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Chapter Learning Outline

Use this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter.
Who Are Managers?
• Explain how managers differ from nonmanagerial employees.
• Describe how to classify managers in organizations.
What Is Management?
• Define management.
• Explain why efficiency and effectiveness are important to management.
What Do Managers Do?
• Describe the four functions of management.
• Explain Mintzberg’s managerial roles.
• Describe Katz’s three managerial skills and how the importance of these skills changes
depending on managerial level.
• Discuss the changes that are impacting managers’ jobs.
• Explain why customer service and innovation are important to the manager’s job.
What Is an Organization?
• Describe the characteristics of an organization.
• Explain how the concept of an organization is changing.
Why Study Management?
• Explain the universality of management concept.
• Discuss why an understanding of management is important.
• Describe the rewards and challenges of being a manager.

What do managers do that


differentiates them from non-
managerial workers?

Managers organize the work of other


people.
Managers complete important
paperwork.
Managers work directly on providing the
product or service that the company
sells.
Managers have no one reporting to
them.

Christine is a manager at Body Beauty Inc. Her responsibilities


include developing a company-wide marketing strategy that plays on
the synergies between Body Beauty's range of products in order to
drive increased sales. Christine is considered a _____.

middle manager

first-line manager

top manager

non-managerial worker

_____ is referred to as "doing things right"; _____ is referred to as


"doing the right things."

Efficacy; effectiveness

Efficiency; economy

Efficiency; effectiveness

Economy; efficacy

Which of the following is NOT one of Fayol's five functions managers


perform?

Organizing

Serving

Controlling
Planning

Bob spends part of each day communicating directly with his front-
line workers in an effort to both motivate them and resolve any
potential problems they might have. This is an example of the _____
function.

controlling

organizing

planning

leading

Which of the following is NOT one of Mintzberg's primary categories


of management roles?

Decisional roles

Organizational roles

Interpersonal roles

Informational roles


Figurehead, leader, and liaison are examples of _____.

decisional roles

organizational roles

interpersonal roles

informational roles

When Mark makes schedules and generates budgets, he is fulfilling


his managerial _____.

decisional role

organizational role

interpersonal role

informational role

Susan is especially good at communicating company goals to her


employees and motivating them to achieve these goals. Susan has
good _____.

conceptual skills

organizational skills
technical skills

human skills

The universality of management concept suggests that _____.

management is needed in all types and sizes of organizations and at all


organizational levels
all managers play similar roles as they manage people

technical, human, and conceptual skills are necessary for success in


management
most college graduates entering the workforce will either manage or be
managed

The way a company manages its people can significantly affect its
financial performance.

True

False

The sole responsibility of the manager is to coordinate the work of


other employees.
True

False

Top managers often have the title of supervisor.

True

False

Managerial success is most often due to effectiveness achieved


through inefficiency.

True

False

At the end of each week, Mark evaluates the number of hours clocked
in the factory and the number of widgets produced in order to
ascertain whether the factory's goals have been met. This is an
example of the organizing function of management.
True

False

When managers engage in planning, they define goals, establish


strategies for achieving those goals, and develop plans to integrate
and coordinate activities.

True

False

While managers all perform similar roles, the emphasis that


managers give to various roles changes with their organization level.

True

False

Colleges, government departments, and churches are all examples of


organizations.
True

False

Successful organizations are always structured in a traditional


hierarchy with rigid work environments.

True

False

Once they graduate from college and begin their careers, most
people will manage, be managed, or both.

True

False

Discuss the importance of good management to the success of a


company.

To create paragraphs in your essay response, type <p> at the beginning of the paragraph,
and </p> at the end.
Differentiate between the roles of managers and those of non-
managerial workers. Identify the three different levels of
management discussed in the book.

To create paragraphs in your essay response, type <p> at the beginning of the
paragraph, and </p> at the end.

Julia is the southeastern regional retail manager for Hardware


Heaven. Identify how she might engage in the four functions of
management described in the text.
To create paragraphs in your essay response, type <p> at the beginning of the
paragraph, and </p> at the end.

How do Katz's three essential skills of management help managers


fulfill Mintzberg's three management roles?

To create paragraphs in your essay response, type <p> at the beginning of the
paragraph, and </p> at the end.

Why should we study management? Discuss the


universality of management and reality of work
concepts.

To create paragraphs in your essay response, type <p> at


the beginning of the paragraph, and </p> at the end.

