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JEAN MONNET, Scientific-practical conference with international participation

European neighbourhood policy and eastern partnership:


achievements, obstacles and perspectives

JEAN MONNET

Scientific-practical conference with international


participation

THE MATERIAL OF THE CONFERENCE


EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY
AND EASTERN PARTNERSHIP:
ACHIEVEMENTS, OBSTACLES
AND PERSPECTIVES
05-07 may 2011
Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova

Chisinau, 2011
1

JEAN MONNET
Scientific-practical conference with international participation

CZU 327(4)(082)=135.1=111=161.1
E 90

JEAN MONNET
The material of the Scientific-practical conference with
international participation, Chiinu, 05-07 may 2011
Responsible for the edition:
PhD. SRBU Olesea
PhD. GANEA Victoria
DESCRIEREA CIP A CAMEREI NAIONALE A CRII
European neighbourhood policy and eastern partnership:
achievements, obstacles and perspectives, scientific-practical conf. with
intern. participation (2011 ; Chiinu). European neighbourhood policy and
eastern partnership: achievements, obstacles and perspectives: The material of the
Conf. Acad. of Econ. Studies of Moldova, 05-07 may 2011 / scientific com.:
Grigore Belostecinic, Silvo Devetak, Rajko Knez [et al.]. Ch. : IEFS, 2011.
502 p.
Texte: lb. rom., engl., rus. Bibliogr. la sfritul art. 100 ex.
ISBN 978-9975-4176-6-2.
327(4)(082)=135.1=111=161.1
E 90

Authors are responsible for the content and correctness of texts.


Autorii poart rspundere pentru coninutul i corectitudinea textelor.
ISBN 978-9975-4176-6-2.
ASEM, 2011

European neighbourhood policy and eastern partnership:


achievements, obstacles and perspectives

SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE:
Prof. Dr. Grigore BELOSTECINIC, Rector, Academy of Economic
Studies of Moldova
Prof. Dr. Silvo DEVETAK, Institute for Ethnic and Regional Studies,
Maribor, Slovenia
Prof. Dr. Rajko KNEZ, Faculty of Law, University of Maribor, Slovenia
Prof. Dr. Stella KOSTOPOULOU, Department ERASMUS, Aristotle
University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Prof. Dr. Gabriela PASCARIU, Director, Centre for European Studies,
A.I. Cuza University of Iasi, Romania
Dr. Olesea SIRBU, JEAN MONNET project coordinator, Director of the
Centre for Studies in European Integration, Academy of Economic Studies of
Moldova, Chisinau, Moldova
Dr. Victoria GANEA, National Council of Accreditation and Attestation,
Chisinau, Republic of Moldova, Chisinau, Moldova

ORGANISATIONAL COMMITTEE:
Dr. Olesea SIRBU, JEAN MONNET project coordinator, Director of the
Centre for Studies in European Integration, Academy of Economic Studies of
Moldova, Chisinau, Moldova
Dr. Corneliu GUU, Vice-Rector for Scientific Activity and International
Relations,Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova, Chisinau, Moldova
Dr. Victoria GANEA, National Council of Accreditation and Attestation,
Chisinau, Republic of Moldova, Chisinau, Moldova
Dr. Tatiana LISII, National Council of Accreditation and Attestation,
Chisinau, Republic of Moldova, Chisinau, Moldova
Anna MADAN, JEAN MONNET project manager, Centre for Studies in
European Integration, Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova, Chisinau,
Moldova

JEAN MONNET
Scientific-practical conference with international participation

JEAN MONNET-experts

EU
Prof. Dr. Silvo DEVETAK, Director, Institute for Ethnic and Regional Studies, Maribor,
Slovenia
Mr. Thomas ESTERMANN, Head of Unit, European University Association, Brussels,
Belgium
Dr. Alla SANGDREN, Associate professor, Stockholm university, Stockholm, Sweden
Prof. Dr. Paolo DANDI, Dr. Alessandro MAZZINI, LUISS Guido Carli University, Rome,
Italy
Dr. Serge CHERNYSHENKO, Associate professor, Koblenz-Landau university, Koblenz,
Germany
Dr. Bruce Henry LAMBERT, Place Appeal Research Unit, Stockholm, Sweden
Prof. Dr. Ezio BENEDETTI, Dr. Antonietta PICQUADIO, Faculty of political sciences,
University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy
Michael HINDLEY, Expert for the External Economic Relations Committee of the
European Economic and Social Committee (ECOSOC), Manchester, UK
John SHAW, Pro-Vice Chancellor for International Affairs, University of East London,
London, United Kingdom
BY
Tatyana DUBOVTSOVA, The Head of Foreign Languages Department, Educational
Establishment Belarusian Trade and Economic University of Consumer Cooperatives,
Gomel, Belarus
Prof. Dr. Larisa VASILYEVA, Head of Chair for International Economic Law, Law
Faculty, Belarusian State Economic University, Minsk, Belarus
Prof. Dr. Andrey SEDUN, Vice-rector for Education activities, Belarusian State Economic
University, Minsk, Belarus
Dr. Anatoli ZLOTNIKOV, Chair of Cooperation and Sociology department, Educational
Establishment Belarusian Trade and Economic University of Consumer Cooperatives,
Gomel, Belarus
UA
Prof. Dr. Nina DIDENKO, Dean, Faculty of management, Donetsk State University of
Management, Donetsk, Ukraine
Mr. Igor STUDENNIKOV, Director, Association for Regional Studies, Odessa, Ukraine
Dr. Tatyana DARAGAN, Head of the department physic-mathematic and technologic
education, Ministry of Education and Science, Youth and Sport Ukraine
GE
Dr. Nino LAPIASHVILI, Director, Institute for European Studies, Tbilisi State University,
Tbilisi, Georgia
2. Prof. Dr. Akaki TSOMALIA, Head of Unit, Faculty of Business, Ilia state University,
Tbilisi, Georgia
AR
Dr. Artur G.GHAZINYAN, Director, Center for European Studies, Yerevan State
University, Yerevan, Armenia
AZ
Prof. Dr. Leyla MURADKHANLI, Khazar University, Baku, Azerbaijan
4

European neighbourhood policy and eastern partnership:


achievements, obstacles and perspectives

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
SECTION 1

PREMISES AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK


OF THE EU NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY
AND EASTERN PARTNERSHIP

DEVETAK Silvo, EU eastern partnership policy a mixture of common


interests and good wishes..............................................................................
HINDLEY Michael, European integration and national sovereignty..........
SRBU Olesea, GANEA Victoria, Zonele economice libere din Republica
Moldova: avantaje i dezavantaje n contextul aspiraiei de aderare la
Uniunea European.......................................................................................
LAPIASHVILI Nino, Georgian prospects for eastern partnership..............
CIOBANU Ion, The role of law system of the Republic of Moldova in the
process of EU integration..............................................................................
, , ,
: ..............
PERCIUN Rodica, Euro-regiunile n care Republica Moldova este
partener: oportuniti i obstacole n cooperarea transfrontalier.................
CEBAN Mariana, MUNTEAN Maria, Armonizarea legislaiei Republicii
Moldova n privina societilor comerciale la standardele Uniunii Europene.....
BULAT Veronica, Prevederile legislative privind aspectul comerlui cu
produse stomatologice pe piaa Uniunii Europene........................................

10
34
43
50
56
61
70
78
84

SECTION 2

MIGRATION AND ASYLUM POLICY,


BORDER MANAGEMENT

BURDELNII Eugeniu,The quest for talent: eu policies towards the


brain drain phenomenon............................................................................
VASILYEVA Larysa, Migration legislation of the Republic Belarus and
perspective ways of cooperation with EU.....................................................
BENEDETTI Ezio, PIACQUADIO Antonietta, Recent evolution of eu
common asylum and migration policy: legal and political dilemmas...........
,
- ..............................
PREDONU Andreea - Monica, Aspecte de ordin economic, social i
legislativ privind migraia forei de munc...................................................
NEACU Gabriela, NDRAG Lavinia, Transboundary pollution in the
Black Sea littoral zone...................................................................................
GOGU Emilia, ORIOL Irina, DOSESCU Tatiana, CRISTEA Anca,
Rolul i importana forei de munc n turism...............................................
GOGU Emilia, MURESAN Mihaela, TURDEAN Marinella Sabina,
Bilantul demografic...................................................................................
5

88
106
115
128
136
139
146
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JEAN MONNET
Scientific-practical conference with international participation

SECTION 3

SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS
OF THE EU NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY
AND EASTERN PARTNERSHIP

TSOMAIA Akaki, Economic freedom in post soviet countries and


eastern european partnership.........................................................................
SISCAN Zorina, The analysis of innovation policy of the Republic
of Moldova in the context of innovation policy of the European
Union.............................................................................................................
BOTNARU Irina, Politici economice comunitare n zona de frontier.......

,
-

.........................
., ., ......................................
URCAN Rina, Problematica i realizrile Republicii Moldova n
vederea creterii nivelului de trai a populaiei..............................................
URCAN Iuliu, Dezvoltarea comerului interior al Republicii Moldova:
progrese i dificulti.....................................................................................
..,
................
, ,

..............................................................................
PASCU Emilia, GOGU Emilia, Cuantificarea fenomenului
contrafacerilor prin platforma e-anticontrafaceri..........................................
CMPEANU Emilia Mioara, Efectele politicilor fiscale i bugetare
potrivit modelului keynesist complet............................................................
VRAGALEVA Veronica, Sistemul de restituire a TVA persoanelor fizicenerezidente: studiu de fezabilitate pentru Republica Moldova.....................
MORARU Tatiana, Eficientizarea costurilor incluse n tarife prin
reglementarea proceselor de achiziie n sectorul energetic..........................
BLTREU Andreea, Particularitile dezvoltrii regionale i spaiale a
Romniei n contextul Uniunii Europene......................................................
URCANU Tatiana, Perspectivele de dezvoltare a sectorului TIC n
contextul realizrii planului individual de aciuni UE-RM...........................
GURGHI Mariana, Analysis of some decisional processes in bank
politics...........................................................................................................
ILIE Georgeta, Prospects for long-term investments after the global
financial crisis...............................................................................................
LOZOVANU Carolina, ROMANCIUC Elina, Depozitele sursa de
asigurare a bunstarii populaiei n contextul realizrii planului individual
de aciuni UE-RM.........................................................................................
6

158
168
182
190
200
205
212
218
225
229
235
243
248
254
263
271
276
281

European neighbourhood policy and eastern partnership:


achievements, obstacles and perspectives

APOSTOL Mihaela-Simona, Optimizarea ambientului hotelier prin


elemente de design........................................................................................
LSI Tatiana, Influena corporaiilor transnaionale asupra economiilor
rilor gazd...................................................................................................
CRISTEA Adriana Anca, Creterea gradului de accesibilitate a ofertei de
cazare pentru persoanele dizabiliti locomotorii........................................
CLIPA Victoria, STRATAN Alexandru, Factorii determinani ai
competitivitii naionale: cazul Republicii Moldova..................................
POPESCU Manoela, POPESCU Dorin Viceniu, CRENICEAN
Luminia Cecilia, Consideraii privind relaiile comerciale ale Romniei
cu Republica Moldova, n contextul PEV.....................................................
COPCEANU Cristina, Particulariti de finanare ale ocrotirii sntii:
experiene i oportuniti...............................................................................
GANEA Victoria, ROCA Gh., Taxele vamale: probleme, inconveniene
i soluii.........................................................................................................

289
295
299
306
315
323
329

SECTION 4

TERRITORIAL AND CROSS-BORDER


DEVELOPMENT IN THE FRAMEWORK
OF EU NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY
AND EASTERN PARTNERSHIP

COZIANU Andreea-Ioana, Cross border european funds a boost to


development..................................................................................................
LAMBERT Bruce Henry, Pioneers vs. outposts: strategic use of EU
eastern partnership for local development (including cases for Moldova)...
CRUDU Rodica, Creterea inteligent formula potrivit pentru
prosperitatea Uniunii Europene.....................................................................
GUTU Corneliu, The impact of the competitiveness of the
industrial clusters in regional development and cross-border
cooperation....................................................................................................
GUUUI Veaceslav, Dezvoltarea regional n contextul acordului de
asociere Uniunea European-Republica Moldova........................................
TIMU Angela, PERCIUN Rodica, Reflecii asupra procesului
inovaional n Republica Moldova n contextul unei posibile aderri la
Uniunea European.......................................................................................
MUREAN Mihaela, GOGU Emilia, Evaluation model for the
sustainable development...............................................................................
PETCU Adriana Monica, Unele aspecte ale reformei n administraia
public n contextul integrrii n Uniunea European..................................
TOMA Alexandru, Politicile i strategiile de mediu ca instrumente de
management: experiena Romniei...............................................................

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Scientific-practical conference with international participation

SECTION 5

IMPACTS ON EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND CULTURE IN


THE FRAMEWORK OF EU NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY
AND EASTERN PARTNERSHIP

GANEA Victoria, SRBU Olesea, Mobilitatea dintre Republica Moldova


i Uniunea Europen prin prisma educrii i formrii..................................
SHAW John, Distance learning in UEL past, present & future.................
CHERNYSHENKO S. Eastern partnership: impact of mentality
differences as a factor....................................................................................
DIDENKO Nina, Youth mobility and intercultural dialogue as a key
resources of implementation of the EU's programme eastern partnership
and the strategy of "Europe 2020"................................................................
SANDGREN Aljona, Entrepreneurialism in universities: how can it b e
promoted and what are the obstacles?...........................................................
,
:
ESTERMANN Thomas, University autonomy in Europe an overview...
URCAN Aurelia, Cercetarea i inovarea-factori cheie ai economiei
cunoaterii.....................................................................................................
FLOREA-DONICA Lilia, ROTARU Anatol, Integrarea cercetrii
tiinifice a Republicii Moldova n spaiul european al cercetrii. Aspecte
sinergetice......................................................................................................
ECO Constantin, FORNEA Iuliana, Orientarea studenilor USMF
Nicolae Testemianu spre dimensiunile i valorile educaionale
europene........................................................................................................
, :
?...........................................

406
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European neighbourhood policy and eastern partnership:


achievements, obstacles and perspectives

Dear Participants,

It is a great pleasure for me to welcome you to the international scientificpractical conference European neighborhood policy and eastern partnership:
achievements, obstacles and perspectives, financed by the European Commission
within the framework of the Jean Monnet program, aimed at stimulating teaching,
research activities in the field of European integration at the level of higher
education institutions within and outside the European Community.
Our project is the second experience of the Republic of Moldova to
participate in the program and the Jean Monnet Conference is one of the activities
planned within the framework of the Jean Monnet Project in Moldova. The aim of
the conference is to identify particular achievements, major challenges and new
perspectives for the European Neighborhood Policy and Eastern Partnership, which
could affect the formation and evolution of the European Neighborhood Policy
with respect to the "eastern neighbors," as well as its importance for the EU and
individual states - members.
Welcoming you, I want to stress the importance and relevance of this
conference, which is undoubtedly one of the most effective forms of mutual
exchange of ideas, a broad discussion of different points of view in a new reality
in the European Neighborhood Policy and Eastern Partnership for the period
2014-2020.
Leading experts and young scientists from different scientific areas of the
Eastern European Neighborhood Policy (Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine, Georgia,
Armenia and Azerbaijan) and individual countries - EU members (Italy, Belgium,
Germany, Slovenia, Romania, Sweden, Finland and the UK) expressed their desire
to take part in the conference.
Today more than ever, it is important to continue to establish a competitive
system of higher education, to develop the fundamentals of applied science, to join
the global, economic, political, scientific and educational space. Therefore, the first
day of the conference will focus on the political - legal aspect of our subject, the
second-day - socio-economic and third is dedicated to Education, Science and
Culture in the European Neighborhood Policy and Eastern Partnership.
We wish you all an exceptional stay in our republic and in especially in
Chisinau, and hope that you will enjoy this conference and wish you all a heated
debate and discussion on the breakout sessions, and after the conference - further
joint successes.

Dr. Olesea SIRBU,

JEAN MONNET project coordinator,


Director of the Centre for Studies in European Integration,
Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova
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JEAN MONNET
Scientific-practical conference with international participation

SECTION 1
PREMISES AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK OF THE EU
NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY AND EASTERN PARTNERSHIP
EU EASTERN PARTNERSHIP POLICY A MIXTURE OF COMMON
INTERESTS AND GOOD WISHES
DEVETAK Silvo, University of Maribor, Slovenia
Summary:
The author, as a starting point, puts forward the assertion that in Europe exist three
streams of European integration. They are the result of membership, accession (with
conditional membership), and of the neighbourhood policy.The latest integrationrelates
to countries that dont have a prospect for the EU membership in the near future; this
integration, precisely the EU relations with Eastern Partnership countries (Armenia,
Azerbajian, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova,and Ukraine) is the topic of the article. The results
of the implementation of the European neighbourhood policy since 2004 and of the
regional component of the policy the European Partnership since 2009 have been very
moderate. Thus there was a gap between the declared goals in the EU strategic and
operational documents and factual achievements of this EU policy.
In preparation of the revised policy, which will be finally supported by the new
financial period 2014 2020, different interests and perceptions exist among the EU
members countries on what should be the new EU policy towards the neighbourhood. The
revolutionary movements in the European South - in the Northern Africa opened new
challenges for the EU and put forward a need to formulate the EU responses to the new
situation.
The author is of the opinion that the new EU policy towards the South should not put
in danger the EU interests in Eastern Europe and in South Caucasus region. Hence there
is a need to elaborate in the new financial period 2014 2020 a balanced support of both
directions of the EU neighbourhood policy, among other by re-arranging the existent EU
financial commitments.
The article elaborates principles on which the new policy towards the EU
neighbours should be elaborated, which are first of all clarity of goals, diversity,
conditionality and pragmatic approach towards particular countries. Of the specific goals
the author stress the carrots that should be offered to Partners countries (trade,
economic integration, etc.) and on the other side not sticks but firm demands concerning
the development of democracy and the rule of law (mass media freedom, free elections,
corruption, etc.). He stresses also the need for closer consultations among the Partner
countries concerning the negiotiations with the EU.
Key words: European integration, European neighbourhood policy, European
partnership, European neighbourhood partnership instrument, association agreements,
frozen conflicts.

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European neighbourhood policy and eastern partnership:


achievements, obstacles and perspectives

THREE STREAMS OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION. The process of


European integration could be classified by three political streams, which are
intermingled and represent the geo-political reality of todays Europe:
First, the European integration through the EUs membership, achieved as
the result of the political, legal and socio-economic order within the EU.
Second, the European integration in the form of accession status, which is
assigned to the countries of Western Balkans (ex Yugoslav republics minus
Slovenia plus Albania), which have a EU membership perspective, of course, on
selective, competitive basis (in the first line is Croatia).
Third, the European integration in the form of EUs neighbourhood
country status, which is assigned to 15 countries along the EU external terrestrial
and maritime borders from Armenia to Morocco, and Russia which relations with
EU are based on mutual strategic interests; these countries have no foreseen
accession perspective.
This article is confined to the consideration of the last, third stream of
European integration and more precisely to the European neighbourhood policy
towards the six Eastern European and South Caucasus countries, which are
included in the concept of the so called European partnership, i.e. Armenia,
Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine.
There is a legal basis for the European integration process concerning this
countries. Art. 8 of the Lisbon Treaty committed the EU to the development of a
special relationship with neighbouring countries aiming to establish an area of
prosperity and good neighbourliness, founded on the values of the Union and
characterised by close and peaceful relations based on cooperation. However it is to
be understood that the organs of the EU could develop their activities exclusively
within the authorised assignments that are given to them by the EU documents,
which are the results of a common will of the Union, reached through
burdensome balancing the interests of the Members States, and negotiations
within the frame of decision making processes of the EU. 1
The new, revised EU neighbourhood policy will be proposed in the document
of the European Commission, which presentation was postponed to May 2011 2 and
will get the material basis for its realisation with the adoption of the new
financial perspective 2014 2020. As to the EU policy towards the Eastern Europe
and Southern Caucasus the final outcome will be, first of all, the result of the
1

See among other: Resolution of 20 May 2010 on the Need for an EU Strategy for the South Caucasus, Texts
adopted, P7_TA(2010)0193; para. 41 of the above resolution of 15 November 2007, which calls for the settingup of an EU-Neighbourhood East Parliamentary Assembly (EURONES); Foreign Affairs Council conclusions
of 26 July 2010 on the ENP;Joint Declaration of the Prague Eastern Partnership Summit of 7 May
2009;Commission communication of 12 May 2010 entitledTaking Stock of the European Neighbourhood
Policy OM(2010)0207;
Regulation (EC) No 1638/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 2006 laying
down general provisions establishing a European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument, 7 OJ L 310,
9.11.2006, p. 1; Conclusions of the Eastern Partnership Foreign Ministers meeting of 13 December 2010.
2
This article was completed at the end of April 2011 and thus coulldn't consider the new strategy concept of
the ENP, which was annouced to be publiched by the European Commission on 10 May 2011.

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JEAN MONNET
Scientific-practical conference with international participation

confrontations between the EU members concerning the division of political,


security and financial engagement of the Union toward the turbulent Arab world
on one side and towards the European East and Southern Caucasus, which is of
strategic importance for the EU from the point of view of security, energy and
markets on the other side (and, of course, towards Russia as a main player in this
part of Europe).
MODERATE ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE EU POLICY. The European
Partnership policy of 2009 is in fact a continuation of the European Neighbourhood
Policy, which was launched in 2004 and remains for the time being a formal
structure also of the new neighbourhood cooperation program unless it will be
replaced by the new instruments (Association Agreements, etc.). It features not
only bilateral meetings between the EU and the country concerned, but also forums
where those six and the EU can meet together, to exchange best practice, and also
manage common programmes. Thematic platforms have been constituted to
address four main areas of interest: democracy, good governance and stability;
economic integration and convergence with EU sectoral policies; energy security;
contacts between people.
In parallel, the European Parliament has taken preliminary steps to set in
motion the EU Neighbourhood East Parliamentary Assembly (Euro-Nest), and the
Committee of the Regions declared its intention to establish an Eastern Europe and
South Caucasus Local and Regional Assembly. The EaP Civil Society Forum (EaP
CSF) was organised in Brussels in November 2009 by the Commission, the
Presidency of the Council and the European Economic Social Committee,
A small part of the ENP consists of a territorial cooperation strand (ENPICBC) which represents 5% of the ENP budget, or EUR 1.18 billion for 15
programmes over the period 2007-2013. Cross-border programmes (terrestrial
borders or sea crossings) on the one hand, and sea basin programmes (Black Sea,
Baltic Sea and Mediterranean) on the other hand have been created.
The national action plans today comprise the main body of the ENP; about
five-sixths of the policys budget is allocated to bilateral actions. Each plan is
negotiated between the European Commission and the partner state concerned, and
sets out the priorities for the countrys economic and political reforms. The
Association Agreements will represent an on-going strengthening of contractual
relations. These agreements provide a blue-print for reform which would bring the
Eastern partners much closer to the EU. Since the launch of the Eastern Partnership
the negotiations have been opened with all Eastern Partners but Belarus; the
negotiations with Ukraine have been accelerated.
The EU offers economic integration with its internal market. This offer is
embodied in the Commissions strategy for the establishment of Deep and
Comprehensive Free Trade Areas (DCFTAs). Going beyond a simple tariff
dismantling, they also cover market access in services, investment, public
procurement and many other sectors, choosing approximation to EU law in areas
where this can lead to increased trade. Negotiations on the first DCFTA are already
12

European neighbourhood policy and eastern partnership:


achievements, obstacles and perspectives

ongoing with Ukraine 3 and preparations are underway to allow for opening
negotiations with Moldova,4 Georgia 5 and Armenia.6The EUs trade with the ENP
region grew during the period 2004-08, with EU exports rising by 63% and imports
by 91%. Energy products represent a large component of the latter. Bilateral
documents with Azerbaijan7, Belarus, and Ukraine were signed, aimed to gradual
alignment with EU policy in this field, Moldova and Ukraine became members and
Georgia observer of the Energy Community Treaty.
Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia have signed with the EU Visa Facilitation and
Readmission Agreements. At the end of 2010 Action Plans were annouced for
Ukraine and the Republic of Moldova towards the establishment of visa free
3

Some achievements of the European Partnership policy for Ukraine: Association Agenda of 24 November
2009; good conditions were created for beginning of negotiations for DCFTA after the accession of Ukraine to
the WTO in May 2008; inclusion of Ukraine in Energy Community (24 September 2010); National Indicative
Programme 2011 2013; Comprehensive Institution Building Programme; final phase of negotiations on
Association Agreement; Visa Facilitation and Re-admission Agreements; Operational phase of dialogue on the
establishment of a visa free regime as a long term perspective (elaboration of two phase Action Plan setting out
necessary reforms); alignment of Ukraine with almost all EU positions on external issues; developed
cooperation by sectors (transport, environment, justice, security and liberty); regional development.
4
Some achievements of the European Partnership policy for Moldova: Association Agreement (negotiations
since 12.1.2010); Deep and comprehensive Free Trade Area DCFTA (when the conditions are met as a result
of necessary reforms undertaken in accordance with key recommendations); Visa Facilitation and Readmission Agreements (in force since 2008);
Pilot Mobility Partnership (since 2008);Dialogue on visa free
regime as a long term perspective (since December 2009); cooperation in different sectors (Justice, Freedom
and Security; transport; energy; health; regional development);
EU Moldova Human Rights Dialogue
(since 15 June 2009); Protocol on the Participation of Moldova in (seven) EU programs (29.9.2010); Moldova
aligned with nearly all CFSP declarations opened for alignment; Adhesion to the European Energy Charter
Treaty; Moldova Romania local border traffic agreement (in force since February 2010); Indicative ENPI
envelope for Moldova stands 209,7 millions (an increase of nearly 75 % on annual average); on the Moldova
Partnership Forum held in March 2010 more than 40 international donors, including EU, pledged over 1.96
billion to support the Governments plan Rethink Moldova.
5
Georgia is on the cross-road of strategic interest. Some achievements of the European Partnership policy: The
EU launches in July 2010 negotiations on Association Agreements (for all three Caucasian countries the
similar scenario as it has been applied in the negotiations with Ukraine and Moldova); Memorandum of
Understanding of Comprehensive Institutional Building Program was signed in September 2010 (31 million
during 2011-2013); Mobility Partnership of November 2009 (cooperation on all aspects of migration policy);
Visa facilitation and Re-admission Agreements (17 June 2010). EU Georgia Human Rights Dialogue (since
16 December 2009); Georgia aligned with vast majority of EU CFSP declarations open for alignment; Action
plan for the implementation of integrated border management (December 2009); Agreement on protection of
Geographical Indications for agricultural products (initialled on 29 July 2010).Indicative ENPI for 2011 2013
envelope 180.3 million (a doubling of the EU yearly assistance); EU supports the territorial integrity of
Georgia and the non-recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
6
Armenia is a country without oil and gas reserves. Some achievements of the European Partnership policy:
Association Agreement (directives adopted on 10 May 2010). Armenia widely aligned with EUs CFSP
declarations and has been very active in CFSP related issues. EU-Armenia Action Plan was approved in
2006. EU Armenia Human Rights Dialogue (since December 2009). The Indicative ENPI 2001- 2013
enveloped 157.3 million for Armenia.
7
Azerbaijan has immense energy reserves and an important strategic position. Some achievements of the
European Partnership policy: Association Agreement (directives adopted on May 2010); in 2009 he aligned
with 56 out of 138 CFSP directives it had been invited to join; continuation of negotiating a peaceful resolution
of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict in 2009 and later; Azerbaijan benefits from the General System of
Preferences Plus for the years 2009-2011. The construction of Nabucco gas transfer from the Caspian Sea to
the EU is the main project at stake; many problems of financial and other nature have been arose that put the
realisatiobn of the project in the very complicated situation.

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regimes for short stay travel. Mobility Partnerships have also been agreed with
Georgia and Moldova to promote legal migration, to facilitate legitimate crossborder travel, fight irregular migration and harness the positive impact of migration
for the economic development of the EUs partners.
Memoranda of understanding concerning the establishment of a
Comprehensive Institution Building Initiative with the aim of strengthening the
administrative capacity of EU's partners to carry out reform have now been signed
with all EP countries but Belarus. Interesting achievemnts have been reached also
in promoting legislative approximation and regulatory convergence (mainly
through TAIEX and twinning), by establishing advisery missions in Armenia,
Moldova and Ukraine, by implementing the common aviation area, by addressing
a wide range of social policy issues, and in the field of environmental protection.
In the seven-year budget cycle 2007-2013, the EUs European
Neighbourhood Partnership Instrument (ENPI), has about 11 billion available in
aid for neighbours, with twice as much money allotted to the south as to the east
(though on a per capita basis slightly more is spent in the east). There are also other
EU budget lines available to neighbours, such as the Neighbourhood Investment
Facility, which has S700 million over the seven years to be matched by funds
from the EU member-states for grants to trigger extra project lending by the
European Investment Bank (EIB). The EU has been able to steer loans from the
EIB, the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
(EBRD) to support its objectives in the neighbourhood (though the latter lends only
to eastern countries). The Commission has also given balance of payments support
to Armenia, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine.
A GAP BETWEEN DECLARED GOALS AND FACTUAL
ACHIEMENTS. The actual integration process of the EP countries in the main
EU political, economic and social stream has had very limited results. This fact was
somehow hidden behind a graet number od paper work, bilateral meetings of
different kind, and finaly by declarations, aimed to create the impression that a
great progress has been achieved without membership being a goal of these
endeavours. Unfortunately, most of the goals set as part of the (old) Partnership and
Co-operation Agreements currently (still) in force - and the Action Plans developed
on the basis of those agreements - remain unfulfilled. Although work on
Association Agreements commenced (with all countries except Belarus), and
negotiations regarding the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA)
with Ukraine are on track, problems appeared right from the beginning.
Negotiations with Kyiv have been in place for almost three years now, and no end
date has been determined yet. However, after an Association Agreement is signed it
must still be ratified by all member states; this procedure could take years and
could be even more complex due to the growing power of anti-EU political groups
in some of the EU countries.
The EU has been unable to answer the question regarding the membership
prospects of Eastern European and South Caucasian countries or to determine
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clearly the goal which an integration not involving membership should seek. This
gave rise to a policy of evasion, where the key strategic issues were either not
mentioned or formulated in a very complicated and vague manner. This made EU
policy incomprehensible to both member and partner states, and also undoubtedly
had a demotivating effect on both parties. The fear of the Eastern neighbours
membership aspirations also resulted in the de-Europeanization of the policy
towards Eastern Europe. Clear statements as to whether three countries from this
region were part of the old continent and references to the idea of a united Europe
were avoided in EU documents. This inhibited the potential provided by virtue of
their European identity. In this manner the EU deprived itself of an important
element potentially capable of generating political will in the integration process.
The policy of integration with Eastern European and South Caucasus
countries was being implemented in conditions where the measures applied to date
had been significantly restricted. First of all, the lack of membership prospects
entailed both a significant reduction of financial support and an inability to make
full use of the conditionality mechanisms. However, the limitations went far
beyond this issue. The EU very quickly withdrew from its initially stated readiness
to share everything apart from the institutions. The documents regarding policy
towards Eastern Europe provided for selective integration separate from
membership. The scope of potential exclusions was not precisely determined.
The lack of readiness to formulate a more attractive offer stemmed from an
ambivalent approach, visible at the beginning and gaining in strength over recent
years: while seeking to draw Eastern European countries closer to it, the EU was at
the same time taking a defensive approach in an attempt to prevent opening itself
up to neighbour countries. It is worth noting that the EU was resisting precisely
those areas where a move towards the EU was seen as especially beneficial by most
partner states (for example, the introduction of a visa-free regime, access to the
agricultural market, etc.).
The EU, in the context of promoting its values, was unable to resolve the
dilemma of whether it should condemn authoritarian tendencies and support
grassroots democratic movements or rather choose stability and economic benefits
resulting from trade co-operation with Eastern European and South Caucasus
governments (regardless of their attitude to democracy). The inability to resolve
this problem was especially evident in the case of Belarus, with regard to which the
more business-oriented and pro-democracy options were chosen interchangeably,
and no decisive actions were taken in either direction.8
8

The bilateral trade and economic relations with Belarus have been developed on the basis of Partnership and
Cooperation agreements concluded between the EC and Soviet Union in 1989. Belarus withdraws (temporary)
of the EU General System of Preferences (GSP) in 2003. Belarus is included in the ENP but no Action plan is
foreseen for her (the same relates to the Belarus participation in the European Partnership). In accordance
with CSP 2007 2013 and the NIP 2007 2011 were 46.07 million allocated for Belarus (70 % for social and
economic development and 30% for democratic development and good services). As to the support to the
NGO both documents pledge to continue funding activities for their benefit outside Belarus and to channel
assistance in way that does not require the consent of the authorities.The EU is ready to deepen its relationship

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The attempt to reconcile the priority for democratisation with the businessoriented and stabilisation goals also led to a blurring of the criteria applied as part
of the diversification policy. Initially, it was intended to provide a more generous
offer to those neighbour countries which had made greater integration progress. In
practice, the more advanced forms of co-operation were always offered in the first
instance to Ukraine (the biggest partner in the region), and relations with
Azerbaijan (a country rich in raw materials) were much better than with Belarus,
which has a similarly authoritarian regime.
The EUs main aid programme (ENPI) has many thematic or sectorial
priorities, but democracy is not one of them. The nearest apology for this is a
heading called governance, but the actual projects under this heading tend for
example to be about modernisation of public administration, or improvements in
the judiciary, all a safe distance from core issues of political system. The separate
instrument dedicated to democracy and human rights according to its name
(EIDHR) has the soft option of election observation (when invited) as its first
speciality, and it otherwise mounts a plethora of projects relating to human rights
and civil society development. Of course to mount highly political projects against
the wish of an authoritarian leader is impossible, unless these are to be off-shore or
covert operations. But this political vacuum in operations to date only underlines
the extent of radical changes now due, if democracy is really to be placed high on
the agenda.
The EU also was unable to resolve the dilemmas linked to Russian policy,
which in many areas opposed the goals and actions taken by Brussels. If this issue
were raised explicitly, it would entail a confrontation with Russia, for which the
EU is unprepared. At the same time, turning a blind eye to Moscows actions
undermined the credibility of the EU and its policy. In an attempt to save face and
at the same time avoid an overly costly confrontation with Russia, the EU was on
the one hand sending discreet signals of dissatisfaction (at the time of the Orange
Revolution or the Russia-Georgia war), and on the other hand was minimising its
activity in potentially contentious areas (for example, issues linked to separatism).
The EU has been trying to compensate for a deficiency of genuine integration
with its Eastern neighbours by making progress in procedural and institutional
areas (creating Action Plans, launching negotiations regarding Association
Agreements, establishing multilateral institutions as part of the Eastern Partnership,
and granting Action Plans for establishing a visa-free regime to Ukraine and
Moldova). These new institutional solutions are obviously necessary for the
implementation of the ENP goals in the East. However, the risk is that the
Agreements and the Action Plans will become an objective per se and instead of
supporting integration they will be merely imitating the process. The dynamics of
relations between the EU and Eastern Europe since 2004 makes this scenario seem
with Belarus provided that the Belarusian authorities clearly demonstrate their willingness to respect
democratic values and the rule of law. The EU member state assistance to Belarus is rather very developed (all
members but Belgium, Luxembourg, Spain and Portugal).

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increasingly likely.
In continuation we would like to put forward some particular shortcoming in
the implementation of the EP policy. Whereas accession to human rights and
fundamental freedoms conventions and protocols moved forward, their
implementation raises concerns, the fight against torture are insufficient, serious
problems persist in many countries as regards the respect for freedom of
expression, particularly in the media, freedom of association and freedom of
assembly, the space for civil society actors and human rights defenders remains
unduly limited, the death penalty still exists in Belarus, in many countries neither
the legislative framework for elections nor their conduct comply with international
standards.
Judicial independence, effectiveness and impartiality are still in most
countries a matter of concern.
The reform of public administration remains one of the significant unmet
challenges for partner countries. More has been achieved in the economic sphere,
notably trade and regulatory approximation, than in the area of democratic
governance. All partners with Action Plans have completed ratification of the 2005
UN Convention against corruption, but corruption perception indicators shows an
overall change for the worse over the period.
The leaders in Belarus and Ukraine- and in the Caucasus countries, too are
less eager to integrate with the EU than were the Central Europeans. Membership
would constrain their style of leadership, to say the least. Furthermore, the proEuropean constituencies in some East European societies are limited. There are
not enough people to make the case for closer ties to Europe, or to pressure
governments to take the steps that would facilitate integration with the EU.
Eastern Europes (EP countries) convergence to EU standards in political and
economic terms is an enormous challenge, which requires great determination from
both sides. Meanwhile, actions taken by the EU so far prove that it does not see
integration with its Eastern neighbours as an issue important enough to warrant
investing significant resources in this process. At the same time, however, the EU in part to maintain its credibility or possibly due to political and bureaucratic inertia
is unlikely to relinquish its policy of promoting its own model within its
immediate neighbourhood. A continuation of this dual strategy may lead to a
pretence in which both the EU and its Eastern partners will be merely imitating
integration. Both sides will in fact be playing this game without focusing on
achieving the goal and without any hope of implementing it; Brussels in order to
avoid an evident failure and cover up its weakness, and Eastern European countries
in order to exploit this process for domestic political reasons and in relations with
Russia.
DIFFERENT INTERENSTS AND PERCEPTIONS ON WHAT
SHOULD BE THE NEW POLICY TOWARDS EU NEIGHBOURHOOD.
The revolutions in North Africa, the approaching end of the strategic review of
the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) initiated by the European Commission,
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and the beginning of negotiations on the European Unions new financial


perspective, have intensified the debate among the member states and EU
institutions on what policy the EU will adopt towards its neighbourhood in the
future. The discussion concerns not only the shape of the ENP but also non-ENPI
foreign policy instruments which Brussels applies towards neighbouring countries,
such as the thematic instruments and loan support.
The revision started in summer 2010, when the European Commissioner for
Enlargement and the European Neighbourhood Policy, tefan Fle, and the High
Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Catherine
Ashton, asked the member states and the EU neighbours to present their visions for
a more effective neighbourhood policy. The culmination of the revision process
will take place on 10 May 2011 with the announcement of the European
Commissions communiqu outlining a new policy towards the EUs
neighbourhood, and the Councils adoption of that communiqu. 9
Serious differences of opinion have emerged among the member states. The
countries located in the southern part of the EU want Brussels to boost its policy
towards North Africa, even at the expense of engagement in Eastern Europe and
the Southern Caucasus.10 Meanwhile Central European countries, including
Germany, favour a more balanced approach towards both directions. Germany has
also proposed making any financial assistance conditional on progress in
democratisation, respecting human rights and adopting rule-of-law standards.
Those neighbour countries which show commitment to implementing reforms and
integration with the EU should receive more funds.
According to press reports, Germany has also suggested that the model used
so far, in which a certain amount of funds is allocated to a given country as part of
a seven-year financial perspective, should no longer apply. Instead, only half of the
9

Work on the new concept was initiated by the European Commission; however, the European External Action
Service (EEAS), which was created on 1 December 2010, has taken over the supervision of the ENPs
implementation. Thus, it is likely that the EEAS will have a strong influence on the final version of the doc
ument.
10
The stand of the southern member states was presented in a letter and a non-paper addressed on 16 February
2011 by the foreign ministers of France, Spain, Greece, Cyprus, Slovenia and Malta to Catherine Ashton. They
appealed for the strengthening of the southern dimension of the EUs foreign policy in order to provide
adequate support to the North African countries in the process of their transformation. They put forward
proposals for modifying a broad range of EUs foreign policy instruments: the European Neighbourhood
Policy, the so-called thematic programmes (including the Instrument for Stability, the European Instrument for
Democracy and Human Rights, and the Development Co-operation Instrument), part of the EUs external
relations budget line, as well as lending of the European Investment Bank (EIB) and the European Bank for
Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). The letters authors suggest the creation of a macro-regional
strategy in the Mediterranean, modelled on the strategies for the Baltic Sea and the Danube. This could mean
that part of the EUs structural funds would be made available to those countries. Another instrument they
would like reinforced is the Union for the Mediterranean.This lack of concrete solutions demonstrates the
existence of deep divides between the member states over the EUs policy towards the Southern
neighbourhood. The southern member states have not yet succeeded in pushing through the proposals they
included in their letter to Lady Ashton. This letter is available on the website of the French Ministry of Foreign
Affairs: http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/fr/IMG/pdf/Lettre_a_Mme_Ashton.pdf and the non-paper is published
on
the
website:http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/fr/IMG/pdf/11-02-17_Non-Papier_Action_de_l_Union_
europeenne_ en_direction_du_voisinage_Sud.pdf.

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funds should be allocated for aid to a given country according to the present rules,
while the rest of the money would be made available depending on how concrete
reforms are implemented. The EU should limit direct budget support to those ENP
countries which make little progress, and instead focus more on increasing
capabilities of state administration, the judiciary and the parliaments.
During the Foreign Affairs Council meeting on 21 February 2011 no detailed
solutions regarding the neighbourhood policy were reached, probably due to
disagreements between the member states.
Ten EU commissioners outlined a future shape of the European Unions
relations with neighbouring countries in an internal document. 11 According to
them, mutual relations should gradually become similar to the model of the
European Economic Area existing between the EU member states and Norway,
Iceland and Liechtenstein. This means that the EU and the neighbouring countries
should create a deep and comprehensive free trade area, which in addition to
lifting customs duties and quotas in mutual trade envisages that the neighbour
countries will adjust their internal regulations to the standards of the EU single
market. However, unlike the European Economic Area, the new free trade zone
does not provide for any opening up of the EU labour market. Facilitations in the
movement of people would be limited to the simplification of visa procedures and
lowering visa fees. The commissioners also want neighbour countries to participate
in EU programmes, including the Single European Energy Market. These proposals
do not go beyond the offer the EU has already presented to its Eastern neighbours
launching the Eastern Partnership. Furthermore, the Commissions representatives
want the EU to strictly observe the principles of conditionality and differentiation
when granting financial aid to its partners.
The EU's Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) must be radically reformed, the
European Parliament says in a resolution passed on 7 April 201112. MEPs argued
that the EU should give "more for more", by stepping up political and financial
support for neighbourhood countries provided that they undertake domestic
reforms and move towards democracy (free and fair elections, freedom of
expression and association, judicial independence, the fight against corruption, and
security sector reform). MEPs believe that ENP reform should help the EU to
differentiate between countries that put democratic reforms and those that do not,
and reward those that do with European perspectives.
EU should promote and significantly strengthen a bottom-up approach,
increasing its economic support to civil societies and promoting freedom of the
press and freedom of assembly in order to sustain the democratisation processes,
which are a precondition for long-term stabilisation.
MEPs were of the opinion that economic reforms must go hand-in-hand with
political reforms and that good governance can only be achieved through an open
11

see: Europolitics, 22 February 2011


http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+TA+P7-TA-20110153+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN&language=EN
12

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and transparent decision-making process based on democratic institutions. The


shared fundamental values including democracy, the rule of law and respect for
human rights and fundamental freedoms, independence of the judiciary, combating
corruption, upholding media freedoms and promoting NGOs should remain the
main yardstick against which to evaluate the performance of EU partner countries.
Combating corruption, in particular in the judiciary and the police, should be a top
priority for the EU in the development of its relations with the eastern partners and
that this should be reflected in the comprehensive institution-building framework.
The role of civil society organisations in promoting the values on which the
ENP is founded, notably human rights, freedom of the media and democratisation,
needs to be further supported through the allocation of financial and institutional
support to them. The same approach should be undertaken towards local authorities
as an element of local democracy and local governance.
The EP resolution calls on the Vice-President and High Representative Mrs.
Ashton and her EEAS to develop more confidence-building measures and
programmes, including the launching of new missions and public communication
strategies and the consideration of pragmatic initiatives and innovative approaches
such as informal contacts and consultations with the societies and de facto
authorities of the breakaway territories, while conserving the EUs non-recognition
policy, in order to support civic culture and community dialogue (!). 13
The revision of the ENP should be based on the lessons learnt so far and on
new approaches to the future. The new policy should take into consideration that
the EU has not yet found a successful means of influencing neighbours that have
little chance of joining the EU. What should be the guidelines for formulating
the new policy?
Firstly, it would be worthwhile formulating a clear and attractive strategic
message, which makes references not to the concept of neighbourhood but rather
to the idea of a united Europe. Contrary to broadly voiced concerns, this is possible
without making a clear offer of membership.
Secondly, it is worth taking the risk of greater diversification between
ordinary partner states and those ready to treat the EU as a social, economic or
political model. Says the European Commissioner responsible for the ENP, Stefan
13

Within the EuroAid sponsored BRIDGE project a worshop was organised on 26 March 2009 for 45
academics of the Taras Sechenko University in Tiraspol (the capital of Transdnistria) on ENP and European
integration topics. The WS was attended by all the highest-ranking staff from the University; from the Rector
and vice-rectors to the heads of departments and most promising post-graduate students. It was the first event
to discuss the EU related topics ever organised in Transnistria. The participants clearly expressed their view
that Transnistria wants to become a part of and an active subject in the European integration processes and that
the University T.Sevchenko seeks the opportunity to surpass the blockade in the international academic
coperation, which they are experiencing. It would be commendable that the Eurooean Commission prepare in
accordance with the EP suggestions adequate programs while keeping unchallenged the EU stand of nonrecognition with Transdnistria, Nagorno Karahbah, Abhasia, and South Osetia. As to Transnistria restrictive
measures against leadership of this region were prolonged on 27.9.2010. EU Border Assistance Mission to
Moldova and Ukraine EUBAM has been working since 2088 to bring Transdnistrian export in line with the
legal norms of Moldova.

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Fle in Bratislava on 3.4.2011: This approach - described as more for more implies developing a framework with clear benchmarks in which our expectations
of partners as regards reform are spelt out more clearly, as are the rewards that
our partners will obtain if those expectations are met. These should cover
governance, human rights, democracy, co-operation on security matters, as well as
partners ability to cope with competitive pressures. Those who do not make
convincing progress towards meeting these benchmarks should not expect more in
return from the EU.
Paradoxically, the two countries which are most distant from the EU in
political terms, Belarus and Azerbaijan, are the richest ones and can boast the
fastest economic growth rates (in terms of GDP per capita). In turn the countries
most assimilated to the EU, which are seen as the leaders of the European
Neighbourhood Policy, may deem the past fifteen years as wasted time from the
point of view of reducing the economic gap between them and the European Union.
Ukraines and Moldovas GDP per capita has increased since 1995 in comparison
to the average EU level by as little as 23%.
Thirdly, the EU cannot avoid some sort of conditionality when it deals with
neighbours, especially if it is, as one hopes, going. The EU should therefore put
greater emphasis on positive conditionality, which means giving extra aid,
political support or visa facilitation to the best performing neighbours. Since 2007
small sums of money (300 million Euros over seven years) from the EUs
governance facility have been available to reward neighbours that carry out
political reforms. The EU should tie the delivery of aid to a neighbours
performance on democracy and human rights.
Fourthly, more emphasis should be placed on grassroots democratisation:
aside from providing funding, it is necessary to encourage a greater openness to
society at large in the six neighbour countries and to use more flexible mechanisms
aimed at developing self-reliance instead of dependence, alongside offers of firm
support when it comes to civil dissent against an authoritarian regime. Neighbours
that have a good track record on democracy and human rights, and that tend to
align their foreign policies with those of the EU, could be asked to take part in
discussions on EU foreign policy, though not decision-making. This idea could be
piloted in specific policy areas, and extended if successful. Neighbours could also
be asked to take part in EU peacekeeping missions, as part of the Common
European Security and Defence Policy.
Fifthly, the new European neighbourhood policy, like the old one, will have
to balance interests against values. And there will be times when they do not
coincide. For example, the EU has a strategic interest in persuading Azerbaijan to
support the Nabucco pipeline project, and to sell Europeans gas. But if the EU let
values be the main guide of its relations with autocratic Azerbaijan, it would spurn
close ties. Those strategic interests help to explain why the EU has been tougher on
Belarus than Azerbaijan despite there being more political prisoners in Baku than
in Minsk. Whether those interests justify the EU taking a softer line towards
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Azerbaijan than Belarus is a difficult question.


