such as the following:
Zambia Development Agency (ZDA)
Citizen Economic Empowerment Commission (CEEZ)
National Council for Construction (NCC)
Zambia Public Procurement (ZPPA)
RDA
NRFA
Research and Development at Learning and Research Institutions
Opportunities also exist locally and internationally, in teaching and research
institutions, such as:
CSIR-South Africa
UNZA-Zambia
NISIR-Zambia
Copperbelt University-Zambia
Investment in the Construction Sector
There are great opportunities to invest in infrastructure development and
sustainability, through projects and programmes by:

34

Various parastatals of the Republic of Zambia (GRZ), RDA, NRFA, RATSA,


United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
World Bank
Cooperating Partners
PPP linkages

Global Outlook: Construction Sustainability


Innovative construction materials and practices are being encouraged through
projects that address climate change and green construction. Currently Zambia is
implementing the Pilot Project for Climate Resilience (PPCR).
Entrepreneurship
The skills and tools acquired from undertaking ten MEng is Structural Engineering do
encourage entrepreneurship, through which SMEs can progress to well established
Consultancy firms of Large Scale Contractors.
Conclusion
Career prospects for graduates of MEng in Structural Engineering are numerous,
whether one needs to establish a firm or wants to work for a private firm or a
government agency. Opportunities exist in analysis, design, construction, monitoring
and assessments. Further opportunities exist in research and academic institutions.
The Masters degree in Structural Engineering is necessary to address the advances
in technologies and practices, and to encourage innovation and optimization in
structural Engineering Practice. This outcome gives a strong position to propose a
specialised graduate programme in Structural Engineering at the University of
Zambia.

35

APPENDIX 2:

COMPARISON OF SIMILAR PROGRAMMES IN OTHER


UNIVERSITIES

Introduction
The School of Engineering at the University of Zambia (UNZA) is proposing a Master
of Engineering programme in Structural Engineering. Structural Engineering forms
an integral part of Civil and Environmental Engineering programmes in curricula at
many other universities both at undergraduate and graduate levels. This section
makes comparison of the Master of Structural Engineering programme at UNZA with
other similar programmes at other universities. The comparison is made with
universities in the sub-region, Australia, Europe and North America.
All programme seem to follow a structure consisting of course work and a
dissertation at the end of the course work. Whereas in Europe and other countries
the masters can be competed in one year, the practice in North America is generally
one year course work followed by the second year consisting of the dissertation
work.
The general format of the course work consists of core course and electives. The
core courses come from the following subject areas:
Structural Analysis
Structural Design in various materials of Construction
Mechanics of materials
Numerical Methods
Structural Dynamics
Elective course may come from subject areas, such as:
Structural Stability
Risk Analysis and Reliability
Structural Assessment and Condition Monitoring
Structural Optimization
Earthquake Engineering
Bridge Engineering
Materials and Construction Practices
The programmes at a number of universities within the region and elsewhere were
looked at, as follows:
Universities within the Region
University of Cape Town
University of Stellenbosch
University of Witwatersrand

36

Universities in Europe
The structure of the programmes and their contents were studied for the following
universities in Europe, for various Masters programmes in Structural Engineering.
The universities included:
Imperial College
University of Brighton
Norwegian University of Science and Technology
University of Strathclyde
Universities in Australia
Kingston University
Adelaide University
University of Melbourne
Universities in North America
Stanford University
University of Buffalo, State University of NY
San Diego University
Illinois Institute of Technology
University of Wisconsin Madison, College of Engineering [EGR]
Conclusion
The structure of the programmes and the subjects covered in the Masters
programmes are dependant on various factors such as

Local / regional needs


Economic and Social Activities
Teaching and learning resourses
Level of economic and social development

The duration of the programmes vary mainly between 1 and 2 years. However,
there are programmes that allow courses to go on up to 5 years. The programme at
UNZA is designed to last 2 years.
Admission requirements for the programmes at other universities are more open and
flexible than at UNZA. UNZA requires the bachelors degree only for entry into the
programme while other universities admit entry into their programmes with
bachelors as well as other qualifications such as diplomas.
There also are more exit routes for the programmes in other universities, where
students may exit with qualifications such as Postgraduate Diploma and
Postgraduate Certificate.

37

Despite these differences and some restrictions, it is felt that, the multidisplinary
programme designed for UNZA is appropriate for the requirements and resources.

38