What do managers
do that differentiates
them from non-
managerial workers?
Your (blank
Answer: )
.
Christine is a manager at Body Beauty Inc. Her responsibilities include
2. developing a company-wide marketing strategy that plays on the synergies
between Body Beauty's range of products in order to drive increased sales.
Christine is considered a _____.

Your Answer: (blank)

_____ is referred to as "doing things right"; _____ is referred to as "doing the


3. right things."

Your Answer: (blank)

Which of the following is NOT one of Fayol's five functions managers perform?
4.
Your Answer: (blank)

Bob spends part of each day communicating directly with his front-line
5. workers in an effort to both motivate them and resolve any potential
problems they might have. This is an example of the _____ function.

Your Answer: (blank)


Which of the following is NOT one of Mintzberg's primary categories of
6. management roles?

Your Answer: (blank)

Figurehead, leader, and liaison are examples of _____.


7.
Your Answer: (blank)

When Mark makes schedules and generates budgets, he is fulfilling his


8. managerial _____.

Your Answer: (blank)

Susan is especially good at communicating company goals to her employees


9. and motivating them to achieve these goals. Susan has good _____.

Your Answer: (blank)

The universality of management concept suggests that _____.


10.
Your Answer: (blank)

The way a company manages its people can significantly affect its financial
11. performance.

Your Answer: (blank)

The sole responsibility of the manager is to coordinate the work of other


12. employees.

Your Answer: (blank)

Top managers often have the title of supervisor.


13.
Your Answer: (blank)

Managerial success is most often due to effectiveness achieved through


14. inefficiency.

Your Answer: (blank)

At the end of each week, Mark evaluates the number of hours clocked in the
15. factory and the number of widgets produced in order to ascertain whether the
factory's goals have been met. This is an example of the organizing function
of management.
Your Answer: (blank)

When managers engage in planning, they define goals, establish strategies for
16. achieving those goals, and develop plans to integrate and coordinate
activities.

Your Answer: (blank)

While managers all perform similar roles, the emphasis that managers give to
17. various roles changes with their organization level.

Your Answer: (blank)

Colleges, government departments, and churches are all examples of


18. organizations.

Your Answer: (blank)

Successful organizations are always structured in a traditional hierarchy with


19. rigid work environments.

Your Answer: (blank)

Once they graduate from college and begin their careers, most people will
20. manage, be managed, or both.

Your Answer: (blank)

Discuss the importance of good management to the success of a company.


21.
Your Answer:

(blank)

Differentiate between the roles of managers and those of non-managerial


22. workers. Identify the three different levels of management discussed in the
book.
Your Answer:

(blank)

Julia is the southeastern regional retail manager for Hardware Heaven.


23. Identify how she might engage in the four functions of management described
in the text.
Your Answer:

(blank)

How do Katz's three essential skills of management help managers fulfill


24. Mintzberg's three management roles?
Your Answer:

(blank)

Why should we study management? Discuss the universality of management


25. and reality of work concepts.
Your Answer:

(blank)

According to Adam Smith, the division of labor


results in _____.

increased worker motivation

decreased worker specialization

increased worker productivity

decreased worker motivation

Which of the following is NOT one of Fredrick Taylor's four principles


of management?

Non-managerial workers should take on the bulk of the work, while managers
should take on the bulk of the responsibility.
Scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the worker.

Develop a science for each element of an individual's work, which will replace
the old rule-of-thumb method.
Heartily cooperate with the worker so as to ensure that all work is done in
accordance with the principles of science that has been developed.
_____ studied work to eliminate inefficient hand-and-body motions.

Henri Fayol

Frank and Lillian Gilbreth

Fredrick Taylor

Mary Parker Follett

Also called operations research or management science, _____


involves the use of quantitative techniques to improve decision
making.

division of labor

the therblig

the closed system

the quantitative approach

Much of what currently makes up the field of human resource


management, as well as contemporary views on motivation,
leadership, trust, teamwork, and conflict management have come out
of research into _____.

the principles of management


delegation of authority

organizational behavior

efficiency of worker motions

A(n) _____ dynamically interacts with its environment, whereas a(n)


_____ is not influenced by and does not interact with its
environment.

closed system; organizational system

open system; closed system

organizational system; open system

open system; organizational system

In terms of an open system, a company's products and services are


the system's _____.

outputs

feedback

transformation process

inputs
The _____ says that organizations are different, face different
situations, and require different ways of managing.

systems approach

division of labor

contingency approach

Hawthorne approach

Which of the following is NOT one of the three important themes of


entrepreneurship?