Sixthly, it is necessary to underline that it is unrealistic to deal with this EU
policy without taking into account the influence of the Russian factor, which has
widespread interests and possibilities for their realisation in the region.
WHAT, HOW AND WHEN WILL BE ADOPTED AS THE EU
COMMITMENT?
1. The European Commission document elaborating the new strategy.
The forthcoming Commission's communication announced for the 10 May 2011
will offer more detail EU approach towards the Neighbourhood in general and
towards the Eastern Partnership countries in particular. The discussion and
adoption of this document will be a political test of the wisdom of the EU countries
in balancing the narrow national interests and the common interests regarding the
future EU relations with the European East and South neighbourhood.
The significance of the EUs challenges in North Africa notwithstanding,
shifting funds and political engagement from the Eastern to the Southern direction
would strongly undermine the effectiveness of the EUs policy in the East and
adversely affect the EUs interests. Among other things, it would impede the
conclusion of the Association Agreements and Free Trade Agreements, the
implementation of which will be expensive.
One of the consequences of the EUs reduced engagement in this area would
be an increase in the activity of other actors, principally Russia. Therefore, from the
point of view of the EUs policy towards the Eastern partners, it will be important
to prevent shifts in the funds allocated for the Eastern neighbourhood as part of
such EU programmes as the Instrument for Stability, the European Instrument for
Democracy and Human Rights (EDIHR), and the Development Co-operation
Instrument. These programmes play an important positive role in the EUs policy
towards these countries.
It would be a mistake to take stability in the Eastern neighbourhood for
granted, as the authors of the letter from the southern member states to Catherine
Ashton seem to have assumed.14 Destabilisation of the situation in this region
cannot be ruled out in the mid- or even short-term perspective, as indicated by the
brutal suppression of the opposition protests after the presidential election fraud in
Belarus on 19 December 2010, increasing tension between Armenia and
Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, and the mass anti-governmental
demonstrations in Armenia in February and March 2011. In addition, four of the
six countries covered by the Eastern Partnership (the exceptions being Belarus and
Ukraine) are engaged in separatist conflicts, and a resumption of military conflicts
in those countries cannot be ruled out.
If the EU wants to influence its neighbours it needs to be able to make them a
more generous offer. Given that the EU cannot for the foreseeable future offer
the big carrot of membership, it should hold out, in the words of Polands foreign
14

see footnote 11

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minister, Radek Sikorski, multiple small carrots, ideally timed to coincide with the
electoral cycles of the partner concerned. What those carrots could be? Let we
mention briefly some carrots.
Advanced role of trade and economic integration, aimed at broadening
stability and prosperity in partner countries.
Elaborated, coordinated and more structured cooperation in the field of
higher education and research, and for promoting university exchanges and publicprivate partnerships in the field of research.
Further enhancement of mobility. The more that people from the
neighbourhood visit the EU, the more speedily their countries will modernise. The
key to reducing irregular flows of people into the EU is to provide more legal
routes in. The EU has to offer the mobility partnerships, which was agreed with
Georgia and Moldova and in the process of talks with Armenia, to all its
neighbours. The EU has to negotiate urgently the visa facilitation and re-admission
agreements with Armenia, Azerbaijan and Belarus. In continuation the roadmaps to
a visa-free regime for short stays the dialog about which is already under way
with Ukraine and announced with Moldova should be elaborated also with other
partner countries.
Broader opening of EU programmes to Eastern Partner countries as well as
allowing them the access to EU agencies as a way to the real not imaginary
integration of partner countries in EU policies.
Broader, well elaborated and structured support to the cross-border
cooperation also as a way of local and regional development in partners countries.
Elaboration of ways and means on how the Eastern Partnership can
contribute to conflict prevention and resolution15 as well as the Eastern partners
involvement in actions under the Common Foreign and Security Policy; under the
Common European Security and Defence Policy, the EU can dispatch
peacekeepers, law-officers and policemen, as it has done to a wide range of trouble
spots, such as Aceh, Bosnia, Chad, Congo and Kosovo.16
The proposed EU policy of carrots and sticks should replace sticks (that
are the phenomenon of American international politics) with political and
economic demands, based on the policy of disparity and conditionality. What
should be the main demands?
Stronger joint commitments of the EU and partners to elements
indispensable to democratisation (first of all fair elections, freedom of expression
15

It seems unreasonable to prematurely declare a more intensive engagement than is presently the case in an
area of so-called frozen conflicts (which many experts have recently encouraged). The EU is still lacking the
measures and political will necessary to confront Russia in this field. Given this situation, any attempts at
intensifying the EUs security policy towards its Eastern neighbours are doomed to failure and may only
undermine the European Communitys credibility.
16
The notorious disunity of the EU over matters of hard security policy have once again been in evidence over
Libya, with France and the UK in the front line, various other member states half-participating, and Germany
disappointing all with its abstention over UN SC resolution 1973. Alongside this the case for an impressive
upgrade in the EUs democracy promotion policies in its neighbourhood stands out now as a clear opportunity
and necessity.

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and association, judicial independence, the fight against corruption, and security
sector reform). Political reforms should be encouraged as close to the citizen as
possible, and not be restricted to the national level alone. The second question then
is how to do it organizationally.17
It would be reasonable to create a financial facility designed specifically to
support civic society organisations (which inter alia would make it possible for the
EU to award small grants for the grassroots activities). Non-governmental
organisations have the expertise and experience to deliver democratic and marketoriented reforms from the bottom up, based on shared values.
It is to be expected that the process of creating the adequate legal basis
(Association Agreements, DCTFA, etc.) for future cooperation will take a long
time. The negotiations are either still on-going or have not even begun. After the
signature of the agreements a long period will elapse before the agreements will be
ratified by all the 27 EU members; and do to the recent political changes in some
states the political repercussions could not be ruled out. 18
Belarus remains the only eastern partner country with limited participation in
the ENP and EaP bilateral track and thus its further engagement in these
programmes will depend on its readiness to adhere to commonly shared values and
basic principles. Obviously democracy and rule of law could not be imported from
abroad, especially if the relevant regime treats such activities as interference in the
internal affairs of one independent country.19
17

A minimalist option would be to revise the priorities of the EIDHR, and make core issues of democratic
political organization a major priority, making room for this together with softer options, i.e. election
observation and civil society initiatives. More fundamentally there has been a long ongoing debate over
whether the EIDHR would be better transformed in whole or part into an independent foundation, drawing on
the models of the German political party foundations or the US National Endowment for Democracy (NED) .
Something like this seems to be the idea of the Polish government in proposing a European Endowment for
Democracy (EED). This proposal is under consideration by Brussels in the context of review of the
neighbourhood policy. A foundation of this kind would function as an agency of the EU, with administrative
autonomy. If it followed the German or NED models it would establish offices in those partner states which
wanted it. One can imagine that Egypt and Tunisia might be among the first Arab countries to be interested.
Such offices would be local hubs for all democracy promotion activities for which there was a demand (advice
on constitutional issues, political party organisation, training programmes, etc.). They would be endowed with
resources to make micro grants, or re-grants from block allocations from the central budget. The EED would
also engage in actions in difficult countries where local offices might not be welcome, for which Poland has
Belarus in mind. One successful initiative in east and southeast Europe has been the creation of 15 national
Schools of Political Studies, following the Moscow School. These are sponsored by the Council of Europe in
partnership with the European Commission. The model could be extended to Arab countries, adapted of course
to the very different context.
18
The right wing political groups that have in last elections in the EU countries gained a prevailing (for
instance, Belgium, Hungary) or significant (for instance, Italy, Netherland, Finland) part of electoriate may
develop their domestic political position by rasing obstacle for spending money for foreign countries while
the population of their countries suffer because of the worsened social and economic situation.
19
The Foreign Affairs Council conclusions on Belarus of 31 January 2011include the attempts to engage
ordinary Belarusians in the idea of reform by cutting the red tape and cost involved in obtaining Schengen visas
and by facilitating people-to-people contacts. The European Parliament in its resolution of 7 April 2011 urges
the Commission and other donors to support the development of democratically oriented political parties in
Belarus and the creation of larger NGOs and civil-society organisations, as well as to support community and
civic initiatives in the Belarusian regions. The donor conference held on 2 February 2011 for Belarus brought

24

European neighbourhood policy and eastern partnership:


achievements, obstacles and perspectives

2. New financial perspective 2014 - 2020. The adoption of this document


will be the final act, probably the most important, in the process of elaborating
and set in motion the revised EU policy towards its neighbourhood. The
forthcoming negotiations on the EUs financial framework for the period 2014-20
will not lead to a significantly larger budget. But within both the overall budget,
and the part of it devoted to external relations, there is scope for increasing the
amount spent in regions where the EU has a strong interest in stability, prosperity
and political reform, and especially in the neighbourhood. In the current financial
framework (2007-13), is foreign policy receiving only 6 per cent of the EU budget.
There are thus proposals that for the seven-year cycle that starts in 2014, the
EU should increase spending on foreign policy to at least 10 per cent. 20 As to
funding, it will be important to ensure coherence between the European funds (in
particular ENPI, ERDF and EDF) and coordination with other sources of funding,
international donors, and public and private funding that can be raised in the
neighbourhood countries.
Lastly, as we already said it is to be seen how the EU funds will be divided in
connection to its south or eastern future orientation.
3. The second Eastern Partnership Summit. It is scheduled to be convened
under the Polish Presidency in the second half of 2011. The first was convened two
years ago in Prague.21 The meeting will be an opportunity to take stock of the
progress made and to further revise the strategic guidance for the EaP so that it may
continue to deliver substantial results in the future. The Summit will work on
strengthening certain aspects of the offer that were made to partners two years ago
in Prague. It is hardly to expect that the representative of the Partner countries
could change the general political orientation which will until than adopted by the
Council of Ministers and by the European Parliament. Nevertheless the EU could
in no way neglect their opinions on specific aspects of the proposed policy,
especially those that could not be realise without the active involvement and
participation of the stakeholders in Partner countries.
The Partner countries are in front of a very long and complex process. Each
together about EUR 87 million to be spent on supporting human rights spokespersons and strengthening trade
unions, research centres and students organisations. It is to be seen if this sanction-oriented strategy will be
effective in stimulating democtatic changes in Belarus.
20
During the seven years that end in 2013, the European Development Fund, which goes to African, Caribbean
and Pacific countries, has 23 billion to spend, while the Development Co-operation Instrument, which goes to
Latin America, Asia, Central Asia, the Gulf region and South Africa, has a further 16 billion. The ENPI, for the
neighbourhood, has just 11 billion. There are good reasons for the EU to spend money in its members former
colonies and other under-developed parts of the world. But the EU has a clear strategic interest in rebalancing
its foreign spending so that the neighbourhood gets a boost. In addition, the EU may well curb spending on
agriculture, currently 40 per cent of the total.
21
Joint Declaration adopted in Prague on 7 May 2009 at the first Eastern Partnership Summit was the basic
political platform for EP policy. For bilateral EU PC cooperation are the most relevant the following points:
the Eastern Partnership builds on and is complementary to existing bilateral contractual relations; it will be
developed without prejudice to individual partner countries' aspirations for their future relationship with the
European Union; it will be governed by the principles of differentiation and conditionality;the Eastern
Partnership will be developed in parallel with the bilateral cooperation between the EU and third states.

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of them is left alone in negotiations with the mighty EU; this situation will be
even worsened with the implementation of the principle of diversification, which
has without doubts a positive connotation but could be also a source of the policy
divide and impera. Most of them but those countries which are of interest for the
EU because of gas and oil resources exploitation and transport or because of
strategically reasons will be in the position in which they will hardly be able to
assure for themselves results that will be a consequence of taking into account the
real interests of both sides. The request for reforms undertaken by one (weaker)
side must be balanced with the obligations of the other (stronger) side.
The Partner countries should not be at any price obsessed with their
inferiority feeling. All the six were for decades a part of a common political,
economic and cultural space and had thus developed a great many of mutual
personal and societal relations and a variety of common features. It will be thus
commendable that they develop mutual consultations and, if possible, common
stands in regulating their relations with the EU. The academia could be in the front
row of these common partnership activities.
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EUROPEAN INTEGRATION AND NATIONAL SOVEREIGNTY


HINDLEY Michael,
European Economic and Social Committee (ECOSOC), Manchester, UK
Will The Treaty of Lisbon create a European Super-State?
At each stage of European integration the cry has gone up from commentators
that this latest step is creating a super-state.
The issue of how much sovereignty any national state must cede to the
European Community on accession has troubled all countries and nowhere more so
than in the UK.
The question is how much each succeeding treaty, in this case, the Lisbon
Treaty, is simply a logical extension of that which is implicit and explicit in
accession the Community; or is it a radical and new stage towards a super-state.
The initial integration of Western Europe did not happen in a political and
economic vacuum. It was, on the contrary, in the words of the eminent historian,
Eric Hobsbawn:
the child of a specific and probably unrepeatable historical conjuncture22
With the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945, Europe became immediately a de
facto divided continent. The Iron Curtain divided a Soviet occupied East from a
Western Europe liberated by the USA, the Commonwealth, the UK and the
respective domestic resistance forces. There was a universal consensus that social
and economic welfare, based on democratic politics, were the only way forward to
prevent the social and economic collapses which had brought totalitarian regimes
to power in pre-war Europe. As shrewdly observed by the historian Alan S
Milward:
The historical evidence shows that the real argument has never been about
whether it is desirable that a supranational Europe should supersede the nation-state
, but about whether the state can find a political and economic base for survival.
The surrenders of national sovereignty after 1950 were one aspect of the successful
reassertion of the nation-state as the basic organisational entity of Europe. The
(European) Community was the European rescue of the nation-state23
Looked at in this way, the surrender of some sovereignty was a worthwhile
price to first rescue, then rehabilitate the Western European states after the
cataclysm of the early twentieth century. Far sighted politicians in France realised
that Frances only way to regain prosperity, safety and influence was through
reconciliation and economic cooperation with primarily Germany, but also through
a wider European integration. European integration not only allowed West
Germany to recover but offered political rehabilitation and the prospect of an
enlarged market for West Germanys rapidly recovering economy. This was the
22
23

Eric Hobsbawn Age of Extremes 1994 London Abacus Books. P 578


Alan S Milward The European Rescue of the Nation State 1994. London Routledge. P 438

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basis for the so-called Schuman Plan24 to establish the European Coal and Steel
Community in 1951 which formed the prototype for the eventual European
Economic Community established by the Treaty of Rome in 1956.
At these earliest stages of European integration, the United Kingdom (UK)
stood aloof - confident, vainly as it proved, that it was still a world power and safe
in the special relationship with the USA. Paradoxically, the USA was and
remains ambiguous about the develop of the European Community on the one
had welcoming a bulwark against Soviet influence but, on the other hand, wary of
Europes growing economic power which could rival the USA.
The UK also expressed grave doubts about pooling sovereignty on the
constitutional and economic front. Explaining to the House of Commons the UKs
reaction to the Schuman Plan, Prime Minister Attlee opined:
Weare not prepared to accept the principle that the most vital economic
forces of this country should be handed over to an authority that is utterly
undemocratic and is responsible to nobody25
Consequently, although the UK participated in the conferences leading to the
founding of the Community it did not actually join the EEC at the Treaty of Rome.
Though founded in international law, these early steps were a framework and not a
rigid plan for integration and have been accurately described as follows by Neill
Nugent:
the Founding Treaties (of the EEC) were not intended to act as
straitjackets with respect to the future shape and development of the Communities.
Rather, they provided frameworks within which certain things would be expected
to happen and other things could happen if decision-makers so chose26
The operative term here is if decision-makers so chose. At each subsequent
stage of integration, of ceded of sovereignty, the member states have a choice and
have indeed exercised that choice by rejecting various proposed new steps. For
example, as will be seen subsequently, the United Kingdom opted out of the Social
Chapter of the Maastricht Treaty.
However, the United Kingdom did not join the EEC and therefore was not
part of the setting of that crucial framework. This factor has been a constant source
of unease in the United Kingdom for its means that law-makers and judges are
acting within an original framework not of their own making.
The pre-eminent British constitutional expert, Professor Vernon Bogdanor,
outlined the decision to join the (then) EEC as follows:
This issue had major constitutional implications, and seemed to threaten the
fundamental principle of parliamentary sovereignty, since, if Britain were to join,
then decisions which had previously taken by Westminster would be in future
taken by a body the Council of Ministers of the European Community which
was not and could not be responsible to Parliament.
24

Named after Robert Schuman, the post-war Minister for Economics in France
Quoted in Kjell M Torbiorn Destination Europe 2003 Manchester. Manchester University Press p 19
26
Neil Nugent The Government and Politics of the European Union 2006. 6th ed. London. Palgrave p 47
25

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Joining the European Community, therefore, would be a decision unlike


joining any other international organisation, such as, for example, the United
Nations, or NATO27
The Community is an international organisation sui generis and its essential
characteristics of its constitutional arrangements have been set out as follows:
(a) the Community has institutions which act independently of the Member
States in terms of their composition and manner of operation;
(b) the community may take decisions by a majority, yet they will bind all the
Member States;
(c) the institutions of the Community implement those decisions or are
responsible for supervising that they are properly implemented by the Member
States; and
(d) the founding treaty and decisions of the Community may give rise to
rights and obligations on the part of individuals which are directly enforceable by
the courts in Member States, even in the presence of conflicting provisions of
national law28
The Treaty of Rome (1956) also established the European Court of Justice
(ECJ) which had supranational powers:
to settle conflicts between the, between the organs of the Community, and
between states and the organs. Its judgements were to be enforceable within the
territory of the member states29 a provision which also came to cause problems
for the UK and its own sense of autonomy.
It was the legal aspect of the developing Community which was to emerge as
a problematic unforeseen consequence of entry for the UK.
Once the ECJ began hearing cases and passing judgement, a corpus of
Community law began to emerge which would set precedence for all member states
and any subsequent acceding member states.
Though it was the question of economic and political sovereignty which
concerned the UK originally, this over-riding legal competence of a Community
institution became problematic as it raised the issue of primacy of legislation,
namely whether in effect European Law represents a higher and not a different
source of law.
This constitutional position was underlined by two key cases, Van Gend and
Loos and Costa. Van Gend and Loos was a Dutch firm who claimed that an import
duty had been charged by the Dutch authorities contrary to the provisions of
Community. The Court upheld the claim saying that:
the Community constitutes a new legal order of international law for the
benefit of which the States have limited their sovereign rights, albeit within limited
fields, and the subject of which comprise not only Member States but also their
27

V.Bogdanor., The New British Constitution, 2009, Portland, USA: Hart, p.27
K.Lenaerts, P Van Nuffel and R.Bray Constitutional Law of the European Union 2006 2nd ed. London:
Maxwell and Sweet p 12
29
Neil Nugent op cit p39
28

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nationals30
The ECJ went further to emphasise its own credentials as being set the task:
to secure uniform interpretation of the Treaty by national courts and
tribunals, (and) confirms the States have acknowledged that the Community Law
has an authority which can be invoked by their nationals before those courts and
tribunals31
In Costa the Italian Government posed a preliminary question to the ECJ on
the constitutional compatibility with Community law of a domestic act to
nationalise electricity in Italy. The ECJ judged that community law takes
precedence over national law.
By creating a Community of unlimited duration, having its own institutions,
its own personality, its own legal capacity...and more particularly real powers [as a
result of the Member States having limited their own powers or transferred them to
the Communities]32
Professor Bogdanor points out the surprise, even outrage, of later reactions to
subsequent integration, notably the Lisbon Treaty, was misplaced and somewhat
belated. It was a sign of lack of appreciation of the UKs original terms of
accession.
It is noteworthy that, when the European constitution was produced in 2003,
and when, after that constitution was rejected in France and the Netherlands, the
Lisbon Treaty was produced as a substitute, many commentators attacked these
documents on the grounds that they would make British law subordinate to
European law. They had not appreciated that British law had been subordinate to
European Community law since 1973 when Britain joined.33
This aspect of the primacy Community law was emphasised by the
Factortame I case when the full legal implications of entry into the Community for
the UK became apparent. Briefly, the British government was concerned about socalled quota hopping, a practice by which non-British fishing boats could take up
unused British fish quotas, although the actual ships had no real links with the UK.
Using two acts of Parliament, the Merchant Shipping Act (1988) and the Merchant
Shipping Act (Registration of Fishing Vessels) (1988) the government of Margaret
Thatcher tried to restrict quota hopping. An application was made to the ECJ to
test the compatibility of these measures with the Community provisions for open
access to the Communitys common fishing area. The ECJ found that Community
law took precedent34
A view later supported by the House of Lords.
The UK was not alone in experiencing the logical conclusions of the
establishment of a Community corpus of law which impinged on the national
30

ECJ Case 26/62 Van Gend and Loos [1963] at 12-13


ibid
32
ECJ Case 6/64 Costa [1964] ecr 585 at 593
33
V.Bogdanor op cit p.30
34
ECJ case C-213/89 Factortame [1990] ECR I-2433 para 21
31

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scene, as witnessed by the Francovich case. Briefly, Francovich and others worked
in an Italian firm which became insolvent and they were consequently unable to
receive the compensation guaranteed by Directive 80/987. However, Italy had not
implemented that particular directive and so the question arose as to who was liable
to pay compensation, if indeed compensation were due. The ECJ ruled that the
Italian State had to pay compensation arguing an individual had protection and
rights under Community law even if his/her State had not implemented that law
itself. In effect, a state could not deny rights which the Community had granted.
The ECJ upheld:
the principle whereby a State must be liable for loss and damage caused to
individuals as a result of breaches of Community law for which the State can be
held responsible is inherent in the system of the EC Treaty 35
Both Factortame I and Francovich highlight the strength of a ruling from the
ECJ as overriding the intentions of the member state, even if, as in the case of
Factortame I those intentions resulted from a piece of legislation passed in Member
States Parliament.
The Founding Treaties sufficed for almost three decades until the economic
stagnation of the Community in the mid-1980s started to give rise to concerns.
Following similar debates on the national level, the EC Commission, under the
dynamic leadership of its President Jacques Delors, become convinced the
Community could not maintain its high levels of social and economic welfare the
very reason for the establishment of the Community in the first case in the face of
rising competition from the Far East, particularly Japan, and the USA. Delors
fastened on the notion that completion of the internal market, the actual
implementation of the Treaty of Romes Four Freedoms (of movement of goods,
capital, persons and services) would provide the necessary dynamic in the
Communitys economy. In order to do this, it was felt that a revised and more
appropriate constitutional framework would be necessary.
The Intergovernmental Conference of the Council of Ministers (IGC) was
presented with a draft which eventually became the Single European Act (SEA)
which both speeded up the integration process and also extended the power of the
Community over member states, although not all member states were conscious of
this at the time. The British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher, was enthusiastic
about the extension of economic market principles but subsequently horrified by
the constitutional reforms which were encapsulated in the SEA. As Nigel Foster
comments:
The SEA is the first significant amendment of the Primary Treaties. It is an
important watershed in the historical development of the Communities and is not to
be underestimated in its importance, although it was at the time, not just by
external observers and commentators but also by heads of state and government
who signed up for it. It is sometimes difficult to grasp because it is first a series of
35

ECJ Joint Cases C-6/90 and C-9/90 Francovich [1991] E.C.R I-5357 paras 35-36

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package deals changes to the Treaties which not only added new areas of
competence but simultaneously made various institutional changes and policy
amendments36
The SEA added to the competences of the ECJ by establishing the Court of
First Instance which allows the ECJ to be applied to for an opinion and guidance,
a measure from French Law and not part of the Anglo-Saxon legal tradition.
But the most radical measure was the introduction of qualified majority
voting (QVM). How to avoid a situation where one member state held up the
others had been a sensitive political issue since the founding of the Community.
There had been previous proposals for a majority vote in the Council of Ministers
but these had been blocked by the legendary obstinacy of General De Gaulle.
Frances President refused to allow France to take the Chair during its Presidency
of the Council in order to block any decision- making. This episode in 1965 was
followed by the Luxembourg Accords. In the words of Nigel Foster:
which essentially meant that member states retained a veto in all
circumstanceshowever, this unfortunate episode meant that a long period of
minimal progress was ushered in37
Now after Maastricht, for measure which furthered the integration of the
internal market, the Council could call for a qualified majority vote. The votes on
the Council of Ministers being weighted in proportion to the population and
economic strength of the member state.
The momentum was now high for the Commission, under the leadership of
Delors, to press on for further integration. Building on what had been a successful
formula for the SEA, a further ICG was called which would reform the Treaties
further to include the integration of monetary, economic and social policy. It was
now that the Federalists38 began to encounter serious political opposition based on
the issue of member states sovereignty. There was widespread apprehension that
under Delors the Commission was becoming the driving force for a European
super-state.
The eventual Treaty of Maastricht, which came into force in 1993, was
negotiated against a much changed political background. In 1989 the Berlin Wall, a
symbol of a divided Europe fell and in 1991 the Soviet Union collapsed. These two
events surprised the political leadership in Western European which though it may
disapprove of the Soviet political system nonetheless had based its realpolitik on
the continuation of a divided Europe. The (West) German government, formerly a
key driver for an integrated Community, became understandably more
introspective as it wrestled with the political complications and economic costs of
absorbing the former sovereign State of East Germany and the French government
became increasingly and correspondingly anxious to tie the newly united Germany
36

Nigel Foster EU Law Directions 2008. Oxford. Oxford University Press p 33


Nigel Foster op cit p 12
38
Federalists is used to describe those who support a communitaire position that is supporting progressive
moves towards a United States of Europe.
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into the Community.


The Maastricht Treaty changed the name of the Community to the European
Union, dropping the word Economic an indication from the Federalists that they
wanted to press on with political union, and causing fears among those many critics
in all member states who feared such a development. This apprehension was given
political expression when in a referendum to endorse the Treaty, the Danes voted
no. The Danes were eventually to endorse Maastricht after having obtained
several opt-outs and separate protocols concessions by the Community which
seriously undermined the sense of cohesion. Indeed, such opt-outs were
symptomatic of the negotiations at Maastricht and have remained a feature of
subsequent treaties.
In a signal that the developing Community was trying to fulfil its
commitment to social and economic progress the Commission had proposed a
social agenda. Such a view was anathema to the free-market ideology of the then
Tory government in the UK. The Commission sought to counter this by making
social matters part of a separate protocol but still failed to persuade the UK
government to sign up. It seemed that in the mood of general European security
fears, the Member States were not prepared to surrender more autonomy to the
Community institutions and the Commission in particular.
The subsequent Edinburgh Summit of winter 1992 further underlined that the
progress of cooperation and integration was to be intergovernmental, rather than
communitaire.
The membership of the Community had increased steadily form the original
six signatories of the Treaty of Rome (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy
Luxembourg, The Netherlands), to nine (Denmark, Ireland, the UK), to ten
(Greece), twelve (Spain and Portugal) to fifteen (Austria, Finland and Sweden)
over a period of forty years. In the wake of the collapse of the Soviet Union and the
liberation of its former satellites, the Community was faced with urgent demands
from those countries to join the Community. The constant demand by reformers for
a more thorough going reappraisal of the Communitys constitutional framework
was given added weight by the exigencies of absorbing countries which had a far
different political an economic development since the end of the Second World
War. The countries in question were Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Poland,
Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Slovenia. Over the same period the two
Mediterranean islands of Malta and Cyprus were applying for membership.
These issues were addressed at the Nice Intergovernmental Conference of
December 2000 which resulted in the Treaty of Nice, which did not come into
force until February 2003.
In the words of Nigel Foster:
The Nice Treaty was also a treaty which did not bring about any further
radical changes to the Union...39
39

Nigel Foster op cit p 39

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In fact the Nice Treaty gave further evidence of the member states once again
asserting that progress within the Community was to be intergovernmental rather
than communitaire. The larger countries, France, Germany and the UK, insisting
that their majority stake in the weighted voting on the Council be re-emphasised.
A further check occurred when Ireland rejected the Treaty of Nice in a referendum.
Taking their cue from Denmark at the time of Maastricht, the Irish government
wrung national concessions from the Community before putting adhesion to Nice
to a second and successful referendum.
After considerable wrangling, the Nice Council agreed upon a Declaration
on the future of the Union and also set up a Convention on the Future of Europe
which would prepare a draft Constitutional Treaty for the Community.
This convention, headed by the distinguished former French President,
Valery Giscard DEstaing, aroused both suspicion and enthusiasm. The very term
Constitution aroused apprehensions that a putative European State was indeed
being suggesting and that the ever closer union of the original Founding Treaties
was an unstoppable process.
Whatever support there was amongst Community political elites and
theorists, there was a lack of popular support in two original member states, France
and the Netherlands, when the matter of the draft Constitution was put to a
referendum in 2005. The no votes in France and the Netherlands were a
devastating blow and unlike Denmark and Ireland, Frances and the Netherlands
no was unequivocal as their governments had no intention of using the no vote
to bargain national concessions.
The Constitutional Treaty was abandoned and in its place an amending treaty,
was negotiated and agreed in December 2007, becoming the Lisbon Treaty.
The Lisbon Treaty adopted formally the term European Union.
A permanent post of President and a High Representative of the Union for
Foreign Affairs and Security Policy were established, the latter a deliberate
euphemism carefully avoiding the impression that the Union had a functioning
foreign policy which would have necessitated a Foreign Minister to rival in
stature and prestige, the Foreign Ministers of the member states.
A Charter on the Fundamental Rights was agreed and is meant to be legally
binding, but the British and the Poles negotiated an opt-out. A European Union
legally binding provision which is not universally binding on the countries of the
Union is of course a contradiction in terms.
The Treaty of Lisbon in fact signalled a considerable retreat from a position
of concentrating more power on the Communitys institutions and the dropping of
the title constitution was not only a huge blow to the ambitions of the Federalists
but an emphatic restatement of the powers of the member states own Parliaments.
The document eventually produced is avowedly inter-governmental rather than
communitaire
To quote the academic Nigel Foster:
far from consolidating the Treaty, Protocols and Declaration, the
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European Leaders have made the constitutional architecture of the Union even
more complicated and fragmented.40
The rejection of successive major constitutional changes by the voters in
Ireland, Denmark, France and the Netherlands, and the series of opt-outs from
treaties by the UK and Poland have all indicated that the progress towards a
European super-state is actually receding from the high water mark of the Delors
Presidency of the early 1990s.
Finally, it may be more fruitful to see membership of the European Union,
not as posing insoluble problems, but as a source of stimulation in the age of
globalisation where international cooperation essential. To quote Leon Brittan,
who has been both a British Cabinet Member and a European Commissioner:
There is an inevitable tension between the separate nations and the
combined Communityyet a resolution-whether to the celibacy of the
Europhobes or the consummation of the Europhiles is not, I suspect, either
attainable or even desirable. The creative tension which exists within the
Community is at once inevitable and essential to its success41.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
1.
Bogdanor, V. The new British Constitution 2009, Portland, USA: Hart publishing
2.
Foster, Nigel. EU Treaties and Legislation 2009-2010 2009. 20th ed. Oxford.
Oxford University Press
3.
Hobsbawm, Eric. Age of Extremes 1995, London. Abacus Books
4.
Lenarts,K. Van Nuffel,P. Bray, R (Editor) Constitutional Law of the European
Union 2006 2nd ed. London: Sweet and Maxwell
5.
Mathijsen, Dr P S R F. A guide to European Union Law 2007 9th ed. London.
Sweet and Maxwell
6.
Milward, Alan S, The European Rescue of the Nation-state 1994. London
Routledge
7.
Nugent, Neil, The Government and Politics of the European Union 2006. 6th ed.
London. Palgrave
8.
Torbiorn, Kjell M, Destination Europe 2003, Manchester, Manchester University
Press
9.
Brittan, Leon, Institutional Development of the European Union. [1992] Public
Law. Win 567-579
10. Dyevre, Arthur The Constitutionalisation of the European Union: discourse,
present, future and facts [2005] European Law Review 30(2) 165-189
11. Poole, Thomas, Publication Review of Sovereignty in Transition ed. Neil
Walker. [2011] Public Law Spring, 217-221
12. Spink, Paul, Direct Effect: the boundaries of the state [1997] Law Quarterly
Review 113 (Oct) 524-529
13. Steiner, Josephine, Form direct effects to Francovich: shifting means of
enforcement of Community Law [1993] European Law Review 18(1) 3-22
40

Nigel Foster. Op cit p 41


Leon Brittan. Institutional Development of the European Community [1992] Public Law Win 567-579 at p
567
41

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ZONELE ECONOMICE LIBERE DIN REPUBLICA MOLDOVA:


AVANTAJE I DEZAVANTAJE N CONTEXTUL ASPIRAIEI
DE ADERARE LA UNIUNEA EUROPEAN
SRBU Olesea,
Academia de Studio Economice din Moldova,
GANEA Victoria,
Consiliul Nacional pentru Acreditare i Atestare
Abstract:
This article offers a vision to optimize the FEZ activity in Moldova, regarded as real
opportunity to achieve the principles of "openness" of national economy to EU and inversely. FEZ lead to job growths, developing export potential of the republic and getting
of funds currency.
Keywords: Free Economic Zone, economic efficiency, foreign investment and local,
investment climate favorable, etc.

Introducere.
Promovarea investiiilor ca postulat primordial al politicii economice
contemporane nlesnete i explic facilitile oferite de Zonele Economice Libere
(ZEL) i avantajele desfurrii activitii unei companii pe un teritoriu declarat
liber de aproape toate taxele. Crearea ZEL, pentru ri cu o dezvoltare similar
Republicii Moldova, spre deosebire de rile industrial dezvoltate, o importan
primordial are optimizarea procesului de atragere a investiiilor strine i difuzarea
inovaiilor, ridicarea nivelului de calificare a forei de munc i transformarea
regiunilor depresive n unele de dezvoltare dinamic. De menionat, c capitalul
strin, n aceste ri, urmrete interese proprii n vederea maximizrii venitului
obinut. De aceea, gsirea cilor de soluionarea a intereselor n cooperarea acestor
ri cu capitalul rilor dezvoltate este o condiie esenial pentru dezvoltarea
dinamic economic a acestora.
n afar de acesta, pentru Republica Moldova, crearea de ZEL este privit ca
posibilitate real n realizarea principiilor de deschidere a economiei naionale
pentru Uniunea European i invers. Din punct de vedere al mecanismului lor de
funcionare, se specific creterea locurilor de munc, dezvoltarea potenialului de
export al republicii i, pe baza aceasta, obinerea de fonduri valutare, transformarea
ZEL n laboratoare de implementare a noilor metode de management.
Zonele economice libere sunt folosite pe larg n diferite state, n special
importana acestora const n a restructura regiunile industriale vechi i cele care
sunt napoiate, ns n alte ri industriale, zonele economice libere reprezint
importan pentru a trece ct mai rapid la diversificarea avansat a economiei
orientat, n primul rnd, spre piaa extern.
Remarcm faptul c pentru asigurarea mai mare a succesului, pe lng
facilitile acordate de ctre zonele economice libere, trebuie s existe condiii
avantajoase pentru combinarea capitalului cu ceilali factori de producie, precum i
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o infrastructur corespunztoare. Nu negm faptul c accesul liber al mrfurilor n


zon mpreun cu regimul mai liberal al impozitelor asupra profiturilor realizate n
zon reprezint nite premise destul de favorabile pentru atragerea de capital strin
n zon, dar toate acestea nu sunt suficiente pentru stimularea investiiilor strine i
pentru o mai bun dezvoltare economic. ns numai factorii dai luai n comun cu
factorii sus-menionai asigur atingerea acestor eluri, posibilitile devenind
realitate pentru economia rii respective.
E necesar de remarcat c, innd cont de faptul ca nu toate genurile de
activitate sunt admise i varietatea nu este foarte mare, dar important e ca zona
ofer faciliti companiilor mari producatoare, care i-au propus s-i extind
pieele de desfacere n afara rii.
Cele mai importante direcii de cretere a activitii investiionale nemijlocit
n ZEL prin atragerea de investitori importani (inclusiv strini), n opinia noastr,
sunt utilizarea instrumentelor pieei de valori, formarea sistemului de asigurare a
riscurilor, de susinere eficient din partea statului etc.
La realizarea acestor direcii, un rol destul de semnificativ ar trebui s l
dein mecanismul statului de reglementare a proceselor investiionale n ZEL. n
acest context, menionm trei aspecte ale acestui mecanism:
1. msurile de influen direct (administrativ, financiar etc);
2. garantarea investiiilor;
3. asigurarea informaional.
n situaia cnd sistemul fiscal i financiar nu este bine stabilit, persoanele
fizice i investitorii strini sunt gata s investeasc sursele sale n proiecte
investiionale n ZEL, dac ele sunt asigurate de ctre stat. De asemenea, n
concordan cu garaniile de stat funcioneaz i bncile internaionale.
Materiale i metode.
Marele interes fa de ZEL este dat ns evident de regimul fiscal, care se
deosebeste mult de cel aplicat pe restul teritoriului rii, nu pentru ca ar lipsi unele
taxe ci pentru c la majoritatea dintre ele se aplic reduceri permanente sau de
lung durat. Astfel:
Impozitul pe venit: La veniturile provenite din exporturile bunurilor i
serviciilor produse in cadrul ZEL se aplic o reducere de 50% din impozitul
standard pe venit (15%). Veniturile provenite din interiorul zonei sunt taxate cu o
reducere de 75%. n schimb dac preconizati o investiie mai mare de 1 milion de
USD, suntei scutit integral de impozitul pe venit pe o perioada de 3 ani. Vetile
bune nu se opresc aici, la o investiie de peste 5 milioane USD scutirea integrala va
dura 5 ani.
Taxa pe Valoare Adaugat: Toate mrfurile i serviciile importate/exportate
pe/n afara teritoriului zonei economice libere sunt scutite de TVA. Cu o singur
excepie: se aplic rata standard TVA n cazul exportului din ZEL pe restul
teritoriului Moldovei.
Accizele: Toate mrfurile supuse accizelor importate n ZEL sunt scutite de
aceast tax, deasemenea sunt scutite toate mrfurile exportate din zon n afara
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teritoriului rii.
La capitolul dezavantaje, putem meniona faptul ca nu toate tipurile de
activiti sunt admise spre desfurare, iar volumul investiiei trebuie sa fie unul
semnificativ pentru a obine licen de activitate. Acest fapt depinde de ct de
aglomerat este zona, tendina este de a admite companii care ar investi att n
infrastructura zonei ct i n propriile mijloace fixe.
Astfel, dac o companie rezident a Republicii Moldova, care se ocup n
principal de producere i are pieele de desfacere i n afara rii, ar beneficia de o
serie de faciliti dac i-ar desfura activitatea n cadrul unei zone economice
libere.
Dac vom apela la experiena internaional, atunci activitatea economic a
zonei, ca unitate autonom de funcionare, trebuie s se bazeze pe bugetul propriu,
formnd, parial, veniturile din plile cu caracter fiscal al ntreprinderilor i,
parial, de la cele cu caracter vamal, ct i de la activitatea proprie de
antreprenoriat pe care o desfoar administraia, dac se permite de legislaia rii.
Sursele din bugetul de stat, necesare pentru dezvoltarea infrastructurii zonei i a
altor scopuri, pot fi acordate administraiei, de regul, n condiiile unui credit pe
termen lung, dar nu cu caracter nerambursabil. n aa fel, ZEL se vor dezvolta ca
nite structuri antreprenoriale.
Posibilitatea crerii n Republica Moldova a ZEL de tip nou, trebuie s fie
total diferit de Expo-Business Chiinu, care iniial, a trecut printr-o etap de
dezvoltare accelerat, cnd tuturor delegaiilor strine li se demonstrau modelul
viitorului e economiei moldave, iar apoi aceste zone au devenit pentru autoriti
gurile negre.
n Republica Moldova, abia din 2002, ZEL au nceput s capete acea
esen economic necesar rii. Dac analizm afluxul de investiii, atras de ZEL,
constatm c pe parcursul ntregii lor activiti au atras 124,7 mln USD ( situaia
din 01.01.2010, dintre care n 2009 au fost investite circa 4,6 mln USD)
comparativ cu 707,57 mln USD (ISD n economia naional, situaia din
01.01.2009).
Rezultatele activitii ZEL n Republica Moldova se caracterizeaz prin
urmtoarele date: totalul investiiilor atrase a constituit 124,7 mln USD, dintre care
n 2009 au constituit 4,6 mln USD. Volumul vnzrilor nete al produciei
industriale a fost de 983,9 mln lei, ceea ce constituie 79,8% fa de anul precedent,
dintre care 68,3% au fost exportate (vezi figura 1).
E posibil de remarcat c eficiena ZEL din Republica Moldova, comport
dou aspecte: (i) este ponderea lor destul de sczut n relaia investiii totale pe
economie raportat la investiiile atrase de ZEL i (ii) importana pe care o au n
regiunile unde sunt amplasate, care mbrac forma locurilor de munc noi create,
defalcri la bugetele locale, infrastructur mai dezvoltat etc.

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mln. USD

9,8

Valcane

10,7

Tvardia

15,1

Taraclia

24

PL Giurgiuleti

24,9

Ungheni-Business

43,2

Expobusiness-Chiinu
0

10

20

30

40

50

m ln, ISD

Figura 1. Volumul investiiilor ZEL (pe zone, cumulativ de la nceputul


activitii)

Sursa: Elaborat de autori n baza raportului Ministerului de Economie privind activitatea ZEL.

Graie obiectivitii, eficiena ZEL se face resimit nu n plan global, dar pe


plan regional, mai ales, c, la moment, avem urmtoarele zone: Expo-BusinessChiinu, Ungheni(107 km de la Chiinu), Tvardia(115 km), Otaci
Business(220 km), Vulcneti(200 km), Taraclia(153 km).
Deoarece eficiena economic a ZEL const n creteri valorice i n volum
ale activitilor economice, introducerea unor tehnologii moderne, dezvoltarea
operaiunilor de import-export, producerea unor mrfuri n condiii mai
avantajoase, etc, ceea ce de fapt ZEL din Republica Moldova i realizeaz.
Dezavantajele n funcionarea ZEL pe teritoriul Republicii Moldova, sunt
favorizate de lipsa unei strategii pe termen lung de dezvoltare a ZEL, care, n
opinia autorilor trebuie s includ direciile prioritare de creare i dezvoltare a ZEL;
analiza funcionrii ZEL pe teritoriul rii i msurile de sporire a eficienei activitii
lor; resursele materiale, financiare, umane i altele, necesare pentru realizarea
acestei strategii, inclusiv din contul surselor bugetare.
Cea mai de succes zon liber este considerat pe drept zona UngheniBusiness, favorizat de amplasarea ei geografic, existena magistralelor de
transport i abordarea corect n lucrul cu rezidenii, dorina de a minimiza
dificultile ntlnite n activitatea de producere i cea de export. Aici activeaz 41
rezideni, totalul investiiilor sunt de 28,4 mln USD, iar creterea produciei
industriale a constituit 1,2 ori i a constituit 602,1 mln lei, fapt ce denot
atractivitatea acestei zone pentru investitori. Cea mai mare parte a produciei
industriale a fost exportat, iar pe teritoriul Republicii Moldova au fost livrate circa
9%.
Problema tipic pentru Zona liber Vulcneti, zona de sud a Moldovei,
este lipsa suprafeelor de producere. Acest lucru respinge potenialii investitori.
Ideea este, c, n mare parte, la administraie se adreseaz antreprenorii, care nu
46

European neighbourhood policy and eastern partnership:


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sunt api de a investi n construcia de imobile sau a drumurilor. Administraia este,


practic obligat s creeze i s dezvolte infrastructura. De ex., din 122 ha, 64% este
teren gol, pustiu, de aceea a atrage pe cineva este necesar de creat condiii. S-ar
prea, c un asemenea teritoriu, paralel cu un aa factor important ca vecintatea de
frontiera cu Romnia i Ucraina, existena cilor ferate i apropierea de drumurile
cu o importan internaional trebuie s ofere unele avantaje enorme n materie de
atragere a investitorilor strini. Impedimentul major, n situaia dat, este lipsa, pe
marea parte a teritoriului, a ncperilor pentru organizarea produciei.
Un alt tip de ZEL este Tvardia care este unica din ar amplasat n spaiul
rural, respectiv, crearea i dezvoltarea se difereniaz de restul, inclusiv i prin
efectul asupra sferei social-economice a regiunii unde este amplasat. n afara de
atragerea investiiilor de circa 9,9 mln USD (0,5 mln USD pentru 2009), au fost
create circa 500 de locuri noi de munc nemijlocit la ntreprinderule rezidenilor
(numrul populaiei satului este de 3500 de persoane). Pentru anul 2007, la bugetul
consolidat local au fost transferai 2 mln lei. n acest caz, experiena ei ar putea fi
unicul model de preluat, n cazul, cnd procesul de creare a ZEL rurale ar fi
dezvoltat.
Parcul de Producie Taraclia actualmente nregistreaz 10 rezideni pe un
teritroiu de 36 ha, care au creat 328 locuri de munc. Volumul total de investiii, de
la nceputul activitii, a constituit 12,1 mln USD (situaia la 01.01.2010).
Activitatea zonei este orientat spre producia industrial.
Expo-Business Chiinu este constituit din 3 subzone cu suprafaa total
de 62,9 ha dei la capacitate maxim lucreaz numai subzona industrial SudEst. De la momentul activitii, volumul total al investiiilor a constituit 39,1 mln
USD, circa 8,7 mln USD au constituit investiiile n infrastructura zonei, acesta
fiind i cel mai bun indice pe zonele libere.
Zona liber portul Giurgiuleti, a fost fondat n 2005, are o suprafa total
de 41,9 ha iar majoritatea rezidenilor activeaz n sfera construciilor. Ctre
sfritul anului 2009, investitorul principal Danube Logistic a dat n exploatare o
parte din portul destinat circulaiei mrfurilor, cu o capacitate anual de 500 de tone
ncrcturi. Investiiile directe, ctre nceputul anului 2007, constituiau 24 mln
USD. n aa mod, Republica Moldova poate spera la optimizarea operaiunilor de
export-import i primirea pe teritoriului ei a fluxurilor de marf internaionale,
transportate pe toate cile posibile:aerian, maritim, feroviar i automobilistic.
Actualmente, se preconizeaz c n rezultatul realizrii proiectelor iniiale n
ZEL Bli, activitatea creia va fi orientat spre producerea utilajelor
constructoare de maini, volumul investiiilor totale va depi 20 mil. dolari SUA,
volumul vnzrilor produselor industriale va constitui cca. 600 mil. lei anual, iar
numrul salariailor va depi 4,4 mii persoane. Investitorii prevd posibilitatea
extinderii activitii de producere la unele proiecte investiionale care va permite
sporirea volumului vnzrilor cu nc 30-40%, numrul salariailor atingnd pn la
8,5 mii persoane.
Un factor important n mecanismul economic de funcionare a ZEL este
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cooperarea zonei cu restul teritoriului naional, determinarea instrumentelor cu


ajutorul crora se va asigura administrarea activizrii sale economice din partea
organelor centrale de stat.
Rezultate i discuii. Pentru mrirea eficienei de funcionare a ZEL cu
excepia msurilor organizatorico-administrative i legislative, un rol important l
joac elaborarea planurilor de activitate n conformitate cu strategia de lung durat
de dezvoltare social-economic a statului. Crearea ei constituie un element
important al strategiei determinrii structurii industriale i un instrument de dezvoltare social-economic n ansamblu. Planificarea strategic a ZEL constituie un
aspect important la crearea condiiilor investiionale favorabile, economisirea
resurselor la dezvoltarea infrastructurii, protecia mediului ambiant i asigurarea
securitii economice. De aceea, mbuntirea planificrii crerii i dezvoltrii
ZEL constituie un factor important n creterea eficienei activitii lor.
Avantajele care se stabilesc n faa zonelor determin o abordare complex la
analiza eficienei lor. La aprecierea eficienei funcionrii ZEL se iau n
consideraie toi indicatorii n diferite perioade prin compararea lor care era
situaia la etapa iniial cu cea prezent.
Experiena internaional relev, c, chiar n cea mai bun situaie, primii ani
de funcionare a ZEL se estimeaz cu pierderi. Ulterior, ns, lund n consideraie
dezvoltarea favorabil a situaiei, avantajele de la cooperarea cu capitalul strin,
ncep s se fac simite prin acoperirea cheltuielilor statului la crearea infrastructurii.
Efectele de stimulare asupra dezvoltrii economiei naionale apar n termen lung.
Luarea n consideraie a acestor aspecte este necesar la elaborarea de ctre stat a
unei strategii pe termen lung vis-a-vis de ZEL.
Reglementarea fiscal a activitii ntreprinderilor, amplasate pe teritoriul
ZEL, trebuie orientat spre crearea unui climat investiional favorabil pentru
capitalul strin n aa mod nct amplasarea capitalului n zonele noastre s fie mai
prefereniale nu numai ca n ara exportatoare de capital, dar dup posibiliti mai
favorabil dect n rile i zonele din apropiere, capabile s fie concurente n
calitate de recipieni a investiiilor strine.
n acest context inem s amintim o alt modalitate de stimulare a activitii
antreprenoriale, pe larg utilizat n experiena internaional, cum ar fi reducerea
sumei de venit impozabil. De obicei, aceast micorare este orientat spre
stimularea reinvestiiei a venitului obinut. Unii specialiti n domeniu, de exemplu,
L.Abalkin, consider aceasta o msur radical de nnoire a strategiei economice,
de stimulare a fluxurilor investiionale strine.
Concluzii. Pentru intensificarea activitii investiionale n ZEL din
Republica Moldova este necesar de a asigura mecanismul unui aflux de investiii
un potenial avantaj ulterior. Acest fapt urmez s includ:
acumularea de economii i transformarea acestora n investiii prin
intermediul bncilor comerciale. La fel un rol important, la acest capitol, pot s
dein i marile grupuri financiare;
susinerea investiional a realizrii proiectelor prioritare n ZEL de
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ctre stat prin intermediul institutelor de dezvoltare i cercetare;


asigurare activitii investiionale n ZEL prin dezvoltarea bursei de
valori. Avantajul acestui mecanism const n legtura direct dintre investitor i
obiectul investiiei n ZEL, care se asigur prin autoorganizarea pieei hrtiilor de
valoare. Pe de o parte, aceasta minimizeaz pentru investitor costurile
tranzacionale, iar, pe de alt parte, el devine responsabil de riscul deciziei
investiionale.
n fine, concluzionm c, anumite stimulente de ordin vamal, comercial i
administrativ cum ar fi: scutirea de plata impozitului pe venit pe o anumit
perioad de timp, aa numitele vacane fiscale, diminuarea cotei impozitului,
creditele fiscale i altele prezint o oportunitate real pentru potenialii investitori
n activitaea ZEL de pe teritoriul Republicii Moldova.
1.
2.
3.
4.

BIBLIOGRAFIE:
Chaturvedi Tarun, Guide to Special Economic Zones, Commercial Law
Publishers, Delhi, 2nd ed., 2007.
Dohrmann Jona, Directive Principles of State Policy in der indischen
Verfassung, Wurzburg, 2002.
Haywood Robert, The role of EPZs in the era of regulated trade, A
publication of the Flagstaff Institute, 2001.
.
. n: , nr. 2, 2000.

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GEORGIAN PROSPECTS
FOR EASTERN PARTNERSHIP
LAPIASHVILI Nino,
Institute for European Studies of Tbilisi State University
While it was obvious from the very outset of EU-Georgian cooperation under
PCA in 1999 that accession perspective was excluded in this particular bilateral
relationship, democratization as well as strong strive towards political and
economic approximation with Europe - as a natural choice - remains the only
game in town for independent sovereign Georgia to survive. Some might perceive
Eastern Partnership (EaP) as a regional addition to the European Neighborhood
Policy (ENP); still there are lots of substantive arguments why ENP did not meet
its expectations while EaP is considered as differently positive approach from the
EU side which has better chances to bring the added value to the Georgian context
through the win-win mechanism.
EUs follow-up with its well-known three fundamental principles behind the
ENP positive conditionality, joint ownership and differentiation never ever have
attained the substantial degree of satisfaction from Georgian perspective; but still
the most painful policy was considered Georgias treatment as a part of
homogenous South Caucasian region. While Georgia was striving towards more
individualized relationship, it became unattainable that EU would consider so
close - so different approach towards three neighboring countries of Georgia,
Azerbaijan and Armenia.
Launching of the result of non-easy compromise - Black Sea Synergy policy
in 2007 was perceived by Georgia as a logical development of EUs approach
towards regional cooperation. Though BSS have not proved itself as an initiative
more than that of technical level interaction, many among power-holders in
Georgia would prefer to cooperate under this framework rather than within the
recently outlined group of states named as Eastern Partners. There are lots of talks
in Georgia about establishment of Black Sea University in a recently rebuilt and
renovated sea-coast city of Batumi that will promote at least the integration through
higher education but this is all about future.
In a short term perspective there is a hope that under Eastern Partnership
initiative the relationship between eastern neighbors will be enhanced and attains
more dynamic level through the strengthened bilateralism as well as innovative
multilateral approaches and so called flagship projects. However, in Georgia like
other EaP members there are lots of questions behind the word partnership which
per se implies certain level of equality in relationship. So perhaps the partners
should be convinced first in partnership value - meaning that EU has to prove
that it is indeed serious about free trade, mobility and energy policy in the eastern
neighborhood.
Taking into account the entire above indicated, one might come to the point
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that may be rethinking what EaP is about should be considered worthwhile. And
here are number of options: some may believe that for Russian Federation EaP is
about Western Expansionism; while for the European Union itself it might be
expansion without enlargement. However, what is irreversible - for Georgian
nation it is about survival. And this is so because otherwise there is no any other
option left rather than back to Russian influence in line with de facto give up of
sovereignty.
Some say in Europe that they are suspicious of Georgias real interests and
motives, - building this argument on the reasoning that it seems as if Georgias
Western aspirations and passion is all about opposing Russia in order to
instrumentlize the EU for its narrow interests. If the fact that almost one hundred
percent of Georgian nation perceives itself as European - should be disregarded
together with the idealism about European values which results in concentration
only on pragmatic aspects of economic welfare within the EU - than Georgians
would dare to say no to this discourse as their understanding is quite good about
countrys strategic location on the cross road of Europe and Asia as well as they
are well aware of the EU concept of outer border security together with the idea
of energy diversification. In this country the memory is still fresh that EU began
revitalizing relations with Georgia only after 2003 when European security strategy
was ratified which recognized the need to stabilize and secure the neighborhood.
Apart from this, Georgia should not be disregarded in terms of its geographic
location when one thinks about Middle East or Iran. It is highly realistic that one
day Georgian borders would be reasonably good place for deploying ballistic
missile system to defend itself from outer enemies. These are the main reasons why
Georgias European integration is a non- zero-sum game.
To be realistic, it is clear that EUs offer in bilateral relations is too distant;
however promotion of regional cooperation seems very promising. Indeed the
region building under Eastern Partnership which was most probably inspired by
earlier examples such as Visegrad or CEFTA - has real chances to succeed because
it falls within the genuine interest of both EaP member states and the EU. The sole
but here is that EaP unites under its umbrella the group of countries with strong
general differences as well as differences in interests. Good solution here is that on
the one hand EU should continue to pursue country-by-country approach while on
the other hand EUs involvement is crucial in their conflict resolution processes. In
this context it is important to remember that not only Eastern Partnership but also
the notion of South Caucasus Region has been invented by EU policy makers.
As for the conflict, in general terms, according to official vision by
Commission, the Eastern Partnership should be capable to promote stability and
multilateral confidence building with the goal of consolidating the sovereignty and
territorial integrity of partners. However, there is no explicitly in proposal on EUs
role in resolving conflicts similar to as it was under European Neighborhood
Policy. Of course, there are important positive developments which should not be
underestimated: since 2003 European Council appointed EU special representative
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and later on - EU special representative for Crisis; besides after Georgia-Russian


War two hundred unarmed monitors were sent which stands as sole international
mission observing the security situation in Georgia per se increasing the
significance and responsibility of the European Union in region. Besides, EU is one
of the three co-chairs in Geneva talks along with United Nations and OSCE. Still,
what is missing from EU side - it is genuine conflict policy dimension which would
complement all the initiatives promulgated so far during the past period;
simultaneously it would stop risking EUs predicted transformation into empty
gesture player within this society. Besides, here it should be considered also that
even though US was lobbying Georgian into NATO, its security was never assured
by Washington. So that the European Union- initially trade-driven entity, has
attained the critical time and momentum to make certain reorientations determined
by objective circumstances.
The preparatory process for launching DCFTA took enthusiastic start in 2008
however the pace substantially slowed down for various reasons among which
there are three main: Firstly, Georgian government implemented extensive
deregulatory policies which resulted in differences with EU standards. Secondly,
EU gained through bad experience with other countries in the neighborhood, such
as the Ukraine. And thirdly, it can be presumed that EU has clearly defensive
policy.
There were EU determined long set of commitments necessary to be fulfilled
by Georgian side for starting DCFTA negotiations which finally resulted in
definition of four most important areas to be covered: Technical Barriers to Trade
(TBTs), Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS), Intellectual Property Rights
(IPR), and Competition. While Georgian Government admitted that it fulfilled
most of the recommendations that were negotiable, costs-benefit analysis showed
that the full-scale implementation of pre-requisites would be very costly for the
country leading the government directly stating that several provisions are simply
non-negotiable. And substantively considerable arguments are brought why
approximation with EU regulations in many cases would mean introduction of
various corrupted systems keeping in mind that EU regulations are written for very
large markets as compared to Georgian small size market with its negative soviet
legacy of past.
Just to make small illustration regarding the above-mentioned context, the
issue of Intellectual Property Rights Enforcement is enough. IPR enforcement was
considered problematic under feasibility study and recommendations as
preconditions for launching DCFTA negotiations were proposed under special
matrix. Later on, when the original recommendations were implemented by
Government of Georgia the second set of obligations was delivered where the
requirement of introduction of ex officio power to initiate investigations on IPR
infringements were introduced. In legal terms ex-officio power means that the
law-enforcement officials have to act or impose measures without a request by a
right-holder or other interested party while under under Article 26 of the Criminal
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Procedure Code of Georgia the violations of rights foreseen under Articles 189 and
1891 of the Criminal Code of Georgia (IPR infringements) are subject to the
Private-Public Criminal Prosecution meaning that the criminal case shall be
initiated by a prosecutor only if there is a complaint from the victim of the crime.
There is only one case when a prosecutor has a right to initiate criminal charges
even if there is no complaint from the victim; Under the second section of Article
26 of the Criminal Procedure Code of Georgia the prosecutor may initiate case in
the absence of the victims complaint if the case has the special significance for the
society at large and at the same time the victim - because of his/her inability or
dependence on the accused - cannot protect his/her rights and legal interests.
However, even in this case the written consent of the victim is still mandatory.
Various researched proved that implementation of ex officio in Georgia
currently would be extremely expensive for the country. Even under WTO rules
through the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
(The TRIPs Agreement- was adopted at Marrakech on 15 April 1994) the ex
officio provision is a so called may provision which means that WTO members
are not obligated to introduce ex officio measures in their legal systems but its
purpose is to provide a framework for such measures where they exist. Than the
rhetoric question is why EC insists on implementation of this actually nonnegotiable option if it is not the clear-cut demonstration of its defensive approach?
Besides, even if this recommendation is implemented there is nothing that would
guarantee that afterwards negotiations will start; quite on the contrary: there is quite
a considerable experience that new harsher requirements will follow - suggesting to
Georgian Government they should come up with the policy most suitable for the
countrys economic development considering the existing realities. This is
especially true considering that Georgia could not benefit even from GSP+ because
the products exported in EU such as mineral products, lubricants and wine are
classified as sensitive and thus do not qualify for significant tariff reduction.
There is a discourse within the Georgian society that EUs defensive
approach to start negotiations on DCFTA might be a response on Georgias veto on
Russian WTO membership. Recently the Georgian Government representatives
commented that even though nothing is there in the Commissions official
statements that would indicate the above reasoning still it can not be totally
excluded that these issues might be interrelated as the process is not without tradeoffs. However, officials of Georgia would prefer not to link these two issues as
upcoming DCFTA has lots of preconditions itself.
To summarize, under the EaP framework Georgia would prefer to have more
concrete goals from the EU side including its better involvement in conflict
resolution process. Apart from this, while region building is vital for common
interests, otherwise differentiated approach would be appreciated as needy and
timely approach. Even though there are certain developments in EU-Georgian
relationship within Eastern Partnership and beyond such as Civil Aviation
Liberalization Agreement as well as Visa Facilitation Agreement still it is more
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important to think in terms of more tangible results for future as it is obvious that
human mobility is not fully deployed; here should be considered that even the EaP
summit was postponed presumably due to there was not much to be reported during
past two years. Of course in reasonable future the ultimate goal is achievement of
four freedoms modeled after EFTA states where strong economic ties are exercised
without membership. However, in this process the requirements for Georgia
proposed by EU are often similar to that of membership procedures. In this
situation if political and economic reforms are proven to be very costly, than it
becomes even more difficult to implement them without core incentive of
accession perspective - which not only for Georgia but for the rest EaP members is
genuine driving force within this framework. Besides, we shall remember that ever
since Lisbon any European State which respects the principles set out in Article 6
(1) may apply to become a member of the Union. Therefore it seems worthwhile to
consider an option of finding some good balance between interests and values by
both Georgian and EU counterparts within the framework of this partnership.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
1. Bayramov, Vugar, Rashidov, Elchin, SECTOR POLICY CONVERGENCES IN
TECHNICAL RULES/STANDARDS AND CUSTOMS IN AZERBAIJAN TO SUPPORT EU
EASTERN PARTNERSHIP INITIATIVE, Edited by Tim McNaught, 2011;

2. Boonstra, Jos, Shapovalova, Natalia, The EUs Eastern Partnership: One year
backwards, 2009;
3. Collignon, Stefan, The Three Sources of Legitimacy for European Fiscal Policy ,
International Political Science Review / Revue internationale de science
politique, Vol.28, No. 2 (Mar., 2007), pp. 155-184, Sage Publications;
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23, No. 3, Enlarging the European Union: Challenges to and from Central and
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5. Elgn, zlem and Tillman, Erik R. Exposure to European Union Policies and
Support for Membership in the Candidate Countries, Political Research
Quarterly, Vol. 60, No. 3 (Sep., 2007), pp. 391-400;
6. Grabbe, Heather,European Union Conditionality and the "Acquis
Communautaire", International Political Science Review / Revue internationale
de science politique, Vol.23, No. 3, Enlarging the European Union: Challenges
to and from Central and Eastern Europe. L'largissement de l'Union europenne
(Jul., 2002), pp. 249-268, Published by: Sage Publications;
7. Gray, Julia, International Organization as a Seal of Approval: European Union
Accession and Investor, American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 53, No. 4
(Oct., 2009), pp. 931-949, Midwest Political Science Association;
8. Hellstrm, Anders, Beyond Space: Border Making in European Integration, the
Case of Ireland,
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Geografiska Annaler. Series B, Human Geography, Vol. 85, No. 3 (2003), pp. 123135, Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the Swedish Society for Anthropology
and Geography;
9. Hungarian Political Summary, Good management of EU presidency tasks, April
2011;
10. Interview with Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Mr. Tornike Gordadze;
11. Interview with the Official of Georgias Prime Minister Bureau;
12. Kille, Kent J. and. Scully, Roger M, Executive Heads and the Role of
Intergovernmental Organizations: Expansionist Leadership in the United
Nations and the European Union, Political Psychology, Vol. 24, No. 1 (Mar.,
2003), pp. 175-198;
13. Kono, Daniel Yuichi, Are Free Trade Areas Good for Multilateralism?
Evidence from the European Free Trade Association, International Studies
Quarterly, Vol. 46, No. 4 (Dec., 2002), pp. 507-527, Blackwell Publishing on
behalf of The International Studies Association;
14. Messerlin, Patrick, Emerson, Michael, Jandieri, Gia, Le Vernoy, Alexander,
An Appraisal of the EUs Trade Policy Towards its Eastern Neighbors: The
Case of Georgia, GROUPE DCONOMIE MONDIALE, SCIENCES PO, PARIS,
CENTRE FOR EUROPEAN POLICY STUDIES, BRUSSELS 2011;
15. Morris, Lydia, Globalization, Migration and the Nation-State: The Path to a
Post-National Europe? The British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 48, No. 2 (Jun.,
1997), pp. 192-209. Published by: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of The
London School of Economics and Political Science;
16. Nello, Susan Senior, Preparing for Enlargement in the European Union: The
Tensions between Economic and Political Integration, International Political
Science Review / Revue internationale de science politique, Vol.23, No. 3,
Enlarging the European Union: Challenges to and from Central and Eastern
Europe. L'largissement de l'Union europenne (Jul., 2002), pp. 291-317, Sage
Publications;
17. Nies, Susanne, Longhurst, Kerry, Recasting Relations with the Neighbours Prospects for the Eastern Partnership, February 2009;
18. Sinkkonen, Teemu, GETTING COLD IN THE CAUCASUS, CAN THE EU PREVENT
THE FREEZING OF THE GEORGIAN-RUSSIAN CONFLICT? FIIA BRIEFING PAPER 78,
March 2011
19. Virkkunen, Joni, Post-Socialist Borderland: Promoting or Challenging the
Enlarged European Union? Source: Geografiska Annaler. Series B, Human
Geography, Vol. 83, No. 3 (2001), pp. 141-151, Blackwell Publishing on behalf
of the Swedish Society for Anthropology and Geography;
20. Work Card, Transparency International, 2011.

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THE ROLE OF LAW SYSTEM


OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA IN THE PROCESS
OF EU INTEGRATION
CIOBANU Ion,
Baltsy State University A. Russo
Motto:
Over the tight straits it could be easily built a bridge. That separates the
Europeans from 210 million of north-Africans, whose average income for each person is
1800 $ per year, and from 700 million of Africans from Sahara, whose average income for
each inhabitant is 500 $ per year. From the other hand, the average income of West
Europeans is 22 800 $. The collapse of communism from the Central and East Europe
permits to a number of 350 million persons from this region to circulate freely. Through
all these potential emigrants, 70 million comes from countries that today belong to
European Union. The conflicts which continue in the Middle East caused immigrations
from this region to north-west.
Alberto Alesina, Francesco Giavazzi.

While new members of EU submit step by step the simple beneficiaries of


EU politics to members with full rights of freedom space, security and justice
(FSSJ), the extern effects of the European integration are increasingly felt beyond
the new extern borders. The change of Schengen border will have a direct effect on
new EU neighbors, on its population, economics and their personal border regimes.
As well as the Central and East European countries (CEE) at the beginning of '90,
those new neighbors have a special role in internal and external security , in the
cooperation in justice and internal affairs (JIA).
Now Russia, Ukraine, Moldova and Belarus are potential sources of threat
soft for the security linked directly to the justice and the internal affairs, as
countries of origin , maybe more important, as transit countries for sporadic wave
of immigrants, drugs traffickers, persons involved in organized crime or even
terrorists.
Except the soviet inheritance, the territory and the borders always
represented some sensible subjects for these countries. Belarus, Moldova and
Ukraine are classic example of some border zones which were in the past in the
composition of some neighbor countries: Belarus was a part of Russia and Poland,
Moldova of Russia and Rumania, Ukraine, whose name has its origin in the
border or border zone, was under the Russian, Austro-Hungaria, Poland and
soviet domination before obtaining the independence in 1991. 42
Speaking about Moldova, we can confirm that it's the poorest country in
Europe and is still fighting with the most elementary problems of state building.
42

Karen Henderson, Spaiul libertii, securitii i justiiei n Europa lrgit. - Ch.: .E.P. tiina, 2009. p. 7071

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achievements, obstacles and perspectives

According to some appreciations of Lowenhardt, Hill and White, third of


workforce of Moldova lives and works abroad, the majority illegal. As more than
60 percent of Moldova's population is Rumanian speaking, the beginning of
negotiations of endorsement of Rumania to EU stirred fears that Moldova could be
isolated from Europe, making a lot of Moldovans get the second citizenship, the
Rumanian one.43
Along with the expansion to EU, to the East, Russia, Ukraine and less to
Belarus and Moldova, became the priority target for the extern relations in JIA.
That isn't a surprise if we look at the geography of enlarged European Union. The
extern border, as guard of FSSJ, has now 2500 km including Russia, 1250 km
including Belarus, 1150 km including Ukraine and 450 km including Moldova. It
exist an increasing sensation of interdependence and even the area's vulnerability of
Schengen's opened space to agitating zone from the extern borders. The
increasing gap between prosperous EU and the countries of east and south border
can emphasize the risks of intern security on both borders sides. 44
The APC was negotiated with Moldova at the same time as those with
Russia, Ukraine and Belarus and became valid in July 1998. Three years later, the
committee adopted the Strategy Document with Moldova (SDM), which provides
the strategic framework according the assistance of EU for 2002-2006. Taking into
consideration the fact that the instability in Moldova could easily flow in EU, the
strategic Document provides that by the cooperation, EU will contribute to the
fight with the crime, corruption, traffic, and the illegal emigration. The given
priority to the JIA domain is evident and in the Indicative Program Tacis for 20022003, included in the same document and which indicates as specific objectives of
the good government primarily the creation of the anticorruption politics and of a
program which will establish a containing system for this domain, formed of
appropriate legislation, institutional consolidation, prophylactic activity, awareness
and capacity development and second the development of a hostile environment
which practice the money laundering, especially by the elaboration of the specific
legislation and of a Department of Financial Information (DFI). 45
The main innovation linked to the conditions imposed by EU in this period
was the insertion of a suspending clause in all European agreements signed after
may 1992, which provide that the signing of commercial and cooperation
agreements isn't possible without respecting the rules in five basic domains: state
law, human rights, multiparty system, free and correct elections and a market
economy. The European agreements can be canceled if those conditions are not
followed, but that kind of cancel didn't happen, even when EU criticized in public
the democratic practices from Slovenia in 1994 and 1995, that proves that this
cancellation clause of the commercial and cooperative agreement is deprived by
43

Karen Henderson,. Op.cit., p. 73


Karen Henderson, op.cit., p. 75
45
Karen Henderson, op. cit., p.79
44

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EU as a measure of last resort.46


The candidate-countries from Central and East Europe must adopt all the
laws and the norms existing in EU, being submissive to the same pressures of
Europeanization as the member-states in the case of institutional and political
models which have been taken from EU. The legal transpose of acquis and the
harmonization with the EU's laws are essential conditions for becoming a memberstate and represent the main topics in the process of endorsement and in preparation
of candidate-states.
Beside the constraint of personal norms, EU consolidated other
international legal norms by the introduction of these conditions of accession. For
accession to EU, the applicant states should ratify different international
Conventions. For example, in the case of human rights, there were: The Social
European Book, Convention-the framework for protection of the national
minorities, Convention on the elimination of all forms of racial discrimination and
Convention on the elimination of all forms of women discrimination. The
conditions of EU's accession strengthened the conditions of other international
institutions, such as Global Trade Organization, Council of Europe, and the
international financial institutions (International Monetary Fund and World Bank).
For example, the partnership, of Rumanian's accession from 1998 included the
implementation of the agreement with banks for development, but the interest of
IMF to establish the macroeconomic was consolidated by the priority of EU on the
balance of internal and external balance payments.47
The accession from 1985, signed in Schengen, although it was used ten
years later, provided the elimination of the control at intern borders of member
states that couldn't get reference in the Treaty on European Union. That inserts the
article K that indicates that the objective of the Union is the one to offer to the
citizens a high level of protection in a free, secure space of justice, to develop a
common action between member states in police and justice in criminal
cooperation domain, preventing the racism and the xenophobia and fighting with
those phenomenon, especially the terrorism, human settlement and the crimes
against children, the drug traffic, arms traffic, corruption and fraud. 48
With the reorientation of EU policy, the parties made an exchange of views
about advancement of Moldova for the European integration, especially in the
context of negotiations between Moldova and EU for signing the Agreement of
Association. In such a way it was indicated the priorities for the close future of the
Moldovan parties the intern reforms necessary for complying to the EU
standards, the moldo-comunity dialogue on liberalization of visa regime, the
legislative reform, diversification of aviation services.
46

Heather Grabbe, Puterea de transformare a UE. Europenizarea prin intermediul condiiilor de aderare n
Europa Central i de Est. - Ch.: Epigraf SRL, 2008. p. 23
47
Heather Grabbe, op. cit. p.90-91
48
Flore Pop, Sergiu Gherghina, Uniunea European dup 50 de ani: ntre entuziasmul extinderii i
aprofundarea integrrii/ coord. Flore Pop, Sergiu Chrghina.- Cluj Napoca: Argonaut, 2007. p. 29-30

58

European neighbourhood policy and eastern partnership:


achievements, obstacles and perspectives

In 2009 the efforts of our country in European integration's process are


oriented to launch negotiations on Agreement of Association between MoldovaEU. In June, the EU Council adopted the Warden lines to negociate the new
Agreement with Moldova. Our country showed its interest that the document
provides the common actions in liberalization of visa process, the forward creation
of free trade zone, the sectoral cooperation.
Moldova is in process of preparation of negotiating group and is interested in
launching as soon as possible of the negociation itself.
Also, it was determined the European Integration Agenda and Priorities for
2009, among which we can mention:
1. The ensuring of respect of human rights and media freedom
2. The improvement of policy framework in assurance of human rights, ensuring
the right of assembly.
3. The ensuring of transparent relations between authorities and media institutions,
the independent work of regulatory institution in audiovisual, as well as the
TM.
7. The improvement of detention's conditions and the ensuring of human rights'
respect in institutions which ensure the persons detention.
8. Implementation of Law on Prosecution.
9. Consolidation of judiciary system's capacity.
12. The reform of state-guaranteed legal assistance in way to ensure the access to
justice.
17. Managing migration and asylum, preventing and fighting against trafficking of
human beings.
18. The consolidation of state border's management.
23. Energy efficiency.
25. Protection of rivalry.
26. Improving sanitary and phytosanitary issues in way to export the products of
animal and vegetal origin to EU.
28. Environment.
(32 accession domain).
The National legislation priorities in European integration. Recently the
European Union and Moldova finished the negociations on an agreement of mutual
protection of geographical indications (GI), it's written in the press release of the
European Committee. By this agreement Moldova will ensure a high level of
protection for more than 3 200 European geographical indications for food, wines
and alcohol that was guaranteed protection within the EU.
The text of the agreement persues as well the promovation and the
stimulation of trade exchanges for agricultural products and original food as from
Moldova's territory, as from European Union.
After Georgia, Moldova is the second of the countries included in EU
neighbor policy which makes this important step forward to promotion and
protection of agricultural products quality. The objective of these negotiations is to
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protect better the consumers, the way not to mislead them of the real origin of the
product and its real quality. More than that, by this agreement, Moldova adjusts the
national legislation to the highest standards on protection of the rights of
intellectual property.
Moldova is known traditionally for its important yield of wine, but the
development of geographical indications should contribute significantly to
diversification of that sector.
The agreement should have the role of a dynamic instrument which would
guide to quality improvement of products which are the object of trade exchanging
between European Union and Moldova. That will introduce an updating and
regular consultation mechanism, which will be useful for including some new
products in the list of geographical indications. The agreement will reach the
European Committee and Parliament as well as the legislative authorities from
Moldova where should be approved for being able to become valid. As well,
Moldova's Parliament has to adopt 27 laws for liberalization the visa regime with
EU. At least that provides the legislative program of implementing the Plan of
Actions with EU, which was received by the Government in January this year.
Recently in statutory meeting on Wednesday, the majority of parliamentary
committee approved positively that legislative program. According to that program
the Parliament have to adopt some laws that are related to the documents' security,
border management, migration and asylum politics, the protection of personal data,
judicial and police cooperation, preventing and fighting with corruption and
financial crimes. As well, the legislators will have to amend a dozens of rules for
being able to bring them to the European standards and will review the national
legislation in the interception of telephone calls and registration of religious
denominations.
According to the information note, The Parliament has a determined role
during the first stage of development of the Plan of actions with EU related to the
harmonizing of the legal framework of justice and intern affairs. The step to the
next phase of implementation of the Plan of Actions with EU will be conditioned
by the quality of legislation adopted at the first stage.
Moldova starts visa dialogue with EU on June 15 2010. After a half of a
year, European Committee elaborated the Plan of Actions Moldova-EU in
liberalization in visa regime which was sent to Moldova on January 24 2011,
during the visit in Kishinev of the European Comissar of intern affairs, Cecilia
Malmstrom. Till now, it was adopted just one legislation from 41 planed actions for
this stage. In development stage are 13 legislations, in the notice stage 15, it was
sent to Government to be approved 7 legislations, to Parliament to be adopted 4
legislations.

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European neighbourhood policy and eastern partnership:


achievements, obstacles and perspectives

, , ,

Abstract:
The subject of research publications is the study of the readiness of the ATU
Gagauzia to the segregation and integration processes. This publication provides an
overview of the legal aspects of the formation and subsequent strengthening of the status of
the ATU Gagauzia in Moldova. In the present publication are investigated aspects of the
basis of legislative and judicial branches of government. Consider the economic,
demographic and educational potential of the functioning of the Authority. There is
presented the analysis of the problems of the functioning of Gagauzia in the context of
protecting the interests of national minorities. Accordingly to the logical continuation
developed proposals to address the shortcomings in this area.

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Scientific-practical conference with international participation

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JEAN MONNET
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JEAN MONNET
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EURO-REGIUNILE N CARE REPUBLICA MOLDOVA ESTE


PARTENER: OPORTUNITI I OBSTACOLE N
COOPERAREA TRANSFRONTALIER
PERCIUN Rodica, IEFS

Abstract:
The European Neighbourhood Policy's vision involves a ring of countries, sharing
the EU's fundamental values and objectives, drawn into an increasingly close relationship,
going beyond co-operation to involve a significant measure of economic and political
integration. This will bring enormous gains to all involved in terms of increased stability,
security and well being.
Regional policy is an instrument of financial solidarity and a powerful force for
cohesion and economic integration. Solidarity seeks to bring tangible benefits to citizens
and regions that are least well-off. Due to these advantages the Republic of Moldovas
participation in Euro-regions should present a particular interest for the Moldovan
authorities.
Keywords: European Neighbourhood Policy, Euro-regions, Partnership,
Transnational Cooperation Programme, strategy etc.

Introducere. Politica European de Vecintate (PEV) reprezint o nou


abordare bazat pe cooperare n cadrul relaiilor dintre Uniunea European i
vecinii si. Necesitatea unei Politici Europene de Vecintate se face acut simit
dup extinderea Uniunii Europene. Conceptul de Politic European de Vecintate,
lansat de ctre Parlamentul European urmrete transformarea noiunii de grani
ntr-un spaiu al cooperrii i al legturilor politice, economice i sociale menit s
evite crearea unei imagini n care UE este o citadel ce-i apr valorile n spatele
unor ziduri cu porile de fier. UE este dispus s asiste rile, care doresc s ncheie
Planuri de aciuni comune, n efortul lor de a-i reforma economiile, instituiile i
mentalitile. Politica European de Vecintate este structurat pe patru direcii
(figura 1). Aceasta propune un parteneriat cu un set de obiective ambitioase pentru
statele vecine UE, bazat pe mprtirea acelorai valori politice i economice i
reformarea instituional.
Trebuie s menionm, c Politica European de Vecintate nu ofer statelor
vizate n figura 1 perspectiva aderrii la UE, ci permite o relaie privilegiat cu
vecinii i o mai bun focalizare a eforturilor n domenii de importan vital pentru
apropierea acestor state de standardele europene [2, pag. 1-4].
Strategia UE cu privire la sprijinul pe care-l ofer rilor mai srace este
urmtoarea: Orice form de cooperare pentru dezvoltare nu este un act de
generozitate, nu este un act gratuit n sensul tehnic al cuvntului, ci un act pragmatic
care ncearc s realizeze o sincronie favorabil, binefctoare, ntre sistemul de
valori i procesele care au loc n interiorul UE i cele din afara UE [5].
Din aceste considerente putem meniona c Politica de Vecintate permite
Republicii Moldova noi perspective de parteneriat, cum ar fi:
Perspectiva avansrii spre un grad semnificativ de integrare i
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European neighbourhood policy and eastern partnership:


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posibilitatea de a participa progresiv la aspectele cheie ale politicilor i programelor


UE.
Deschiderea reciproc a economiilor i reducerea continu a barierelor
din calea comerului, ceea ce va stimula investiiile i creterea economic.
Stabilirea unui dialog constructiv privind liberalizarea vizelor cu UE.
Sprijin financiar sporit, n special prin cooperarea transfrontalier i
transnaional dintre Moldova i statele membre ale UE.
Posibiliti pentru deschiderea treptat sau participarea consolidat n
anumite programe comunitare, promovnd legturile culturale, educaionale, de
mediu, tehnice i tiinifice.

Susinere, inclusiv asistena tehnic i twinning-ul pentru a ndeplini


standardele i normele UE, precum i acordarea sprijinului direcionat pentru
ajustarea legislativ.
Direciile Politicii
Europene de Vecintate

Grupul de noi state


independente
occidentale

Rusia

Ucraina
Bielorus
Moldova

Caucazul de Sud

Armenia
Azerbaijan
Georgia

Sudul
Mediteranei
Algeria, Egipt,
Israel, Iordania,
Liban, Libia,
Maroc, Autoritatea
Palestiniana, Siria
i Tunisia

Figura 1. Direciile Politicii Europene de Vecintate


Sursa: elaborat de autor n baza materialelor cercetate

Aspectul metodologic. Scopul acestui articol este abordarea teoreticometodologic a factorilor ce influeneaz apariia, stimularea i dezvoltarea
cooperrii transfrontaliere ca parte component a PEV; identificarea instrumentelor
de analiz i evaluare a acestui proces; evidenierea obstacolelor ce stau n calea
cooperrii menionate, i efectuarea unor concluzii cu privire la participarea la acest
proces a Moldovei.
Rezultate: ntr-adevr, exist o puternic for de atracie a modelului
european pentru rile aflate la periferiile UE, iar cooperarea regional este din
acest punct de vedere un stimulent esenial care contribuie la dezvoltarea unei
coeziuni economice i sociale a unor spaii geografice transfrontaliere ce includ
uniti administrativ-teritoriale din state vecine, membre i nemembre ale UE.
Cooperarea n acest cadru const n crearea legturilor directe i permanente ntre
regiunile i comunitile aflate de o parte i de alta a frontierelor de stat, n virtutea
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competenelor autoritilor locale i n conformitate cu legislaia naional. [4,


pag.7-8]
Trebuie menionat, c n anul 1975, Comunitatea European a lansat dou
instrumente de politic regional, unul financiar i altul politic: Fondul European
de Dezvoltare Economic i Regional (FEDER) i Comitetul de Politic
Regional (CPR), avnd ca scop sprijinirea regiunilor aflate sub media comunitar
ca nivel de dezvoltare. [1, pag.8-15]
Proiectele avansate la nivelul Uniunii Europene pentru euroregiuni sunt
finanate prin intermediul fondurilor structurale, n cadrul programului INTERREG
(sprijinirea cooperrii transfrontaliere, transnaionale i interregionale, precum i a
unei dezvoltri armonioase i echilibrate a ntregului spaiu comun), precum i prin
fonduri publice ale comunitilor locale i prin fonduri private (fundaii, ONG-uri,
ntreprinderi etc.). De asemenea, pentru proiectele la care particip i ri
candidate la aderarea la UE sunt alocate fonduri prin intermediul programului
PHARE-CBC (cross border cooperation).
Dei att Consiliul Europei, ct i Uniunea European sunt implicate n
dezvoltarea politicilor regionale, trebuie remarcat diferena de orientare a celor
dou instituii n acest domeniu. Astfel, dac politica regional a UE are mai ales o
finalitate economic, Consiliul Europei acord o importan deosebit conservrii
patrimoniului cultural specific fiecrei regiuni, dialogului ntre culturi, grupuri
etnice i religii, precum i dezvoltrii instituionale. Organul suprem al fiecrei
euroregiuni este Consiliul format din conductorii unitilor administrativteritoriale membre ale Euro-regiunii respective. Preedintele n exerciiu al
Euroregiunii conduce activitatea Consiliului. Organele executive ale euroregiunii
sunt cteva comisii de lucru constituite pe domenii de activitate, care organizeaz i
coordoneaz activitatea euroregiunii n aceste domenii. Asigurarea lucrrilor de
secretariat pentru buna desfurare a lucrrilor Consiliului Euroregiunii este
efectuat de Secretariatul Consiliului Euroregiunii. Pentru realizarea direciilor i
mecanismelor de aciune concrete ale euroregiunii, sunt create grupuri de experi,
precum i grupuri de lucru. [3, pag. 10-15]
Modelul euro-regional a favorizat o colaborare activ a rilor din
Europa Central i de Sud-Est, fiind mbriat i de RM prin participarea,
pn la acest moment, la constituirea i dezvoltarea cooperrii n formatul a 3
euro-regiuni - Dunrea de Jos, Prutul de Sus i Siret-Prut-Nistru. [6]
La 14 august 1998, a fost semnat Acordul cu privire la constituirea Euroregiunii Dunrea de Jos, drept urmare a demersului autoritilor din Romnia,
Republica Moldova i Ucraina. Componena Euro-regiunii Dunrea de Jos este
urmtoarea:
1. din partea Republicii Moldova: raioanele Cahul, Cantemir i Vulcneti,
2. din partea Romniei: judeele Galai, Brila i Tulcea,
3. din partea Ucrainei: regiunea Odesa.
Dintre aciunile desfurate pn n prezent sub egida Euroregiunii Dunrea
de Jos, pot fi evideniate:
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nceperea cursurilor la Universitatea de Stat Cahul, nfiinat prin


extinderea Universitii Dunrea de Jos din Galai la Cahul (1 octombrie 1999);

semnarea unui Protocol de colaborare ntre Consiliul Judeean Tulcea


i Consiliul Judeean Cahul (12 mai 2000).
Acordul cu privire la crearea Euro-regiunii Prutul de Sus a fost finisat n
martie 1999, dar oficial a intrat n vigoare din 22 septembrie 2000, cnd la
Botoani a fost semnat de ctre efii administraiilor publice locale. Din partea
Republicii Moldova n aceast euroregiune au intrat raioanele Fleti, Edine,
Glodeni, Ocnia, Rcani, Briceni, Bli i Edine; din partea Romniei Suceava
i Botoani i din partea Ucrainei regiunea Cernui, n total cu un teritoriu de
circa 29 mii km2 i populaia de peste 2,9 milioane locuitori.
Dintre activitile desfurate, pot fi menionate:
Organizarea de conferine tiinifice internaionale pe probleme legate de
relaiile interetnice i protecia mediului;
Schimb de experien n domeniul administrativ, social-economic,
cultural etc.;
Adoptarea i aplicarea, ncepnd cu 1 iulie 2001, a Hotrrii Consiliului
Euroregiunii privind anularea taxelor i plilor locale la trecerea frontierelor de
stat de ctre persoanele fizice i juridice care locuiesc sau sunt nregistrate pe
teritoriul Euroregiunii;
Un important proiect de infrastructur, a crui implementare s-a fcut cu
sprijinul programului Phare 2000 al Uniunii Europene i al Guvernului Romniei, a
fost Reconstrucia podului de la Rdui.
Proiecte pe termen scurt i mediu pot fi menionate:
realizarea unor programe comune de monitorizare i evaluare a calitii
apelor rului Prut;
optimizarea exploatrii nodului hidrotehnic Stnca-Costeti;
armonizarea metodologiilor de prognoz meteorologic i hidrologic n
bazinele rurilor Tisa, Prut i Siret;
modernizarea punctelor vamale la frontierele dintre cele trei state;
crearea traseului turistic Prutul de Sus;
crearea unui sistem informaional ntre Camerele de Comer i Industrie din
cadrul Euro-regiunii;
nfiinarea unei bnci comerciale pentru membrii Euro-regiunii;
modernizarea unor drumuri de legtur ntre membrii Euro-regiunii;
dezvoltarea unor coridoare transfrontaliere feroviare i rutiere;
asigurarea alimentrii cu ap, canalizare i epurare n localitile limitrofe
rului Prut.
Euro-regiunea Siret-Prut-Nistru a fost constituit la 18 octombrie 2002
n urmtoarea componen: din partea Republicii Moldova raioanele Clrai,
Orhei, Cimilia, Teleneti, Soroca, Streni, Leova, Ungheni, Criuleni, Ialoveni,
Soldneti, Hnceti, Basarabeasca, Floreti, Dubsari, Anenii Noi, Rezina,

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Nisporeni, Cueni, Dubsari i Floreti, iar din partea Romniei judeele Iai i
Vaslui cu un teritoriu de 26, 4 mii km2 i populaia de 2,8 milioane locuitori. In
cadrul acestei Euro-regiuni, o atenie deosebit este acordat colaborrii la nivel
administrativ local n domeniile economic, cultural, al nvmntului i al
proteciei copilului. Prile euroregiunii au lansat Strategia de dezvoltare abia n
2009, la apte ani de la nfiinarea structurii. Astfel, abia n prezent, euro-regiunea
va accesa fonduri europene de circa 100 milioane euro, n urmtorii trei-patru ani.
Banii vor fi investii n rezolvarea celor mai importante probleme comunitare,
precum cele referitoare la infrastructura localitilor drumuri, apeducte, agent
termic, gazificri, canalizare etc. Evenimentul anului 2010 al r-lui Ungheni, de
exemplu, a fost organizarea unui for economic, la care au participat numeroi
oameni de afaceri strini. Unele din activitile prognozate pn n 2011 putem
numi: realizarea centrelor de stocare, sortare i export a produciei agricole;
dezvoltarea turismului, i anume inaugurarea primului parc naional cu o suprafa
de 20 000 de hectare, n care intr 15 localiti.
n paralel, Ucraina i Moldova au nceput, n februarie 2009, consultri pe
tema nfiinrii Euro-regiunii Nistru. Iniiativa viza raioanele Floreti, Dondueni, oldneti, Soroca i Camenca, respectiv regiunea ucrainean Vinia, iar cele
dou pri au susinut c aceasta se nscrie n Strategia UE privind Dimensiunea
Estic a Politicii Europene de Vecintate. n presa ucrainean au aprut o serie de
declaraii, care a subliniat lipsa de rezultate economice concrete a cooperrii
transfrontaliere din zona Bucovinei.
Totui, Euro-regiunile n care Republica Moldova este asociat prezint o
situaie n general proast, mai ales din cauza proieciei deficitare a euroregiunilor,
situaie care a constituit un impediment n atragerea de fonduri europene. De
exemplu, la euro-regiunea Dunrea de Jos nu s-a elaborat nc o strategie de
dezvoltare, timp de 10 ani nu s-a reuit atragerea de fonduri europene directe, iar
demararea unor proiecte comune a fost palid. Principalele idei se afl n stadiu de
proiect, pn n prezent nefiind identificat o surs de finanare (privat sau de stat)
interesat. Unele din aceste proiecte sunt:
realizarea unui registru unic al ntreprinderilor din cadrul euro-regiunii,
crearea unui web-site care s conin o baz de date referitoare la
asociaiile i camerele de comer i industrie din regiune,
ntocmirea unei hri a zonelor viticole din euro-regiuni,
reabilitarea cilor ferate i rutiere din regiune, precum i crearea unor
rute de transport rutier.
Din pcate, cnd vorbim de cooperarea tansfrontalier n care este implicat
Republica Moldova, suntem nevoii s recunoatem c partea moldovean este cea
mai pasiv.
Pasivitatea prii moldoveneti n lansarea i realizarea activitilor de
cooperare este cauzat de mai muli factori. n Republica Moldova nu
funcioneaz structura guvernamental care s promoveze politica regional
de stat i s sprijine interesele Euroregiunilor n structurile centrale de stat.
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Structurile administrativ-teritoriale moldoveneti au redus mult capacitatea i


aa destul de joas n promovarea de sine stttor a unor politici de cooperare.
Practic, participarea prii moldoveneti n cadrul Euro-regiunilor poart un
caracter inert. Att la nivel central, ct i la nivel raional nu exist strategii de
integrare regional sau planuri de aciuni concrete care s valorifice beneficiile
cooperrii pentru teritoriile moldoveneti de la frontier. O alt cauz este i
insuficiena resurselor financiare de la bugetele locale pentru finanarea activitilor
de cooperare, accesul i posibilitile reduse la sursele financiare externe. De
asemenea, nu putem trece cu vederea faptul c unitile teritorial administrative din
Romnia i Ucraina posed un potenial mai mare n comparaie cu raioanele din
Republica Moldova. S lum spre exemplu - Euroregiunea Dunrea de Jos Raioanele noastre Cahul i Cantemir sunt parteneri egali cu Regiunea Odesa,
Judeele Galai, Brila i Tulcea. Numai Regiunea Odesa e mai mare ca ntreaga
Republic Moldova sau judeul Galai, cu un centru administrativ - ora n toat
legea, iar de cealalt parte, avem partenerul moldovean raionul Cantemir. Pentru
cine n-a cltorit n regiunile moldoveneti cu regret afirmm, c acestea sunt triste
i lipsite de culoare. Au pierdut foarte mult din ce aveau mai bun, n primul rnd,
resursele umane. Societatea civil supravieuite cu greu ntr-un astfel de mediu.
Nu exist capaciti i posibiliti de a dezvolta un concept, de a promova durabil o
idee. Iat de ce este nevoie de cooperarea raioanelor n cadrul unor regiuni mari.
Atunci se creeaz o capacitate cumulat de efort i dezvoltare economic.
Republica Moldova a devenit cel mai rural stat din Europa din mai multe
motive, dar i pentru c, dup proclamarea independenei, nu a acordat atenia
cuvenit politicii de dezvoltare regional. Evoluarea potenialului economic i
social al euroregiunilor identific numeroase oportuniti de cooperare
transfrontalier din diverse domenii, care vor accelera cooperarea economic,
precum i vor impulsiona dezvoltarea economic a Republicii Moldova.
n prezent n acest context de colaborare regional, o oportunitate reprezint
aa-numitele programe operaionale transfrontaliere. [5] Republica Moldova face
abia primii pai n accesarea acestor programe operaionale. Astfel, Republica
Moldova ncearc s participe la Programul Operaional Comun Romnia
Ucraina Republica Moldova, care, are un buget de 138 de milioane de euro,
pentru perioada 2007-2013. Acest program are menirea de a mbunti situaia
economico-social i a mediului nconjurtor. Realitatea nu este nici pe departe
satisfctoare, deoarece majoritatea primriilor din Republica Moldova nu depun
proiecte de finanare. Una din condiiile acestor programe este prezena
parteneriatelor ntre administraiile locale. Practica arat c pn acum doar 100 de
primrii (doar 9%) din Moldova au ncheiat acorduri de nfrire cu primriile din
Romnia.
Un alt program extrem de favorabil din punct de vedere financiar (un buget
de aproximativ 19 milioane de euro (pentru perioada 2007 2013)) este Programul
Operaional Comun de Cooperare n bazinul Mrii Negre. Din acest program fac
parte Armenia, Azerbaidjan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Grecia, Republica Moldova,
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Romnia, Rusia, Turcia i Ucraina. Aici se urmrete dezvoltarea economic i


social durabil a regiunilor din Bazinul Mrii Negre. Din pcate i acest program
este greu de operaionalizat pentru Moldova din cauza statutelor diferite ale
prilor. Aici se regsesc i ri membre UE, i un stat candidat, i tere ri.
Programul de Cooperare Transnaional Sud-Estul Europei are aria eligibil,
care cuprinde Albania, Austria, Bosnia i Heregovina, Bulgaria, Croaia, Fosta
Republic Iugoslav a Macedoniei, Grecia, Italia, Muntenegru, Republica
Moldova, Romnia, Serbia, Slovenia, Slovacia, Ucraina i Ungaria. n acest
program pentru crearea de parteneriate transnaionale n domenii de importan
strategic s-a alocat un buget de peste 245 de milioane de euro. i acest program nu
este prea operaional pentru noi, pentru c include ri cu statute foarte diferite,
cum ar fi trei membri vechi ai UE (Austria, Grecia, Italia), cinci membri noi
(Bulgaria, Ungaria, Romnia, Slovenia, Slovacia), dou state candidate (Croaia i
Fosta Republic Iugoslav a Macedoniei), patru state potenial candidate (Albania,
Bosnia, Muntenegru, Serbia), precum i dou state cu care UE are relaii speciale
(Republica Moldova i Ucraina).
Cele mai multe dintre problemele pe care, de regul, le ntmpin Euroregiunile sunt urmtoarele:
1.nu exist o strategie de dezvoltare, un plan de aciuni care s includ genuri
de proiecte, cum sunt cele economice, de mediu, interculturale, universitare, sociale
etc;
2.capacitile autoritilor locale sunt extrem de mici, n urma reducerii
cadrelor din ultimii ani;
3.nu exist specialiti calificai cu experien n elaborarea proiectelor;
4.lipsete o planificare spaial, care s permit crearea de coridoare de
transport moderne,
5.aproape nu exist proiecte care ar pune n valoare avantajele competitive ale
actorilor transfrontalieri - fora de munc, limba de comunicare, resursele locale,
complementaritatea economiilor locale etc.
Concluzie:
Premiza Politicii Europene de Vecintate se constituie n interesul
comun al UE i al statelor partenere de a nu transforma grania care le separ ntr-o
piedic n calea comerului, schimburilor sociale i comerciale sau mpotriva
cooperrii regionale. Viteza i intensitatea acestui proces depinde de voina i
capacitatea Republicii Moldova de a se angaja n transpunerea agendei PEV pentru
construirea i ntrirea actualului cadru de cooperare.
Condiiile pentru dezvoltarea optim a unei euroregiuni sunt echilibrul
economic minimal, elementele culturale comune i motenirea istoric, dar i
parteneriatul unor uniti administrative aparinnd statelor membre UE.
Republica Moldova este angajat n cadrul a 3 euroregiuni - Dunrea
de Jos, Prutul de Sus i Siret-Prut-Nistru. Astfel, peste 95% din teritoriu i 90%
din populaia Republicii Moldova fac parte din cadrul euroregional de cooperare
transfrontalier.
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Modelul de colaborare n cadrul euroregiunilor este susinut de UE ca


pe un exerciiu anterior aderrii la UE a rilor participante i ca un microexperiment pentru implementarea unor relaii de natur comunitar ntre regiuni din
statele candidate.
Dei a salutat crearea unor euro-regiuni ntre RM, Romnia i Ucraina,
UE nu s-a grbit s le susin masiv, asigurnd doar strictul necesar pentru
formalizarea acestora.
Un alt factor care reprim i cele mai bune aciuni pe plan local este
legat de capacitile inegale ale actorilor locali, competenele vag definite ale
structurilor de coordonare n cadrul acestor euro-regiuni.
Colaborarea n cadrul euro-regiunilor const n crearea unor legturi
directe ntre regiuni i comuniti aflate de o parte i de alta a frontierelor de stat, n
virtutea competenelor autoritilor locale, aa cum sunt ele definite n legislaia
naional.
Avantajele euro-regiunilor sunt de necontestat, acestea fiind:

dinamizarea relaiilor economice i comerciale ntre prile membre,

favorizarea schimburilor culturale, artistice i tiinifice, a contactelor


ntre persoane i colectiviti umane,

cooperarea n domeniul ecologiei,

asigurarea unor sisteme rapide i eficiente de comunicaii i transport,

dezvoltarea relaiilor transfrontaliere n diverse domenii.