Pursuit of opportunities

Innovation

Growth

Risk

_____ organizations are traditional organizations that set up e-


business capabilities while maintaining a traditional structure,
whereas the whole existence of _____ organizations is based around
the Internet.

E-business enhanced; e-business enabled

Total e-business; e-business enabled

E-business enhanced; total e-business

E-business enabled; total e-business

The practice of management is a relatively new phenomenon and was


not practiced prior to the publishing of Adam Smith's Wealth of
Nations.

True

False

By reducing the number of motions required to complete a task, the


Gilbreths were able to increase worker productivity.

True

False
While Taylor was concerned with first-line managers and the
scientific method, Fayol's attention was directed at the activities of
all managers.

True

False

Unlike scientific management, Max Weber's bureaucracy emphasized


rationality, predictability, impersonality, technical competence, and
authoritarianism.

True

False

The Hawthorn Studies lead to the conclusion that money is more of a


factor in determining worker output than are group factors.

True

False
The systems approach implies that decisions and actions taken in one
organizational area have no affect on others, and vice versa.

True

False

Management is based on simplistic principles that are applicable in all


situations.

True

False

Economic values are not universally transferable.

True

False
In a global economy, jobs tend to flow to places where lower costs
provide business with a comparative advantage.

True

False

Workforce diversity can be an asset because it brings a broad range


of viewpoints and problem-solving skills to a company, and
additionally helps organizations better understand a diverse
customer base.

True

False

Explain how the work of Fredrick Taylor and Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
improved worker efficiency.

To create paragraphs in your essay response, type <p> at the beginning of the
paragraph, and </p> at the end.
Identify and define Fayol's 14 principles of management.

To create paragraphs in your essay response, type <p> at the beginning of the
paragraph, and </p> at the end.
How has the study of organizational behavior impacted contemporary
perspectives on management?

To create paragraphs in your essay response, type <p> at the beginning of the
paragraph, and </p> at the end.

Explain the contingency approach to management and identify and


define four popular contingency variables. Give an example of a
situation where the contingency approach to management is
appropriate.

To create paragraphs in your essay response, type <p> at the beginning of the
paragraph, and </p> at the end.
Define the term learning organization. How does
knowledge management relate to the learning
organization?

To create paragraphs in your essay response, type <p> at the


beginning of the paragraph, and </p> at the end.

According to Adam
Smith, the division of
labor results in _____.
Your (blank
Answer: )
1.
Which of the following is NOT one of Fredrick Taylor's four principles of
2. management?

Your Answer: (blank)

_____ studied work to eliminate inefficient hand-and-body motions.


3.
Your Answer: (blank)

Also called operations research or management science, _____ involves the


4. use of quantitative techniques to improve decision making.

Your Answer: (blank)


Much of what currently makes up the field of human resource management,
5. as well as contemporary views on motivation, leadership, trust, teamwork,
and conflict management have come out of research into _____.

Your Answer: (blank)

A(n) _____ dynamically interacts with its environment, whereas a(n) _____
6. is not influenced by and does not interact with its environment.

Your Answer: (blank)

In terms of an open system, a company's products and services are the


7. system's _____.

Your Answer: (blank)

The _____ says that organizations are different, face different situations,
8. and require different ways of managing.

Your Answer: (blank)

Which of the following is NOT one of the three important themes of


9. entrepreneurship?

Your Answer: (blank)

_____ organizations are traditional organizations that set up e-business


10. capabilities while maintaining a traditional structure, whereas the whole
existence of _____ organizations is based around the Internet.

Your Answer: (blank)

The practice of management is a relatively new phenomenon and was not


11. practiced prior to the publishing of Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations.

Your Answer: (blank)

By reducing the number of motions required to complete a task, the


12. Gilbreths were able to increase worker productivity.

Your Answer: (blank)

While Taylor was concerned with first-line managers and the scientific
13. method, Fayol's attention was directed at the activities of all managers.

Your Answer: (blank)


Unlike scientific management, Max Weber's bureaucracy emphasized
14. rationality, predictability, impersonality, technical competence, and
authoritarianism.

Your Answer: (blank)

The Hawthorn Studies lead to the conclusion that money is more of a factor
15. in determining worker output than are group factors.

Your Answer: (blank)

The systems approach implies that decisions and actions taken in one
16. organizational area have no affect on others, and vice versa.

Your Answer: (blank)

Management is based on simplistic principles that are applicable in all


17. situations.

Your Answer: (blank)

Economic values are not universally transferable.


18.
Your Answer: (blank)

In a global economy, jobs tend to flow to places where lower costs provide
19. business with a comparative advantage.