Un rol catalizator n dezvoltarea euro-regiunilor l reprezint alocarea de
ctre Uniunea European i alte organisme financiare internaionale a unor sume
considerabile destinate ncurajrii investiiilor i programelor de cooperare n astfel
de euroregiuni.
n plan conceptual, cooperrile frontaliere au cptat n ultimele decenii
importante semnificaii pe ntreg continentul european. Astfel, aproape nu exist
domenii i probleme care nu pot fi regsite pe agenda de cooperare transfrontalier
ntre autoritile locale din ri vecine n Europa. Fiind un instrument de reducere a
inegalitilor, de integrare a comunitilor separate de o frontier, politica de
cooperare transfrontalier este, din aceast perspectiv, un stimulent pentru
dezvoltare, dar i o contribuie distinct la integrarea multor ri n UE.
BIBLIOGRAFIE:

1. Batt J., Lynch D., Missiroli A., Ortega M. etc., 2003, Partners and Neighbours: A
CFSP for a Wider Europe, EU Institute for Security Studies, Paris, Chaillot Papers No
64, Comisar Verheugen, 2004, Towards a Wider Europe: the new agenda The
European Neighbourhood Policy, Bratislava, speech 04/141.
2. Metis GmbH, the study After Lisbon - the role of regional and local authorities in the
new Strategy for Sustainable Growth and Better Jobs, 2010,
3. Roca P. Galben I., Costache L. 2008 Euroregiunile i cooperarea transfrontalier n
rile Uniunii Europene, Studii Economice, ULIM, an.II, nr.3-4, p. 6-15.

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ARMONIZAREA LEGISLAIEI REPUBLICII MOLDOVA


N PRIVINA SOCIETILOR COMERCIALE LA STANDARDELE
UNIUNII EUROPENE
CEBAN Mariana, MUNTEAN Maria, ASEM,
Uniunea European a fost visul ctorva,
a devenit o speran pentru mai muli, iar astzi, reprezint
o necesitate pentru toi Konrad Adenauer
Republica Moldova, fiind nc un stat tnr, cu toate c avem n spate 20 de ani de
independen, are nevoie de mult sprijin, multe ndrumri pe toate domeniile de activitate,
inclusiv i pe plan economic. Istoria i are i ea partea sa de vinovie, venind dintr-un
regim centralizat, unde fiecruia i se ordona ce s fac, astazi nu tim ce s facem cu atta
libertate, ateptm cine va s ne ndrume, s ne nvee. Suntem stpni la noi acas i
parc nici nu contientizm acest fapt. Un punct de sprijin este intensificarea dialogurilor
de colaborare i integrare la Uniunea European.

Criteriile de aderare la UE, stabilite la Copenhaga, sunt obiective spre care


tindem; unul dintre ele fiind criteriul economic, care prevede existena unei
economii funcionale i capacitatea de a face fa competiiei pe pia. Fiind n
perioada de tercere de la economia centralizat la economia de pia, urmeaz s
lucrm la acest capitol, fiindc favorizarea creterii economice este indicatorul
care-l pipim fiecare dintre noi. O premis important n atingerea indicatorului
creterii economice sunt societile comerciale, regimul juridic al crora poate
constitui un factor n atingerea scopului propus. n prezentul studiu, am ncercat s
accentuez necesitatea armonizrii legislaiei n domeniul societilor comerciale la
Standardele UE i, desigur s accentuez direciile care deja au fost realizate.
Ct privete relaiile Republicii Moldova cu UE, ele numr deja mai mult
de 10 ani, o evoluie destul de lent n comparaie cu alte ri din Europa Central
i de Est. Cauze ar fi multe, dar una dintre cele mai importante cauze este lipsa
unei orientri externe clare a statului. Totui, astzi, avem mai muli pai realizai
la acest capitol, care ne dovedesc intenia de a intensifica colaborarea noastr cu
UE. Pe plan extern avem realizarea prevederilor Acordului de Pateneriat i
Cooperare, Politicii Europene de Vecintate, Parteneriatului Estic i intensificarea
altor demersuri politico-diplomatice. Pe plan intern avem instituii specializate,
care concentreaz atenia spre efectuarea acestor aciuni: Comisia naional pentru
integrare european(CNIE), subordonat Primului-ministru, Ministerul Integrrii
Europene, fiind un organ de specialitate al adminmistraiei publice centrale, Birouri
pentru integrarea european.
Desigur, prin semnarea APC se deschide o nou etap n dezvoltarea
relaiilor Moldovei cu Uniunea European, una fundamentat pe principiile
valorilor democratice. Aceasta vine s consacre Republica Moldova n calitate de
partener direct al Uniunii Europene. Momentul nu trebuie de subestimat, el fiind
plin de semnificaii. [10, pag.43-54]. Un alt pas important este realizarea Politicii
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Europene de Vecintate, obiectivele creia, n domeniul economic, sunt


consolidarea relaiilor comerciale prefereniale, sporirea asistenei tehnice i
financiare, participarea gradual intr-o serie de programe i politici UE, dar i
participarea la piaa intern a UE prin aproximarea legislativ i integrarea gradual
a reelelor de transport, energetice i de comunicare. Una din politicile PEV este
Parteneriatul Estic. Parteneriatul Estic prevede instaurarea unei zone comerciale cu
adevrat libere i coprehensibile, precum i ndeprtarea treptat a tuturor
obstacolelor din calea liberei circulaii a persoanelor (incluznd, n cele din urm,
eliminarea vizelor) i cooperarea n privina tuturor aspectelor securitii
Punctul de pornire al prezentului studiu este semnarea APC. Printre
prevederile APC, la art. 50 se prevede c prile recunosc c o condiie pentru
consolidarea legturilor economice ntre Moldova i Comunitate o reprezint
apropierea legislaiei existente i viitoare a republicii Moldova de cea a
Comunitii. La alin. 2 al aceluiai articol se prevede domeniile n particular n
privina crora se va face armonizarea, printre care se menioneaz Legea
societilor, adic tematica abordat n acest studiu [2, art. 50]. Din clauzele APC
se face clar c prin acest instrument nu se cere parautarea legislaiei UE n
cadrul juridic intern al Moldovei, ci numai asigurarea unei compatibiliti treptate
cu regulamentele i directivele, fr a include n aceast list a instrumentelor
comunitare, Tratatele. Armonizarea legislaiei i aplicarea adecvat au fost,
totodat, expres menionate i pe parcursul ntrunirilor Consiliului de Cooperare,
de rnd cu alte probleme, care au tangen cu legislaia. Totodat, n cadrul PEV,
printre propunerile acesteia este i apropierea legislaiei [17].
n urma acestei analize se cristalizeaz obiectivul armonizrii legislaiei:
crearea unui cadru juridic i a unui climat favorabil persoanelor juridice din
Molodva, UE i statele membre, necesar pentru asigurarea realizrii celor patru
liberti fundamentale ale dreptului UE: libera circulaie a bunurilor, a persoanelor,
a serviciilor i a capitaluilui. Atingerea acestui obiectiv este una dintre cele mai
grele ncercri la care poate fi pus Moldova, deoarece odat cu dezvoltarea UE,
acquis a devenit n progresie tot mai mpovrtor i reprezint o ncercare pentru
aderrile pe viitor la UE. Posibilitatea Moldovei de a implementa acquis-ul va
reprezenta dovada de baz a capacitii statului de a-i onora obligaiile unui stat
membru [14, pag. 187].
Legislaia i politicile UE n domeniul societilor comerciale sunt bazate
pe un obiectiv principal dublu: nlturarea obstacolelor la exercitarea libertii de
stabilire a societilor comerciale- astfel oferindu-le mijloace pentru a-i extinde
i a mbunti competitivitatea pe pia i stabilirea unui grad echivalent de
protecie echivalent a intereselor acionarilor, angajailor, creditorilor i a prilor
tere care sunt implicate n activiti cu societile comerciale [11,pag. 47].
Cu att mai mult, libertatea de stabilire, susinut de standardele
moderne ale dreptului societilor comerciale, este important pentru relaiile
comerciale dintre UE i Moldova, inclusiv pentru cele prevzute n cadul
negocierilor asupra acordului de parteneriat UE- Republica Moldova, care au
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nceput n ianuarie 2010. n plus armonizarea eficient a Repulicii Molodova la


standardele UE n acest domeniu, ofer beneficii evidente pentru toate persoanele
care au tangene cu societile comerciale ct i pentru nsei aceste companii.
Aceste beneficii includ o accesibilitate sporit a informaiilor societilor
comerciale i mbuntirea ncrederii investitorilor n mediul de afaceri n
Republica Molodova [4, pag. 271].
Dac s descriem situaia actual a Republicii Molodova, legislaia
Republicii Molodova n domeniul societilor comerciale a aprut n paralel cu
procesul de creare a politicilor favorabile funcionrii afacerilor ct i crerii i
activrii societilor comerciale. Principalul izvor de drept care reglementeaz
activitatea acestora este Codul Civil, la care mai avem i unele legi speciale cum ar
fi Legea privind societile cu rspundere limitat, Legea cu privire la societile pe
aciuni.
n ceea ce privete politicile n domeniul societilor comerciale, acestea n
mare majoritate sunt determinate de Ministerul Economiei, care se rsfrng asupra
tuturor entitilor. Politicile adoptate au evoluat lund n considerare dezvoltarea
economiei i necesitile aflate n permanen schimbare ale societilor
corporative, ntr-o politic care n prezent pune accentul pe necesitatea de a
simplifica mediul de afaceri i de a promova i a acorda asisten ntreprinderilor
mici i mijlocii; n acest sens a fost adoptat i o lege Legea privind susinerea
sectorului ntreprinderilor mici i mijlocii [6, pag. 34]. Libertatea de stabilire i
libertatea de a presta servicii sunt pietrele de temelie ale pieii unice a UE. Pentru a
se bucura de acest lucru, ntreprinderile trebuie s se bucure de aceste liberti, ct
i legislaia statelor membre ar trebui s fie modernizat n mod corespunztor,
astfel nct s permit societilor comerciale dintr-un stat membru s i
desfoare activitatea pe teritoriul unui alt stat membru [5, pag.20-21].
Astfel, obiectivele principale ale legislaiei i politicilor UE n domeniul
societilor comerciale sunt:
- Facilitarea constituirii societilor pe piaa unic;
- Protejarea intereselor acionarilor i asigurarea unui tratament egal al
acestora;
- Protejarea intereselor creditorilor;
- Protejarea intereselor prilor tere, de exemplu potenialii investitori;
- Asigurarea intereselor salariailor;
- Asigurarea certitudinii n ceea ce privete relaiile dintre societile n
cauz, precum i ntre acestea i prile tere;
- Complementarea iniiativelor UE de ncurajare a antreprenoriatului i
crearea i dezvoltarea ntreprinderilor mici i mijlocii.
Analiznd legislaia Republicii Moldova privind societile comerciale din
perspectiva legislaiei de baz a UE privind societile comerciale, n termeni
generali, acestea a atins deja un grad apreciabil de armonizare. De asemenea, a
avut loc o dezvoltare semnificativ n domeniul reformei cadrului de reglementare
a activitii de ntreprinztor i n simplificarea mediului de afaceri (de exemplu
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aplicarea gheeului unic la nregistrare ce permite mrirea vitezei procesului de


nregistrare). Cu toate acestea, anumite zone necesit a fi n continuare armonizate
i care au fost identificate mai jos:
1. Dezvluirea i publicarea documentaiei societilor comerciale. Dei o
mare parte din documentaia necesar de fi dezvluit conform Directivei este n
mod efectiv depus la Camera nregistrrii de Stat, principalul domeniu unde nc
trebuie de armonizat este asigurarea publicrii n mod corespunztor a acestei
informaii. Un alt punct relevant la aspectele enunate este necesitatea publicrii
rapoartelor contabile ale societii. Dei dezvluirea informaiei financiare
Birolului Naional de Statistic i Comisiei Naionale a Pieei Financiare ( n limita
autoritii sale, n ceea ce preivete societile pe aciuni) este obligatorie, oricum
este necesar de a asigura faptul c aceste informaii sunt centralizate n special
pentru societile cu rspundere limitat, cu att mai mult dup cum am menionat
mai sus, ponderea lor din cadrul tuturor societilor comerciale este de 90% [15.
pag.65-67].
2. Centralizarea
informaiei
ntre instituiile
dreptului societilor
comerciale i determinarea adecvat a responsabilitilor principale ale acestora.
Pentru c prile tere sunt cointeresate s poat accesa uot toate informaiile
societii comerciale, este important s fie asigurat faptul c aceste informaii s fie
centralizate n mod corespunztor, inclusiv prin intermediul unor mecanizme unde
fiecare autoritate responasbil contribuie cu informaiile sale la un sistem
informaional centralizat [12, pag. 42].
3. Crearea unui sistem electronic de depunere i accesare a informaiei.
Conform standardelor UE, este important de asigurat crearea unui sistem electronic
de depunere i accesare a informaiei. Prile care doresc s depun documente ar
trebiu s poat face acest lucru pe cale electronic. Conform Legii cu privire la
nregistrarea de stat, documentele electronice pot fi trimise Camerei nregistrrii de
statprin reele electronice. Cu toate acestea, n practic, se pare c nregistrarea
electronic este disponibil numai pentru ntreprinztorii individuali, i nu pentru
toatre tipurile de persoane juridice n conformitatea cu legislaia UE. Mai mult ca
att, dei Legea cu privire la nregistrarea de stat stipuleaz c registrele sunt inute
pe suport de hrtie i n format electronic, totui nu este cuprins toat
documentaia necesar pentru a fi pstrat n format electronic conform legislaiei
UE.
4. Cerine minime de capital pentru societile pe aciuni. Definiia curent a
societii pe aciuni i cerinele minime de capital la momentul fondrii nu
corespunde cerinelor prevzute n a doua directiv UE privind societile
comerciale.
5. Necesitatea de a mri drepturile acionarilor n societile cotate. Dei
legislaia Republicii Moodova a atins un nivel foarte semnificativ n procesul
armonizrii cu multe dintre directive, analiza sugereaz c anumite dispoziii din
Directiva privind drepturile acionarilor n cadrul societilor cotate ar trebui s fie
mai bine implementate.
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n acest context, se impune o singur concluzie: modificrile care au loc


sunt efectuate deseori numai de dragul conformrii cu unele cerine impuse din
exterior, dar nu i pentru o real eradicare a vechiului sistem i mbuntirea
cadrului juiridic. Instabilitatea legislativ
poate fi privit i din
perspectiva neconcordanei normelor materiale cu cel procedurale deseori primele
nu au un suport procedural necesar. Existena nihilismului juridic la fel nu poate
fi negat, motiv pentru care se face necesar msuri repective care ar duce la
lichidarea vidului informaional [14, pag.194] Astfel, conchidem c dac e s
facem ceva, atunci o facem de o calitate nalt.
Pe parcursul duratei APC UE-Moldova, precum i politica european de
vecintate(PEV) au avut scop evitarea diviziunilor dintre UE lrgit i rile din
vecintate. Un element important n dezvoltarea practic a politicii europene de
vecintate sunt Planurile bilaterale de Aciuni ale Politicii Europene de Vecintate
(PA PEV), semnate ntre UE i fiecare ar partener, care au stabilit o agend a
reformelor politice i economice cu prioriti pe termen scurt sau mediu. n
contextul armonizrii legislaiei, exist 39 de referine la legislaie n cadrul PA
PEV UE-Molodova, inclusiv un numr de condiii specifice cu prvire la
dezvoltarea i implementarea legislaiei i politicilor privind societile
comerciale [13, pag. 68].
Republica Moldova a realizat progrese bune n majoritatea domeniilor n
perioadele de evaluare din parte UE, n mbuntirea cadrului instituional i a
procedurilor de control i certificare a orginii, care au permis UE s ofere
Republicii Moldova Preferine Comerciale Autonome Suplimentare, intrarea n
vigorae a Acordului de facilitare a vizelor i readmitere i pozitiva Cooperare cu
Misiunea UE de Asisten la Frontier (EUBAM)[7, pag. 113] n acelai timp, fr
a ine seama de progresle realizate, implementare efectiv a reformelor rmne o
provocare, acestea reprezint un adevr n domeniul reformei judiciare.
n cele din urm, este important de reamintit faptul c armonizarea cu UE
este un proces de cooperare cu legislaia naional. Astfel, armonizarea cu
standardele UE nu ar trebui s fie vzut doar ca un proces obligatoriu,
mpovrtor, condus de cineva din exterior. n rile unde a acest proces a fost
armonizat s-a condus la realizarea real n dezvoltarea obiectivelor fundamentale.
n consecin, recunoaterea inteniei atingeri acestor obiective este evhivalent cu
nelegerea scopurilor fundamentale ale legislaiei UE i nelegrii depline a firului
motiovaional care st la baza ntegului proces de armonizare.
n necesitatea de a dezvolta Republica Molodova anume n domeniul
economic, putem afirma c leitmotivul aderrii la UE este de a edifica o
economie unic, care se poate realiza cel mai eficient prin armonizarea legislaiei n
domeniul dat.[8, pag. 67] Iar, n ceea ce ne privete, considerm c relizarea acestei
poate fi efectuat prin oferirea diferitor posibiliti i avantaje societilor
comerciale, care n mod efectiv, transpun aceste proriti pentru dezvoltarea
Republicii Molodova.

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BIBLIOGRAFIE:
1. Legea cu privire la nregistrarea de stat a ntreprinderilor i organizaiilor, nr.
1265-XIV din 05.10.2000//M.O., nr. 31-34-109 din 22.03.2001;
2. Acordul de parteneriat i cooperare;
3. Directiva a doua (77/91/EEC), adoptat pe 31 decembrie 1976 (The Capital
Directive");
4. Thathan A., Osmochescu E., Dreptul Uniunii Europene, Bucureti:Allbeck,
2003;
5. Muntean R. Drept european.Evoluii. Instituii, Bucureti: Oscar Print, 1996;
6. Gasperini N. Legislaia i politicile n domeniul societilor comerciale.
Armonizarea legislaiei Rpublicii Moldova cu standardele UE, Chiinu 2010;
7. Furea A. Drept comunitar al afacerilor. Ed. a II revzut i adugit,
Bucureti:Universul juridic, 2006;
8. Dreago D.C.Uniunea European. Instituii.Mecanizme, Bucureti:C.H. Beck;
9. Duculescu V. Dreptul integrrii europene. Tratat elementar, Bucureti:Lumina
Lex, 2003;
10. Macormick J. S nelegem UE. O abordare teoretic, Bucureti: CODECS,
2004;
11. Henderson K. Spauil libertii, securitii i justiiei n Europa lrgit,
Bucureti: tiina, 2009;
12. Moldova i Integrarea European, Chiinu :Prut Internaional. 2001;
13. Grabbe H. Puterea de transformare a UE. Europenizarea prin intermediul
condiiilor de aderare n Europa Central i de Est, Chiinu:Epigraf, 2008;
14. Revenco B., Osmochescu E., Rusu I. Dreptul Uniunii Europene. Seria Ghiduri,
Chiinu: Institutul Naional de Justiie, 2010.

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PREVEDERILE LEGISLATIVE PRIVIND ASPECTUL COMERULUI


CU PRODUSE STOMATOLOGICE PE PIAA UNIUNII EUROPENE
BULAT Veronica,
Universitatea de Stat din Moldova
Abstract
Dental products trade is a relative new branch in international trade with medical
products. As a result of technique-scientific development of international dentistry it is
came out the necessity of modification of administration process in distribution activities
of dental products. In present paper are presented legislative aspects in regulation of
European dental trade.
Key words: dental trade, European dental market, the European Union legislation,
economic crisis, technique-scientific development.

Introducere. Pentru multe din guvernele europene, povara datoriilor se


dovedete a fi net superioar renaterii economice, consumul i investiiile, din
aceast cauz, fiind ntrziate iar perspectiva unei creteri fiind astfel amnat. i
aceast creterea economic, mai curnd, va ajunge ntr-un punct mort, iar
companiile ce nu reuesc s realizeze o diversificare vor plti, n cele din urm,
pentru aceasta. Prin urmare i afacerile de comer cu produse stomatologice, n
particular, vor trebui s-i joace rolul n aceast pia agitat. Conform evalurilor
efectuate de ctre Asociaiei Dealerilor/Furnizorilor Dentari din Europa
(Association of Dental Dealers in Europe, ADDE) cu susinerea Federaiei
Industriei Stomatologice din Europa (Federation of European Dental Industry,
FIDE) n anul 2010, cele mai multe din afacerile cu produse stomatologice din
Europa au fost foarte bine conduse. [2, p.9] Marii productori s-au adaptat la
posibilitile pe care le-au avut i astfel au dovedit c au fost capabili s
reacioneze ntr-o manier profitabil, activ la o asemenea pia. Muli dintre
acetia s-au descurcat foarte bine n anul 2010. n plus, s-au fcut investiii majore
n tehnologii inovatoare i n noi modaliti de a vinde produsele lor clienilor, fie
ei stomatologi sau tehnicieni dentari.
n acelai raport de menioneaz c a fi furnizor de produse
stomatologice era pn anii trecui o afacere destul de simpl. Cumprai marfa
dintr-o parte i o vindeai n proporii mai mici n alt parte, innd cont de
cunotinele despre produsele dentare i despre piaa stomatologic, trebuia s le
ii piept competitorilor, s rezolvi problema personalului i a taxelor. Cu toate
acestea, comerul de produse stomatologice era destul de uor de realizat. [4, p.2]
Din pcate, vremurile s-au schimbat mult n ultimii 10-20 de ani.
Comercializarea produselor stomatologice a devenit obiectul unor directive i
reglementri cu privire la produsele farmaceutice, la protecia mediului, radiaii,
produse periculoase, pstrarea iginei, dezinfecie i sterilizare, ergonimie,
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dispozitive medicale, chestiuni ce privesc rspunderea, calitatea, modalitatea de


ambalare i multe alte reglementri i directive, uneori la nivel european, alteori la
nivel naional.
Materiale i metode. Drept materiale pentru studiul efectuat au fost
utilizate bazele de date eurostat_health i EUR-lex publicate pe site-ul oficial al
Uniunii Europene. Metodologiile de selectare a datelor, conform Official Journal of
the European Union, sunt stabilite i aprobate de ctre statele membre,
productoare de produse stomatologice. ADDE numr n prezent 15 state membre
(Austria, Belgia, Danemarca, Bulgaria, Cehia, Frana, Germania, Marea Britanie,
Grecia, Ungaria, Irlanda, Italia, Olanda, Romnia i Elveia) i 960 productori
europeni de produse dentare.
Rezultate i discuii. Pentru aprarea intereselor comerului cu produse
stomatologice membrii ADDE i FIDE pentru prima dat au fost invitai s ia parte
la sesiunile Parlamentului European de la Bruxelles n mai 2010. Pn n prezent
aproape nimeni nu s-a preocupat sau nu a tiut despre furnizarea produselor
stomatologice. Cu toate acestea, consiliul ADDE a inclus n proiectele de viitor
diverse strategii n scopul devenirii unui partener recunoscut al UE.
Consiliul ADDE a anunat c va invita membrii Parlamentului European n
primavara anului 2011, fie la Bruxelles, fie n Strasbourg (unde va avea loc o
sesiune de 4 zile a Parlamentului European) pentru a-i expune cteva puncte de
interes comun cum ar fi protecia mpotriva razelor-X, comercializarea produselor
farmaceutice i recent adoptata decizie a UE privind extinderea la nivel european a
colectrii de date, pentru a crete sigurana pacienilor.
Sute de noi legi se nasc la Bruxelles n fiecare an, implementandu-se apoi n
legislaiile naionale din UE. Iar odat cu aceast implementare, multe pot lua o
ntorstur greit. Atunci cnd unele state membre au interpretri sau traduceri
diferite ale documentului UE original, poate exista un efect destul de ciudat sau
chiar negativ asupra rolului marilor productori n furnizarea produselor
stomatologice. Drept exemplu poate servi situaia produselor pentru albire. Aceste
produse, a caror comercializare pe piaa european a fost permis, avnd pe
etichet marca CE (eliberat de ctre European Committee of Standardization), sau vndut legal n toat Europa, dar ilegal n Statele Unite. Este ntr-adevr o
situaie extrem de bizar, deoarece marca CE se presupune a fi un "paaport UE"
pentru comercializarea liber a tuturor produselor a cror etichet conine aceast
marc.
Consiliul European a aprobat noile reguli privind drepturile pacienilor la
ngrijire medical n strinatate. Consiliul pentru ocuparea forei de munc, politici
sociale, sntate i pentru drepturile consumatorilor s-a declarat de acord cu
proiectul legii privind aplicarea drepturilor pacienilor la asisten stomatologic n
strinatate, pe baza unei soluii de compromis propuse de statul spaniol. [1, p.7-14,
33, 39]
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Printre prevederile acestei legi pot fi menionate urmatoarele:


pacienii pot primi ngrijire medical ntr-un alt stat european, iar suma
rambursat nu va depi suma corespunztoare asigurrii de sntate aplicabile
aceluiai tratament sau unui tratament similar realizat n sistemul sanitar din
propria ar (dac pacienii au dreptul la acest tratament n ara de origine);
n cazuri de for major, de interes general (precum riscul subminrii
balanei financiare a sistemului siguranei sociale), un stat membru poate limita
aplicarea regulilor de rambursare pentru ngrijirile medicale peste hotare;
statele membre pot controla fluxul pacienilor spre alte state i prin
solicitarea unei autorizaii pentru anumite tratamente sau proceduri (care implic
internarea, necesit o infrastructur medical extrem de specializat i costisitoare
sau care ridic suspiciuni privind calitatea sau sigurana serviciului medical) sau
prin aplicarea principiului gate-keeping, de medical curant;
pentru a controla fluxul de pacieni dinspre alte state i pentru a asigura
accesul permanent la sistemul sanitar pe teritoriul su, un stat membru poate adopta
msuri privind accesul strinilor la tratament numai n cazurile care se dovedesc de
for major;
statele membre trebuie s se asigure, prin puncte naionale de contact, ca
pacienii venii din alte state europene s primeasc informaii despre standardele
de siguran i de calitate specifice respectivelor ri, pentru a permite pacienilor
s fac alegerea n cunotina de cauz;
sigurana pacientului va fi asigurat de lansarea unei baze de date europeane
pentru dispozitivele medicale, n scopul creterii controlului pieei de desfacere.
Astfel, o decizie a Comisiei Europene adoptat recent va obliga toate rile
europene s utilizeze, ncepnd cu luna mai 2011, o baz de date european pentru
dispozitivele medicale (Eudamed). Baza de date Eudamed este o unealt IT
securizat, care va asigura un acces rapid la asememea informaii pentru instituiile
de control al pieei.
Conform legii UE, denumirea dispozitive medicale se refer la mii de tipuri
de produse utilizate n diagnosticare, profilaxie i tratament, fiind incluse i
produsele stomatologice. Dispozitivele medicale care fac obiectul legislaiei
europene pot fi comercializate pe piaa comun european. ns informaiile
importante, cum ar fi informaiile din certificatele de conformitate, inclusiv ale
produselor retrase sau refuzate n urma ingestigaiilor clinice, sau raportarea unor
disfuncii sau incidente) despre sigurana acestor dispozitive sunt colectate numai
la nivel naional. Conform raportului de activitate ADDE, n anul 2009, s-au
raportat 600 de incidente legate de dispozitivele medicale, iar Organizaia
Mondial a Sntii deja a emis un publicat de pres prin care a elabort un model
mathematic despre influena negativ a acestor incidente asupra sntii
pacienilor i propagarea ulterioar a pagubelor acestora. [3, p.11] n prezent,
aceste date sunt fcute cunoscute n mod manual. Beneficiul maxim adus
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pacientului este c datorit canalelor rapide de comunicare ntre instituiile de


control al pieei, se va reduce riscul pacienilor de a fi victima unui incident sau a
unei disfuncii a dispozitivelor medicale. Mai exact, transmiterea rapid a
informaiilor despre orice incident cunoscut va diminua riscul ca acest incident s
se repete n alt zon a Uniunii Europene.
Concluzii. Dezvoltarea tehnico-tiinific i-a lsat amprenta asupra tuturor
ramulrilor comerului internaional. Odat cu avansarea masiv a tehnologiilor
stomatologice a mririi accesibilitii la aceste servicii i odat cu creterea
nivelului de trai n Europa i a numrului persoanelor n etate a aprut marea
necesitate a gestionrii proceselor de producere i distribuie a produselor
stomatologice. n lume exist cteva organizaii mondiale de gestionare a
comerului stomatologic infrstructura de activitate a crora, n comparaie cu alte
ramulri ale comerului sunt nc slab dezvoltate. n Europa asemenea organizaii ca
ADDE i FIDE ncearc s-i capete statut de membru al Parlamentului European
pentru a se putea implica mai mult n reglementarea comerului european de
produse dentare.
1.
2.
3.
4.

BIBLIOGRAFIE:
Legea privind aplicarea drepturilor pacien ilor europeni la asisten
stomatologic n strinatate. OJ C 10E, 14.1.2011., 45p.
www.adde.info., The 2010 Survey on the European Dental Trade, Summary,
14 p.
www.euro.who.int., Dental health system, risks and responses., 123 p.
www.fide.online.org., FIDE Newsletter about dental sector, October, 2010, 3p.

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SECTION 2
MIGRATION AND ASYLUM POLICY,
BORDER MANAGEMENT

THE QUEST FOR TALENT: EU POLICIES TOWARDS


THE BRAIN DRAIN PHENOMENON
BURDELNII Eugeniu,
Parliament of the Republic of Moldova
Abstract
Generally speaking, brain drain phenomena in Europe fall into two distinct trends.
The first is an outflow of highly-qualified scientists from Western Europe mostly to the
United States. The second is a migration of skilled workers from Eastern and Southeastern Europe into Western Europe, often made easy by the new EU membership. Despite
all the efforts to stimulate the mobility of the higher qualified labour force within the EU,
the amount of migration of the highly skilled is low and it increases only slowly. As a
result, the EU lacks the magnetic power to attract high skilled foreign scientists and to
become leading centre of research intensive (service) production. Without them Europe
will not be able to maintain the same standards of living to which it is accustomed. A new
vision and new tools are indispensable for reversing this trend.
Key words: brain drain, brain circulation, highly skilled elite, return policies,
development

General trends of highly skilled migration in Europe: does Europe have


enough magnetic power to attract highly skilled migrants? Perhaps the oldest
question in economics is why some countries are rich while others are poor.
Economic theory has emphasized that differences in the educational levels of the
population are an important part of the answer (Carrington and Detragiache 1999).
Here the migration of the qualified people that could contribute to the economic
growth of the host countries plays an important role. As Lee Kuan Yew, the
Singapores elder statesman, rightly put it, trained talent is the yeast that transforms
a society and makes its rise (Wooldridge 2006: 10). Starting with the papers by
Paul Romer (1986, 1987, 1990) or Robert Lucas (1988) the immigration of skilled
migrants has been evaluated as stimulating the dynamics of economic growth
(Wooldridge 2006: 14), and the contribution of foreign skilled workers to
economic growth and achievement in host countries, in particular to research,
innovation and entrepreneurship, is increasingly recognized witness, for instance,
the number of foreign-born US Nobel Prize winners or creators of global high tech
companies, such as Intel or eBay, and other successful start-ups (Brain Drain). The
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spreading of this phenomenon was noticed as early as the 1960s (Carrington and
Detragiache 1999), when a mass and permanent emigration of highly skilled people
(researchers, scientists, and even graduate students) took place (Vedran 2004: 76),
prompting Britain's Royal Society to coin the term brain drain (Chu 2004: 3).
What the talent elite everywhere has in common is that it is more mobile than the
rest. Two economists, Frdric Docquier and Hillel Rapoport, estimate that average
emigration rates worldwide are 0,9 % for the low-skilled, 1,6 % for the medium
skilled and 5,5 % for the high-skilled (Wooldridge 2006: 12). Besides, employers
are eager to hire highly skilled migrants to offset local labor shortages or to
respond to the just-in-time requirements of knowledge-based economies and
tight production timeframes (World Migration: 56).
Generally speaking, brain drain phenomena in Europe fall into two distinct
trends. The first is an outflow of highly-qualified scientists from Western Europe
mostly to the United States (Brain Drain). The export of education services (by an
import of foreign students) has become a money machine for the US. Every year
foreign students contribute over $7bn to the US economy (Straubhaar 2000: 8).
55% of Ph.D. students in engineering in the United States are foreign born (Brain
Drain: Foreign Born).
In 2000, for example, the U.S. spent 287 billion on research and
development, 121 billion more than the EU. No wonder the US has 78% more
high-tech patents per capita than Europe, which is especially weak in the IT and
biotech sectors (Chu 2004: 2). In 2006 over 250,000 Europeans emigrated to the
United States (164,285), Australia (40,455), Canada (37,946) and New Zealand
(30,262). Germany alone saw 155,290 people leave the country (though mostly to
destinations within Europe). This is the highest rate of worker emigration since
reunification, which itself was equal to the rate in the aftermath of World War II
(Brain Drain). In relative terms in 2002-2003 the EU produced more science
graduates (PhDs) than the United States but has fewer researchers (5.36 per
thousand of the working population in the EU compared with 8.66 in the USA and
9.72 in Japan) (Carrington and Detragiache 1999).
The second is a migration of skilled workers from Eastern and Southeastern Europe into Western Europe, often made easy by the new EU membership
(Brain Drain). Lithuania, for example, has lost about 100,000 citizens since 2003,
many of them young, well-educated, to emigration to Ireland in particular. Similar
phenomenon occurred in Poland after its entry into the European Union in 2004. In
the first year of its EU membership, 100,000 Poles registered to work in England,
joining an estimated 750,000 residents of Polish descent (Brain Drain).
While historically, the United States has been extremely pragmatic and has
rolled out red carpets to immigrants with specific skills, Europe has been reluctant
to open its borders (Straubhaar 2000: 7-8). Compared to the US, Europe is
increasingly unsuccessful at attracting the highly skilled. We are not good enough
at attracting highly skilled people, European Commission President Jose Manuel
Barroso stated on a press-conference on 10 October 2007 (Spiegel online 2007).
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Highly qualified workers from all third countries account for 1.72% of the EUs
total workforce, which is also well behind other important immigration countries
such as Australia (9.9%), Canada (7.3%), the US (3.2%) and Switzerland (5.3%)
(Gentili 2008).
Despite all the efforts to stimulate the mobility of the higher qualified
labour force within the EU, the amount of migration of the highly skilled is low
and it increases only slowly (Straubhaar 2000: 10). Of course, the main reason is
that the immigration options for people from outside the EU into the EU are
extremely restrictive. And even for students or PhD candidates the hurdles to
surmount are time-taking, troublesome and even sometimes rather arbitrary
(Straubhaar 2000: 10). The attractiveness of the EU suffers additionally from the
fact that at present highly qualified migrants must face 27 different admission
systems, do not have the possibility of easily moving from one country to another
for work, and in several cases lengthy and cumbersome procedures make them opt
for non-EU countries granting more favourable conditions for entry and stay (CEU
2007). However, even where specific schemes exist, these are exclusively national
and do not allow any facilitation for highly qualified third-country workers needing
or wishing to move to another Member State for employment, therefore
segmenting the EU labour market and not allowing for more efficient (re)allocation
of the necessary workforce (CEU 2007). At present, each EU memberstate
operate a series of bilateral agreements with certain third countries and decides
whether and how to recognise qualifications. In practice, this attitude amounts to a
waste of skills, with negative spin-off not only for the economy of a country
immigrants do not contribute up to their capacity but also for the process of
integration (Bertozzi 2007: 13 - 14).
As the result, as it has been already mentioned, the EU lacks the magnetic
power to attract high skilled foreign scientists and to become leading centre of
research intensive (service) production (Straubhaar 2000: 20). For example, some
400,000 European science and technology graduates now live in the U.S. and
thousands more leave each year. A survey released by the European Commission in
November 2003 found that only 13% of European science professionals, working
abroad currently, intend to return home (Chu 2004: 3).
Several years ago, EU leaders vowed to make the union the most
competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world by 2010 (Chu
2004: 2). Moreover, in a market where there is increasing international competition
for these workers, Europe can only succeed in attracting the best and the brightest
if it speaks with one voice (Cerna 2008: 4). In this context, the Hague Programme
of 4-5 November 2004 clearly recognized that legal migration will play an
important role in enhancing the knowledge-based economy in Europe, in advancing
economic development and thus contributing to the implementation of the Lisbon
Strategy(Cerna 2008: 5). In their turn, members of the European Parliament
recognized that Apart from the preference communautaire applied in large sectors
of our economic policies, theres no question that a real demand exists for specific
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skills, varying from one country to another, which cant be met inside the EU. In
those cases, its fair to open our doors (Cerna 2008: 15). As Franco Frattini,
European Commissioner responsible for Justice, Freedom and Security, mentioned
in 2007: It is essential, for example, for Europe to become a real magnet for highly
skilled immigrants. We have to push this idea of being the sole player to overcome
the challenge of globalisation (Frattini 2007: 2). Several years before former
German Chancellor Gerhard Schrder noted: Only if we manage to keep our
innovation at the top will we be able to reach a level of prosperity that will allow us
to keep our welfare system in today's changing conditions.
An expert group convened by the European Commission concluded at the
end of 2003, that new European approaches to strengthening research are urgently
needed, including a publicly funded, science-driven body to support research.
There's a need for a competitive funding scheme independent of national
interests, says Danish scientist Mogens Flensted-Jensen. To define excellence,
you need competition on a European level that is supporting basic research
(Chu 2004: 9).
EU strategies towards the attraction of highly skilled migrants.
Definitively, without immigrants, Europe will not be able to maintain the same
standards of living to which it is accustomed (Bertozzi 2007: 15). In order to
achieve the objective of raising Europe's investment in research to 3% of gross
domestic product (GDP), as decided at the Barcelona European Council meeting in
March 2002, the EU will need 700,000 extra researchers (Carrington and
Detragiache 1999). The foundations for this policy strategy were already laid by
the Lisbon European Council (23-24 March 2000), which set the EU the strategic
objective to become the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based
economy in the world capable of sustainable economic growth with more and
better jobs and greater social cohesion. [...] The shift to a digital, knowledge-based
economy, prompted by new goods and services, will be a powerful engine for
growth, competitiveness and jobs (Bertozzi 2007: 15).
This target is to be met through a series of interlocking measures, such as
making scientific careers more attractive to young people, promoting womens
involvement in scientific research, extending the opportunities for training and
mobility in research, improving career prospects for researchers in the Community
and opening up the Community to third-country nationals who might be admitted
for the purposes of research (CEU 2005). For example, a number of concrete
achievements were met after 2000, namely, the launch on 10 July 2003 of the
European
Researcher's
mobility
portal
(http://ec.europa.eu/eracareers/index_en.cfm) (Europea.eu 2003).
Based on a thorough analysis of career prospects in the EU, the EC
Communication Researchers in the European Research Area: one profession,
multiple careers proposed concrete steps to encourage and structure improved
dialogue and information exchange with researchers and to establish a genuinely
competitive research labour market at a European level (CEC, 2003).
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Recommended actions included a European Researcher's Charter, a Code of


conduct for the recruitment of researchers, a common way of evaluating and
recording researchers' skills, qualifications and achievements, advanced training
tools, access to adequate funding and minimum social security benefits for PhD
students (CEC, 2003). Consequently, the European Council requested in June 2004
to proceed quickly on the work of encouraging the mobility of researchers. Work in
this area is implemented by the European Commission in cooperation with the
Member States through the Steering Group on Human Resources and Mobility in
the European Research Area. Recent results are the Pan-European Researchers
Mobility Portal and the European Network of Mobility Centres (ERA-MORE)
(Conclusions and recommendations of the EU-Conference 2004).
The above-mentioned Hague Programme stressed the importance of
developing a policy plan on legal migration, including admission procedures
capable of responding promptly to fluctuating demands for migrant labour in the
labour market (Bertozzi 2007, 9). The EU 6th Research Framework Programme
(FP6 2003-2006) devoted nearly 10% of its budget (1.6 billion out of a total of
17.5 billion), to actions aimed at enhancing training and mobility opportunities for
researchers, such as the Marie Curie Actions representing a 60 % increase in
comparison to the previous Framework Programme (Europea.eu 2003). In the
Marie Curie Human Resources and Mobility Actions schemes individual support
measures exist for top-class third-country researchers wishing to come to Europe
(Conclusions and recommendations of the EU-Conference 2004).
The Council Directive 71 of 12 October 2005 is intended to foster the
admission and mobility for research purposes of third-country nationals for stays of
more than three months, in order to make the Community more attractive to
researchers from around the world and to boost its position as an international
centre for research (CEU 2005).
The European Job Mobility Action Plan (2007-2010) represented a further,
important step in a long line of initiatives to promote mobility (CEC 2007). Based
on a process launched in February 2001 by the Commission's Communication on
the New Labour Markets (CEC 2001), the conclusions of the Stockholm European
Council of March 2001 and the work of the High Level Task Force on Skills and
Mobility, the Commission adopted in February 2002 an Action Plan for Skills and
Mobility (CEC 2002). The Final Report on this Action Plan, adopted on 25 January
2005, looked at the lessons to be learnt from the plan and presented three main
areas for follow-up: making education and training systems more responsive to the
labour market and to preparing people for mobility via language learning;
removing legal and administrative barriers and promoting the cross-border
recognition of qualifications; and setting up a one-stop mobility information portal,
based on the EURES job vacancy system (CEC 2007). At the end of 2005, DG
Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities Commissioner Vladimr
pidla together with DG Justice and Home Affairs Commissioner Franco Frattini
presented the Policy Plan on Legal Migration (Ministry of the Interior of the Czech
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Republic 2008). This Plan assumed to propose four directives that would regulate
the conditions of entry and residence of particular categories of workers from third
countries, and one framework directive that would regulate the set of rights of
these six categories of third country workers (Ministry of the Interior of the Czech
Republic 2008). The explanatory memorandum set out the main arguments for
highly qualified migration: the business argument businesses need economic
migrants to fulfil their recruitment needs; the demographic argument the EU is no
longer producing sufficient numbers of workers to meet its business needs; and the
evidence of the failure of the current highly qualified regime exemplified by the
fact that the highly qualified from the EUs North African neighbours go to Canada
and the US, rather than to the EU (Guild 2007). The European Parliaments
resolution of 26 September 2007 on the policy plan on legal migration supported
any measure designed to increase the attractiveness of the EU to the most highly
skilled workers so as to meet the needs of the EU labour market in order to ensure
Europes prosperity as well as to meet the Lisbon targets (EP 2007).
On 23 October 2007 the Commission adopted two legislative proposals in
the area of economic migration. The first proposal aimed at establishing a
framework Directive for the purpose of admission of highly qualified migrants to
the EU, creating the EU Blue Card. Referring to this initiative Commission
President Jos Manuel Barroso underlined: Labour migration into Europe boosts
our competitiveness and therefore our economic growth. It also helps tackle
demographic problems resulting from our ageing population. This is particularly
the case for highly skilled labour. With today's proposal for an EU Blue Card we
send a clear signal: highly skilled migrants are welcome in the EU! We are also
proposing to give a clear set of rights to all third country nationals who legally
reside in the EU. This will protect EU citizens from unfair competition in the
labour market and promote the integration of migrants into our societies
(Europa.eu 2007). In his turn, Vice-President Franco Frattini, the Commissioner
responsible for Freedom, Security and Justice, stated that Europe's ability to
attract highly skilled migrants is a measure of its international strength. We want
Europe to become at least as attractive as favourite migration destinations such as
Australia, Canada and the USA. We have to make highly skilled workers change
their perception of Europe's labour market governed as they are by inconsistent
admission procedures...A new vision and new tools are indispensable for reversing
this trend. We will also minimize the risk of brain drain from developing countries
(Spiegel online 2007). The European Parliament adopted this legislative resolution
on 20 November 2007, by 388 votes to 56 with 124 abstentions
(Europeanunionbluecard.com 2009). And the European Council adopted it on 25
May 2009. Following its publication in the Official Journal of the EU, the member
states will have two years to incorporate the new provisions into their domestic
legislation.
The EU Blue Card seeks to create a single application procedure for nonEU workers to reside and work within the EU, and to establish a common set of
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rights for workers in member states (Cerna 2008: 2). The Blue Card is valid for up
to three years and is renewable. It allows holders and families to live, work and
travel in the EU. The applicant must have a one-year EU job contract with salary of
three times the minimum wage. Permanent residency is automatic after five years.
The application procedure is expected to take less than three month (Cerna 2008:
15). Successful visa applicants admitted under the Blue Card scheme will receive a
special residence and work permit, entitling them to EU residential and economic
rights and favourable conditions for bringing along family members. Access to the
labour market in the country where the Blue Card is issued (UK & Ireland not
included) will be restricted for a minimum of two years after which holders of the
card can move to another Member State for highly qualified work. Workers on the
Blue Card can add up periods of residence in different Member States to obtain
long-term EC residence, enabling them to buy a house, run a business, have
investments, travel, obtain credit, get a driving license etc. in the EU
(Bluecadeu.co.uk).
Potential immigrants will, therefore, not have to face 27 different systems,
but will know, easily, the conditions to be satisfied in order to be admitted in any
member state (Cerna 2008: 4). Holders of an EU Blue Card would be treated just
like EU nationals as regards tax benefits, social assistance, payment of pensions,
access to public housing and study grants (Cerna 2008: 4).
Summarizing, the factors behind the EU Blue Card initiative have mainly to
do with the global economic competition, demand of multinational companies for
non-EU cheaper labour and simplification of work visa processing and plans of EU
to establish knowledge based economy (Maru 2008: 5). Thus, the EU Blue Card is
an attempt of the EU to compete mainly with Australia, Canada and the United
States (US) in a global war for talent (Cerna 2008: 2). However, many observers,
as, for example, Mr. Angenendt and Mr. Parkes from German Institute for
International and Security Affairs, consider that the program is inadequate to meet
the EUs large and growing need for high-skilled workers. (Angenendt 2010: 1) In
their opinion, the Member States i.e., Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom
- fear a loss of national sovereignty that seems surprising as all of the Member
States show a significant need for additional highly qualified workers (and one that
is increasing in the face of demographic change). Moreover, high-skilled migrants
are considered relatively unproblematic from the viewpoint of integration policy,
meaning that arguments about the limited absorption capacity of Members have
scarcely arisen. (Angenendt 2010: 2).
Mr Massimiliano Cali of the Overseas Development Institute doubted if the
Blue Card would be able to address to the migration barriers that exist at the
moment. He stated that there is a 40 % of brain waste currently within the EU:
these migrants have a job in the EU that they are overqualified for. High skilled
workers in low skilled jobs. There is a need for matching the right of workers:
labour mobility. Most migrants only come here in the EU after they have found
work (Preda 2007). To alleviate the fears of some member states, the European
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Justice Commissioner said that [the EU Blued Card initiative] is not an open doors
policy, because, if a given member-state needs engineers or doctors, it has to
decide how many, and then I will provide a state with a common procedure. So,
each member state will maintain the right to determine the number of immigrant
workers that can be admitted into the domestic labour market through the Blue
Card (Cerna 2008: 7).
The EU Blue Card has met with some resistance, particularly in Germany,
where many remain sceptical of a pan-European solution to the problem. During
the negotiation of this initiative German Economy Minister Michael Glos said:
Germany could not take in large numbers of foreign workers just because it needs
them at one particular moment (Spiegel online 2007).
EU member-states national policies towards the brain-drain and highly
skilled migration: pro or contra? Member states vary in their openness towards
high-skilled immigration. For example, over the past decade, Ireland, Switzerland
and the United Kingdom, saw significant rises in their intake of highly skilled
labour migrants (Chaloff J. 2010: 10). At the same time, different labour market
conditions and needs exist across countries and, thus, EU member countries will be
reluctant to cede their responsibility to regulate labour market access and to grant
rights to immigrants based on EU-figures and expectations (Cerna 2008: 2). EU
member-states do not want let the EU dictate who they have to admit and who not
(Cerna 2008: 15). A number of countries have already taken steps to decrease the
inflow of highly skilled immigrants, often the result of public pressures during the
economic crisis. Policy-makers have tried to regulate immigration inflows by: 1)
adjusting numerical limits; 2) strengthening labour market tests; 3) limiting
possibilities to change status and to renew permits; 4) applying supplementary
conditions to non-discretionary flows; and 5) promoting return migration. (Cerna
2010: 17).
In this context, the examples of the national policies towards the braindrain or highly-skilled immigration in some EU member-state are worth to be
mentioned.
Germany. The new immigration law of 2005 took a number of measures to
promote high-skilled migration to Germany. Foreign students may now change
status after graduation. Some groups of highly-skilled specialists are granted
permanent residence upon entry: researchers and university teachers, and
employees earning at least EUR 85 000. (Chaloff: 29).
In 2007, signs of skilled labour shortages in certain regions and occupations
intensified, particularly in the metal and electronics sectors. Because of this, skilled
labour shortages became a central issue on the agenda of the German government's
cabinet meeting in Meseberg in August 2007. (Ibid). The cabinet decided to
reinforce its efforts to activate the domestic labour force potential through
strengthened training and qualification measures; and to take additional measures
for eliminating shortages in certain sectors which were viewed as difficult to cover
domestically by a careful opening for further labour immigration. As a
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consequence, a new ordinance on the access of foreign university graduates to the


labour market has been enforced. The labour market test is no longer applied for
foreign graduates from German universities and universities of applied science,
regardless of the subjects of their studies, if they want to take up employment in
their field. The labour market has also been opened for mechanical engineers,
vehicle engineers and electrical engineers from the ten central and east European
EU Member States still subject to transitional rules limiting access to the German
labour market (Ibid).
But, at the same time, business leaders in Germany have complained that
shortages in skilled workers, such as engineers and computer specialists could start
to have a negative effect on the economy (Spiegel online 2007). According to the
head of the German chamber of commerce and industry (DIHK), Hans Heinrich
Driftmann, Germany is in urgent need of about 400,000 engineers and qualified
workers (The Local 2010). According to a new survey carried out by the DIHK, as
the economy recovers from recession, German industry is desperately seeking
skilled workers. The survey found that as many as 70 percent of German
companies have difficulty filling vacancies for qualified posts (Knight 2010).
Speaking to a meeting of young members of the Christian Democratic Union
(CDU) party in Potsdam on 17 October 2010, German Chancellor Angela Merkel
said she wanted to see the immigration of highly-specialized experts to continue,
backing Labour Minister Ursula von der Leyen, who, in her turn, declared that she
wanted to make it easier for qualified workers to come to Germany to supply the
needs of industry. In any case these highly-qualified people are not waiting in
crowds at the border. We have to make efforts to attract them. (The Local 2010).
United Kingdom. The UKs Highly Skilled Migrant Programme, which
began in January 2002, was designed to allow people of high human capital to
migrate to the UK in order to seek and take up work. In effect, it encouraged highly
skilled foreigners to nominate themselves for immigration. It used a points system
based on educational qualifications, work experience, past earnings, achievements
in chosen fields (Salt 2005: 30). From 2008, the Government gradually introduced
a new points-based system. It included five tiers, related to a grading system of
skills. Each tier required the immigrant to score a certain number of points to gain
entry clearance or leave to remain (permanent residence) in the United Kingdom.
In all tiers, points were awarded for criteria which indicated that the individual was
likely to comply with immigration requirements (Cerna 2010: 12 - 13). In April
2011, the UK Government imposed a permanent cap on skilled immigration and
replaced Tier 1 (General) with a new 'exceptional talent' visa (Work Permit).
Policy towards international students and the labour market is undergoing
fundamental change in the United Kingdom. In May 2007, the International
Graduate Scheme (IGS) was launched to replace the more limited Science and
Engineering Graduate Scheme (SEGS). This is a precursor to the Tier 1 Post Study
category, and is a response to the drive in a number of countries to compete for the
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EEA students who have successfully completed their degree (regardless of


discipline) at an approved higher education institution in the United Kingdom to
remain in the country for up to 12 months and compete for work. The future Post
Study category is likely to extend this period to two years, bringing it into line with
the Fresh Talent Working in Scotland Scheme (FTWSS), and to restrict access to
international graduates with at least a lower second class (2.2) degree (Chaloff: 25).
The UK government also aimed at increasing the salaries of post-doctorates
by 25% and increase funding for the hiring of university professors. Aditionally,
the British government, in cooperation with the Wolfson Foundation, a research
charity, launched a 20 million, five-year research award scheme aimed at drawing
the return of the UK's leading expatriate scientists and sparking the migration of
top young researchers to the United Kingdom (Brain Drain).
However, as the recent economic crisis has deepened, ex-Prime Minister
Gordon Brown in autumn 2008 promised British workers for British jobs, and
Borders and Immigration Minister Phil Woolas commented: Migration only works
if it benefits the British people, and we are determined to make sure that is what
happens. (Cerna 2010: 12-13).
The Government considered a proposal that would significantly decrease the
number of highly skilled immigrants: During these economic times when people
are losing jobs it is crucial that British workers and people already here have the
first crack of the whip at getting back in to work. Former Home Secretary, Jacqui
Smith, announced plans that non-EU migrants could not take a skilled job in the
UK unless it has been advertised to British workers first. This was the
governments response to current economic circumstances. Migrants needed to
have at least a masters degree and a previous salary equivalent to at least 20,000
(Ibid).
France. In France, some 7000 teaching-researcher posts have been created
since 1997 to retain talent and encourage the return of post-doctorates working
abroad (Brain Drain). French new legislation in 2006 was designed to encourage
Masters graduates of the highest ability to stay on and find employment which
directly or indirectly benefits the economic development of France and the
students home country. These so-called high-potential students receive a
provisional non-renewable authorization to stay for six months, to seek a job in
their field of study. After six months, if the graduate has or is promised a job
paying at least 150% the minimum wage, a temporary permit is granted without
requiring a labor market test. Students who do not hold a Masters degree or who
have found work in a different field from the studies, or one which pays too little,
are allowed to apply under the general permit system (Chaloff: 26).
Ireland. Ireland has two ways of attracting highly skilled immigrants: 1) the
work permit system and 2) the Green Card programme (since 2007) (Cerna 2010:
11-12).
The work permit system was liberalized in 2001 and allowed a significant
number of migrants to obtain a work permit. Irelands booming economy and the
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demand of employers for foreign labour, encouraged the government to look


favourably toward an open labour immigration policy (Ibid).
In April 2007, the Third Level Graduate Scheme was implemented, allowing
non-EEA graduates from Irish universities to remain in Ireland for six months after
graduation to find employment and apply for a work permit or green card. During
the six-month period they are allowed to work (Chaloff: 25). Additionally,
returning highly-educated migrants enjoy a 10% wage premium over their stay-athome compatriots (Wooldridge 2006: 10).
The stricter rules, involving a revision of the qualifying conditions for new
permits, came into effect from 1 June 2009. Mary Coughlan, the Minister for
Enterprise, Trade and Employment, said a labour-market needs test for all future
applications and renewals would allow maximum opportunity for any available
job vacancies to be filled by Irish people and those from the European Economic
Area (Cerna 2010: 11-12). From 1 June 2009, employers who wanted to hire nonEU foreigners had to pay them at least EUR 30,000 a year. Employers only made
625 requests to hire non-EU foreigners in March 2009, down from a peak of 3,700
in July 2007 (Ibid).
A June 2009 poll found that two-thirds of Irish respondents wanted the
migration of labour from Eastern Europe restricted. Irish workers have called for
more immigration restrictions (Ibid).
Czech Republic. Since 2003, the Czech Republic has tried to attract highly
skilled immigrants for permanent settlement. The Proposition of Active Selection
of a Qualified Foreign Labour Force, approved by the government in September
2001, was a variant of the Quebec Certificate of Selection points system. The
Government favoured young, educated and qualified in a given profession
candidates. Knowledge of the Czech language and previous stay in the Czech
Republic were also an advantage. A pilot project with three selected countries
(Bulgaria, Croatia, and Kazakhstan) was initiated in 2003. Qualified migrants and
their families could obtain permanent residency after two years and six months.
The pilot project was later extended to other countries (Cerna 2010: 10-11).
In 2007, the Government announced its own version of a Green Card for
immigrants outside the EU. It would combine work and residence permits. The
Green Card programme was launched on 1 January 2009 under the amended
Labour Law (Act No. 382/2008 Coll.) and aimed to limit admissions of migrant
workers to pre-approved nationalities and jobs, as well as under the condition that
no work permit-exempt worker was brought in. Among them were some of the EU
south-eastern neighbours (for example, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia,
Montenegro, Serbia, Ukraine) and the countries which invested in the Czech
Republic, especially in the automotive industry (for example, Japan, South Korea
and the United States) (Ibid).
Despite the fact that the Czech Republic has simplified its bureaucratic
procedures for high-skilled foreigners with a job offer, some experts consider that it
has not been able to attract many new workers. Wages are relatively low and
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administrative procedures, for which high-skilled workers enjoy few facilitations


during their temporary-permit phase, are burdensome. An information campaign in
some prospective recruitment countries failed to attract successful job seekers
(Chaloff: 29-30).
Denmark. Denmark offers a job-search visa it calls a Green Card, which
allows high-skilled immigrants to come to Denmark to search for a job.
Qualification is through a points system, which considers education, language
skills (both in a Scandinavian language and/or in English or German), experience,
age, prior wages, and professions on the Danish Job Card Scheme shortage list.
Green-card holders have six months to find a job on the Job Card Scheme shortage
list (generally masters-level occupations) or a job paying at least DKK 463 000
(EUR 63 000) annually (Chaloff: 21).
Sweden. A government committee in Sweden has proposed that it should be
made easier for foreign students who have found a job in Sweden to stay in the
country and work after finishing their studies (Chaloff: 26).
Finland. Finish Government promotes the policy that encourages the
immigration of students and researchers. An amendment to the Aliens Act in 2006
eased conditions for entry of non-EEA students into the Finnish labour market.
Such graduates can now obtain a work permit to search for a job for up to six
months and a residence permit for job search for 10 months (Chaloff: 25).
Norway. Norway has reduced the burden on employers of high-skilled workers
but faces limits on its ability to attract workers due to language problems and
relatively low net (i.e. after-tax) income compared with English-speaking countries.
While it has allowed foreign students to stay on to work, marriage has long been a
more important factor in keeping international students (Chaloff: 29).
Other Member States (Ireland, Latvia, the Netherlands) had programmes
which were part of larger visa or work permit schemes giving certain advantages to
highly-skilled workers (European Migration Network 2007: 22).
Besides, various EU-member countries had implemented a science visa,
designed to make it easier for non-EU researchers to get working visas within
Union countries (CEU 2007).
However, upon review, in the opinion of Chaloff and Lematre, most of
these policies are not so much designed to attract workers as to reduce the obstacles
to their immigration. In fact, none of the policies adopted actually supports
immigration of the high skilled: there are no subsidies, no facilitation of the
recognition of qualifications; no special job listings abroad. Given the value of
high-skilled workers, it is assumed that employers will pay whatever costs are
necessary to obtain a skilled worker, and that the promise of a high salary is
incentive enough for an aspirant immigrant to pay the certification and visa fees
necessary for migration (Chaloff: 30).
Brain drain versus Brain gain. The efforts to mitigate the negative
effects of the brain drain for the source countries should be implemented as the
brain drain could have a negative impact on the growth potential of the source
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countrys economy by depriving it of its innovation potential (Europa.eu 2008).


According to the UNESCO report "Science, Technology and Economic
Development in South-eastern Europe" of 2007, many countries experience
emigration of up to 70% of their skilled professionals. Two out of three teaching
and research jobs are lost on some university campuses, devastating scientific
research and higher education capacities (Preda 2007). More than 500,000 Russian
scientists and computer programmers have left the country since the fall of the
Soviet Union in 1991 (Brain Drain). In the Republic of Moldova, for example, the
number of researchers within the Academy of Sciences of Moldova has decreased
from 29850 persons in 1990 till 4794 persons to 2004. The main destination
countries were Israel, Germany, USA, Russia, etc. In such a way, the number of
researchers has decreased, respectively, by 83,4 % (Casiadi 2010: 4). Especially,
brain drain impacts negatively on vital sectors such as education and health, and
reduces those countries capacity to achieve the Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs) (Eucoherence.org 2008).
Summarizing experts opinion on possible causes of highly-qualified
migration or brain drain, we can highlight the following: the violation of human
rights or academic freedoms; political, ethnic and religious persecution; economic
difficulties facing countries in transition make it less likely that they will be able to
substantially invest; deprivation of the right to education (Vedran 2004: 77).
According to Olesen, bad governance also plays an important role in the migration
of highly skilled persons. It seems that this population is particularly sensitive
when they find the human rights/governance situation in their home country
unacceptable. This can have many forms: honest civil servants refusing to be
corrupted; lack of freedom to speak ones mind, especially for civil servants; and
promotions based on unprofessional criteria (Vedran 2004: 76). Return migrants,
in particular, bring back their skills and work experience from abroad boosting
productivity. Expatriates who remain abroad contribute money via worker
remittances; and many observers claim that their transfer of knowledge or
technology to developing countries can increase productivity and economic
development (Vedran 2004: 81). They may also make professional and personal
contacts, which prove useful and productive for their endeavours back home
(Vedran 2004: 81).
The above mentioned necessity of using the possible beneficial impact of
the brain drain for the source countries are recognized by the EU member-states.
For example, in its "Global Approach to Migration" Communication of 2005 the
Commission mentions that an equitable immigration policy which incorporates
return and/or circular migration might appear to be needed (European Migration
Network 2007: 8). In point 2.4 of European Commissions Communication
Migration and Development: Some concrete orientations, adopted on 01
September 2005, The Commission encourages Member States to develop
mechanisms [...] to limit active recruitment in cases where it would have
significantly negative repercussions for targeted developing countries (Bertozzi
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2007, 13). In the following European Commissions Communication Global


Approach to Migration one year on: Towards a comprehensive European
migration policy it is mentioned that in developing policies that take account of
the potential benefits to third countries of labour migration to Europe, the EU
should be very much aware of the risks of brain drain and its socio-economic
consequences on developing countries (CEC 2006). The European Parliament tries
to promote the same approach. In its resolution of 26 September 2007 on the
policy plan on legal migration, [European Parliament] considers it important that
the risks of a brain drain be taken into account when EU legal immigration
measures are laid down [] calls upon the Commission, in conjunction with the
countries of origin, to carry out statistical studies with a view to identifying the
areas of expertise in which there is a clear risk of brain drain (EP 2007).
However, return policies could be successful if there is a systemic
approach towards the return of the higly-skilled migrants. In this context, the
experience of Moldova represents certain interest. Conditionally, all the projects in
this field could be divided in two groups:
Development of the scientific Diaspora of the Republic of Moldova
Promotion and facilitation of the return and reintegration of the
highly-skilled Moldovan migrants
Development of the scientific Diaspora of the Republic of Moldova
Return of the researchers, living/working abroad, would imply enormous
costs related to the modernization of infrastructure for research and innovation with
the purpose of creation similar conditions compared to the Western countries,
diminution of the salary differences, incorporation into the privileged position in
the institutional hierarchy, etc. According to some Moldovan experts, an alternative
might present development of the scientific Diaspora abroad, which could serve as
an intermediate stage in the return process to the country of origin (Casiadi 2010:
37). Taking into account the above-mentioned, as well as the importance of the
scientific Diasporas implication in the development of the country of origin, the
Academy of Sciences of Moldova has launched in 2008 the initiative
Development of the cooperation within scientific Diaspora of the Republic of
Moldova. The initiative aims at creation of the forum for interaction between the
scientific Diaspora and scientific community of Moldova through gradual
formation of the Network of the Scientific Diaspora of the Republic of Moldova
(Casiadi 2010: 37).
A practical example in this sense represents official launch on the 30th of
April 2010 of a joint research project Connect the scientific diaspora of the
Republic of Moldova to the scientific and economic development of the home
country by the Academy of Sciences of Moldova (ASM), and the Swiss Federal
Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL). The overall objective of this research
project is to advance knowledge based evidence on the scientific Diaspora of the
Republic of Moldova in main destination countries and to offer a number of
recommendations for the Moldovan Government, the scientific community, as well
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as the scientific Diaspora of the Republic of Moldova, that can be useful to


leverage the potentialities of the scientific Diaspora, and enabling ways of
establishing a permanent mechanism of cooperation between all interested actors,
in order to get involved in the development process of the home country.
Another example refers to the recent initiative of the International
Organization for Migration, Mission in the Republic of Moldova (IOM), that in
partnership with the Academy of Sciences of Moldova (ASM) announced on
September 16, 2010 a competition to support 30 researchers on a competitive basismembers of Moldovan Scientific Diaspora (MSD) willing to return to Moldova for
a short-term visit of 7-11 days in order to perform research activities and share their
experience at one of R&D institutions or universities of Moldova. This project
initiative is to improve Moldovas capacity to enhance the development impact of
circular migration through temporary return of highly qualified MSD members in
the field of R&D (IOM.md 2010: Moldovan Scientific Diaspora).
According to Moldovan experts, such projects will create necessary
premises for a solid and long-term mechanism which will contribute to the
identification of the optimal channels for the implication of the members of MSD
in the process of scientific and economic development of the their country of
origin. Moreover, short-term visits to Moldova (the second example) will have also
a symbolic significance as, besides research activities, the MSD members will
mobilize public opinion by promoting the message about the possibility of
professional fulfillment in Moldova (Casiadi 2010: 39).
Promotion and facilitation of the return and reintegration of the highlyskilled Moldovan migrants. Currently there are, at least two programmes,
implemented in the Republic of Moldova, aiming at promoting international
migration as a positive factor in development, promoting sustainable know-how
transfer through the professional integration of returning experts, as well as
creating a win-win situation with returning experts as bridge-builders for
international economic and development cooperation (Zav 2010).
The Returning Experts Programme implemented by the Centre for
International Migration and Development (CIM) on behalf of the German Federal
Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) supports the
professional integration of university graduates and experienced experts from
developing, emerging and transition countries, including the Republic of Moldova,
who have completed their training in Germany and are interested in returning to
their countries of origin. The focus is on placing professionals in areas of particular
relevance to development policy. In addition to placement and advisory services,
the programme offers financial support to experts interested in returning to their
own countries. (International 2010).
In October 2010 the International Organization for Migration (IOM) in
partnership with the National Employment Agency (NEA), Ministry of Youth and
Sports (MYS) and the Ministry of Education (MEd) announced the launch of the
pilot program on promoting and facilitation of the temporary and permanent return
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and professional reintegration of 30 Moldovan overseas graduates for experience


sharing and usage of their skills obtained abroad. This pilot program is realized
within the Supporting the implementation of the migration and development
component of the EU Moldova Mobility Partnership project, funded by the EU
and implemented by IOM in partnership with the Government of the Republic of
Moldova. The Program is addressed to the Moldovan overseas graduates who wish
to come back to Moldova and be employed in the public or private sector. IOM
will offer support for the overseas graduates in the identification of employers,
logistical and administrative assistance, financial support in covering transportation
costs and monthly living allowance to the participants for a period of up to six
months (IOM.md 2010: Overseas Graduates).
With one word, the above mentioned projects aim at addressing brain drain
by promoting the circulation of innovative ideas and skill transfer in the process of
youth migration (IOM.md 2010: Overseas Graduates).
Conclusions. Concluding it should been mentioned that the continuation
and even acceleration of the international migration processes, including the
highly-skilled migration, into the extended European Union should be expected.
The same trend could be characteristic for the above-analyzed Moldovan case,
where a lot researches seem to leave the country on the constant basis, and the
assessments show that the highly-skilled migration becomes a calculated decision
and could transform in the permanent phenomenon with a high risk of braindrain acceleration (Casiadi 2010: 37).
In this context, the consolidation of the migration policies as in the EU
itself, as in the EU neighbouring countries with the purpose of formulating
adequate responses to the causes of this phenomenon is of great importance. For
example, the Lisbon Treaty that entered into force on 1 December 2009 sets the EU
the specific aim of developing common policies for both asylum and
immigration (legal as well as illegal) and accordingly empowers it to legislate for
uniform standards and for the gradual introduction of an integrated management
system for external borders. Therefore, managed highly-skilled migration
policies could serve a solution in this sense.
Taking into consideration, that one of the triggers of the brain drain
phenomenon is the alarming difference in the level of economic development, the
following conclusion might be drawn: continuation and acceleration of the
financial assistance and implementation of various development programs in EUs
partner-states could be one of the efficient means of forwarding the highly-skilled
migration in desired channel. Moreover, it would help the EU neighbouring
countries to finish their political and economic transformations to counteract such
push factors of highly-skilled migration as poorness, unemployment, bad
governance, lack of development of research and scientific infrastructure, etc.
In this regard, it should be noted that highly-skilled migration could have
positive impacts on both receiving and sending countries. For receiving countries,
the taxation of the highly-skilled migration could serve as a certain compensation
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for those layers of the population that potentially suffer as the result of this type
of migration. Besides, against the background of the deepening demographic
problem in the EU, the highly-skilled immigration could partially neutralize this
problem. Thus, the EU countries might examine the possibility of introducing the
mechanism of selective immigration policies, offering so-called quota for the
highly-skilled migrants, after conducting the analyses of the EU particular needs.
However, it should be highlighted that the UE should promote the differentiated
dialogue and partnership with its partner-states, taking into consideration the
internal situation in every country.
One of the principal concerns of migration policy is to ensure that
immigrants do not hamper the employment prospects of native workers. Although
most studies tend to show small effects of immigration on the outcomes of nativeborn workers, this overall result is an average and it most certainly is the case that
some native-born workers are hurt by the arrival of immigrants competing for the
same jobs. In practice, this tends to be less of a policy concern for highly skilled
workers, because their labour market outcomes are generally favourable in any
case, with positive wage returns to higher education and shorter unemployment
spells (Chaloff: 34).
In addition to high-skilled migration programmes designed to admit
immigrants, free circulation may be a channel for movement by the highly skilled.
Free-circulation regimes do not privilege the higher skilled over those with less
education, but they do facilitate recruitment by reducing bureaucratic obstacles,
lowering costs and allowing for direct contact between employers and employees
(Chaloff: 27).
The positive effects of the brain circulation for the sending countries can be
strengthened and even utilized for a countrys development. As some scholars
argue, the presence of a highly skilled elite is required if a country wants to proceed
with economic development and successfully implement transition reforms. In
order to create the conditions for circulation, states must, at least, encourage the
return of their nationals, increase investment in science and education, develop
contacts with Diaspora and perhaps even initiate short-term positive discrimination
in employment, tax and housing areas (Vedran 2004: 82). For example, Iredale
suggests that sending countries may consider encouraging or supporting their
highly skilled population to take part in brain circulation instead of trying to
contain them (Vedran 2004: 82). In Morocco, for instance, civil servants who
emigrate tend to be excluded from the civil service for their lifetime. This means
that they cannot deploy their knowledge or skills upon return and this will
effectively reduce their inclination to invest and return (Vedran 2004: 82).
It also must be emphasized that return policies should be long-term oriented
and can be efficient only when the home-country can offer prospective returnees
satisfactory career conditions in their field, which itself implies a high(er) level of
socio-economic development (Vedran 200: 82-83). In this sense, a well developed
scientific infrastructure, higher investments in the science sector, and the stability
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of a consolidated democratic government that assures human rights and academic


freedoms all provide a suitable environment that allows for this form of migration
to occur (Vedran 2004: 84).
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
1. Angenendt, S., and R. Parkes (2010): Three options for EU Policy on Highly
Qualified Immigrants.
2. Chaloff, J. and G. Lematre (2009): Managing Highly-Skilled Labour
Migration: A Comparative Analysis of Migration Policies and Challenges in
OECD Countries, Migration Policies and Challenges in OECD Countries,
OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, No. 79, OECD
Publishing.
3. Casiadi, Oleg, Mobilizarea diasporei tiinifice a Republicii Moldova
contribuii pentru dezvoltarea rii de origine, MOLDOSCOPIE, 2010 (2)
(XLIX).
4. Cerna, Lidia, Towards an EU Blue Card? The Proposed Delegation of National
High-Skilled Immigration Policies to the EU-Level, University of Oxford,
Paper prepared for the ISA Annual Conference, San Francisco, March 26-29,
2008.
5. http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/ftinterface~content=a727545567~fulltext
=713240930
6. http://www.iom.md/index.php/ro/media-center/news-archive/148-promotingdefinitive-return-of-moldovan-overseas-graduates
7. http://opus.zbw-kiel.de/volltexte/2003/695/pdf/88.pdf.
8. http://www.thelocal.de/politics/20101017-30553.html.

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MIGRATION LEGISLATION OF THE REPUBLIC BELARUS


AND PERSPECTIVE WAYS OF COOPERATION WITH EU
VASILYEVA Larysa,
Belarus State Economic University
Summar:
Article provides a brief characterisation of the migration situation in the Republic of
Belarus. It provides a general analysis of the development of migration legislation and
names state agencies working in the sphere of migration. Statistical analysis is presented
in a graphic form, the figures reflect the dynamics of the development of legal relations by
periods and by types of migration flows. The article names projects and the main
directions of international cooperation of the Republic of Belarus on certain programmes
including the European Partnership Programme

Modern world realises increasingly the importance of international migration


and its positive contribution to the development of receiving and supplying
countries. At the same time, for many states receiving considerable numbers of
migrants, the question of cooperation and experience exchange, collective counter
illegal migration activities and minimization of the pre-conditions for illegal labour
are becoming all the more relevant.
General characterization of the migration situation in the Republic of
Belarus. The Republic of Belarus neighbours on three EU states (Latvia, Lithuania,
Poland) and the Commonwealth of Independent States (Russia and Ukraine). Its
location and stable political and economic situation attract migrants to the country
from the CIS, the Baltic States and elsewhere as well. Belarus, in consequence is a
transit point for legal and illegal migration the EU. Annually 10-13 thousand
foreigners and stateless persons receive permanent residency in Belarus in
accordance with defined procedures. Presently, Internal Affairs agencies have a
record of 133 277 foreign citizens and 7,799 stateless persons with permanent
residency permits (see Table 1).
Table 1. The number of foreigners permanently residing in Belarus
160000
140000
120000

115134

125233

128658

128643

120770

114724

126258

130577

136445

141076

142617

100000
80000
60000
40000
20000
0

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

The Republic of Belarus has a licensing procedure which regulates the


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employment of natural persons abroad. Legal entities and individual entrepreneurs


involved in this kind of activity receive special permits (licenses) from the Ministry
of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Belarus.
Belarus has a complete system of legal and social protection of people
seeking asylum. The legislation on refugees which complies with the international
standards and is successfully implemented. Foreigners granted refugee status
exercise all the socio-economic rights and rights to education and healthcare of
Belarusian citizens. They also have the right to reunite with their family, receive
financial assistance, live in specially organized places, preferences when
registering at the place of residence, and the right to judicial defence on equal terms
with citizens of the Republic of Belarus.
Foreigners granted additional protection in Belarus have the same rights as
foreigners temporarily living in Belarus. Additionally they have the same right to
medical care and employment as foreigners permanently residing in Belarus. They also
have the right to reunite with their family and to live in specially equipped places.
Underage foreigners who were granted refugee status or additional protection
have the same right to education and medical care as underage Belarusian citizens do.
Foreigners not subject to deportation in accordance with the international
obligations of the Republic of Belarus have the right to receive permission for
temporary residency in Belarus, and all the rights exercised by this category of
foreigners.
Due to the transparency of the Russian-Belarusian border and because of its
geographical position between the CIS and the EU, the territory of Belarus is
actively used by illegal migrants coming from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, China,
Vietnam, India, Pakistan, Ghana, Egypt, Nigeria, Congo and other countries, as a
transit corridor to the West. Migration flows westward are hampered by well
guarded border with Poland, Lithuania, Latvia. As a result, more and more illegal
migrants remain on the territory of Belarus.
In 2009 law enforcement agencies detained nine groups of illegal migrants
on the territory of Belarus, their number totalling 41 people. In 2008 13 groups of
70 illegal migrants were detained, in 2007 - 8 and 53 correspondingly, in 2006
26 and 127, in 2005 53 groups and 302 people correspondingly (see Table 2).
Table 2. The number of detained groups and illegal migrants
2500

2120

2000
1500

1229

1117

1000
500

1925

326
31

47

150

133

126

53

302

26

127

8 53

13 70

9 41

5 21

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

The number of groups of illegal migrants detained on the territory of Belarus.


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The number of illegal migrants detained on the territory of Belarus


In 2009 the Border Forces detained 211 illegal migrants in transit.
We carried out an analysis which shows that, overall, the illegal flow of
migrants consists of young able-bodied people (see figure 1).
50
3%

18
4%

18 25
24%

45 50
11%
35 45
18%

25 35
40%

Figure 1. Age of illegal migrants


Illegal migrants detained at the border or in the country are deported by the
authorities to the source country. The number of annual deportations of illegal
migrants is about 2,02,3 thousand individuals. The peak of migrants deported
from the country, as it is shown in graph 10, was in the years 2002 (2375 people)
2004 (2324 people). After that, this index decreases. The number of illegal
migrants deported under escort also decreased. In 2007 there were 780 such
migrants as compared to 1051 in 2002 (see table 3).
Table 3. Foreigners deported from the territory of the Republic of
Belarus
2375

2500

2361 2324

2000
1500

1117

1000
500 264
0

27

2000

1051

940

2160

2275

1229
810

2019

912

1989

780

2017

839

1909

925

888

141
2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

The number of foreigners deported by law enforcement agencies form the


territory of the Republic of Belarus,
The number of people deported under escort.
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Undoubtedly illegal migration of foreign citizens is an important factor


affecting national security and law and order. It should be noted that the percentage
of crimes committed by foreign citizens in the Republic of Belarus (with the
exception of migration crimes), is from 0,9 to 1,3 % of the total committed in the
country.
Short description of stage by stage establishment of migration system in
Belarus. After the split of the Soviet Union, the Republic of Belarus began to
create its own migration policy. With this aim State Migration Service of the
Republic of Belarus was created in July 1992. The Service started developing the
legal basis for the regulation of people seeking asylum in the Republic of Belarus.
The main directions developed for the State migration policy are compliance with
the accepted standards of international law.
At the same time the Service coordinated work between the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Justice, the Ministries of Internal Affairs,
Healthcare, Education, Social Protection; the Ministry of Statistics and Analysis,
Border Forces and State Security agencies; as well as territorial executive and
administrative agencies and public associations. It also established relations with
relevant agencies in other states and international organizations.
The first statutory wording of the Law of the Republic of Belarus On the
legal status of foreign citizens and stateless persons in the Republic of Belarus" [1]
was passed in 1993. It was subsequently emended due to changes in the migration
situation, and amendments and corrections were introduced to the law. On January
4, 2010 President of the Republic of Belarus signed a new law regulating the same
group of social relations [2]/
The law increases the effectiveness of using migration potential in the best
interests of the Republic of Belarus, further improvement of legal regulations of
foreign citizens and stateless persons stay in the Republic and their ability to be
entrepreneurs or be involved in any other activity; fighting illegal migration and
elimination of gaps and ambiguities revealed in the course of application of the
existing legislation.
In 1995 the first statutory wording of the Law of the Republic of Belarus
On refugees was passed [3]. The law defined the grounds and procedures for
granting foreign citizens and stateless persons refugee status in the Republic of
Belarus. The law also defined the grounds of withdrawing refugee status, and legal,
social guarantees of the rights and interests of foreigners applying for refugee status
and recognized refugees.
In 1997 an Inter-Agency Commission was formed under the aegis of the
Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus. The Commission was ensured
coordination of the activities of ministries and other national agencies of state
governance on the preparation of the drafts of international agreements,
programmes of cooperation of the Republic of Belarus with other states and
international organizations in the area of migration and also made suggestions
regarding joining international agreements, conventions and accords.
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In 1998-1999 the Inter-Agency Commission initiated the preparation and


coordination with all the interested parties of the documents regulating Belarus'
accession to the UN 1951 Refugee Convention and the 1967 Protocol relating to
the Status of Refugees [4].
In February 1997 the Migration Committee first carried out a procedure
recognizing foreigners as refugees. They were the citizens of Afghanistan who had
stayed on the territory of the Republic of Belarus for an extended period.
On June 1, 1998 the Law of the Republic of Belarus "About Refugees"
came into action in Belarus. All work in the area of forced migration from 1995
onward has been carried out with the support of the UN High Commissioner for
Refugees.
In 2003 the issues of external labour migration and granting refugee status
were transferred from the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection of the Republic
of Belarus to the newly created agency, the Department for Citizenship and
Migration of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Belarus [5].
The Department ensures implementation of the legislation on citizenship and
migration; interacts with law enforcement agencies of the Republic of Belarus and
other states on the issues of prevention of violation of migration law; organises
control over the regime of foreign citizens and stateless persons' stay in the
Republic of Belarus; carries out actions aimed at interception of illegal
migration;interacts with international organizations on the issues of citizenship and
migration in accordance with the defined procedures; participates in drafting legal
acts relating to citizenship and migration;acts as a representative of a contractor for
carrying our work envisaged by migration programmes, agreements with
international organizations and technical and methodological provisions for the
work of the Department; performs other functions.
In the structure of the Department there are subdivisions that primarily
focus on work with refugees, asylum seekers and other categories of foreigners.
The Department is authorized to:
Take decisions on granting or refusing foreign citizens and stateless
persons refugee status,
Suspension, renewal, termination of reviewing applications of foreign
citizens and stateless persons granting them refugee status.
Take decisions on extending, withdrawing and renewing a refugee status
and also annulling decisions about recognizing foreign citizens and stateless
persons as refugees and cancelling such decisions.
Relevant agencies take active measures to counteract illegal migration,
particularly by improving the existing legislation. On July 3, 2009 the Law of the
Republic of Belarus About granting foreign citizens and stateless persons refugee
status, additional and temporary protection in the Republic of Belarus of June 23,
2008 came into force. According to this law, foreigners can be granted not only
refugee status but also additional and temporary protection [6].
The new Law primarily instituted additional protection. The central element
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in the international defence is the right not to be subject to forced return or


deportation in situations of threat tolife or freedom. The principle that forbids
forced return is stated in the international legislation in the 1951 Refugee
Convention and 1984 Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or
Degrading Treatment or Punishment; Belarus is a member of these Conventions.
The development of migration processes in the past decade highlighted the
problem of receiving and protecting foreigners, who do not comply with the 1951
Refugee Convention but, nevertheless, need international protection for other
reasons. These are foreigners who fear torture and capital punishment upon their
return to the state of their citizenship or previous common place of residency, and
persons fleeing from dangers of military conflicts.
Introduction of the Institute of Additional Protection in the Republic of
Belarus allows regulation of the necessary mechanisms of the implementation of
the 1984 Convention provisions:
defined the grounds for granting additional protection;
established legal, economic and social guarantees of the protection of
rights and legitimate interests of foreigners who were granted such a form of
protection;
defined categories of foreigners who are not granted additional
protection (excluding provisions).
In compliance with the Law foreigners apply with relevant requests to the
Department on Citizenship and Migration of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. If
foreigners are detained for illegal border crossing or illegal stay in the Republic of
Belarus they have to apply to the Border Force or Internal Affairs agency which
detained them. There is a defined procedure of processing the requests of
foreigners about granting them refugee status or additional protection in the
Republic of Belarus. Its first stage is consideration of the grounds for granting
refugee status in compliance with the 1951 Convention. The second stage is
considering the grounds for providing additional protection and grounds precluding
the deportation of the foreigner to the country of origin or the previous country of
residence.
The Administrative Code of the Republic of Belarus specifies the liability
of foreign citizens and persons without citizenship for administrative crimes [7].
In particular, it states that:
- foreigners are liable for entry, residence, transit, entrepreneurship without
proper documents (sanctions: warning with deportation or without deportation or
fine with deportation or without deportation);
- employers are liable for not taking measures on timely registration of
foreigners (sanctions - warning or fine);
- citizens of Belarus are liable for not taking measures on the registration of
foreigners and ensuring their timely departure (sanctions - warning or fine);
- citizens of Belarus are liable for providing accommodation or other
premises for residence, providing transport or using a foreigner for labour,
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entrepreneurship or other activity with violations of the prescribed order (sanctions


- warning or fine);
- citizens of Belarus are liable for repeated illegal actions (sanctions - fine);
Administrative law envisages exemption of liability for the specified
actions for foreigners who applied for a refugee status. Criminal responsibility is
specified in the Criminal Code of the Republic of Belarus for
- illegal crossing of the State border of the Republic of Belarus, including
crossing as an organised group (sanctions - from a fine to imprisonment for up to
seven years with confiscation of property or without confiscation);
- organisation of illegal migration (sanctions - from detention to
imprisonment for up to seven years with confiscation of property or without
confiscation);
- violation of the entry ban to the Republic of Belarus (sanctions - from
detention to imprisonment for up to three years) [8].
In some cases Criminal legislation also envisages exemption of liability for
the above stated actions for foreigners who applied for a refugee status.
The main international standards regulating labour and social rights of
persons, including their right to defence are secured by many international
agreements. Belarus has ratified 49 conventions of the International Labour
Organization including eight fundamental conventions. Out of this number of
conventions seven were replaced in connection with adoption of new conventions.
Overall, Belarus is one of the leading countries-members of ILO on the number of
ratified conventions.
In order to improve legal regulations in the area of external labour
migration a new version of the Law of the Republic of Belarus On external
migration was drafted. The Law regulates the procedures of job placement of
foreigners in the Republic of Belarus. The draft of the legal act clearly defines the
range of people subject to this law. The new draft suggests eliminating the
procedure of licensing activities connected with attracting foreign labour force to
the Republic of Belarus. Instead, it is planned to introduce a process for the of
issuing licenses to employers of foreign working force. The licenses will be
necessary only in cases of employment of more than 10 foreign workers. The
draft law clearly defines the grounds for refusal to issue or annulment
of these permits.
International Cooperation. On March 31, 2009 the Governments of the
Republic of Belarus and the Republic of Serbia signed an agreement on temporary
employment of Belarusian and Serbian citizens. It was done in order to expand
international cooperation in the sphere of labour, development and improvement of
contractual legal framework of the cooperation between Belarus and Serbia in the
area of labour migration and social protection of the working migrants. Internal
procedures are now being carried out for the Agreement to come into force.
In June 2009 the Government of the Republic of Belarus signed an
Agreement with the Ukrainian Cabinet of Ministers about visa-free travel of
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citizens. Internal procedures are now being carried out for the Agreement to come
into force.
On February 12, 2010 the Governments of the Republic of Belarus and the
Republic of Poland signed a Treaty on near-border movement. Presently, internal
procedures are being carried out for the international treaty to come into force.
Additionally draft agreements with Latvia and Lithuania about simplified
procedures of border crossing in the near-border area are being discussed.
On March 11, 2010 Belarusian-Ukrainian consultation on the draft of the
Readmission Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Belarus and
the Ukrainian Cabinet of Ministers took place in Kyiv. There have been organized
and held a range of other inter-governmental events on the issues of cooperation in
regulating migration processes in Belarus and fighting illegal migration. We can
conclude that in the short term the situation in the area of illegal migration will be
characterized by the following:
The trend of migrants' attempts to illegally cross the state border at the
crossing points with high quality forged documents will continue; Individuals from
Afro-Asian region will seek all opportunities to legalize their stay on the territory
of the Republic of Belarus with the aim of further transit to Western states; The
tactics of illegal border crossing will be constantly changing and becoming more
covert.
Only a coordinated approach of all countries to solve these challenging
problems along with close cooperation of the relevant agencies, international
organisations and interested countries can ensure positive results in the issues
concerning the control over migration.
Initiatives of the Republic of Belarus within the framework of Eastern
Partnership Programme. Relevant agencies of the Republic of Belarus considered
the "Easter Partnership" initiative of the European Union presented during the first
session of the Eastern Partnership Multilateral Platform #1 (democracy, good
governance and stability) of June 5, 2009 in Brussels (the Kingdom of Belgium).
Within the framework of the European Commission's initiative Integrated border
management proposed at the session, the Belarusian side made the following
suggestions for future cooperation in the short term:
Providing financial assistance to create a temporary detention centre for
foreign citizens detained for the violation of entry regulations and stay on the
territory of the Republic of Belarus; Increasing technical capacity of the
subdivisions on citizenship and migration of the Internal Affairs agencies of the
Republic of Belarus that deal with counteraction to illegal migration; Counteracting
illegal migration on the eastern border of the Republic of Belarus; Increasing the
capacity of Internal Affairs agencies on separation of mixed migration flows in
what concerns the development and improvement of the system of referring or
sending people seeking asylum who were detained for violating the rules of stay
and transit rules to the relevant subdivisions in order to perform a procedure of
identifying refugee status.
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In concluding this overview of the issues related to migration legislation


and the migration situation in the Republic of Belarus, we note that the
effectiveness of migration policy in many respects depends on the close
cooperation with the authorised agencies of the Russian Federation, the
Commonwealth of Independent States and the development of cooperation with the
European Union and other interested regional structures and international
organizations.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
1. "About legal status of foreign citizens and stateless persons in the Republic of
Belarus": Law of the Republic of Belarus, June 3, 1993. 2339-II.
2. "About legal status of foreign citizens and stateless persons in the Republic of
Belarus": Law of the Republic of Belarus, January 4, 2010. 105-.
3. About Refugees: Law of the Republic of Belarus, February 22, 1995, 3605II.
4. About Belarus' accession to the UN 1951 Refugee Convention and 1967
Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees. May 4, 2001. 10-.
5. Statistics for this article was provided by the Department for citizenship and
migration of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Belarus.
6. About granting foreign citizens and stateless persons a refugee status, additional
and temporary protection in the Republic of Belarus: Law of the Republic of
Belarus, 23 June, 2008. 354-.
7. Administrative Code of the Republic of Belarus, April 21 2003. 194-.
8. Criminal Code of the Republic of Belarus, July 9, 1999. 275-.

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RECENT EVOLUTION OF EU COMMON ASYLUM AND MIGRATION


POLICY: LEGAL AND POLITICAL DILEMMAS
BENEDETTI Ezio, PIACQUADIO Antonietta,
University of Trieste, Italy
1. Main problems and identification of the migration issue within EU.
Europe is currently absorbing 2 million migrants each year more as a proportion
of its population than any other part of the world, including North America. This
influx is altering the make-up of member-states populations more than birth rates
or death rates. Increased migration into Europe is part of a global trend. Cheaper
travel and more information entice skilled and unskilled workers from poorer
countries to rich ones. The UN predicts that, on current trends, the numbers of
people migrating worldwide will increase by 40 per cent over the next 40 years 49.
Since the end of the sixties European Unions immigration policies
followed an irregular trend as a consequence of the different characteristics that
migrations had and still have at international level and of the different perception
that the immigration States have of this process.
But since the end of the sixties international migrations undergo a radical
transformation, not much regards to quantitative data, if we consider the relative
immobility of the number of emigrants if compared to world population (IMO,
World Migration Report 2006)50, as in structural and qualitative terms. Concerning
structural aspects is recorded a growing complexity in the global geography of
migrations, with an exponential growth, since the last thirty years of the past
century, of major senders countries, of major receivers countries, and of States that
are at the same time senders and receivers countries (OECD, Globalisation,
Migration and Development)51. Moreover, differently than in the past, the
qualitative aspects of international migrations are characterized no more as an
unidirectional, permanent and definitive event, but rather as an open, circular and
reversible process, a sort of pendular movement there and back, which is
possible due to continuous advance of means of communication and transport
progress which allows the maintenance of regular contacts between the migrant, his
family and his country of origin (Stalker 2000; Sopemi 2003, p. 55; Pastore 2004).
The global dimension of migration processes caused a progressive change
of perspective in the adoption of governmental policies in this sector, policy which
49

Most immigration figures, especially projections, are by necessity a mixture of estimation and guesswork.
UN sources affirm that, in the last fifty years, less than 3% of world population lived outside its State of
origin for more than one year. There are almost 180 millions emigrants in the world (2005 data), more than half
of them live in less developed countries and the great part of migration flows concerns the same Continent.
Even so, data are testifying a growth in migration flows in the last twenty years and a record level absorption of
immigrants in North America and in the EUs States.
51
Between 1970 and 1990 the International Labour Organization (ILO) noticed a considerable growth of the
countries of origin of the migratory flows (from 29 to 55), of the countries of destination of massive migratory
flows (from 39 to 67) and of the countries which are at the same time major senders and receivers (from 4 to
15).
50

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has been characterized since the early eighties by the slow but progressive
renouncing of an unilateral and sectorial approach to the management of migratory
flows and the development of an international cooperation policy (Nascimbene
1999; Chaltiel 1998; Kaczorowska 2006)52.
Immigrants have become the subject of increasingly strident political debate
in many European countries. The flow of workers into the UK and Ireland
following the EUs 2004 enlargement was the largest inward migration ever
recorded into either country over a two-year period. Spains official immigrant
population has risen by 400 per cent in ten years. And Italy worries about an
estimated 100,000 Romanian immigrants, most of whom are thought to be without
a job. In some places, robust growth and falling unemployment have helped to
assuage concerns about the impact of immigration on local labour markets. But
despite this and economists warnings that Europe will need ever more migrants
in the years ahead most polls show that migrants are seen as a problem, rather
than as an opportunity.
Notwithstanding this, international and European cooperation suffered for a
long time and is still suffering on some hand from a minimal and inadequate
approach to the a such complex phenomenon as migration is. The lack of a
strategic vision a starting point that cannot be disregarded in order to elaborate a
serious and functional governance of migration processes leaded to the adoption
of strictly defensive policies just oriented to gain the immigration zero objective,
which although rhetorical and unreal has become a political priority for a lot of
western Governments (Sciortino 2000; Pastore 2001; Guild and Harlow 2005)53.
Since the nineties the merely restrictive management of external migration
in EU showed all its limits: barely efficient in the long period, hardly sustainable
on the political plan and not suitable to real interests of European societies. On the
52

The strengthening of international cooperation in this sector is partially a reflection of the importance that the
supranational level of governance of migratory phenomenon assumed in the last few years. This is a tendency
which has been and is particularly evident in the context of European Union and has no analogy in the
experience of other continents. The EU experimented the passage from inter-governmental forms of
cooperation between the member States, to a common policy which is determined by the EC Institutions, while
the residual competence of the member States can be exercised only through national rules which have to be
compatible with the Treaty and international agreements. In particular, following the coming into force of
Amsterdam Treaty (may 1st 1999), Visas, asylum, immigration and other policies connected with the free
circulation of people, already subject matter of inter-governmental cooperation provided in the 1992 Treaty
on European Union (Title VI: Cooperation in the fields of justice and home affairs), are disciplined by EC
law (Title IV TCE, artt. 61-69). The member States have just residual competencies in the fields of entry and
residence, anyway they can adopt and maintain some national rules, as long as they are compatible with EC
law and international treaties (art. 63 TCE), and in general the exertion of competences for the maintenance of
public order and the protection of national security (art. 64 TCE).
53
Consequently, international and EU cooperation ceased to be focused exclusively on static controls on
national frontiers, privileging controls outside national frontiers through the prevision of some forms of
pecuniary responsibility for the carriers and dynamic controls on illegal immigrants and trans-national
criminal organisations devoted to the migratory smuggling through the diffusion of advanced technologies
(radars, radio systems, bio-sounding etc.), the exchange of police information and the development of data
bases for the scheduling of illegal immigrants and the comparison of fingerprints (we are referring perhaps to
the Info System Schengen rather than the EUROPOLs or EURODACs data bases).