Your Answer: (blank)

Workforce diversity can be an asset because it brings a broad range of


20. viewpoints and problem-solving skills to a company, and additionally helps
organizations better understand a diverse customer base.

Your Answer: (blank)

Explain how the work of Fredrick Taylor and Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
21. improved worker efficiency.
Your Answer:

(blank)

Identify and define Fayol's 14 principles of management.


22.
Your Answer:

(blank)
How has the study of organizational behavior impacted contemporary
23. perspectives on management?
Your Answer:

(blank)

Explain the contingency approach to management and identify and define


24. four popular contingency variables. Give an example of a situation where the
contingency approach to management is appropriate.
Your Answer:

(blank)

Define the term learning organization. How does knowledge management


25. relate to the learning organization?
Your Answer:

(blank)

The _____ holds an organization's performance to be


directly due to the decisions and actions of its
managers, whereas the _____ holds an
organization's performance to be due to external
forces outside the manager's control.

subjective view; objective view

omnipotent view; symbolic view

symbolic view; subjective view

omnipotent view; objective view

An organization's personality is known as its _____.

management view

spirituality
organizational culture

ethical stance

Which of the following is true of organizational culture?

Organizational culture is the shared values, principles, traditions, and ways of


doing things that influence the way organizational members act.
Most organizations have weak to moderate cultures.

Individuals with different backgrounds or at different levels within the


organization tend to describe the organization's culture differently.
The large size of most new organizations makes it difficult for founders to instill
their vision in all organizational members.

The layout of an organization's facilities, how employees dress, and


the types of automobiles provided to top executives are examples of
_____ that transmit an organization's culture.

rituals

language

stories

material symbols
Which of the following does NOT characterize an innovative
organizational culture?

Trusting and open

Risk-averse

Challenging

Playful

_____ is a culture where organizational values promote a sense of


purpose through meaningful work that takes place in the context of
community.

Ethics

Workplace diversity

Workplace spirituality

Symbolic management

Which of the following is NOT one of the typical characteristics of


spiritual organizations?
Weak sense of purpose

Focus on individual development

Trust and openness

Employee empowerment

Which of the following is true of spiritual organizations?

Profits are the primary value of the organization.

Managers trust employees to make thoughtful and conscientious decisions.

Managers typically refuse to admit mistakes.

Workers are urged to leave their emotions at the door.

The _____ includes those external forces that directly impact an


organization, while the _____ includes those external forces that
don't directly impact the organization, but which managers must
consider.

general environment; external environment

specific environment; dynamic environment


environmental complexity; general environment

specific environment; general environment

The degree of _____ refers to the number of components in an


organization's environment and the extent of the knowledge that the
organization has about those components.

workplace spirituality

omnipotent management

environmental complexity

organizational innovation

The symbolic view is the dominant view of management in both


management theory and society in general.

True

False
The omnipotent view of management is limited to management
within business organizations.

True

False

Strong cultures have a greater influence on employees than do weak


cultures.

True

False

The original source of an organization's culture usually reflects the


vision or mission of the organization's founders.

True

False
The constraints placed on managers by an organizational culture are
typically explicitly written out.

True

False

An organization's culture has no bearing on ethics and innovation in


the workplace.

True

False

Successful organizations in all types of industries need cultures that


support innovation.

True

False
Organizations in which employees are punished for taking risks tend
to support innovation.

True

False

Workplace spirituality specifically refers to a focus on organized


religion within the organization.

True

False

Predictable seasonal changes in ice cream consumption represent


dynamic environmental change for Dora's Desert Delights.

True

False
Describe the role of the manager based on the symbolic view of
management.

To create paragraphs in your essay response, type <p> at the beginning of the
paragraph, and </p> at the end.

Differentiate between strong and weak organizational cultures. What


are the advantages and disadvantages of a strong organizational
culture?

To create paragraphs in your essay response, type <p> at the beginning of the
paragraph, and </p> at the end.
How do organizational cultures affect managers?

To create paragraphs in your essay response, type <p> at the beginning of the
paragraph, and </p> at the end.

Research by Goral Ekvall identified eight traits that characterize


innovative organizational cultures. Discuss four of these and how
they contribute to innovative organizational cultures.

To create paragraphs in your essay response, type <p> at the beginning of the
paragraph, and </p> at the end.
Research shows that six characteristics are routinely present in
customer-responsive organizational cultures. Identify and discuss
three of these.

To create paragraphs in your essay response, type <p> at the beginning of the
paragraph, and </p> at the end.