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one hand, contrary to all expectations, restrictive immigration policies carried out
the stabilisation of immigrants in the emigration countries (by means of family
reunification praxis) and the growth of illegal immigration, handled by transnational criminal organisations. Whereas on the other hand, emerged the positive
effect of migrations on demographic policies in a medium-long period perspective
(IMO 2006)54 and on economic development of major receivers countries (EC
Commission 2000)55.
Despite years of discussion and initiatives, a real EU migration policy has
proved elusive. This is because the member-states cannot agree on clear political
objectives (and thus, a legal mandate) for such a policy. Some countries think that a
European migration policy would allow them to escape rigid national debates.
Others want a pan-European migration policy so as to put pressure on countries
outside the EU to take back more illegal entrants. For a few European federalists, a
single migration policy is attractive almost by definition. It could advance the
notion of the EU as a single state providing European citizenship, not just to the
existing population but also to newcomers.
These different motivations complicate EU initiatives on migration. EU and
national officials, for example, talk about the need to promote circular migration
and establish co-operation platforms with African countries. But they struggle to
clarify what these things will mean in practice, or how action at the European level
would add value. Overall, the EUs response to public demand to do something
about migration has been to focus on policies aimed at immigrants countries of
origin. This is also a way to paper over disagreements at home: proposals from the
European Commission to adopt uniform immigration procedures across the EU
often end up gridlocked.
But even in the absence of a coherent policy, EU co-operation is facilitating
an exchange of experience with, and ideas about, managing migration. The
emerging consensus amongst member states is that European countries manage
migration best when they work with the migrants country of origin on everything
from border control to development issues; have well-advertised, easy to
understand schemes for skilled migration; provide a clear and fair route to
citizenship for newcomers; and use the right mixture of sticks and carrots to get
54

Western countries are characterised since the end of the eighties by a worrying birth rate decrease combined
with population ageing; this process put the problem for these societies to guarantee a population in working
age sufficient to sustain the welfare costs. So that policies aimed to support regular immigration are playing a
decisive role if related to adequate policies directed to reduce demographic lack of balance in industrialized
countries, allowing to counterbalance the loss of active population and consequently to maintain an acceptable
level of economic growth..
55
For a long time liberalist doctrine asserts the necessity for the States to announce more generous quotas of
immigrants, especially of qualified workers to be used in high technology sectors, in order to maintain global
competitiveness of their economies. United States of America, Canada and Australia have been the first
industrialized countries to announce an increase in entry quotas for qualified workers in high technology
industry (e.g. almost 65% of qualified workers in informatics sector in United States of America is Chinese or
Indian. See IMO, 2004). Although a similar trend has been recorded also in some European countries
especially in Great Britain and Germany - is clear, by admission of EC institutions themselves, that the level of
European competitiveness in this sector is very modest.

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illegal immigrants to leave. However, efforts to advance these aims at EU level are
still in their infancy.
All Member States of the European Union (EU) are affected by the flow of
international migration. They have agreed to develop a common immigration
policy at EU level. The European Commission has made proposals for developing
this policy, most of which have now become EU legislation. The main objective is
to better manage migration flows by a coordinated approach which takes into
account the economic and demographic situation of the EU.
In spite of the restrictive immigration policies which have been in place
since the 1970s in most Member States, large numbers of legal and illegal migrants
have continued to come to the EU together with asylum-seekers. Taking advantage
of persons seeking a better life, smuggling and trafficking networks have taken
hold across the EU. This situation meant that considerable resources have had to be
mobilised to fight illegal migration especially to target traffickers and smugglers.
Furthermore, it is recognised that the EU needs migrants in certain sectors and
regions in order to deal with its economic and demographic needs.
Realising that a new approach to managing migration was necessary, the
leaders of the EU set out at the October 1999 European Council in Tampere
(Finland) the elements for a common EU immigration policy. The approach agreed
in Tampere in 1999 was confirmed in 2004 with the adoption of The Hague
programme, which sets the objectives for strengthening freedom, security and
justice in the EU for the period 2005-2010.
2. Legislative tools and developments in EU migration policy within the
Den Haag programme (2004-2009).
2.1. Economic migration. The European Commission put forward in July
2001 a proposal for a Directive on the conditions of admission and stay of third
country workers. However, due to Member States diverging views on this issue,
the negotiations did not lead to the adoption of legislation. The Commission relaunched in 2005 the debate on the need of common rules for the admission of
economic migrants with a Green Paper on an EU approach to managing
economic migration (COM (2004) 811). This consultation led to the adoption in
December 2005 of a Policy Plan on Legal Migration (COM (2005) 669) which
lists the actions and legislative initiatives that the Commission intends to take, so as
to pursue the consistent development of the EU legal migration policy.
2.2. Integration. In September 2007, the Commission presented the Third
Annual Report on Migration and Integration (COM (2007) 512), continuing the
monitoring process of policy developments on admission and integration of thirdcountry nationals in the EU. The report provides information on the establishment
of the EU framework for integration up to June 2007 and it includes specific
information about the various dimensions of the integration process in Member
States for the calendar year 2005 and the first half of 2006.
2.3. Illegal immigration and return. On 16 December 2008, the European
Parliament and the Council of the European Union adopted Directive 2008/115/EC
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on common standards and procedures in Member States for returning illegally


staying third-country nationals as published in the Official Journal (L 348 of
24.12.2008). The transposition deadline for the Member States is 24.10.2010.
In July 2006 the Commission adopted a Communication on policy priorities
in the fight against illegal immigration of third-country nationals (COM (2006)
402) which builds on the guiding principles and EU achievements and further
develops new priorities. It follows a comprehensive approach, striking a balance
between security and basic rights of individuals and thus addresses measures at all
stages of the illegal immigration process.
In order to fully implement the Return Action Programme agreed in 2002, the
Commission adopted in September 2005 a proposal for a Directive on common
standards and procedures in Member States for returning illegally staying thirdcountry nationals. The objective of this proposal is to provide for clear, transparent
and fair common rules concerning return, removal, use of coercive measures,
temporary custody and re-entry while taking into full account the respect for human
rights and fundamental freedoms of the persons concerned.
2.4. Migration and development. In September 2005 the Commission
adopted the communication Migration and development: some concrete
orientations (COM (2005) 390). This Communication constitutes the response of
the European Union to the invitations made by the Council in March 2003 and the
European Council in November 2004 to submit concrete orientations to improve
the impact of migration on the development of countries of origin in a number of
fields. It constitutes therefore a contribution by EU immigration policy to the
objectives of development policy. The Communication highlights measures and
initiatives which are likely to lead to concrete progress. The Communication
identifies a number of concrete orientations in the following areas: Remittances;
Facilitating the involvement of willing diaspora members in the development of
countries of origin; Facilitating brain circulation; and Limiting the impact of brain
drain.
3. The common policy for asylum and migration enters a new phase:
from Den Haag to Stockholm programme. The Commissions 2007 Green
Book had the scope to monitor the progresses made in the objectives stated in the
European Council of Tampere (1999) and re-stated in The Hague Programme
(2004) and in the Global approach on migration issues (2005) concerning a
common space of freedom, justice and liberty.
In this document it has been clearly stated that there is the need to go
forward creating a truly EU common migration system. But the real problem is that
till now there is still no legislative harmonization at all between EU member States
on these issues. By this point of view the Green Book emphasizes the necessity
to proceed in two phases: First phase: to harmonize legal instruments of each
member State on the behalf of minimum common rules; Second phase: to reach a
higher level of common rules which should grant unique treatment in different
countries.
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The idea is to create a unique legislative regime regulating the evaluation of


asylum requests, the problem is that a number of organizations acting in protection
of refugees speak about a less protection for individuals
On June 17 2008 the Commission respected its commitments and published
a Communication concerning A common immigration policy for Europe:
principles, actions and instruments and A strategic plan on asylum which
defines the architecture of the 2nd phase of the CEAS (Common European Asylum
System)56.
The idea of the Commission was that this two documents had to be both
approved by the European Council in the October 2008 meeting in order to insert
them in a new five year plan in the sector of freedom, justice and security. The
2008 Communication presents ten common principles for a common migration
policy grounded on three principal axis of EU strategy:
Prosperity
1) clear rules and equality conditions,
2) meeting between qualifications and needs,
3) integration of migrants: the key of a successful migration process,
Solidarity:
4) transparency and cooperation,
5) concrete and coherent use of the instruments,
6) third countries partnerships
Security
7) a visa policy which should protect EU interests,
8) borders integrated management,
9) to intensify the fight against illegal immigration and zero tolerance,
10) sustainable and effective repatriation policies.
Concluding it is possible to argue that in the opinion of the EU Commission
the European Common policy on migration should be based on a real partnership
between EU institutions and member States, and on regular follow-up monitoring
of the migration phenomenon in Europe.
In this sense, the vice-president of the Commission Jacques Barrot, Commissary
responsible for the program justice, freedom and security, declared in February
2008 that immigration, if correctly (but what does it mean correctly??) managed, is
an opportunity and a challenge for EU and for the development of its economies
fighting against illegal immigration continuing to sustain universal values as the
refugees protection, tolerance and the respect of human dignity.
3.1. The 2008 European pact on immigration and asylum and the
56

The fact that the Commission decide to prepare two different documents indicates the fact that the problem
of asylum is a specific and relevant problem within the EU. The first phase of legal harmonization, concerning
minimum legal standards has been already completed (conditions for the acceptance of asylum seekers,
procedures for asylum requests the conditions for the recognition of the status of person who need international
protection and the Regulation Dublin II, concerning the determination of the State competent in order to
examine the asylum request, which has been hardly criticized by many organizations which deal with asylum),
so that in the second phase the ambitious aim is to reach the objectives stated in Den Haag programme.

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Stockholm programme. In July 2008 a team of experts of the French government,


at that time turn President of the EU, presented in Paris a new important document
in order to go forward towards the constitution of a truly European common policy
on asylum and immigration: The European pact on immigration and asylum.
This document has been officially adopted during the European Council
held in Bruxelles on October 15 2008. For the first time an official document of the
EU does not define immigration a problem but an opportunity in the context of the
freedom of circulation which the Union grants to its and foreign citizens in the
member States territory.
It has been stated clearly that immigration is an opportunity. It is a factor of
human and social exchange and development (fundamental for the EU working
market). The document clearly states the immigration zero objective is dangerous
and not realistic at the same time.
This document also affirms that a global approach to migration issues is
fundamental (as already stated in the European Council in 2005), due to the fact
they are integrant part of external relations of EU. An effective and harmonic
management of migration have to be global, facing at the same time the
organization of legal migration flows and the fight against illegal immigration, and
finally this would favour a synergy between migrations and development.
However, it is said in the document, the EU has not all the necessary
instruments in order to receive all the migrants who are aiming to enter within EU.
So that the management of migratory flows has to be founded on the European
receiving capacities for what concerns labour market, homes and social and scholar
services.
This approach should be based on a common spirit of responsibility and
solidarity between member States and mobility partnership with third countries of
origin or transit for migrants; it is also stated that a national policy concerning
immigration has immediately repercussions on the interests of other member states.
This document is based on five fundamental points (which will foster the
new Stockholm programme on immigration policy which substitute, probably in
June 201057, the 2004 Den Haag Programme):
1) to organize legal migration flows in conformity with priorities, exigences
and capacities of each member State, favouring integration of migrants within EU
societies;
2) to fight against illegal immigration flows, fostering the return to their
origin or transit countries of illegal non EU nationals through readmission
agreements and mobility partnerships;
3) to enforce the effectiveness of border controls (enhance the role and the
funds for Frontex)
4) to built an Europe based on asylum principles;
5) to create a global partnership with third countries of origin and transit
57

See page 9 of the present paper.

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which should endeavour a synergy between migrations and development.


Another very important issue, concerning the emerging EU migratory
policy beside this, is the fact that EU adopted in November 2009 the so called
Stockholm Programme which is substituting the Den Haag programme 2004-2009.
On April 23rd 2010 Justice and home affairs ministers heard presentations
by the Commission on its recommendations for an action plan implementing the
Stockholm Programme (5731/10). Ministers welcomed the Commission paper,
stressed, however, that the action plan should more closely mirror the objectives set
out in the Stockholm Programme itself. The Council asked its preparatory bodies to
swiftly start consultations on the action plan with a view to adopt the it in June
2010.The Stockholm Programme is the multi-annual strategic work programme in
the area of freedom, security and justice. It was adopted by the Council on 30
November 2009 and endorsed by the European Council on 10-11 December 2009.
It sets out the priorities for EU action in the area for the next five years (2010-14).
It puts the citizen at the heart of EU action and deals, among other things, with
questions of citizenship, justice and security as well as asylum, migration and the
external dimension of justice and home affairs.
It is ten years since the EU set itself the target of creating an area of
freedom, justice and security. The Stockholm Programme will built on the progress
made during the implementation of the Tampere Programme (2000-2004) and the
Hague Programme (2005-2010).
But, as it will be demonstrated in the next paragraph, it is important to note
that the entering in force on December 1st 2009 of the Lisbon Treaty also had a
great impact on the recent developments concerning the common EU migration
policy, including the Stockholm programme.
4. The impact of Lisbon Treaty on the development of EU immigration
legislation. The changes and additions of Lisbon Treaty in the field of Justice and
Home Affairs are remarkable. The Lisbon Treaty reaffirms the merging of Title VI
of the TEU and Title IV of the EC Treaty. Also there are changes made to the
decision making process by shifting several measure to a qualified majority vote in
the Council and by giving European Parliament joint decision making powers by
introducing a ordinary legislative process ( previously called co-decision). Though,
the changes in the Justice and Home Affairs seem to be more in technical nature
than substantial. Nevertheless the rules in the Lisbon Treaty constitute a further
step in the ongoing development in the field of Justice and Home Affairs that some
decades ago were treated as sole and sovereign matter of a Member State. The
analysis has shown that it has become more and more harmonised in current years
and the Lisbon Treaty provides tools for further development in harmonization of
immigration field. The shortcomings will emerge through practice when the Lisbon
Treaty is enforced until that time the EU has to play with the old rules and do as
much as possible in order to fulfil its tasks given by the Treaties. Also the
conditions under which the third country nationals shall have the freedom to travel
within the Union for a short period should be adopted as currently they do not
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provide enough support from the Community level. If persons are crossing internal
borders there shouldnt be a control regardless of their nationality so therefore the
third country nationals who have a right to enter one country will also enjoy the
free movement of persons provision. There seems to be a small conflict in the free
movement of third country nationals. As Schengen area does not cover the whole
EU but the Treaty itself speaks about the internal borders 58 which should mean the
EU internal borders but not Schengen internal borders. The Schengen acquis is
attached to the Lisbon Treaty by the Protocol Integrating the Schengen acquis into
the Framework of the European Union. The attachment of Schengen acquis to
Lisbon Treaty makes the free movement provisions more transparent and clear
although they are applicable even in the current moment.
The aim of the EU common immigration policy is to ensure the efficient
management of migration flows, fair treatment of third country nationals who are
residing legally in Member States and prevention and combating illegal
immigration and trafficking in human beings. 59 In the current Treaty the aim is not
specified but simply lists the topics in which the Council has to take measures in
the field of immigration and asylum.60 Though the treaty makes an reservation to
the competences of the EU regarding the number of people that can be accepted to
EU. 61 This provision doesnt make much difference as the member states cant
really control the movement and stop their movement further, of persons who were
admitted for example in Germany and then go to France as other articles of the
Treaty refer to the free movement clause of third country nationals who are
admitted to one Member State. Particularly Article 77 of Lisbon Treaty that says
Union shall develop a policy to ensure the absence of any controls on persons. So
in fact the states do not control the flow of the persons who has a right to reside in
one member state can go to another member state.
Looking back to the TEC and comparing it to Lisbon it can be said that
changes have occurred. It is clearer what can be done on the EU level, the goals set
are more clear but at the same time some provisions that were on the TEC
Agreement are not reflected in Chapter 2 of Lisbon Treaty. Before the policy
covered by title IV called visas, asylum, immigration and other policies related to
free movement of persons and now the chapter 2 of Lisbon Treaty dealing with the
issue is called policies on border checks, asylum and immigration and belongs
under area of freedom, security and justice.
The Lisbon Treaty will have several major implications for police and
judicial cooperation in criminal matters as co-decision, qualified majority voting

58

Article 77 (2) (e) of Lisbon Treaty.


Ibid art 79.
60
Articles 61, 62, 63 of TEC.
61
Article 79 5 of Lisbon Treaty. This Article shall not affect the right of Member States to determine
volumes of admission of third country nationals coming from third countries to their territory in order to seek
work, whether employed or self-employed.
59

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and the ECJs jurisdiction will be extended to this area. 62 The present Title IV of
the TEU Visas, Asylum, Immigration and Other Policies related to Free
Movement of Persons and present Title VI of TEU Police and Judicial
Cooperation in Criminal Matters has been replaced with Title IV Area of
Freedom, security and Justice. With the Treaty of Amsterdam, visas, asylum,
immigration were transferred from the intergovernmental to the EC pillar,
becoming subject to EU decision-making procedures and the scrutiny of the
European Court of Justice. Police and Judicial Cooperation in Criminal Matters
(third pillar) are presently subject to unanimity. The Lisbon Treaty will abolish the
Maastricht Treaty pillar structure and move Police and Judicial Cooperation in
Criminal Matters to the Treaty on the functioning of the European Union (the
existing EC Treaty). The new title Area of Freedom, Security and Justice brings
together the presently dispersed JHA policies under one heading. The Lisbon
Treaty will have several major implications for police and judicial cooperation in
criminal matters as co-decision, qualified majority voting and the ECJs
jurisdiction will be extended to this area. The Community method is extended to
police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters.
The Lisbon Treaty facilitates the Union to develop its own Union action and
policies concerning security and justice with the ECJ ensuring that the common
area of Freedom, Security and Justice is not undermined. It transfers increased
powers to the EU institutions, in the area of security and justice. Qualified Majority
Voting at the Council of Ministers and co-decision (called ordinary legislative
procedure) will be the rule. Hence, the European Parliament will have a stronger
and more influential role. In 1997, the Treaty of Amsterdam incorporated a large
part of the former third pillar into the EC Treaty. Consequently, the ECJ's powers
concerning Title IV (Visas, Asylum, Immigration, judicial cooperation in civil
matters) were established as equivalent to its powers for upholding and interpreting
other Community law areas. Nevertheless, its preliminary rulings on jurisdiction
concerning these matters, according to Article 68 TEC, is restricted to national
courts from which there is no judicial remedy. The Lisbon Treaty repeals Article 68
TEC. It is clear that the ECJ will make sure that the common area of Freedom,
Security and Justice is not undermined.
Conclusions. First of all it must be underlined that the European pact on
immigration and asylum, on which are based all the recent developments
(Stockholm programme) in the field of EU migration policy is an atypical
document within the common praxis of EU institutions.
It is a sort of programmatic document, a framework useful to follow a common
political line where to insert the various proposals concerning asylum and
immigration.
62

For more look at FIGHTING CROSS-BORDER CRIME:EU CO-DECISION, QMV, AND ECJ
JURISDICTION TO BE EXTENDED INTO AREA OF POLICE AND JUDICIAL COOPERATION
[ARTICLE 61] http://www.europeanfoundation.org/docs/Tuesday%2029%20January/ARTICLE%2061.mht,
accessed 12 March 2009.

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Many scholars and politicians criticized this agreement defining it a


compromise on below, whose aim is not develop European solidarity, but looks
only to the economic dimension of immigration, trying to enforce the idea of a
chosen migration functional for the economic development of the EU countries.
It has also been pointed out the scarce internal coherence of the document.
The premises (The immigration zero objective is dangerous and not realistic at the
same time) are in fact in opposition with the five statements.
There are no concrete proposal in order to regularize the already illegal
migrants living in EU. Another paradox is that almost 64% of immigrants arriving
in EU enter through normal borders, while just 14% enter through maritime
borders. This means that the action of Frontex is not worthy (too much money, too
scarce results) and that the migration emergence is very often manipulated by
medias.
The specificity of migration policy is that it touches upon the topics
concerned with economic policy and at the same time with such phenomenal
aspects as culture of the society, its traditions and identity. That is why there is a
great necessity of complex studying of the questions concerning the migration
policy. While planning the migration policy governors should consider
demographic aspects of the society, sufficiency of labour force and cultural
situation in the country.
Migration policy becomes one of the most popular aspects of the western
science. The reason for this is that the migration problems are the most urgent
questions during elections in different European countries.
The European Union is enjoying an unprecedent high standard of living,
and the longest peace in its history - but what about the states just outside its
borders? Just at a time of ending the division of our continent, it is important that
the outer perimeter of the EU should not become a new dividing line.
The European Neighbourhood Policy is about working together with those
States who share a land or sea border with the EU, to increase their prosperity and
stability too.
Neighbours who want to carry out reforms to improve their standards of
democracy and human rights, to increase their access to the Union's single market,
to improve the environment or to step up their co-operation with the EU on issues
like energy, transport or migration, have the chance to work on a joint Action Plan
with the EU, and can look forward to substantial assistance: technical help,
political support, and more aid money.
Concluding this paper it is possible to argue that Europes migration,
asylum and immigration policy has two aspects: while there is a clear demand for
immigrants because of the declining population in most European countries, there
is also a heated debate about controlling migration because of failed integration
and risks for national and social security. The popular rhetoric of failed
integration policies and the need to control migration a new reinforces antiimmigrant sentiments and the introduction of restrictive immigration policies
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BIBLIOGRAPHY:
1. Consolidated reader-friendly edition of the Treaty on European Union (TEU)
and the Treaty on the functioning of the European Union (TFEU) as amended
by the Treaty of Lisbon (2007), Foundation for EU Democracy
2. Bache, I. and George, S. 2006. Politics in the European Union. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
3. Baldaccini, A. Guild, E., Toner, H., 2007, Whose freedom, security and justice?
: EU immigration and asylum law and policy, Oxford ; Portland
4. Bendel, P. 2007. Everything under Control? The European Unions Policies
and Politics of Immigration. In T. Faist and A. Ette (Eds.), The Europeanization
of National Policies and Politics of Immigration. Between Autonomy and the
European Union (pp.32-48).
5. Berramdane, Abdelkhaleq and Rossetto, Jean. 2009. Le politique europenne
dimmigration. Paris: Khartala.
6. Boccardi, Luciana. 2001. Europe and refugees. Towards an EU asylum policy.
Bodmin- Cornwall: MPG Books Limited.
7. Bonetti, Paolo, and Casadonte, Giovanni. 2004. Ingresso, soggiorno e
allentamento. P. 426. Ed. Nascimbene, Bruno. 2004. Diritto degli stranieri,
Padova: Cedam;
8. Bonetti, Paolo. 2001. Expulsion and detention of aliens in the European Union
countries. Giuffr: Milano
9. Bort, E. 2000. Illegal Migration and Cross-Border Crime: Challenges at the
Eastern Frontier of the European Union. EUI Working Paper RSC 2000/9.
10. Boswell, Christina. 2003. European migration policies influx: changing
patterns of inclusion and exclusion. Oxford: Blackwell/Royal Institute of
International Affairs.
11. Calamia, Antonio Maria. 1980. Ammissione e allontamento degli stranieri,
Milano: Giuffr.
12. Chou, M.-H. (2006). EU and the Migration-Development Nexus: What
Prospects for EU-Wide Policies? Working Paper No. 37. Oxford: Centre on
Migration, Policy and Society
13. Griller, S., Ziller, J., 2008, The Lisbon Treaty: EU constitutionalism without a
constitutional treaty? Wien; New York: Springer
14. Guild, Bart, and Harlow, Matthew (eds.). 2005. Implementing Amsterdam:
Immigration and Asylum Rights in EC Law. Oxford;
15. Hailbronner, Karl. 2000. Immigration and Asylum Law and Policy of the
European Union, The Hague/London/Boston;
16. Hemme Battjes, 2006, European Asylum law and International law, Martinus
Nijhoff publishers
17. Kazkorowska, Alina. 2006. Law of the European Union. 4. London:
Paperbacks;
18. Khader, Bichara. 1999. LEurope et le Mditerrane : gopolitique de la
proximit. Paris: LHarmatan;
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19. Kofman, E., Phizaklea, A., Raghuram, P. and Sales, R. 2000. Gender and
International Migration in Europe. London and New York: Routledge.
20. Koser, K. and Lutz, H. 1998. The New Migration in Europe: Social
Constructions and Social Realities. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
21. Liberati. A. 2009. La disciplina dellimmigrazione e i diritti degli stranieri.
Padova: Cedam.
22. Lucas, R. E. B. 2005. International Migration and Economic Development:
Lessons from low-income countries. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
23. Martin, P. and Zrcher, G. 2008. Managing Migration: The Global Challenge.
Population Bulletin, 63 (1). Washington: Population Reference Bureau
24. Sciortino, Giorgio. 2000. Lambizione della frontiera. Le politiche di controllo
migratorio in Europa. Milano: Franco Angeli;
25. Skeldon, R. 1997. Migration and Development: A Global Perspective. Harlow:
Longman.
26. Sopemi, Veredikt. 2003. Trends in International Migration. Paris: OCSE;
27. Soysal. J. 1994. Limits of Citizenship. Migrants and Postnational Membership
in Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
28. Stalker, Benedict. 2000. Workers Without Frontiers. The Impact of
Globalisation on International Migration, , London: International Labour
Organisation (ILO);
29. Tagore, Vinandran. 2009. The external relations and the immigration policy in
the EU, Leicester: Rinauld Publishers co.;
30. Wiesbrock, A. 2009. Legal Migration to the European Union: Ten Years After
Tampere. PhD thesis, Maastricht University. Nijmegen: Wolf Legal.

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and formation in Moldova are made.
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ASPECTE DE ORDIN ECONOMIC, SOCIAL I LEGISLATIV


PRIVIND MIGRAIA FOREI DE MUNC
PREDONU Andreea - Monica,
Universitatea Cretin Dimitrie Cantemir Bucureti
Abstract:
Labour migration is a way to mitigate regional imbalances in the labor market.
Several makers have sought to show that immigration is a source for labor market
development. Thus, labor migration should be viewed from all points of view, respectively,
economic, social and legislation.
Key words: labor market, immigrant, emigrant, migration, economic growth,
unemployment.

Pentru a ne putea familiariza cu termenul migraiei este necesar o definire a


termenului migraie sau migraiune, care vine din latinescul: migratio, -onis cu
diferite sensuri pe care nsemntatea cuvntului n sine a avut-o n istorie:
deplasare n mas a unor triburi sau a unor populaii de pe un teritoriu pe altul,
determinat de factori economici, sociali, politici sau naturali.
Prin urmare, migraia a existat de la nceputurile omenirii. Fenomenul nu a
ncetat n timp, ns a nregistrat schimbri i a cptat noi forme. Procesele
migratorii se desfoar simultan i sunt n cretere n multe ri ale lumii. Pentru
cercettorii din domeniul migraiei a devenit tot mai clar c acest fenomen trebuie
privit ca un element normal i structural al societii omeneti de-a lungul istoriei.
Migraia concentreaz n jurul su un set foarte larg de fenomene sociale, motiv
pentru care ea constituie obiect de studiu pentru mai multe discipline, precum
demografia, geografia populaiei, economia, tiinele juridice, sociologia i altele.
Cercettorii din aceste domenii au ncercat s elaboreze scheme i teorii explicative ale
fenomenului, multe din acestea fiind inspirate de teoriile fizice asupra micrii
corpurilor. Astfel, nc n secolul trecut, Ravenstein propune un model gravitaional",
ameliorat de ctre continuatorii si; o alt schem, tot de inspiraie fizic, este modelul
pull-push", adic al factorilor de atracie i respingere.
n sens restns, micarea migratorie reprezint deplasarea populaiei dintr-o
localitate n alta (care aparine aceleiai ri sau unei ri diferite), n condiiile
schimbrii domiciliului stabil. E adevrat c indivizii se deplaseaz frecvent n
teritoriu, fr ca aceast deplasare s presupun i schimbarea statutului su
rezidenial (a domiciliului su stabil). Cercetrile ntreprinse de doamna Simona
Ghi (2005) ne arat c, dup cum micarea populaiei nsoit de schimbarea
domiciliului stabil se produce n interiorul granielor naionale sau n exteriorul lor,
avem de-a face cu micare migratorie intern sau cu micare migratorie extern.
Orice persoan care efectueaz o deplasare n sensul de mai sus are o dubl calitate:
el este emigrant pentru localitatea din care pleac i imigrant pentru
localitatea n care-i stabilete noul domiciliu.
Astfel, Organizaia Internaional pentru Migraie definete migraia
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internaional a forei de munc drept un proces de emigrare temporar n alt


ar, motivat de generarea unor venituri alternative i sperana de rentoarcere n
ara de origine i care nu prevede o nou reedin.
La momentul actual, practic, toate statele lumii sunt implicate n procesul
migraiei forei de munc, fie ca ri de destinaie ( state gazd ), fie ca ri de
origine, fie de tranzit, bineneles, fiind influenate de acest fenomen sub aspect
economic, social i politic.
Munca n strintate reprezint o surs important de venit pentru o parte
nsemnat a populaiei. n prezent, una din zece gospodrii romneti beneficiaz
de venituri din migraia internaional. Gospodriile cu migrani au un numr mai
mare de bunuri de lung durat comparativ cu gospodriile ce au acelai profil
socio-economic, dar fr experien de migraie.
Persoanele care au lucrat n strintate au un profil atitudinal specific: sunt
mai critici n ceea ce privete situaia din ara de origine, dar n acelai timp sunt
mai optimiti n ceea ce privete viitorul. Ei vin cu aspiraii superioare, care
favorizeaz att critic social asupra strii localitii n care triesc, ct i critic
asupra strii sociale actuale din ara de origine. De asemenea, persoanele care nu au
lucrat n strintate, dar care au de gnd s plece la lucru n afar, sunt cele mai
nemulumite de localitate i de ar. Optimismul dinamic nemulumire fa de
prezent i ncredere n viitor este specific celor cu intenie de migraie i celor din
gospodriile cu migrani. La polul opus, pesimismul cronic este ru i posibil c
va fi i mai ru apare mai ales n gospodriile lipsite de experien de migraie.
Datele de sondaj relev c principalele consecine negative ale migraiei
temporare pentru munc sunt cele care se rsfrng asupra familiei. Aproape jumtate
(46%) dintre cei care sunt de prere c este un lucru ru c oamenii pleac la munc n
strintate i argumenteaz opinia prin afirmaii legate de viaa de familie. Deprtarea
fa de familie, echivalent cu un anumit nivel de deprivare n sfera nevoilor de
afectivitate este cea mai menionat consecin negativ a plecrii la munc n
strintate (35%). n aceeai categorie de meniuni mai pot fi adugate afirmaiile
despre dezbinarea familiei (9% din meniunile de consecine negative) i suferina
celor care rmn acas (1%). Acest studiu a fost svrit pe baza unui chestionar.
Aadar, trebuie s lum seama de trei direcii de investigare i anume:
efectele migraie asupra populaiei de origine,
efectele migraie asupra populaiei de destinaie,
efectele migraie asupra migranilor nii.
De exemplu, o migraie ce antreneaz un numr mare de persoane, n general
de vrst tnr, poate provoca, n populaia de origine, un deficit de for de
munc i deci o slbire a activitilor, o scdere a natalitii, o mbtrnire
demografic i alte fenomene negative. Dac zona respectiv era iniial
suprapopulat, migraia poate, dimpotriv, prin slbirea presiunii demografice, s
amelioreze situaia celor rmai, mai cu seam dac migranii trimit celor rmai
acas bunuri materiale i bani. Situaia populaiei din aria de primire poate fi i ea
influenat n ambele sensuri. n perioade de cretere economic, imigranii
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contribuie la completarea necesarului forei de munc, n schimb, n perioad de


recesiune, particip la creterea ratei omajului, fiind cei mai expui la concediere,
i determin un consum suplimentar de resurse. Pe lng lucru acesta, se poate
ntmpla ca populaia local s reacioneze - uneori violent - la prezena
imigranilor, contribuind la schimbarea msurilor legislative referitoare la migraie.
Totui, n ultimii ani s-a nregistrat o cretere a migraiei permanente i a
migraiei forei de munc temporare, ca urmare a dezvoltrii tehnologiei
informaiei i comunicaiei, sntii i educaiei, sectoare care necesit for de
munc nalt calificat. Totodat, a crescut cererea de mn de lucru strin
necalificat, n special n agricultur, construcii i lucrri publice, precum i
serviciile casnice.
Milioane de est-europeni au emigrat n ultimii ani spre Occident, iar aceast
situaie a condus la limitarea dezvoltrii economice a rilor lor. Spre exemplu,
aproximativ 1,5 milioane de persoane au prsit Polonia dup aderarea la Uniunea
European n 2004, iar Lituania a pierdut 350.000 de persoane, zece la sut din
populaie. La nceputul secolului XXI, la scar mondial, fiecare a 35-a persoan
este migrant, iar numrul total al migranilor depete 200 milioane sau 3 la sut
din populaia lumii.
Desigur c, pentru a ctiga mai multe beneficii de pe urma migraiei, trebuie
s existe reglementri legale care s fie adecvate unei economii de pia. Spre
exemplu, ar trebui sa avem un Cod al Muncii care s mbunteasc mediul de
afaceri n beneficiul tuturor prilor, inclusiv al angajatilor, deoarece, un Cod al
Muncii cruia i lipsete flexibilitatea i care face dificil angajarea unei persoane,
va fi caracterizat prin mai puine locuri de munc, care duc la mai puini bani
disponibili pentru consum, mai puine sume economisite pentru a fi investite n
economie, iar toate acestea ducnd la o cretere economic lent.
n concluzie, dei n ultimul deceniu n unele zone ale lumii, precum Europa,
migraia a nregistrat fluxuri sporite, problema migraiei internaionale este pentru
multe state ale lumii o preocupare conjunctural, chiar rezidual, mai degrab de
rspuns la unele evoluii dect de gestiune sau estimare a circulaiei persoanelor.
BIBLIOGRAFIE:
1. Belobrov Angela, Efectele financiare ale migraiei externe a forei de munc
din Republica Moldova, Chiinu, 2011;
2. Morar, Robert, Integrarea n Uniunea European i problema migraiei
internaionale a forei de munc, Revista de Comert, v.7, nr.7, p. 63-54, iulie
2006;
3. Simona Ghi, Statistica resurselor de munc, Ed. Meteor Press, Bucureti, 2005.
4. Agenia European pentru sntate i Securitate n Munc:
http://osha.europa.eu/
5. Comisia Europeana: http://ec.europa.eu
6. Funcaia European pentru mbuntrea condiiilor de via i de munc:
http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/
7. Portalul legislatiei Uniunii Europene: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/
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TRANSBOUNDARY POLLUTION
IN THE BLACK SEA LITTORAL ZONE
NEACU Gabriela,
Spiru Haret University, Constantza Romania,
NDRAG Lavinia,
Ovidius University, Constantza, Romania,
Abstract:
Much of the urban population is exposed to concentrations of air pollutants that
exceed the limit set to protect health or the target values imposed by the European
Directives on air quality. The main sources of emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx),
approximately 95% of emissions in Europe, are: fuel use, road transport, power plants.
Implementation of existing EU legislation (Directive on large combustion plants) and
other protocols, have resulted in lower emissions.
Key words: air emissions, pollutant dispersion, theoretical ground concentration at
point 0, maximum theoretical concentration.

Hypothesis. The hypothesis is that: gaseous emissions discharged into the


atmosphere by traders who are endowed with large combustion plants (LCP)64, as
is Midia Navodari Petrochemical Plant, often disperse around the fixed point
source; but the dispersion of pollutants is influenced by both the structural
characteristics of the industrial chimney and by the particular climate conditions,
especially the predominant wind direction. Sulfur content from coal, oil and ore are
the main source of emissions of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere. Since the 1960s,
developed countries abandoned the use of fuels containing sulfur in urban areas and
other populated areas, first in Western Europe, and now more than ever, in most
Central and Eastern Europe. Large combustion plants (power plants and factories)
are the main source of sulfur dioxide emissions. As a result of significant declines
registered in the last decade, the percentage of urban population exposed to
concentrations above the EU limit value has been reduced to less than 1%.
The paper includes a case study that calculates the dispersion of pollutants in
the atmosphere emitted by Midia Navodari Petrochemical Plant. As an example,
we have chosen a holiday resort located in the northen part of the litoral Mamaia
- considered as one of the pearls of the Romanian Black Sea coast. On the basis of
calculated distances in km between fixed points and each tourist resort, the study
may be extended to border areas (for example resorts in Bulgaria).
Introduction. Countries that have relatively high standards in environmental
protection, insisted on the harmonization of environmental policies to avoid the
disadvantages of high costs incurred by these countries to reduce pollution in their
national industries. Harmonization of environmental legislation is brought benefit
64

LCP (large combustion plant) - any technical equipment in which fuels are oxidized in order to use the
thermal energy which is produced as such, whose nominal thermal power is equal to or greater than 50 MW.

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to those countries which have already used advanced environmental technologies.


Actually, there are three types of problems that require international
cooperation:
transborder (transboundary) pollution;
ozone layer protection;
protection of rivers, surface and coastal waters.
Control of greenhouse gas emissions is a rather complex and mandatory
operation for all industrial businesses, both globally and nationally. Romania has
aligned itself with the international requirements on emissions control and has
developed National Guidelines for Pollutant Emissions and Pollutant Emissions
Register based on G.D. no. 541/2003 laying down measures for the limitation of
emissions of certain pollutants from large combustion plants (LCPs). In the county
of Constanta, studies have shown that the evolution of pollutant emissions has
followed a downward trend (with some oscillations), for all the pollutants under
survey, with considerable reductions from one year to another.
The direct impact of pollutants discharged into the atmosphere by economic
agents has generally occured in areas relatively close to them, which range from a
few tens or hundreds of meters (in the serene atmosphere) up to several kilometers,
depending on: physical parameters, emission power source, especially climatic
conditions; intensity and wind direction being a main factor. In some situations,
noxes evacuated from CET Palas get, due to the wind, in Techirghiol area, while
others get on the Taaul and Corbu lakes (in the case of Media Petrochemical
Plant). Weather conditions have a considerable influence on spreading pollutants in
air, particularly: thermal stratification of air, turbulence, convection, precipitation
and wind.
Wind direction is important for this study, since it is one of the factors which
directly influences the dispersion of pollutants in the air. In order to study this,
Neacu (2009) calculated the cardinal compass from data collected and processed
over a period of 13 years (1996-2008).
Materials and methods. The starting hypothesis is that: gaseous emissions
discharged into the atmosphere by traders who are endowed with large combustion
plants (LCP), as is Midia Navodari Petrochemical Plant, often disperse around the
fixed point source; but the dispersion of pollutants is influenced by both the
structural characteristics of the industrial chimney and by the particular climate
conditions, especially the predominant wind direction.
Our research encompasses three studies:
a) To make a detailed map of the studied area at scale 1:50000 which
allowed permanent view over the studied area (south-eastern Dobrogea). Based on
the detailed map, the distance in km was calculated, between the studied economic
agents (Midia Navodari Petrochemical Plant) and each seaside resort (Mamaia).
b) To study the thermal variations, rainfall, wind direction and intensity,
based on data collected from the Regional Meteorological Center Constanta over a
period of 13 years. Relying on analyzed and processed data, Neacu (2009) made
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the cardinal compass for Constanta, but also for the two seasons: summer and
winter, representing them graphically.
c) The analysis of dispersion of pollutants by calculating the actual height of
the exhaust stack and of the maximum concentration of pollutants in soil at point
0. Zero point was chosen Mamaia resort (0), because it is located near Midia
Nvodari Petrochemical plant. The elements used to calculate the maximum
concentration of pollutants in soil were determined based on the detailed map and
on the data from the petrochemical plant.
In our research, the following categories of pollutants emitted into the
atmosphere were watched during 2008:
1. Sulphur dioxide;
2. Nitrogen oxides;
3. Carbon oxides;
4. Particulate matter.
Data for the study of variations in meteorological factors were analyzed
statistically, average values being collated and calculated in order to meet the
necessary requirements for calculating the cardinal compass (figure 1). In order to
calculate theoretical ground concentrations of pollutants, simplified formulas were
applied those recommended by Sutton for a point source.
Results and discussions. In Dobrogea area, the movement of air masses is
done differently depending on season and region. In the littoral area of Dobrogea,
coastal winds dominately blow from the north, north-west and north-east. The
littoral zone is characterized by a large number of windy days: about 6,000
hours/year, reaching wind speeds between 3m/s and 8 m/s.
Clouds are also important in pollutant dispersion, according to the research
made by Toric V. (2008: pp 35): during the year, the distribution of days with
clear sky is quite uneven (...). Frequency of cloudy days is greater than that of
sunny days, being between 86 and 93 days on the coast and between 90 and 93 on
land.
Cardinal compass (figure 1) is important to determine the prevailing wind
direction; it is the one that affects the dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere.
The cardinal compass was made both for winter and for the warm season, knowing
that, in the two seasons, both temperatures and winds have different regimes and
consequently, they influence in a different way the dispersion of pollutants in the
atmosphere.
Diffusion of pollutants does not occur as soon as they leave the exhaust stack;
even their concentration varies, as a result of several factors such as:
- exit speed of the flue gas stream;
- temperature difference between the exhaust and the environmental one;
- physical stack height (between 50-100 m exhaust stacks of Midia Nvodari
Petrochemical plant), plus height increase of the pollutant smoke plume.

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N
NE

NV

SE

SV
S

Frequencies of the wind

1cm = 2%

Average wind speed

1cm = 2 m/s

Figure 1. Cardinal compass for Constanta city and surroundings

As Bloiu L. M. and his collaborators show (1995: pp 41), the design of the
industrial stacks reflects the evolution of the effluent released at stack and
establishes optimal conditions for stack height and exhaust speed in the case of a
pollutant exhaust rate as low as possible. Thus, it was determined that industrial
stack height must be at least 2.5 times higher than the tallest building around
(stacks of 250-350 m); effluent exit speed must reach 20-30 m/s, in order to ensure
the kinetic energy needed to provide long-distance movement. The aim is that the
effluent speed should exceed that of the prevailing wind in the area in order to
avoid breaking gas jet phenomenon followed by the appearance of wake 65, which is
favorable for the deposit of pollutants in soil.
According to researches, it appears that by getting farther from the source,
solids concentration decreases by being deposited in the soil; the first to be
deposited being the coarse particles (sediment particles), followed by small
particles (particulate matter) and finally, by gases. Basically, concentration at
65

Wake = smoke trail left by the exhaust gases through the stack

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achievements, obstacles and perspectives

ground level increases up to a point located at some distance from the place of
discharge and then it decreases gradually. Thus, maximum concentration is at a
distance of 5 to 10 times higher than the exhaust height. Consequently, a proper
stack height will ensure a minimum concentration in the soil. In this respect, the
actual height of the exhaust stack has been calculated based on the relations:
H = h+ h
(1)
1,9 * D * u
(2)
v
H effective height of discharge (m)
h geometric height of the stack (m)
h stream rise above the stack (m)
D stack diameter (m)
u effluent speed at mouth stack (m/s)
v wind speed at geometric height of the stack
v = vo *
vo - wind speed at a reference point (m/s)
- factor which takes into account soil roughness and index of atmospheric
turbulence n with different values depending on weather conditions (0<n<0,5);
Calculating the effective height at which pollutant gases are discharged served as a
basis for the calculation of theoretical maximum concentration in soil. The distance
for the studied area, between Midia Navodari Petrochemical and Mamaia -point
0, is 4.75 km.
The calculation of theoretical maximum concentration of pollutants in soil,
done by Midia Navodari Petrochemical Plant, was based on:
- Quantity of emitted pollutants (table 1);
- Distances from the source of pollution to point 0 depending on stacks height
(table 2).

Table 1 Pollutants emitted from Midia Nvodari Petrochemical Plant

Pollutant
emitted kg/24h

Sulphur
dioxide

Nitrogen
oxides

Carbon oxides

Particulate
matter

CMA 24h
mg/m3

0,25

0,10

2,00

0,15

case 1 (50m)

8972

3043

1563208

258

case 2 (100m)

3767

4680

1674529

410

Source: Table obtained on calculation base

Distances for each gas separately have been taken according to the order in
which they are deposited on the ground, starting with light dust, carbon oxides, and
ending with nitrogen oxides, which disperse furthest from the source of pollution.
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Distance xo
(m)
case 1
case 2

Table 2 Distances from the source of pollution to point


0 depending on stack height
Stacks
Nitrogen
Sulphur
Carbon
Height (h)
oxides
dioxide
oxides
50
4000
2500
1800
100
5000
4000
3500

Source: Table obtained on calculation base

Particulate
matter
1500
3000

To calculate the theoretical concentration, the simplified formulas


recommended by Sutton, to a point source, have been applied:
k *Q
(3)
Co
vo
Co - Concentration in soil at the point 0
Q Power source (g/s)
Vo - Wind speed at considered point (m/s)
Co * vo
(4)
Q
And k effective plasma concentration of specific pollutants from a power source
with Q = 1 g / s for a wind speed of vo = 1 m/s.
k

Table 3. Ground concentrations and maximum point0 based on pollutants


emitted by Midia Navodari Petrochemical Plant
Name of
pollutant

Effective
stack
height
H (m)

Concentration in soil at
point 0 C(mg/m3)
depending on average wind
speed

Annual Summe
averag
r
e
average
2,6 m/s
2,1 m/s
Nitrogen
50
0.203
0.252
oxides
120
0.166
0.206
Sulphur
50
1.400
1.733
dioxide
0.189
0.235
120
Carbon
50
400.13
495.40
oxides
120
96.53
119.52
0.084
0.105
Particulat
50
e matter
0.027
0.034
120
Source: Table obtained on calculation base
* maximum concentrations under the

Maximum ground
concentration derived from
sources of pollution (mg/m3)
depending on average wind
speed

Winter Annual
average averag
3,2 m/s
e
2,6 m/s
1.265
0.165
0.338
0.135
3.760
1.138
0.154
0.276
654.13
325.10
121.50
78.43
0.069
0.108
0.022
0.030

Summe
r
average
2,1 m/s
1.570
0.419
4.655
0.341
809.87
150.43
0.134
0.037

Winter
averag
e
3,2 m/s
1.028
0.275
3.055
0.224
531.48
98.72
0.087
0.024

maximum permissible
* concentrations at point 0 located above the maximum permissible
144

CMA
24h
mg/m
3

0,10
0,25
2,00
0,15

European neighbourhood policy and eastern partnership:


achievements, obstacles and perspectives

Conclusions. A first conclusion apparent from Table 3 is that dispersion of


emissions resulting from Midia Navodari Petrochemical Plant activity is influenced
by three major factors:
1. distance from point 0, Mamaia resort;
2. height of contaminations exhaust stacks;
3. prevailing wind speed.
The studies on temperature, rainfall and wind regime during the last 13
years in Constanta, along with the effective stack height calculation and that of
theoretical concentration for a point source, made up the basis for determining the
dispersion of pollutants (based on emissions) in the atmosphere. Corroborating the
two studies, it has been noticed that in the chosen point 0, Mamaia, located 4.75
km away from Midia Navodari Petrochemical Plant (distances based on detailed
map), the predominant direction of winds from NNE carries air pollution to the
Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve and the Black Sea. The wind from direction NNE
transporting the noxes to Mamaia and then further to the south. Large distances
from the southern seaside resorts (e.g. from Mangalia resort is 58 km), makes the
plant influences on them to be non-existent.
Influences from the resorts of Bulgaria - Balchik (123 km) Albena (142 km)
Golden Sands (159 km) are also absent.
Cardinal compass demonstrates that the prevailing wind direction is the NE
and NW therefore, Petromidia plant is the polluter for Mamaia, both due to small
distance, and due to the chimney height (50-150 m). Dispersion of pollutants in the
atmosphere is also influenced by rainfall and wind speed, common and occasional
air currents due to high buildings in the Mamaia village and Nvodari.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
1. BLOIU, L. M., ANGELESCU A., PONORAN I. 1995. Environmental
Protection. Bucharest, ASE Publishing House,
2. NEACU, G. 2003. Current status of research on the environmental impact of
industrial activity in regions with tourism potential. Paper defended in March,
as part of the doctoral program.
3. NEACU, G., 2003. Research on developing methods to study the impact of
industrial activity on the environment. Paper defended in July, as part of the
doctoral program.
4. NEACU, G. 2004. Research results related to impact of industrial activity on
the environment in the regions with tourism potential. Paper defended in July,
as part of the doctoral program.
5. NEACU, G. 2010. Studies on the impact of industrial activities on areas with
tourism potential. Ph.D thesis, defended in November.
6. TORIC, V., C. 2007. Issues on climatic conditions and their influence on
geography of South Dobrogea. Bucharest, University Publishing House.

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ROLUL I IMPORTANA
FOREI DE MUNC N TURISM
GOGU Emilia, ORIOL Irina66,
DOSESCU Tatiana, CRISTEA Anca
Universitatea Cretin Dimitrie Cantemir,
Bucureti
Abstract:
As is known, the most efficient use of human, material and financial aspects of
society is the
essential condition for economic and social progress, one of the
fundamental characteristics of market economy. In this context, tourism activity, through
the organization and conduct is subject to this objective, aiming to obtain some positive
economic results, while satisfying the above conditions of interest requirements.
With the high-power working life, intelligence and creativity involved in creating
value added tourism to a greater extent than other branches close in terms of level of
development.
Key words: labor force, employment rate, business sectors

Turismul are o contribuie important la realizarea Valorii Adugate Brute


din servicii i prin urmare n PIB. Prin specificul su activitatea de servicii,
consum mare de munc vie, de inteligen i creativitate turismul particip la
crearea VAB ntr-o proporie superioar ramurilor apropiate din punctul de vedere
al nivelului de dezvoltare.
Aportul turismului la dezvoltare economic este nu numai unul direct, ci i
indirect. Creterea dimensiunilor circulaiei turistice atrage dup sine creterea
produciei n alte domenii, cum ar fi agricultura, industria alimentar, construcii,
industria materialelor de construcii, transporturi, construcii de maini etc.
n afara aportului cantitativ direct i indirect, dezvoltarea turismului
influeneaz favorabil diversificarea structurii economice a unei zone/ri. n urma
creterii activitii turismului are loc dezvoltarea mai rapid a unor ramuri sau
apariia unor ramuri noi: industria agrementului, industria transportului pe cablu etc.
Turismul particip la valorificarea superioar a resurselor naturale materiale
ale unei ri. Prin aceast valorificare, turismul contribuie la atenuarea decalajelor
n privina dezvoltrii ntre diferite ri/zone ale lumii.
n ceea ce privete relaia cu fora de munc, turismul contribuie la mai
buna utilizare a disponibilitilor de for de munc. Ocuparea forei de munc se
afl n relaie direct cu amploarea turismului i cu faptul c munca n domeniul
turismului poate fi mecanizat ntr-o proporie foarte mic. Relaia turismului cu
fora de munc poate fi privit sub dou aspecte:
Din punct de vedere cantitativ,
Din punct de vedere calitativ, aceasta se refer la structura forei de munc
66

Universitatea Eftimie Murgu, Reia, Cara-Severin, Romnia

146

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achievements, obstacles and perspectives

din punct de vedere al nivelului de calificare al cunotiinelor i la costurile


formrii i meninerii unui loc de munc.
Dezvoltarea turismului are o contribuie nsemnat n armonizarea intereselor
diferitelor ramuri ale economiei rii, acesta fiind domeniul care stimuleaz
preocuprile pentru pstrarea permanent a unei naturi pure, capabile s asigure
condiii favorabile de via.67
Ponderea populaiei ocupate n hoteluri i restaurante n total economie n
perioada 2000-2009 a nregistrat creteri continue anuale (exceptnd 2001 i 2009)
de la 1,08% la 1,85% n 2008.
Dac n 2000 numrul peroanelor angajate n hoteluri i restaurante a fost
de 93 mii n 2009 numrul acestora a ajuns la 125 mii, nregistrnd astfel o cretere
absolut de 32 mii persoane, respectiv o cretere relativ de +34,4%.
Tabelul. 1. Populaia ocupat civil n total economie, hoteluri i restaurante
n perioada 2000-2009
Ani

2000 2001

Populaia ocupata
civila total economie
8629 8563
(mii pers.)
Hoteluri i restaurante
(H.R.)
93
79
(mii pers.)
Indicele de Populaia
dinamic ocupat
- 99,24
fa de anul civil
2000 % Populaia
ocupat n
- 84,95
H.R
Ponderea populaiei
0,92
ocupate n H.R. fa de 1,08
total economie %

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

8329

8306

8238

8390

8469

8726

8747 8411

95

105

133

133

134

156

162

125

96,52

96,26

95,47

97,23

98,15

101,1

101,3

97,4

102,2

112,9

143,0

143,0

144,1

167,7

174,1 134,4

1,14

1,26

1,61

1,59

1,58

1,79

1,85

1,48

Sursa: Calcule dup: Anuarul statistic al Romniei 2010, INS pag. 147

Comparnd dinamica persoanelor ocupate n hoteluri i restaurante cu cea a


persoanelor ocupate n total economie, se poate observa c sfera serviciilor turistice
a antrenat mai mult for de munc. Astfel dac n 2009 fa de 2000 populaia
ocupat civil pe total economie s-a redus cu 2,6%, cea din hoteluri i restaurante sa majorat cu 34,4%.
Pornind de la tendinele manifestate n structur i dinamic, se poate
anticipa, o cretere i mai mare a numrului i ponderii lucrtorilor n turism,
paralel cu o diversificare a profesiunilor, ca rezultat al adaptrii la evoluiile cererii.
Rolul i importana forei de munc n turism. Importana factorului uman
implicat n activiti turistice este mult mai mare dect n alte activiti economice,
datorit caracterului pronunat individualizat al cererii de servicii turistice,
67

Bran F., Marin D., Simon T., Economia Turismului i Mediul nconjurtor, Editura Economic, 2002, p.204

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motivaiei acesteia, suprapunerii n timp i spaiu a actului prestaiei serviciilor


turistice i cu cel al consumului propriu-zis.

Pentru dimensionarea necesarului de personal, respectiv pentru evidenierea


potenialului uman de care dispun unitile de turism, se utilizeaz indicatorul
numrul mediu scriptic al personalului, care cuprinde totalitatea personalului
existent n unitate n baza unui generator de drepturi i obligaii pentru ambele
pri.
Industria turismului se situeaz pe primul loc n lume n ceea ce privete
contribuia la ocuparea forei de munc, generand un numr foarte mare de locuri
de munc angregate n prestarea serviciilor specifice din cadrul hotelurilor i al
unitilor de cazare, restaurante i alte uniti de servire a mesei, transporturi
aeriene, administrarea i operarea aeroporturilor, companii de nchirieri auto,
agenii de turism, tour-operatori, agrement, ghizi de specialiate, etc.
Astfel personalul din sectorul turistic reprezint un procent destul de mare din
totalul forei de munc ocupate la nivelul economiei mondiale. Cele mai multe
dintre acestea sunt ntlnite n inteprinderi mici i n zone urbane sau rurale, adic
acolo unde se ceaza cel mai mare disponibil de fora de munc, astfel industria
turistic se remarc drept un sector dinamic, prin prisma creri de locuri de munc.
Fora de munc este indispensabil n sectorul turistic, cu alte cuvinte nu
poate exist turism fr fora de munc.
Din punct de vedere al sectorului n care lucreaz, personalul din turism este

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achievements, obstacles and perspectives

ocupat n68:
hotelrie, reprezentnd la scar global 40-50% din total;
alimentaie, cu 30-40%;
agenii de voiaj (i tour-operatoare)-circa 5%;
administraia (naional i local) a turismului, cu 1-2%;
alte sectoare ale industriei turistice (agrement, transport, activiti sportive
i culturale etc.), cu 3-4%;
Din punctul de vedere al rolului sau importanei funciei, lucrtorii din turism
ndeplinesc funcii directe (proprii domeniului) n hotelrie, alimentaie, agenii
de voiaj, transport care antreneaz circa 90% din totalul angajailor precum i
funcii indirecte.
Rolul i importanta forei de munc n turism este evidentiala, n principal,
prin intermediul caracteristicilor profesiunilor din turism i al calitii forei de
munc n turism factor determinat al calitii serviciilor turistice.
Caracteristicile profesiunilor din turism. Profesiunile din domeniul
turismului trebuie s se adapteze exigenelor profesiunilor din domeniul serviciilor
publice. Biroul Internaional al Muncii a stabilit caracteristicile generale ale
profesiunilor din turism, cu referire n special la turismul hotelier.
Acestea caracteristici sunt:
Nivelul sczut de tehnicitate, ce caracterizeaz anumite funcii de baz din
hotelrie i restauratie;
Marea mobilitate a forei de munc chiar dac o activitate nu este
sezonier, exist frecvent fluctuaii ale gradului de antrenare a forei de munc,
ceea ce necesit utilizarea personalului suplimentar ocazional pentru zilele de
maxima intensitate turistic.
Munca n contratimp fa de programul obinuit de munc (weekendu-ri,
sarbatori, concedii, etc) provoac mari dificultati n recrutarea forei de munc, n
special a persoanelor tinere.
Dimensiunea zilei de munc i ntreruperea zilei de munc munc n
turism presupune angajarea ntregului timp disponibil de pe parcursul unei zile.
Oboseala fizic i psihic majoritatea funciilor din hotelrie i restauratie
sunt generatoare de eforturi fizice deosebite, precum i de oboseal nervoas, n
special n perioadele de maxim aflux turistic.
Constrngerile psihologice personalul care intr n contact cu clientela
turistic trebuie s aiba stpnire de sine, buna dispozitie i rbdare. Prin
comportamentul sau nu trebuie s jicneasc sau s indispun pe turiti.
Un nivel relativ ridicat i complex de pregtire, apropiat de cel al
clienilor, mai ales pentru acei lucrtori care intr n contact direct cu turitii
(cunoaterea unei limbi de circulaie internaional, s poat oferi informaii de
larg utilitate, comportament civilizat etc);
Rspundere material i moral ridicat, prin implicarea nemijlocit a unei
68

http://www.mdrt.ro

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pri nsemnate a lucrtorilor din turism n procesul servirii consumatorilor;


rspunderea material este determinat de valorile materiale pe care le au n grij,
le gestioneaz i le manipuleaz lucrtorii, la care se adaug i responsabilitatea
pentru bunurile turitilor aflai n unitile de cazare hotelier i similare;
rspunderea moral se manifest prin realizarea unor elemente de ordin cantitativ
(volum de servicii prestate, numr de turiti/clieni servii) ct i a unor cerine de
ordin calitativ, cum sunt cele legate de nivelul servirii sau gradul de satisfacere a
nevoilor consumatorilor.
Toate aceste caliti i supun pe lucrtorii din turism unor constrngeri i
presiuni de natur psihologic, generatoare de modificri ale intervalului de timp
destinat calificrii forei de munc pentru aceste activiti.
Calitatea forei de munc factor determinant al calitii serviciilor
turistice. Dup cum se tie serviciul prestat clienilor este rezultanta a doua
componente : un cantitativ, cu careacter preponderent material(dotarea cu
echipamente tehnice, cantitatea i diversitatea alimentelor, ambientul, numrul
personalului, etc), care poate fi evaluata pe o baz obiectiv i cea de a doua, o
componenta calitativ, comportamental, care nu poate fi evaluat obiectiv;
aceasta n anumite situaii poate avea un rol determinant.
n relaia personal client, comportmanetul personalului, atitudinea acestuia,
modul de a actiona i de a reaciona reprezint criteriile eseniale de apreciere a
calitii serviciilor n ansamblul lor, elemente care genereaz mulumirea i
satisfacia clientului. Acest fapt este i mai relevant n condiiile n care, n aceast
etap de dezvoltare a turismului, multe oferte sunt asemntoare, chiar identice.
Evitarea unor situaii de nemulumire a turitilor revine personalului prestator
de servicii, cu precdere a celui de contact direct cu clientul. Comportamentul
personalului trebuie nscris ntr-o conduit specific fiecrei firme, care se
definete prin politica de produs a acestuia.
Obiectivele utilizrii personalului sunt strns legate de obiectivele de
ansamblu al politicii de produs al firmei. Ele se regsesc n deziderate ca
mbuntirea calittii, creterea productivitii i diversificarea serviciilor.
Dimensiunile calitii serviciilor turistice prestate sunt determinate n cea mai
mare parte de activitile desfurate de personalul de contact. Simpla enumerare a
acestora evideniaz rolul personalului prestator de servicii, venit n contact direct
cu clientul, n mbuntirea calitii serviciilor n turism: corectitudinea,
receptivitatea, ncrederea inspirat, personalizarea i includerea acestora c obiectiv
al utilizarii personalului. Un astfel de rol este consecinta poziiei detinue de
personal, aflat la hotarul dintre mediul intern i mediul extern. Aceste obiective
presupun desfasurarea unei activitati emotionale caracterizata prin simbol, privire,
exprimarea unui interes sincer, conversatie etc.
Deoarece mbuntirea calitii serviciilor turistice i mbuntirea
productivitii se regsesc adesea ntr-o relaie invers, apare necesar desfurarea
activitii ntr-o manier care sa asigure echilibru ntre calitatea i cantitatea
serviciilor prestate, echilibru ce se constituie intr-un obiectiv specific al utilizarii
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achievements, obstacles and perspectives

personalului.
n acest context este evident faptul c strategiile utilizrii personalului din
turism se regsesc n strategiile activitii desfurate n domeniul asigurrii cu
necesarul resurselor umane:
recrutarea de personal cu reale aptitudini pentru prestarea serviciilor
turistice;
perfecionarea acestuia n prestarea unor servicii cu calitate ridicat;
motivarea personalului angajat n vederea permanentizrii lui;
asiguarea suportului material necesar realizarii prestaiei i reinerea n
cadrul firmei a celor mai buni.
Calitatea forei de munc utilizat reprezint un factor cheie, determinant al
calitii produsului turistic n ansamblu.
Corelaia dintre cererea turistic i numrul salariailor din turismul
romnesc, n perioada 2000 2009. Cererea turistic este format din ansamblul
persoanelor care i manifest dorina de a se deplasa periodic i temporar n afara
reedinei proprii, pentru alte motive dect prestarea unor activiti remunerate la
locul de destinaie.
Conform datelor furnizate de Institutul Naional de Statistic, numrul
turitior din Romnia, n anul 2009 a fost 6141 mii turiti.
Este interesant s corelm indicatorii de efort cu cei rezultativi. Dac din
categoria indicatorilor ofertei turistice, luam populaia ocupat n hoteluri i
restaurante, iar din cadrul indicatorilor de efect selectm numrul de turiti i VAB
din hoteluri i restaurante obinem o corelaie dubl.
Tabelul 2. Nivelul populaiei ocupate civil n H.R., total sosiri i VAB
din H.R. n perioada 2000-2009
Ani

Populaia ocupat
civil n H.R.
(mii pers.)

Total sosiri
(mii pers.)

VAB Hoteluri i restaurante


pre. comp.
(mil. lei)

2000
93
1904
4920
2001
79
1816
4875
2002
95
1590
4848
2003
105
5057
1580
2004
133
5639
1682
2005
133
5805,1
2038
2006
134
6216
2450
2007
156
6972
2915
2008
162
7125
2788
2009
125
6141
2503
Sursa: Anuarul Statistic al Romniei. Serii de timp 2000-2010, INS, Bucureti 2010

Corelaia dintre numrul turitilor sosii (variabila rezultativ yi) i populaia


ocupat civil n hoteluri i restaurante (variabila factorial xi) este prezentat prin
funcia analitic Y xi 29,254 x i 2205,5 i exprim o legtur direct de form
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liniar. Intensitatea dintre aceste dou variabile este de 94,88% unde raportul de
corelaie R2 este de 0,9004.
Valoare 2205,5 reprezint ordonata la origine i arat la ce nivel ar fi ajuns
nivelul sosirilor, dac ceilali factori nenregistrai (durata sejurului, tariful practicat
etc) ar fi avut o aciune constant asupra formrii ei.Iar valoarea coeficientul de
regresie este de 29,254 indic cu ct se schimb n medie nivelul sosirilor n cazul
n care populaia ocupat civil n Hoteluri i restaurante se modific cu o unitate.
Exceptnd celelalte categorii de uniti turistice, la nivelul hotelurilor i a
restaurantelor fiecare angajat deservete n medie 50 de turiti. Dac raportm
numrul de turiti la populaia ocupat civil n Hoteluri i restaurante, n perioada
2000-2009, n medie, raportul este de 48:1.

Comparativ cu corelaia de mai sus, interdependena dintre Valoarea


Adugat Brut din hoteluri i restaurante (variabila rezultativ yi) i populaia
ocupat civil n hoteluri i restaurante (xi) are o intensitate mai mic de doar
77,4%. Funcia de regresie exprim o legtur direct de tip liniar i are forma
Y xi 14,001 x i 425,48 .
Astfel, elementul uman prin intermediul cruia se comercializeaz i se
consum produsul turistic are un rol hotrtor n politica de dezvoltare a sectorului
turism astfel nct nici o dezvoltare turistic nu poate fi conceput fr antrenarea
dezvoltrii unei fore de munc corespunztoare.
BIBLIOGRAFIE:
1. Ioncic, M., Stnciulescu, G., Economia turismului i serviciile, Editura
Uranus, Bucureti, 2005;
2. Gogu E., Statistica n turism i comer, Editura Oscar Print, 2009,
3. Vlad, D., Piaa turistic, Editura Sylvi, Bucureti, 2006;
4. www.world-tourism.org
5. www.wttc.org
6. www.insse.ro
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BILANTUL DEMOGRAFIC
GOGU Emilia, MURESAN Mihaela, TURDEAN Marinella Sabina
Universitatea Cretin Dimitrie Cantemir, Bucureti
Abstract:
For this year (2011) estimates that will be 7 billion people on the planet, it is
interesting and important to do "balance". In the following decades, although the birth
rate is declining, the population will continue to grow - especially in economically
underdeveloped countries.
The question posed by biologist Joel Cohen, a specialist in the study population, in
his book, "How many people can hold the earth?" left without reply. Some experts estimate
the best case within 10 mld. peoples, and others just 8 mld. citizens. This figure is very
close now, so most answers are far from fun.
Keywords: natural increase, birth rate, increase migration, life expectancy,
population density, fertility, family planning.

Pentru c n anul acesta (2011) se estimeaz c vom fi 7 mld. de locuitori


pe planet, este interesant i important s facem bilanul. n urmtoarele decenii,
dei rata natalitii este n scdere, populaia va continua s creasc n special n
rile slab dezvoltate economic.
La intrebare pus de biologul Joel Cohen, specialist n studiul populaiei, n
cartea sa Ci oameni poate gzdui Pmntul? rmnem fr replic. Unii
specialiti estimeaz n cel mai fericit caz de maxim 10 mld.loc, iar altii doar 8
mld.loc. Aceast cifr este foarte apropiat de prezent, astfel, majoritatea
rspunsurilor sunt departe de a fi distractive. S caracterizm fiecare dintre
elementele sistemului demografic:
Sporul natural
Rata natalitii
Sporul migrator
Durata medie a vieii
Densitatea populaiei
Fertilitate
Planificarea familial
Istoricii estimeaz c secolul XVII existau doar n jur de jumptate de
miliard de oameni pe Pmnt. Dup o evoluie foarte lent (pentru noi) timp de
milenii, populaia ncepea s creasc semnificativ. nainte de secolul al XX-lea,
nimeni nu fusesre martor la dublarea populaiei umane, dar astazi exist generaii
care au asistat la trimplarea acesteia. In anul 1999 Mass Media urmarea n care
ar va fi nou nascutul cu numrul 6 mld.
Este greu s nu te alarmezi cnd populaia sporete cu circa 80 de milioane
anual (de patru ori ct populaia Romnei). n timpul acesta apele freatice sunt n
scdere, solul se erodeaz, ghearii se topesc, iar rezervele naturale (petii, padurile
etc) se diminueaz. Aproape un miliard de oameni sufer zilnic de foame. Peste un
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deceniu vor fi probabil, dou miliarde de guri n plus de hrnit, majoritatea n state
srace (India, Africa, unele zone din China...). Acele persoane cu siguran vor dori
s scape de srcie, iar guvenele acestora sunt i vor fi in imposibilitatea de a le
oferi o alternativ intern. Astfel migraia global spre rile dezvoltate se va
accentua. Iar n rile dezvoltate resursele naturale se diminuaz n progresie
geometric - folosirea crbunelui, petrolului, tierea pdurilor etc., , iar utilizarea
nengrdit a ngrmintelor i a pesticidelor vor pune la grea ncercare att solul
ct i atmosfera. Oare cum vor sta lucrurile?
n anul 1798, Thomas Malthus, preot i economist englez, enuna teoria sa
general asupra populaiei: c aceasta crete n mod necesar mai repede dect
rezervele de hran, pn cnd e redus de rzboi, molim sau foamete. Istoricii
afirm c populaia lumii nu a mai sczut, de la Ciuma Neagr, din secolul al XIVlea. Dei nici secolul XIX i XX-lea nu au fost scutite de rsboaie mondiale
(Primul Rzboi Mondial, al II-lea Rzboi Mondial) unde se vorbea de ordinul
zecilor de milioane de viei pierdute.

Este de apreciat c omenirea a rspndit culturi noi prin sporirea rezervelor de


hrn, iar procesul medical a redus drastic rata mortalitii infantile i a sporit durata
medie a vieii. Deasemenea infrastructura prin canalizare a separat deeurile umane de
apa potabil, fiind filtrat i clorurat a redus rspndirea tifosului i a holerei.
Un alt aspect demografic este creterea durata medie a vieii care n ultimii
200 de ani s-a dublat de la 35 de ani la 77 de ani n prezent. Ca urmare a
descoperirii diferitelor vaccinuri i antibiotice care, mpreun cu o mai bun
nutriie i salubrizare au sporit att durata medie a vieii ct i sperana de via
sntoas. n 1968 Paul Ehrlich scria n cartea sa Bomba populaiei c populaia
va crete pe msur ce medicina va salva tot mai multe viei. De aceea s-a
rspndit explozia populaiei pe ntreaga planet: pentru c muli oameni au fost
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salvai de la moarte, iar femeile au avut o rat mare de nateri.


In Europa n secolul XVIII o familie avea n medie 6 copii, n prezent se
nregistreaz n medie dou nateri, astfel n Europa (i n alte state dezvoltate) se
menine o populaie stabil. n prezent creterea populaiei globale se
nregistreaz n statele slab dezvoltate unde fertilitatea de nlocuire este ridicat.
Potrivit Diviziei pentru Populaie a ONU, pe la finele anului curent (2011) vom fi
apte miliarde. Dei explozia ratei natalitii a incetinit, e departe de a se fi
incheiat, nu doar c oamenii triesc mai mult, dar n lume sunt attea femei aflate
n perioada fertil 1,8 mld -, nct populaia mondial va continua s creasc cel
puin cteva deceni, chiar dac fiecare femeie ar avea mai puini copii fa de
generaia anterioar. Pearl Harbor considr c: Planificarea familial ar putea fi
elementul cel mai urgent pe ordinea de zi mondial, deasemenea dac nu
meninem populaia mondial la 8 miliarde prin reducerea fertilitii, ar putea n
schimb s creasc rata mortalitii.
Tabelul 1.Caracterizarea evoluiei populaiei globale n perioada 1000-2050
Populaia
(mil.pers)

Interval de
timp (ani)

1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600

265
320
360
360
350
425
545

1700

610

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

1800
1900
1925

900
1625
2000

1950

Anii

Modificri absolute
fa de perioada
anterioara (mil. pers.)
25
55
40
0
-10
75
120
65

Sporul mediu
anual
(mil.pers/an)
0,250
0,550
0,400
0,000
-0,100
0,750
1,200
0,65

100

290

2,90

100
25

725
375

7,25
30,0

2529

25

529

21,16

1960
1970

3023
3686

10
10

494
663

49,40
66,30

1980

4438

10

752

75,20

1990

5291

10

853

85,30

2000

6115

10

824

82,40

2010

6909

10

794

79,40

2025E70
2050E

8012
9150

15
25

1103
1138

73,53
45,52

Cauze /aspecte majore


Rsboiul de 100 de ani
Rspndirea holerei
Conceperea vaccinului
mpotriva variolei
Rspndirea cartofului i a
porumbului
Utilizarea spunului
Dezvoltarea sistemului
sanitar.
Al II-lea Rsboi Mondial
Sisteme de canalizare
Infrastructura
Revoluia verde
Medicina modern/
antibioticile
Politica coercitiv a copilului unic
in China 1979
Creterea duratei medii de
via69
Scderea mortalitiii
infantile
Creterea speranei de via
sntoas

Sursa: www.worldhistorysite.com/population.html; http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/


69
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EU might get new Eastern Partnership, Barents Observer, 2008-05-22

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Demografii ONU consider c estimarea cea mai bun privind creterea


populaia global este cea medie (fertilitatea de nlocuire) cu un ritm de cretere de
maxim 2,1 de nateri per femeie.
Faptul c specialitii n politica global se preocup de mult de problema
demografic ar fi o consolare. De exemplu n China n anul 1979 s-a adoptat
politica coercitiv a copilului unic, femeile nasc n medie 1,5 copii (comparativ cu
1965 cnd se nregistrau peste 6 nateri). n prezent China adpostete ocincime
din populaia lumii. De asemenea n Iran iu Brazilia rata natalitii s-a redus.
Dei nc din 1970 n India s-a impus vasectomia, potrivit unei estimri
medii a ONU, populaia acesteia va depi 1,6 miliarde de oameni n 2050. Fostul
ef al Fundaiei pentru Populaie din Iundia A.R. Nanda afirm India va depi
inevitabil China pn n 2030, astfel aproape unul din 6 oameni va locui n India.
Dac vom fi, ntr-adevr, prea muli? Acest element l regsim n densitatea
populaiei. ri ntregi de confrunt cu presiuni demografice, exist n prezent 21
de orae cu o populaie de peste 10 mil de locuitori.
ONU estimeaz c n mai putin de 40 de ani populaia global ar putea
atinge 9 miliarde (2045). Muli sunt ngrijorai pe drept cuvnt c, n planeta nu va
reui s hrneasc 9 miliarde de fiine. Fiinele umane triesc de pe urma capitalulu
natural susine Lester Brown71 -, erodnd solul i epuiznd pnza freatic mai
repede dect se pot reface. Toate acestea vor limita n curnd producia de hran.
n acest perioad multe ri dezvoltate au o populaie mbtrinit astfel se
ridic problema cu privire la asigurrile sociale prin creterea vrstei de pensionare
(America, Frana, Germania etc.).
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Numrul de persoane conteaz, desigur. Dar mult mai mult conteaz modul
n care oamenii consum resursele. nclzirea global este un exemplu bun.
Emisiile de carbon de la combustibilii fosili cresc cel mai rapid n China, din
pricina boomului economic. E cazul unei schimbari de anvergura daca vrem sa ne
pastram Planeta. Primele restrictii demografice trebuiesc impuse in tarile din
EMEA si in special INDIA! Din pacate gandirea oamenilor la nivel global este
departe de orice asteptare. Nivelul de educatie si de (in)cultura au dus la lupta
acerba pentru putere, consumand resursele planetei "gratuit" si mentinand cresterea
natalitatii in tarile sarace, acolo unde piata muncii fiind foarte bogata cantitativ,
toate marile corporatii se inghesuie.
Prin urmare conform spuselor lui Joel Cohen - s avem grij ca toi copii
s fie hrnii ca s poat merge la coal i s fie educai s rezolve problemele cu
care se vor confrunta ca adulii. Asta ar modifica viitorul n mod seminificativ i
sperm c n unul fericit.
1.
2.
3.
4.

BIBLIOGRAFIE:
Cohen, J. 1995. How many people can the earth support? W. W. Norton & Co.,
New York
Ehrlich, P. and Erhlich, A. 1990. The Population Explosion. New York: Simon
and Schuster.
Gallant, R. 1990. The Peopling of the Planet Earth. New York: Macmillian
Publishing Company.
Gore, A. 1992. Earth in the Balance. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.

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SECTION 3
SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS
OF THE EU NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY
ECONOMIC FREEDOM IN POST SOVIET COUNTRIES
AND EASTERN EUROPEAN PARTNERSHIP
TSOMAIA Akaki
Ilia State University, Georgia
1. Background - It is broadly known that liberty of individuals is a key
success factor for every society development. Human rights are guaranteed in
private property based community in which production, distribution, and pricing
decisions are made by the private owners of the factors of production based upon
their own interests. As a result Society is concerted action, cooperation. Society is
the outcome of conscious and purposeful behaviour. The actions which have
brought about social cooperation and daily bring it about anew do not aim at
anything else than cooperation and with others for the attainment of definite
singular ends. However, another thing is that there are some circumstances in
which market fails. State or Government is an Institution which is supposed to
supply those goods and services that it is impossible or partially possible in pure
market society. There is no doubt that in order to satisfy society needs stately
governing system should be based on democratic values. In other words the best
conditions for living, prosperity and development of the humans are established in
the countries where the principles of the society arrangement process lie on the
construction of the market oriented democratic states.
Consequently the sphere of the problem deals with epistemology of
economic power concentration issues between market and government in entire
type of society. The point is that formation of the governing institutions means that
society members delegate the part of their power to the State. Respectively part of
the humans owned resources is getting at the disposal of stately governing power
the goal of which to provide individuals with public goods and services broadly
known as market failures. In this point of view Traditional dilemma in all countries
is to define competences and power of the State in the Private Property based
society, to examine the why and how of government intervention in the capitalist
market (free enterprise) system. The problem is the most important for the society
in transition period. Transition economies undergo economic liberalization,
macroeconomic stabilization, where immediate high inflation is brought under
control, and restructuring and privatization, in order to create a financial sector and
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move from public to private ownership of resources. These changes often may lead
to increased inequality of incomes and wealth, dramatic inflation and a fall of GDP.
Nowadays the former soviet countries rank as one of the poorest countries
in the world with relatively moderate per capita GDP from 4000 to 8000 USD. The
average growth of GDP is 5% (Appendix 1). If one makes an assumption that EU
states stop to develop, former soviet countries will reach EU level standard of
living after 40 years. There is no doubt that the first priority goal for transition
countries consists in creation of an environment in which the rapid economic
growth can be achieved. This environment is titled as Economic Freedom.
2. Ten Components to Measure Economic Freedom. Economic freedom
is the fundamental right of every human to control his or her own labor and
property. In an economically free society, individuals are free to work, produce,
consume, and invest in any way they please, with that freedom both protected by
the state and unconstrained by the state. In economically free societies,
governments allow labor, capital and goods to move freely, and refrain from
coercion or constraint of liberty beyond the extent necessary to protect and
maintain liberty itself. Economic freedom consists of following components:
Business freedom - a quantitative measure of the ability to start, operate,
and close a business that represents the overall burden of regulation as well as the
efficiency of government in the regulatory process such as: starting a business,
obtaining a license and closing a business (procedures, days, costs, minimum
capital requirements).
Trade freedom This is a composite measure of the absence of tariff and
non-tariff barriers (NTB) that affect imports and exports of goods and services. The
categories of this component include:
Quantity restrictionsimport quotas; export limitations; voluntary export
restraints; importexport embargoes and bans; counter trade, etc
Price restrictionsantidumping duties; countervailing duties; border tax
adjustments; variable levies/tariff rate quotas.
Regulatory restrictionslicensing; domestic content and mixing
requirements; sanitary and phytosanitary standards (SPSs); safety and industrial
standards regulations; packaging, labeling, and trademark regulations; advertising
and media regulations.
Investment restrictionsexchange and other financial controls.
Customs restrictionsadvance deposit requirements; customs valuation
procedures; customs classification procedures; customs clearance procedures.
Direct government interventionsubsidies and other aid; government
industrial policy and regional development measures; government-financed
research and other technology policies; national taxes and social insurance;
competition policies; immigration policies; government procurement policies; state
trading, government monopolies, and exclusive franchises.
Fiscal freedom This is a measure of the tax burden imposed by
government. It includes both the direct tax burden in terms of the top tax rates on
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individual and corporate incomes and the overall amount of tax revenue as a
percentage of GDP. Thus, the fiscal freedom component is composed of three
quantitative factors: The top tax rate on individual income,; The top tax rate on
corporate income, and Total tax revenue as a percentage of GDP.
Government Expenditures - This component considers the level of
government expenditures as a percentage of GDP. Government expenditures,
including consumption and transfers, account for the entire score.
Monetary Freedom It combines a measure of price stability with an
assessment of price controls. Both inflation and price controls distort market
activity. Price stability without microeconomic intervention is the ideal state for the
free market.
Investment Freedom - In an economically free country, there would be no
constraints on the flow of investment capital. Individuals and firms would be
allowed to move their resources into and out of specific activities both internally
and across the countrys borders without restriction. In practice, most countries
have a variety of restrictions on investment. Some have different rules for foreign
and domestic investment; some restrict access to foreign exchange; some impose
restrictions on payments, transfers, and capital transactions; in some, certain
industries are closed to foreign investment.
Financial freedom is a measure of banking efficiency as well as a measure
of independence from government control and interference in the financial sector.
State ownership of banks and other financial institutions such as insurers and
capital markets reduces competition and generally lowers the level of available
services. In an ideal banking and financing environment where a minimum level of
government interference exists, independent central bank supervision and
regulation of financial institutions are limited to enforcing contractual obligations
and preventing fraud. Credit is allocated on market terms, and the government does
not own financial institutions. Financial institutions provide various types of
financial services to individuals and companies. Banks are free to extend credit,
accept deposits, and conduct operations in foreign currencies. Foreign financial
institutions operate freely and are treated the same as domestic institutions. The
Index scores an economys financial freedom by looking into the following five
broad areas:
The extent of government regulation of financial services,
The degree of state intervention in banks and other financial firms through
direct and indirect ownership,
The extent of financial and capital market development,
Government influence on the allocation of credit, and
Openness to foreign competition.
The property rights component is an assessment of the ability of individuals
to accumulate private property, secured by clear laws that are fully enforced by the
state. It measures the degree to which a countrys laws protect private property
rights and the degree to which its government enforces those laws. It also assesses
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the likelihood that private property will be expropriated and analyzes the
independence of the judiciary, the existence of corruption within the judiciary, and
the ability of individuals and businesses to enforce contracts.
Freedom from Corruption - Corruption erodes economic freedom by
introducing insecurity and uncertainty into economic relationships.
Labor Freedom - The labor freedom component is a quantitative measure that
looks into various aspects of the legal and regulatory framework of a countrys
labor market. It provides cross-country data on regulations concerning minimum
wages; laws inhibiting layoffs; severance requirements; and measurable regulatory
burdens on hiring, hours, and so on. Six quantitative factors determine this
component:
Ratio of minimum wage to the average value added per worker,
Hindrance to hiring additional workers,
Rigidity of hours,
Difficulty of firing redundant employees,
Legally mandated notice period, and
Mandatory severance pay.
3. Eastern European Partnership. Despite the necessity to make rapid
reforms towards economic freedom, the level of economic freedom in transition
countries is still very low according to surveys by Heritage Foundation (Appendix
1). The weakest areas still are: corruption level and property rights. The only way
out from the poverty is to construct limited governments, eliminate trade barriers
and establish a common market. It is evident that Trade raises the economic wellbeing of the nation as a whole. Both restrictions tariffs and import quotas: raise
domestic prices, reduce the welfare of domestic consumers, increase the welfare of
domestic producers, and causes deadweight losses. Economic integration is a part
of Economic Freedom. It has two main effects on integrated societies: statistical
and dynamic. In the sense of statistical effect the competition among companies
rises. People in the free trade area have an access on more goods and services
which means that they have a larger choice to buy better products in relatively
cheap prices. In the sense of dynamic effect, companies opportunities to increase
their outputs rise sufficiently. Increased trade is likely to boost world growth to
everybodys advantage. It brings consumers a wider range of products to choose
from. Competition between imports and local products lowers prices and raises
quality. As much as higher is economic freedom in these transition countries as
much as easier is to negotiate with EU commission for preferential trade
agreements. Nowadays some EU countries such as Germany and France and others
are not quite happy with the possibility that the Eastern Partnership will be seen as
a stepping stone to membership1. It is evident that today Post Soviet transition
countries are not desirable partners for EU because of the problems in economic
development and political stability. The fundamental EU values: level of
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democracy, human rights and rule of law remain still very critical in the region. On
the one hand The EU believes that globalization can bring economic benefits to all,
including the developing countries, provided appropriate rules are adopted at the
multilateral level and efforts are made to integrate developing countries in world
trade. That is why the European Union is negotiating with its partners to open up
trade in both goods and services. The EU seeks to help developing countries by
giving them better access to its market in the short term, while allowing them more
time to open their own markets to European products, but on the other hand the
expectation for EU is that EU countries will benefit approximately nothing while
former soviet transition countries obtain a great advantage by entering the EU
global market which is the worlds biggest trader, accounting for 20% of global
imports and exports. Moreover, there is a great likelihood for substantial increase
in outflow of the human resources in EU countries. Besides of it transition
countries are poorer, have unresolved frozen conflicts, and are considered
stagnating democracies. New border controls and visa requirements therefore lead to a
concern about a new division of Europe. Cooperation with Russia, the other main regional
power, is necessary if the EU and Russia is to prevent a new dividing line. The EU,
however, has trouble creating or maintaining a common policy regarding Russia and its
neighbors. Some EU Member States are more concerned with the southern neighbors and
the Balkans, while others are divided regarding the status of the EUs relationship with
Russia.

The Eastern Partnership is meant to complement the Northern Dimension


and the Union for the Mediterranean by providing an institutionalized forum for
discussing visa agreements, free trade deals and strategic partnership agreements
with the EU's eastern neighbors, while avoiding the controversial topic of accession
to the European Union. Its geographical scope is to consist of Belarus, Armenia,
Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine1. Unlike the Union for the
Mediterranean, the Eastern Partnership will not have its own secretariat, but would
be controlled directly by the European Commission1. It was discussed at the
European Council on 19 June and 20 June 2008, together with the Union for the
Mediterranean1. The Czech Republic endorses the proposal completely, while
Bulgaria and Romania are cautious, fearing that the Black Sea Forum for
Partnership and Dialogue and the Organization of the Black Sea Economic
Cooperation could be undermined. The Eastern Partnership is an organization
aiming to improve the political and economic trade-relations of the six Post-Soviet
states of "strategic importance" with the European Union1. Promotion of human
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EU assigns funds and staff to 'Eastern Partnership', EU Observer, 2009-03-20


Values to form core of EU 'Eastern Partnership, EU Observer, 2009-03-18
75
CASE (Center for Social and Economic Research) (2008), Economic feasibility, general economic impact
and implications of a free trade agreement between the European Union and Georgia, CASE, Warsaw, 25
March.

"date despre date", informatii adaugate unui document (de orice tip: imagine, sunet, video, etc) introduse
automat sau manual. Metadatele nu fac parte din documentul in sine, ci contin informatii referitoare la
document ce sunt atasate documentului, informatii suplimentare care sunt in intregime cautabile,si care, prin
74

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rights and rule of law in former Soviet states has been reported to form the "core"
of the policy of the Eastern Partnership. The EU draft of the EaP states that:
"Shared values including democracy, the rule of law, and respect for human rights
will be at its core, as well as the principles of market economy, sustainable
development and good governance." The Partnership is to provide the foundation
for new Association Agreements between the EU and those partners who have
made sufficient progress towards the principles and values mentioned. Apart from
values, the declaration says the region is of "strategic importance" and the EU has
an "interest in developing an increasingly close relationship with its Eastern
partners1. It is evident that the former soviet republics are in hurry to enter the
partnership but EU commission should envisage all possible risks that may destroy
the political and economic stability or harm a security of EU countries. Having
considered these factors into account EU commission heavily enter the discussion
with former soviet republics on a free trade agreementto say negotiations by
insisting on a hugely demanding set of preconditions before agreeing to open
negotiations. On the other hand, the Commission is insisting on a complex set of
preconditions being met before the opening of negotiations, which it has not done
in the case of other neighboring countries (Eastern or Southern).
The
Commissions approach is bad from three perspectives. It is bad development
policy for transition countries. It requires eastern neighbors to adopt and implement
an enormous amount of imprecisely identified EU internal market regulations that
go way beyond strictly trade-related matters, with no attempt to identify those that
make sound economic sense for these countries in general. The burdensome
regulatory changes imposed on eastern neighbors are equivalent to taxing
productionendangering its growth and the sustainability of its reforms and
successful fight against corruption, which is so crucial for its long-term
development. A good example of appraisal trade policy towards its eastern
neighbors is a Georgian case.
4. EUs Trade Policy towards Georgia. Georgia is lower-middle income
country located in a tormented region, it faces challenges. At the same time,
Georgia is the EU neighbor that has undertaken unilaterally the most dramatic
reformswith great success. In short, Georgia is the archetype of a neighbor that
would immensely benefit from strong EU support, and whichin returnwould
establish the reputation of the EU as strong economic and political anchor.
Georgias track record for economic reform since the mid-2000s is outstanding by
any standards. Since 2006, it implemented basic free trade unilaterally for its
imports from the whole of the world, such that its average industrial tariff is now
0.3%, compared with 4.6% for the EU. But its reforms have gone far deeper still,
unilaterally opening all its markets to foreign direct investment and recognizing the
continutul lor descriptiv, maresc posibilitatile de regasire a documentului la o cautare.
Metadatele pot fi intr-o gama extrem de diversa, din acest motiv ele sunt sistematizate in CAMPURI (sau
"campuri-cheie").
*
CPA clasificarea produselor n func ie de domeniul de activitate pe teritoriul Comunit ii Europene.

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technical standards for imports from all OECD countries, including the EU. Its
governance reforms were such that its ranking under international surveys of ease
of doing business and de-corruption have improved to the point of being now
superior to various EU member states (Appendix 2).
In November 2006, the EU and Georgia signed a European Neighborhood
Action Plan (ENP) which included the possible establishment of a free trade
agreement between the EU and Georgia. This provision was introduced on
Georgias request while facing strong objections from the European Commission.
It took more than a year to agree on an innocuous wording specifying that such a
free trade agreement (FTA) would be subject to a study in order to find out whether
it would be feasible. The so-called feasibility study was finalized in March 2008,
and advocated a deep and comprehensive free trade agreement (DCFTA) 1. In
October 2008, soon after the war with Russia, the Commission sent a fact-finding
mission to Georgia. In March 2009, it sent to the Government of Georgia a matrix
of preconditions in 11 areas. These preconditions were divided into two sets: those
to be fulfilled before the start of DCFTA negotiations and those to be met after the
formal launch of negotiations to facilitate a smooth implementation of the-yet
undefined-DCFTA, also chosen unilaterally by the Commission. Out of these 11
preconditions, four were chosen unilaterally by the Commission as key: technical
barriers to trade, sanitary and phyto-sanitary (SPS) measures, competition policy
and intellectual property rights (IPRs).
In its current discussions with Georgia, the Commission is focusing heavily
on regulatory matters. It is thus important to have a fresh look at the effective
regulatory quality of Georgia compared to the EU member states and the other EU
Eastern neighbors. This fresh look is provided by four sets of measures of
regulatory quality:
- Ease of doing business (from the International Finance Corporation),
- Transition path (from the European Bank for Reconstruction and
Development),
- Foreign direct investment performances (from the World Bank) and
- Corruption index (from Transparency International).
All these measures converge to show that Georgia fares well compared to
other EU countries, including to the seven cohorts of EU member states (member
states aggregated by their time of accession). This result reflects the depth of
Georgias unilateral reforms, which rely on three pillars:

Almost no tariffs in manufacturing and very moderate tariffs in agriculture,

No barriers to foreign direct investment into the whole Georgian economy


and

A full recognition of the technical norms used by OECD (and NIS)


countries, a feature that makes Georgia a much stronger enforcer of the EU mutual
recognition principle than the EU itself. All these features make Georgia the best
78

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candidate for a DCFTA model, an opportunity that the Commission is wasting with
its preconditions.
Imposition of these regulations may appear very dangerous for Georgia for
following reasons:
1. For instance, the preconditions on industrial technical norms amount to a
tax on Georgian industrial production, which would inevitably slow down and
distort Georgias process of industrialization. The preconditions in sanitary and
phytosanitary (SPS) measures would trigger an average price increase of 90% for
the key food products purchased by the one-third of Georgian population who live
in poverty.
2. The Commissions approach is also bad commercial policy for the EU
since it would lead to an expansion of the trade between Georgia and non-EU
countries, rather than between Georgia and the EU. Georgian consumers would be
induced to import what Georgian producers could no longer sell because of EU
norms; and their low incomes will induce them to turn to imports from non-EU
sources that are less expensive than those from the EU. Meanwhile, in order to
survive, the vast majority of Georgian producers who would not be able to sell their
products anymore on Georgian markets under EU norms would try to sell them to
foreign markets not observing EU norms, thereby artificially boosting Georgias
exports to non-EU countries.
3. In general EU Commission approach is bad in the sense of economic
development of Georgia. The key for rapid increase in the standard of living lies on
the level of economic freedom. After implementation of these regulations Georgia
is loosing an opportunity to develop faster.
What does Georgia get instead? It is very strange, but the Commission does
not define clearly what a DCFTA is supposed to achieve. Worse, the preconditions
imposed unilaterally by the Commission on Georgia are similar to the conditions
that a fully-fledged EU should adopt when acceding. This leads to an awkward
situation where a DCFTA signatory could be best described as an EU, but one:
Without full access to the EU markets (very limited access to EU
agricultural markets),
Without full access to EU aid and
Without voting rights in the EU decision-making.
5. Summary. Numerous studies have shown that countries with more
economic freedom grow more rapidly and achieve higher levels of per capita
income than those that are less free. Similarly, there is a positive relationship
between changes in economic freedom and the growth of per-capita income.
Moreover, as per capita income has grown, the worlds poverty rate has declined
and most of this progress has occurred in countries that have made substantial
moves toward higher levels of economic freedom. Economic growth is primarily
the result of gains from trade, capital investment, and the discovery of improved
products, lower-cost production methods, and better ways of doing things. Given
these sources of growth and prosperity, it is not surprising that increases in
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economic freedom and improvements in quality of life are closely related.


Economic integration such as Free Trade Area and Common Market is a
part of the economic freedom. In economic integration no country pays customs
duty within the integrated area, so it results in lower prices both for the distributors
and the consumers. The ultimate aim of economic integration is to increase trade
across the world. Main advantages are: Progress in trade, ease of agreement,
improved political cooperation, opportunities for employment, beneficial for
financial markets, increase in direct foreign investments and etc.
Eastern European partnership is a type of economic integration for six
former soviet republics with EU countries. This factor grant a great advantage to
the poorest population to enter the developed EU market which is the worlds
biggest trader, accounting for 20% of global imports and exports.
That is why the European Union is negotiating with its partners to open up
trade in both goods and services. The EU seeks to help developing countries by
giving them better access to its market in the short term, while allowing them more
time to open their own markets to European products. However, it is evident that
today Post Soviet transition countries are not desirable partners for EU because of
no expectation from trade gains and the problems in economic development as well
as political stability in potential partner countries. The fundamental EU values:
level of democracy, human rights and rule of law remain still very critical in former
soviet region. Besides of it there are unresolved and frozen political conflicts. The
factor of Russia is also very important. Taking these factors into consideration EU
commission heavily enter the discussion with former soviet republics on a free
trade agreementto say negotiations by insisting on a hugely demanding set of
preconditions before agreeing to open negotiations. These preconditions may
appear as a general drawback for transition countries to ensure high level of
economic freedom and therefore the rapid economic growth of the region
(Georgian case).
There is no sense for Eastern partners to push EU commission to sign free
trade agreements at the expense of substantial loose in economic freedom and
without having a full access on EU market. This is wrong strategy. Instead of this,
it is very important to continue economic reforms in terms of market liberalization
and construction of limited governments. Property rights and corruption are the
weakest points in the region which should be improved. As little as markets are
intervened by governments, as much as peoples willing increases to produce,
import or export goods and services. This will lead six former soviet republics to
deepen a level of economic integration among them and establish a common
market which will become very attractive for EU countries in future. The future
negotiations with EU commission on free trade agreements will put Eastern
potential partners in more advantageous position with greater opportunity to gain
much
from this type of economic integration. This is a case, when tomorrows
chicken is better
than todays egg.
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REFERENCES:
1. Balkans model to underpin EU's 'Eastern Partnership', EU Observer, 2008-09-18
2. Bertho, F. and P. Messerlin (2009), Convergence with the acquis
communautaire: The case of air and maritime transport, Working Paper, 14
May. Groupe dEconomie Mondiale at Sciences Po (http://gem.sciences-po.fr).
3. CASE (Center for Social and Economic Research) (2008), Economic feasibility,
general economic impact and implications of a free trade agreement between
the European Union and Georgia, CASE, Warsaw, 25 March.
4. Chen, M.X. and A. Mattoo (2008), Regionalism in standards: good or bad for
trade?, Canadian Journal of Economics, Vol. 41(3), pp. 839-863.
5. Eastern Partnership' could lead to enlargement, Poland says, EU Observer, 200805-27
6. EU might get new Eastern Partnership, Barents Observer, 2008-05-22
7. EU reaches out to troubled East, BBC, 2009-05-07
8. EU assigns funds and staff to 'Eastern Partnership', EU Observer, 2009-03-20
9. Emerson, M., M. Aujean, M. Catinat, P. Goybet and A. Jacquemin (1988), The
Economics of 1992: The EC Commissions Assessment of the Economic Effects
of Completing the Internal Market, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
10. Estonian Competition Authority (2001), Contribution from Estonia, OECD
Global Forum on Competition, 4 October, OECD, Paris.
11. European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (2010), Strategy for
Georgia, EBRD, London.
12. European Commission (2007), Proposal for a Regulation of the European
Parliament and of the Council setting out the requirements for accreditation and
market surveillance relating to the marketing of products, Impact assessment,
SEC(2007) 173.
13. European Commission (2008), Communication on the Eastern Partnership,
SEC(2008) 2974, December.
14. European Commission (2010), State of the Implementation of the New
Legislative Framework, ENTR/C1. A4, September
15. Government of Georgia, Strategic Papers on the EU-Georgia DCFTA, Tbilisi.
16. Poland and Sweden to pitch 'Eastern Partnership' idea, EUObserver, 2008-0522
17. Poland, Sweden defend 'Eastern initiative', EurActive.com, 2008-05-26

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THE ANALYSIS OF INNOVATION POLICY


OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA IN THE CONTEXT
OF INNOVATION POLICY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
SISCAN Zorina,
Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova
Since August 1991 the constituting of the Republic of Moldova as an
independent state has been starting. It called forth new shaping of science and
education. First, under the new model of
market economy, they both have to be
closely and synergetically linked with
business activity as well as among
themselves. Secondly, under the socioeconomic megatrends of globalization and
regionalization, they have to integrate into
global and regional scientific, education
and business communities (figure1).
Finally,
under the
informatization
megatrend, the contemporary academic Figure 1. Synergy of science, education and
business as a basis for a contemporary
and business communities have to change
innovation policy
within the transition from industrial
Source: elaborated by the author
society to postindustrial, informational,
one and then postinformational society (see [1] for more details). These three main
factors have determined the Research-and-Development and the Innovation Policy
of the RM.
As for regionalization, maintaining the scientific and business links with the
Newly Independent States, the RM has become aware of its belonging to the
European space so as the integration toward the EU has been considered logic. At
the same time, the immediate addressing of the RM government with a will to
integrate into a new Union the EU right after its receiving independence
referred to a spontaneous reaction of the RM to the fact of lacking experience of
independent self-governing as well as to the accustomed logic of the USSR that
started with political act of integration and then joint economic development. The
EU, however, has another logic. It begins with independent socio-economic
development of a state, and then starts with economic integration through
economic agents followed by political acts which encourage further economic
integration. It is not incidental that the RM was expected to learn an independent
self-governing for socio-economic growth and for perspective integration into the
EU as a mature enough entity. Such an approach of the EU to its members allows
not unification but harmonization of them, including by their innovation policies.
All mentioned above conditioned the specifics of the Innovation Policy (IP)
of the RM. On the one hand, it reflects some structures and forms inherited from
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the pre-independent stage of Moldova (for example, Academy of Sciences and its
central role in national R & D). On the other hand, it refers to some new
approaches to R & D, education and their infrastructure learned from the EU and
global community (for instance, commercialization of R & D, tendency toward
decentralization of R & D infrastructure, clustering, European standards in
education etc.).
The further discourse of the article will be focused on the brief evolution
outline of both IP of the RM and IP of the EU in order to reveal the degree of their
compatibility in the context of the strategic orientation of the RM to the integration
into the EU; the problematic issues and the perspectives of both. The outcomes of
the investigation will be presented in a schematic way being limited by the volume
of the article.
The evolution and reformation of science and education of the RM took
place under the deep socio-economic crisis. As an outcome, in 1991-2003 number
of institutions of science, technology and higher education reduced from 94 till 79.
Share of expenditure for science went down from 0, 75% of GDP to 0, 18% 2.
Exodus of qualified workforce among youth became significant as well as
brain drain with perspective know-how in organic biology, physics, biochemistry
etc. among aged specialists. The total number of specialists engaged in R & D
reduced from 26 thousand to 6,8 thousand people Scientific, technical and
material base was considerably used. The functioning of the Academy of Science
of Moldova and other research institutions as state organizations was put under the
question [3].
The early R & D Policy of the RM leaned upon few juridical acts:
Conception of reform in R & D sphere (1998), Law related to state policy in R & D
sphere (1999) and Law related to the Academy of Sciences of Moldova (2000). As a
result, the ASM was suggested to be just a public organization; a Supreme Council
for Science and Technological Development attached to the Government of the RM
was created but remained rather nominal institution because of general dispersed
approach to administration of science which had been based upon departmental
principle. Here one may distinguish two aspects. First, in the 80s the profile
ministries and departments were responsible for scientific fundamental research
and applicative, experimental, investigation in economic branches while ASM
domain of R & D management included natural and social sciences. Second, after
the RM independence in the 90s, the scientific organizations, in order to survive,
put accent on horizontal international collaboration, having become autonomous in
their strategic decision-making even at the level of laboratories and departments. In
general, one may notice that it was lack of clear development model of R & D at
state level.
In 2004 it was elaborated and adopted a Code on Science and Innovation of
the RM in which science was declared as a national strategic priority. One may
associate that document with the beginning of proper innovation policy of the RM.
First, it contained a clear model of scientific and innovation process management;
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secondly, the model was recognized by the Alliance of Academies of Science of


Europe, UNESCO etc. as a new form of R & D management [ibid.].
In the Code the fundamental principles as well as basic procedures related to
the RM state innovation policy have been stipulated: partnership between state,
civil society and scientific community; administration and functioning of science
and innovation; training and attestation of specialists; intellectual property
protection; implementation and commercialization of R & D output. Besides, the
clear mechanisms for implementing these principles have been provided.
The reform was based on the principle of self-management of scientific
community. At the same time, it promoted the significant centralization of power
and resources in within. One may say, the reform focused on centralized
democracy in academic community. The Academy of Sciences has received the
status of Government in R & D sphere, the key representative of academic
community and the scientific consultant for public authorities in domain of science
and innovation. Its juridical status is to be a public institution of national
importance. Scientific community, in the face of ASM, determines autonomously
the directions of activity as well as the mode of their implementation, ensuring
financing from state budget with accordance to the strategic priorities of science
and innovation and assuming, so far, all the responsibility for the obtained results
[ibid.]. The scientists of the RM are considered to be involved in governing science
and innovation through the ASM Assembly, meetings of the scientific sections and
institutions within ASM and profile Ministries, Supreme Council for Science and
Technological Development, the members of which are delegated by scientific
academic, university and profile communities.
Having analyzed the general infrastructure that ensures the implementation
of the RM innovation policy, one may notice, alongside with the ASM, such state
organizations as National Council for Accreditation and Attestation and the State
Agency for Intellectual Protection. In the Code the clear division of functions and
responsibilities has been provided. The first organization is responsible for
accreditation of national institutions of science and higher education as well as the
attestation of scientific and didactic bodies in correspondence with European
standards and namely with Bologna process requirements to which the RM jointed
in 2005. Accreditation of institutions engaged in science and innovation is a
condition for their financing from state budget.
The second organization is competent in juridical protection of intellectual
property expressed in industrial property, author rights and related rights in the RM
(see about juridical base [6; 7]).
The institutional optimization that took place from 2005 till 2008 resulted in
the establishment of 38 institutions currently engaged in R & D and financed from
state budget. These institutions function either within the ASM or a profile ministry
or sometimes, are subordinated to both (for ex. the Institute of Economy, Finance
and Statistics). The ASM also includes private organizations as affiliated members.
On the basis of the Code on Science and Innovation, tailored by the
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respective reform, the organization of R & D activities has significantly been


changed. The first stage is a design of State Programs in which fundamental
research directions are combined with applicative and, ideally, with
commercialization of R & D outcomes. The second stage is the elaboration of
particular research Projects elaborated within State Programs. The institutional
participants of the process are: ASM, universities, profile institutions and private
sector. The projects are selected and financed from state budget on the basis of
competition, the great deal of which is evaluation by national and international
experts.
The Program-project approach to R & D allows development of links
between science, education and business, stipulated in the Innovation Policy of the
RM. The closer relationship between these three elements is assured by
organization of scientific clusters as well as technological parks the core of which
is the ASM again (see figure 2).

Figure 2. Innovation cluster UnivER SCIENCE of the ASM


Source: www.asm.md/Cluster ASM/
The cluster was established in 2008. Its main purpose is the promotion of
talented children and training them as future researchers. Besides, it allows
integration of science and education, on the one hand, and private sector oriented to
advanced technologies, on the other hand.
Due to further development of juridical base of innovation policy of
Moldova [8-10], first, there have been concretized the strategic directions in
science and innovation for 2006-2010, among which biomedicine, agricultural, bio
and nano technologies, energetic security etc as well as cultural, historical and
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informational development seen in the context of European integration; secondly,


the innovation infrastructure of Moldova developed: a State Agency for Innovation
and Technological Transfer [5;16] subordinated to the ASM was specially
established to monitorize implementation and commercialization of innovations. In
collaboration with the Supreme Council for Science and Technological
Development, the AITT established in 2007 a scientific-technological park
Academica and an innovation incubator Innovator within a State Program
direction focused on the use of regenerable energy resources; in 2008 STP
INAGRO in ecology and intensive agriculture; in 2009 STP
MICRONANOTEH in microelectronics and nanotechnology. The new
innovation infrastructure has been established to ensure the implementation of the
strategy for industrial development for the period up to 2015 and the strategy for
sustainable development of agro and food provision sector up to 2020.
To conclude, one can mention that in 2004-2008 the volume of financing
the science grew up from 0, 22 to 0, 74% GDP [3]. The reform of R & D sphere
was in mainstream of the Plan of Action RM-EU, Chapter 2.7 Interhuman
Contacts, Research, Development and Innovation.
At present, the Strategy for Innovation Development is being elaborated in
which the reserves for increasing spending for R & D by 1% GDP (with
accordance to the national and European experts recommendations [13]) are
searched for. In 2010 by the AITT and other related organizations a Conception of
the development of innovation entrepreneurship for 2011-2020 [14] was launched.
It covers the issues which were lacked by attention before.
Having referred to the EU innovation policy, one may outline three main
stages of its development:
1) R & D Policy (since the 90s up to 2006);
2) Since 2006 till now;
3) Perspective reform.
By the end of the 80s beginning of the 90s the Western Europe found itself
backward at world market of advanced technologies (see for more details, for ex.
[11; 12]) compared with Japan, USA, Soviet Union. The latter had been elaborating
informational technologies beginning with the 50-60s. The exception in Europe
presented Switzerland, Sweden and Finland which were and are the innovation
leaders in global informational economy.
One may distinguish reasons as follows: a) the majority of the EU countries
focused more on industrial rather than new informational technologies.
Respectively, in the 90s the average of investments in R & D in the EU was 1, 8%
of GDP while in USA 2, 64%, Japan 3, 04%, however, in Finland 3, 1% and
Sweden 3, 6% [15]. It is not incidental that they are global leaders of today; b)
lack of correspondence between national and supranational programs in domain; c)
demographic and enlargement issues.
In order to raise global competitiveness at high-tech markets, the EU
undertook number of activities. It approved a Plan of Action of R & D policy
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(1996), in which special attention was paid to mobilization of venture capital,


protection of intellectual property, simplification of procedure extension of opening
a company and of scientific mobility.
In 1998 the EC launched a program focused on revealing and disseminating
the best R & D practice in the member-countries [17]. At Lisbon Summit (2000)
the strategic priorities of the EU development economic growth and new job
places were substantiated by the creation of competitive innovation economy of
the EU.
In order to make a diagnosis of innovation state of the EU countries, it was
launched a special Scoreboard that also allowed the correction and harmonization
of the EU innovation strategies at both supranational and national levels. The 2001
Innovation scoreboard was based on 17 indicators, using which it became possible
to evaluate strong and weak points of member-states. The indicators were grouped
in four categories human resources, creation of new knowledge, application of
new knowledge and financing innovations [20]. Among the indicators which
measured intellectual potential index there was the average expected length of
education in the EU. In 2004 it constituted 17, 6 years. The leaders here were Great
Britain (20, 3 years), Sweden (20, 0) and Finland (19, 7).
In 2002, in Barcelona, the Council of Europe formulated some particular
objectives to stimulate innovation development in Europe. First, increasing
investment in R & D from 1, 9% of GDP up to 3% by 2010; secondly, the
coordination of vertical and horizontal innovation policies. That was necessary in
the light of the fact that the leading European countries undertook their own
measures in order to stimulate innovative competitiveness. For instance, the UK
paid a special attention to the development of scientific and technical infrastructure
in all branches of national economy. Today the British institutions are leaders in
providing research and quality education standards for the EU and neighboring
countries. A special attention has also been paid to the issues of regulated
migration to engage the most valuable human resources in scientific, technological
and entrepreneurial development. French government adopted in 1999 a special
Law on Innovations which stipulated the link between business, science and
education, enhancing mobility of scientific researchers as well as the consulting
activities provided by universities and facilitating creation of innovation business
on the basis of projects which are in mainstream with national priorities in domain.
Thus, the Government allocated 100 mln francs to implement 244 selected projects
in hi-tech, among which 21% was in health protection and biotechnology, 21% in
machine construction and new materials, 18% mass-media, 17%
telecommunication and electronics, 15% programming, 5% agro complex and
3% in energetics and protection of natural environment [11]. German government
registered lack of proper qualified specialists to enter informational society. In
2005 there were 12 thousand specialists in domain while the demand of companies
was for 100 thousand [ibid.]. The solution was found to change legislation for
letting the advanced graduates of technical institutions from overseas be placed at
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German job market; thirdly, creation of the common space in Research and
Education similar to common market and space of security (Schengen).
To implement the mentioned above objectives, the Innovation Policy of the
EU was launched in 2006. It has been focused on creation of favorable innovation
environment at the level of EU but not only. The specifics that one may distinguish
here is the development of regional EU level. As the EC underlined: European
funds have been focused much more than in the past on innovation. 86 billion
within the cohesion policy funds have been earmarked to support research and
innovation in regions and also rural areas benefit from increased support [18].
Referring to the key elements of mechanism which ensures the EU
innovation policy, one may distinct them as follows:

CORDIS (Community Research and Development Information Service).


Established in 1990 it remains essential instrument for bringing scientific
researchers, education activists and businessmen together, facilitating their
common projects.

Creation of European Research Area and enhancing Bologna process in


education to newly jointed countries (2004, 2007).

Increasing link between Innovation Policy, Cohesion Policy, Regional


Policy, Competition Policy, Security Policy, Neighborhood Policy and other
policies of the EU. As an outcome, the Regional Innovation policy has been
elaborated and the network of European innovation and business Centers, founded
in 1999 and supported by structural funds, successfully developed and today
embraces 200 centers and business incubators. These centers support technically
young innovation enterprises while the EC takes them under consideration for
perceiving the respective states to ensure them with fiscal facilities.
The EUs Joint Research Centers (IRC) a network of 7 research
institutes across the EU which is focused on R & D projects for future. In domain
of a nuclear energy and nuclear safety, the EU has become an initiator of a global
project in which the EU, Canada, USA, China, India, Japan, South Korea and
Russia united their efforts to construct the ITER reactor in Cadarache, France. It
expected to be a prototype for power stations based on nuclear fusion, a form of
nuclear power regarded as safer and more environmentally responsible. Another
global project that the EU launched is Galileo. In spite of participation of
international stakeholders (Israel, Morocco, South Korea), the EU put as a goal the
creation of an independent global navigation satellite system (GNSS). Launched in
2007, the project expected to reach its goal by 2014.
Both the R & D and Innovation Policies of the EU are based on
specialized programs: Framework programs focused more on fundamental risk
research of tomorrow and Eureka focused on applicative and commercial
aspects. Having analyzed their specifics, one may notice that 1-4 FP (Esprit in
the 80s beginning of the 90s) and early Eureka (Jessi) put accent on new
technologies of industrial society. Since the 5th FP (1988-2002) and Medea +
(Eureka) the accent was put on creation and dissemination of new informational
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technologies. Besides, the FP5 increased applicative aspect: programs with the
purpose of implementation of info tech in service sphere (Drive infrastructure
and traffic security; Aim informatics in medicine; DELTA education).
The FP6 (2002-2006) concentrated upon the creation of informational
society (35% of its funds) and research in biotechnology and genome. Eureka
used 85% of its funds for further implementation of informational technologies.
The EU enhanced its international R & D cooperation due to inclusion of
some countries of the ENP area in the FP6 activities. Thus, 19 projects were
realized by the institutions of the EU in cooperation with the RM ones.
The EU Innovation Policy (2006) is based on the FP7 for 2007-2013, on the
one hand, and the Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Program which
provides tools for SMEs, on the other hand.
The analysis of the FP7 shows: 1) the increase in its funding for more than
40% ( 50,5 bln); 2) integration of FP and Eureka so that FP7 deepened its
applicative dimension; 3) the greatest deal of investment is still for informational
technologies (figure 3).

Figure 3. Thematic breakdown of finances in FP7, million


Source: www.ec.europa.eu
4) in FP7 for the first time cosmic space research has become an independent
issue; 5) both FP6 and FP7 have extended the circle of investors and potential
partners: banks, venture funds, other financial institutions as well as increased
international participation within ENP; have completed national financing of
innovation policies when testing new technologies; have created consortium for
program implementation which include industrial companies, state research
centers, university laboratories. Even firms-competitors have participated. SMEs
are encouraged. The consortium, hence, meets both public and private orders. The
problem that has been registered by the stakeholders is that the outcomes of
European projects are to be accessible by any company. Thus, the intellectual
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property protection becomes a great issue so that the companies apply for the
project only when they are sure in their patent protection.
The system of intellectual property protection is quite complex in the EU. It
is multilevel. At global level, since the 90s, the WTO has been engaging in these issues
as the global trade in intellectual goods and services gets to be in growth. The
Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)
elaborated in 1994 (Uruguay Round) stipulates the necessity of harmonization of the
legislation of member-states, the EU included, in this field. The World Intellectual
Property Organization is another body which contributes to the process. At the EU
level as well as national level, the European Patent office, the World Organization of
Informational Systems and national departments concretize the WTO and WIPO
requirements while the national patent offices perfect the respective legislation.
Besides, the Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market is responsible for the
registration of Community trade marks and designs. Currently, the EC is campaigning
for the introduction of a Community patent system which is expected to be less costly
and more legally effective (for details see [19]).
Having analyzed the EU innovation policy at micro (corporate) level, one may
notice the following forms of its manifestation:
a) cooperation in research and establishment of strategic alliances, especially in
informational and biotechnological domains. Here the joint university - research
centers - private companies cooperation is developed. State structures joint the
alliance ensuring innovation infrastructure, information dissemination, support for
spin-off and spin-out companies;
b) horizontal cooperation in R & D between companies-competitors. It is
characteristic for such branches in which: 1) demand for product standardization is
high (electronic equipment for ex.); 2) market is shrinking so that concentration of
resources is needed to survive at it (military market, equipment for railways etc.);
3) the pressure of north-American and Asian competitors is the greatest
(professional electronics, petrol products processing etc.);
c) cooperation between EU state and companies within specialized programs
like Foresight within which the experts from industrial branches and state
structures formulate together the strategic directions of innovation research of
national importance. The national mechanism of the Foresight implementation in
Great Britain, for ex., there got to be the LINK program within which the state
provided up to 50% of financial support for the joint projects with private
companies focused on implementation of those strategic directions;
d) since 90s in the EU R & D Policy and then its Innovation Policy a special
attention is paid to cluster philosophy. Unlike the innovation policy directed to the
development of some special sectors of national economy, the cluster-based IP
pays great deal of attention to the interaction of various sectors by the use of their
strengths. Not just support of the idea but active partnership is expected from the
state. The most advanced EU countries in this respect are Great Britain, Germany,
Finland, Denmark, the Netherlands;
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e) merging and acquisitions. The purpose of this form is to accelerate


promotion of high tech and to enter as fast as possible new markets.
The joint vertical and horizontal efforts of the EU in its Innovation policy
implementation has resulted in the fact that the innovation gap between the EU
and its key competitors, the US and Japan, has narrowed [18] (figure 4).

Figure 4. Comparison of expenditure on R&D trends in the EU, USA & Japan
Source: www.ec.europa.eu
One may notice that by comparing, for ex., the results of the Economist
Intelligence Unit, 2009 Report [21] and the Global Innovation Scoreboard [22].
Being based on the first report it becomes clear that from 2002 till 2008 Japan and
Switzerland kept global leadership in innovation performance. Finland rose from
position 5 to that of 3 leaving USA behind (table 1).
Table 1. Top of global innovation ranking
Japan
Switzerland
Finland
US
Sweden
Germany
Taiwan
Netherlands
Israel
Denmark

2002-2006
Index
Rank
10.00
1
9.71
2
9.43
5
9.48
3
9.45
4
9.38
6
9.28
8
9.12
9
9.10
10
9.29
7

Source: Economist Intelligence Unit, 2009


177

2004-2008
Index
Rank
10.00
1
9.71
2
9.50
3
9.50
4
9.44
5
9.40
6
9.37
7
9.16
8
9.13
9
9.08
10

Change in rank
2004-2008/2002-2006
0
0
0
-1
-1
0
1
1
1
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In the second report Finland, Sweden, Switzerland, Japan, the USA,


Singapore and Israel are marked as the global innovation leaders. In the report a
new, cluster, approach has been used. Its purpose is to identify countries which
share similar patents of innovation strengths and weaknesses. This approach is
expected to assist policy-makers in identifying better performance countries with
similar patterns, and learn from them when appropriate (table 2).
Table 2. Cluster approach to the world economy innovation system

Cluster 1
Cluster 2
Cluster 3
Cluster 4
Cluster 5
Cluster 6

Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Israel, Austria, France, Belgium, Italy, Norway,


Japan, Germany, Switzerland, Netherlands, Australia, Canada, Republic of Korea
and UK
US and Luxembourg
Portugal, Slovenia, Poland, Singapore, Hungary, Czech Republic, Croatia,
Estonia, Slovakia, Latvia, Hong Kong and New Zealand
Greece, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Spain and Russian Federation
Argentina and Brazil
China and India

Source: adapted by the author on the basis of [22].

If the inner EU evaluation is considered, it has been exposed in the European


Innovation Scoreboards, the recent being that of 2009 and Innovation Union
Scoreboard 2010 [23]. One may notice the progress in making the evaluation more
complex by the use of 25 indicators (vis--vis those 17 of 2001 EIS and 12 of GIS).
Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Germany are regarded to be the innovation leaders
(figure 5).

Figure 5. The EU Member States innovation performance


Source: Innovation Union Scoreboard 2010
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The leaders have been identified on the basis of number of criteria which
allowed distributing the countries innovation performance per dimensions (fig. 6).

Figure 6. Country groups: innovation performance per dimension


Source: Innovation Union Scoreboard 2010
At the same time, one may see the reserves of the EU countries in
progressing for innovation performance. It is not incidental that the EC has
launched a new European reform agenda beyond 2010. As it has been emphasized
there, innovation cannot be organized by decree. It comes from people, and only
people scientists, researchers, entrepreneurs and their employees, investors,
consumers and public authorities will make Europe more innovative [18].
Summing up all mentioned in the discourse of the article, one may draw the
conclusions and make the suggestions as follows. In order to progress further in
innovation performance, the EU financial investors, as it has been noticed by the
EC should be more prepared to invest in innovative enterprises with a longer term
return horizon, going beyond short term profit expectations [ibid.]. Of course, one
may say it is not so easy to do under global financial crisis and frequent
environmental regional crises but the very mind should be, at least partially,
changed in order to mobilize a venture capital. Here the international cooperation
within the ENP can be a kind of solution. Although the ENP countries seem to be
like all the time in a grant expectation, there are already potential investors there.
Besides, in order to progress in global and regional innovation performance it
would be good if the EU not just follow but anticipate the technologies of
tomorrow. In the FP7 the lack of attention is paid to nanotechnologies, bionics etc.
Here, again, the ENP countries, Moldova included, can bring more value to joint
projects, especially at regional level.
The perspective advantage of the EU is the combinations of the uniqueness
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of innovation policies of member states which make them competitive at both


regional and global scale and the common supranational innovation policy that
ensure the overall support. In the RM, as it has been outlined above, there has been
shaped a unique innovation infrastructure that allows, at present, some progress in
innovation development of the country and may contribute to regional progress
(see active participation of the RM stakeholders in the FP7 projects [24]; 100 new
technologies elaborated [25]; nanotechnology innopark-2009 etc. which can
become prospective if joint RM-EU efforts are applied in a systematic manner).
For the RM it is important to sign a Memorandum on regional policy issues
as the EC recommends to the members of European Eastern Partnership. The
common benefit can be reached if transborder cooperation clusters are paid more
attention to. Finally, one has to emphasize that, although innovation is considered
today as a key for competitiveness, not all innovations can create competitive
advantage and even worse, some of them can deprive a company or a state of it.
Innovation should not be a fashion neither for Moldova nor for the EU. Traditional
technologies in food industry, for ex., can create competitive advantages under
ecologization megatrend, producing goods of organic class. Innovations, hence,
should be in modernization of equipment rather than in technology. Both, so far,
the EU and Moldova, joining their efforts within regional innovation and business
networks and transborder clusters can increase their original and global competitive
advantages.
For perfecting the IP of the RM as well as for better coordinating it with the
EU IP, the inclusion of the RM as well as all the countries of the Eastern
Partnership in the Scoreboard research is important. It will make the elaboration of
a harmonized, well-adjusted common Innovation Policy of the EU and the
European Eastern Partnership countries based on the principles of synergy and
diversity possible.
REFERENCES:
1. ican Zorina. Fundamentarea de noi abordri ale managementului strategic i
cros-cultural. Chiinu: ASEM, 2009.
2. www.statistica.md
3. Republica Moldova. Chiinu: Enciclopedia Moldovei, 2009.
4. www.asm.md
5. www.indisc.net
6. www.wipo.int/pct/guide/
7. www.lexadin.nl/wlg/
8. Hotrrea Parlamentului Republicii Moldova nr.160 din 21.07.2005 Cu privire
la abordarea Direciilor strategice ale activitii din sfera tiinei i inovri
pentru anii 2006-2010.
9. Legea cu privire la scutirea de tax vamal a unor mrfuri importate de ctre
organizaiile din sfera tiinei i inovrii nr.115 din 18.05.2006.
10. Legea cu privire la parcurile tiinifico-tehnologice i incubatoarele de inovare
nr.138 din 21.06.2007.
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achievements, obstacles and perspectives

11. . : , 2004. 352 .


12. Tataisi Katzuma. The Eternal Venture Spirit: An Executives Practical
Philosophy. New York: Diamond Publishing Incorporated, 1985. 210 p.
13. Ghidul cu privire la Planul de Aciuni RM-UE, proiect realizat de ADEPI i
EXPERT-GRUP cu sprijinul financiar al Departamentului pentru Dezvoltare
Internaional (DFID) al Marii Britaniei.
14. Concepia de dezvoltare a antreprenoriatului inovaional pentru anii 2011-2020,
Chiinu, 2010.
15. www.eurostat.eu
16. www.aitt.md
17. The OECD Observer 1998, No.213.
18. European innovation policy success but also new challenges, European
Commission, 02.09.2009. www.ec.europa.eu
19. Intellectual property in the EU. www.europa.eu/legislation_summaries/
20. 2001 Innovation Scoreboard // Commission staff working paper of 14
September 2001.
21. Economist Intelligence Unit, 2009 Report sponsored by CISCO.
22. Global Innovation Scoreboard 2009. www.proinno_europe.eu
23. Innovation Union Scoreboard 2010. www.proinno_europe.eu
24. www.fp7.asm.md/onjoing_projects
25. 100 tehnologii noi. www.asm.md

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POLITICI ECONOMICE COMUNITARE


N ZONA DE FRONTIER
BOTNARU Irina, ASEM

Abstract:
The objective of the study is researching economic and political interdependence
of countries in close proximity to the EU, the economic peculiarities of border areas,
particularly those of the Republic of Moldova in the context of cooperation with the EU.
EU border policies may address more distant countries, which are identified to be of
interest to the Union, from economic and security point of view. Current asymmetric
threats, particularly on security, require the implementation of an integrated border
management community.

Contextul complex din punct de vedere economic i social, care


influeneaz procesul de integrare european, ofer noi provocri pentru cercetarea
unui domeniu de actualitate, cel al elaborrii i aplicrii Politicilor Transfrontaliere
ale Uniunii Europene, ca instrument strategic de relaionare economic cu
partenerii i zonele de interes. Obiectivul studiului devine cercetarea
interdependenei economice i politice a rilor din imediata proximitate a U.E., a
particularitilor economice din zonele transfrontaliere, n special cele ale
Republicii Moldova, n contextul colaborrii cu UE.
Cooperarea transfrontalier la graniele externe ale Uniunii Europene se
realizeaz pe dou direcii principale: Politica de Coeziune i Politica European de
Vecintate. Politica de coeziune este menita s reduca decalajele dintre regiuni i
statele membre mai dezvoltate ale Uniunii Europene i cele mai puin dezvoltate,
pe cnd Politica Europeana de Vecintate reprezint o abordare relativ nou n
cadrul relatiilor dintre Uniunea Europeana si vecinii sai. Politica Europeana de
Vecinatate nu ofera statelor vizate (statele din Estul Europei, statele mediteraneene,
si statele sud-caucaziene) perspectiva aderarii la UE, ci permite o relaie
privilegiat cu vecinii i o mai bun focalizare a eforturilor n domenii referitoare la
dezvoltarea economic i social precum i obinerea posibilitii de acces pe piaa
intern, ct i integrarea n cadrul altor politici europene.
Politica de coeziune economica i social a UE. De ce este nevoie de aceast
politic?

Pentru a reduce disparitile de dezvoltare economic i social ntre


statele membre / regiunile UE,

Pentru a mbunti functionarea Pieei unice,

Pentru promovarea dezvoltrii stabile i durabile a UE.


Importana lor este nu doar la nivel social i economic, dar i strategic, iar
aceasta se vedei i din faptul c politica fundamental a UE constituie circa 1/3 din
bugetul UE.
Scenariile privind evoluia politicii de coeziune sunt subiectele unor dezbateri
contradictorii nc de la nceputurile sale, ca politic de dezvoltare regional.
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ntrebrile majore care se pun n prezent privitor la aceasta sunt:

Mai este ea o necesitate n continuare? ce orientare s fie dat fondurilor


structurale i de coeziune, avnd n vedere sfidrile majore cu care se confrunt UE
n prezent?

Ce mod de articulare s fie construit ntre nivelul comunitar, cel naional


i cel regional?

Ce rol s aib politica de coeziune n guvernana UE?


Prima ntrebare, reformulat, ar suna astfel: trebuie s fie coeziunea economic
i social un obiectiv comunitar i n prezent, n condiiile n care competitivitatea
este preocuparea central a statelor lumii? Nu sunt oare cele dou obiective
contradictorii (coeziune versus competitivitate)? Controversa coeziune vs.
competitivitate contrapune dou concepii extreme i oarecum reducioniste,
formulate sintetic astfel:
a) raiunile politicii de coeziune sunt prioritar sociale (meninerea coeziunii
sociale prin exprimarea solidaritii) i politice (compensarea unor pierderi ale
unora dintre rile membre, ca urmare a adncirii integrrii economice).
b) orice alocare de fonduri centralizat i orientat programatic ctre
anumite obiective este ineficient, fiind de fapt o surs de distorsionare a deciziilor
agenilor economici i a mecanismelor de pia. Funcionarea pieelor libere ar
conduce n mod automat i la convergen real ntre ri i regiuni, nu doar la
creterea competitivitii.
n prezent, acest tip de abordare ce opune competitivitatea coeziunii e
considerat depit i steril. Binomul competitivitate-coeziune nu mai este
considerat a fi o antinomie ci un tandem de obiective interdependente.
Argumentaia economic n favoarea politicii de coeziune devine tot mai
consistent:
rile de coeziune i, respectiv, regiunile defavorizate au o lips cronic de
capital i nu pot mobiliza n regiunile defavorizate investiii private;
obiectivele de coeziune sprijin mai buna funcionare a Pieei Interne;
regiunile devin entiti teritoriale distincte de abordare a competitivitii n
condiiile globalizrii;
fondurile comunitare au reprezentat instrumente de difuzare a raionalitii
economice i de reducere a ntrzierilor structurale n unele ri de coeziune.
n aceast nou viziune, rolul politicii de coeziune ar fi acela de a ajuta
economiile regiunilor s-i gseasc un loc pe pieele mondiale i a ncuraja
internaionalizarea lor, viziune mprtit de majoritatea rilor membre ale UE
27. Analizele empirice susin aceast orientare: ele indic, la rndul lor, drept
principale surse ale disparitilor regionale deficienele structurale la nivelul
factorilor care determin competitivitatea (primordial, dotarea insuficient cu
capital fizic i uman).
Comisarul european D. Hubner, a afirmat, la rndul su, caracterul primordial
economic al politicii de coeziune i a indicat ca obiective viitoare majore ale
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acesteia:
sprijinirea creterii economice pe termen lung;
crearea i exploatarea factorilor structurali ai competitivitii;
facilitarea anticiprii schimbrilor generate de forele pieei i adaptarea
economiilor regionale la acestea.
La a II-a ntrebare major, privind guvernana politicii de coeziune, opiniile
nclin ctre pstrarea actualului sistem, de multiguvernan stratificat la nivel
comunitar, naional i regional, n pofida mai multor imperfeciuni atribuite
nivelului comunitar i, parial, celui naional: birocratizare excesiv, reetar
standardizat de obiective i instrumente .a. Desigur c gsirea raportului optim de
centralizare-descentralizare ntre UE-state, state-regiuni este o problem delicat,
ea fiind influenat de mai muli factori.
n ceea ce privete rolul politicii de coeziune n guvernana UE, sunt
conturate ca idei mai importante urmtoarele:
potenarea efectelor de sinergie cu celelalte politici comunitare, printr-o mai
bun coordonare ntre politici, pe anumite domenii (de ex.: coridoarele de transport
europene ar putea include i regiuni defavorizate, conexiuni mai bune cu PAC, pe
domeniul dezvoltrii rurale);
rspunsul mai adecvat al politicii de coeziune la sfidrile actuale cu care se
confrunt UE, cum ar fi i migraia, de pild: urmrirea obiectivului de ocupare n
rile de origine ar reduce presiunile acesteia asupra rilor de destinaie.
Conexiunea dintre coeziune i competitivitate se structureaz n final la 3
nivele:
1.
La nivel comunitar. Evoluiile actuale ale mecanismelor instituionale
i politicilor comunitare indic orientarea primordial ctre creterea
competitivitii i n plan secund, pe aceast baz, a coeziunii economice i sociale
(chiar i reforma bugetului sprijin aceast orientare: bugetul de coeziune, dei n
cretere constant ca pondere n bugetul comunitar n 2013 se prevede s ating o
pondere de peste 35% din acesta , e orientat n proporie de 2/3 ctre
competitivitate, cretere i ocupare).
Politica comunitar privind concurena susine orientarea ctre
competitivitate prin constrngerile sale referitoare la acordarea ajutoarelor de stat,
dar poate i s susin reducerea decalajelor dintre regiuni. Ajutoarele de stat ctre
regiunile defavorizate sunt eligibile, conform Art. 87.3 (din Tratat), reprezentnd
una dintre cele 5 excepii generale de notificare. La nivelul statelor membre am
identificat 2 viziuni diferite privind orientarea ajutoarelor: 2 mari puteri (Germania
i Frana) i o ar de coeziune (Irlanda) concentreaz ajutoarele n regiunile
defavorizate, n timp ce restul rilor, n marea lor majoritate, le orienteaz spre
centrele de cretere.
2. La nivel naional. Toate rile europene au elaborat Programe de
Reform Naionale, prin care urmresc nfptuirea unor reforme structurale, avnd
drept scop realizarea obiectivelor Agendei Lisabona, care sunt centrate pe
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stimularea creterii economice i a ocuprii.


Abordrile privind dezvoltarea teritorial difer de la o ar la alta,
reflectnd:
a) caracteristicile instituionale ale acelei ri (care determin gradul de
centralizare sau de descentralizare a administrrii teritoriului),
b) schimbrile de opinie privind factorii determinani ai dezvoltrii.
n prezent, se tinde ctre o concentrare pe valorificarea activelor regionale i
locale i, totodat, pe creterea competitivitii la nivel regional. Accentul se
deplaseaz, deci, ctre sprijinirea firmelor locale pentru a deveni mai competitive,
nu doar prin crearea infrastructurii fizice n regiune, ci i prin valorificarea altor
factori, mai puin tangibili.
3. La nivelul rilor de coeziune. Experienele de pn acum ale rilor de
coeziune, fie ele ri membre vechi, fie noi, arat c politicile naionale rmn
decisive sub aspectul performanelor acelor ri, att din perspectiva
competitivitii, ct i a convergenei i a reducerii disparitilor. n prezent,
impactul cel mai mare l au reformele structurale, intind funcionarea flexibil a
pieelor, dezvoltarea spiritului antreprenorial, activitile de cercetare-dezvoltare i
formarea i pregtirea continu a resurselor umane.
Importante sunt i politicile fiscale i cele bugetare, att sub aspectul taxrii
veniturilor i a profiturilor, ct i al nivelului, structurii i modului de administrare
ale cheltuielilor bugetare. Tendina actual de reducere a cheltuielilor publice nu
afecteaz creterea economic dac sunt efectuate deodat reforme structurale care
conduc la creterea investiiilor private n economie. Modelele europene
performante se caracterizeaz prin: calitate nalt a sistemului de educaie, mediu
de afaceri prietenos, acumulare de capital, mecanisme de redistribuire a veniturilor
care menin pacea social.
Dincolo ns de judeci sintetizatoare, ca cele de mai sus, trebuie precizat
c exist, n interiorul acestor modele instituionale, anumite specificiti care ne
oblig la nuanri mai atente (exemplu structura cheltuielilor publice sau orientarea
ajutoarelor de stat). Acesta se reflect foarte clar n rezultate diferite privind
reducerea decalajelor n cazul Irlandei i Greciei: Formula irlandez de succes,
cum a fost ea numit chiar de ctre un ministru irlandez, include: finane publice
echilibrate, mediu economic pro-afaceri (flexibilitate, reglementare redus a
pieelor, deschidere extern, taxare redus), politici sociale coerente (existena unui
pact social) i educaie, educaie, educaie! Insuccesul Greciei, de recuperare a
decalajelor n primele 2 decenii dup aderarea sa la UE, se datoreaz n principal:
unei strategii de dezvoltare incoerente, existenei unei clase politice i a unei
administraii publice corupte (stat de privilegii, corporatist i clientelar),
orientrii neinspirate a fondurilor structurale (ctre proiecte mici).
Lecii din experiena rilor de coeziune:
Orientri de politic economic:
a) Reformele structurale trebuie continuate i adncite. Republica Moldova
are o economie grevat nc de numeroase distorsiuni: nregistrarea defectuoas a
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drepturilor de proprietate, ariile de corupie numeroase (sistemul juridic i


administrativ, economie subteran de proporii), contribuii fiscale nalte pe
salariat, numrul taxelor .a. Gradul de fructificare a ajutoarelor europene depinde
de msura n care mediul de absorbie este reformat structural.
b) Creterea constant a stocului de capital pe seama fie a sectorului public
fie a celui privat (i prin atragerea de ISD-uri, dar i prin stimularea investitorilor
autohtoni).
c) Investiii mari n resursele umane. rientarea ctre creterea competitivitii
(deci, primordial, a productivitii) presupune, crearea de active i servicii care
nglobeaz munc nalt calificat.
Vom detalia cteva dintre acestea, selectiv:
a) rile de coeziune au avut opiuni diferite: unele au optat pentru o cretere
naional mai accelerat (deci realizarea convergenei reale prin creterea PIB/loc.,
ca n cazul Irlandei), altele au acionat simultan i pentru reducerea disparitilor
regionale, ca n cazul Spaniei.
b) Descentralizarea este eficient doar dac ea se asociaz cu: existena unei
administraii locale i regionale eficiente i a unor sisteme centrale performante de
control a gestiunii de la nivel local i regional.
Politica European de Vecintate. Politica european de vecintate (PEV) se
refera la cele 16 ri vecine ale UE, i anume:
Israel, Iordania, Moldova, Maroc, Autoritatea Palestinian, Tunisia, Ucraina
(state partenere cu acorduri din 2004),
Armenia, Azerbaijan, Egipt, Georgia, Liban (cu acorduri intrate n vigoare
mai trziu),
Algeria (ultima alturat),
Belorusia, Libia, Siria (nu exist acorduri de cooperare).
Cu Rusia, UE are un parteneriat strategic aparte.
Scopuri i principii ale Politicii Europene de Vecintate:
O relaie mai strns ntre Uniunea celor 27 de membri i vecinii si,
Evitarea unei noi divizri a continentului,
Nu este o politic de extindere, ci pune accentul pe interesul comun de a
promova stabilitatea, securitatea i bunstarea reciproc,
Trebuie s rspund nevoilor rii respective (principiul diferenierii),
Prin parteneriat i responsabiliti comune (prioriti stabilite n comun).
Astfel, de aici se trag valori i interese comune, acestea fiind buna guvernare,
prosperitatea, stabilitatea i securitatea exprimate prin:
- Democraie, drepturile omului, supremaia legii,
- Economie de pia i dezvoltare durabil,
- Reforme sectoriale,
- Rspunsuri comune unor provocri comune: migraia, crima organizat,
mediul nconjurtor, sntatea public, terorismul.
Evoluia Politicii Europene de Vecintate a parcurs mai multe etape, acesta
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ncepnd n 2002-2003 cu primele ncercri de formulare a unei politici coerente


pentru noile realiti ale extinderii din 2004 (Europa Lrgit, Noua Vecintate,
cerc de prieteni), n 2003/2004 deciziile Consiliului European i comunicrile
Comisiei stabilesc PEV ca o politic oficial a UE, iar n 2004 este elaborat prima
strategie pentru PEV, primele 7 rapoarte de ar + primele 7 Planuri de Aciuni. n
2005 ncepe implementarea primelor 7 Planuri de Aciuni i alte 5 rapoarte de ar
sunt prezentate. Pe parcursul anilor 2006, 2007 Comisia vine cu noi propuneri de
imbuntire a PAV, astfel n februarie 2008 ncepe cooperarea n bazinul Mrii
Negre, iar n iuli: este relansat la Paris cooperarea Euro-mediteranean pentru ca
n mai 2009, la Praga s fie lansat Parteneriatul Estic.
Vorbind despre coninutul PEV putem specifica:
Scopul, care este cel de promovare a bunei guvernri i a reformelor,
Oferta: o integrare economic gradual i o intensificare a cooperrii
politice,
PEV se bazeaz pe anumite valori i interese comune,
PEV acord asistenei pentru: desfurarea reformelor, dezvoltarea
economic i social, precum i cooperarea transfrontalier.
Astfel, n procesul de colaborare reciproc ntre UE i rile din imediata
vecintate se contureaz anumite necesiti:
Crearea premiselor din partea PEV pentru nbuntirea performanelor,
Desfoare numeroaselor programe n domeniu,
Guvernarea trebuie abordat n strns legtur cu ordinea economic
internaional, cu procesele de integrare i regionalizare,
Dezvoltarea infrastructurii n zonele care se confrunt cu decalaje
importante n acest domeniu,
Problema principal n asigurarea securitii transfrontaliere trebuie s
vizeze anumite activiti concrete: educaia patriotic, dezvoltarea infrastructurii
sociale productive; crearea locurilor de munc pentru locuitorii din aceste zone,
Pentru soluionarea problemelor aezrilor umane din zonele
transfrontaliere autoritile trebuie s in cont de problemele cotidiene ale
populaiei din aceste zone-support,
Populaia din aezrile transfrontaliere trebuie s fie considerabil mai bine
asigurat cu infrastructur social, cu un anumit confort de a se deplasa, s dein
cunotine n cauz suplimentare, s fie contientizat de statutul su, de
responsabil cu soarta rii.
Forma iniial de elaborare a PEV n raport cu o ar vecin se reflect n
Planurile de Aciuni, procesul crora este din mai multe etape:
- Raportul de ar,
- Propunerea Comisiei Europene,
- Adoptarea Planului de Aciuni de ctre UE,
- Adoptarea Planului de Aciuni de ctre statul partener,
- Implementarea (3 ani),
187

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- O nou etap
Instrumente operaionale cheie sunt documentele politice difereniate i
specifice fiecrei ri. Acestea definesc prioriti pe termen scurt i mediu i
presupun stabilirea n comun a prioritilor reformelor politice i economice.
Domeniile comune Planurilor de Aciuni sunt structurate pe capitole. Anumite
capitole n Planurile de Aciuni sunt aceleai, dar coninutul este specific fiecrei
ri:
- Dialogul politic i reforma (2.1.)
- Dezvoltarea economic i social (2.3.)
- Probleme legate de comer, pia i reforma regulatorie (2.4.)
- Cooperarea n domeniul Justiiei, Securitii i Afacerilor Interne (2.5.)
- Probleme sectoriale: transport, energie, societatea informaional, mediu,
cercetare i dezvoltare (2.6.)
- Dimensiunea uman: societatea civil, educaia, sntatea public (2.7.)
n cazul rii noastre este n vigoare Planul de Aciuni RM-UE. Acesta
reprezint instrumentul principal de aplicare a PEV, la care R.Moldova este parte
din 2003. n baza acestui document, se stabilesc o serie de prioriti crora trebuie
s li se acorde atenie: soluionarea panic a conflictului transnistrean, democraia
i supremaia legii, libertatea mass-mediei, continuarea consolidrii capacitii
administrative i judiciare... Toate acestea se reunesc n:
80 de aciuni,
4 comisii interministeriale de implementare coordonate de MAEIE,
implicarea societii civile,
Misiunea de Monitorizare a Frontierei, formatul de negocieri 5+2,
Reprezentantul Special al UE, Delegaia Comisiei Europene,GSP+,
Cesare de Montis: respectarea drepturilor omului, reforma justiiei i lupta
mpotriva corupiei.
Comisia European a identificat sectoarele prioritare de acordare a granturilor
pentru Republica Moldova. Acestea au fost menionate ca fiind:
managementul finanelor publice,
sectorul social i reformele structurale.
n faa dorinei ambelor pri de permanent cooperare i aciune, se ateapt la
o evoluie pozitiv a economiei moldoveneti, cu impact n plan social, pentru
ameliorarea condiiilor de via, reducerea srciei i eliminarea decalajelor n toate
planurile, fa de rile membre ale uniunii.
Astfel, n urma analizei politicilor europene referitoare la rile din imediata
vecintate, i anume a ploticii de coeziune i a PEV-ului, att la nivel
intracomunitar, extracomunitar, dat i n cazul Republicii Moldova, am tras cteva
concluzii:
Zonele transfrontaliere sunt o form de microregionalizare a economiei ce
activeaz n strns concordan cu puterea economiv din regiunea dat i a cror
politici necesit o coordonare reciproc. Aici sunt reunite uniti administrative din
188

European neighbourhood policy and eastern partnership:


achievements, obstacles and perspectives

diferite ri. Totodata, fiecare stat cu aezri n zona transfrontalier se conduce n


exclusivitate pe baza normelor juridice proprii.
Euroregiunile sunt poligoane de competiie economic, n care rile cu
un potenial economic utilizat eficient devin mai bogate, iar rile care i
gestioneaz potenialul economic defectuos devin mai srace. Astfel, prin politicile
comunitare, zona transfrontalier faciliteaz comunicarea i desfurarea multor
activiti socioeconomice.
Obiectivul principal al politicilor transfrontaliere este creterea
competitivitii pentru tarile implicate, inclusiv a Republicii Moldova, printr-o
utilizare mai bun a resurselor umane i a factorilor de producie, ndeplinirea
standardelor naionale i comunitare, prin aplicarea metodelor matematice n
procesele economice din zonele transfrontaliere.
Pentru realizarea obiectivelor ambele pri trebuie s-i aduc contribuia
prin continuarea adaptrii legislaiei pe domeniu; supravegherea i controlul
destinaiei fondurilor alocate; justificarea folosirii resurselor financiare;
identificarea prioritilor i ntocmirea unui Plan Naional de reabilitare a sectorelor
vizate, ct i promovarea unor aciuni de atragere n ar a cetenilor care lucreaz
n afara teritoriului naional.
Politicile transfrontaliere ale UE pot aborda i vecintatea mai ndeprtat,
care se identific a fi de interes pentru Uniune, din punct de vedere economic i
securitar. Ameninrile asimetrice actuale, n special pe domeniul securitii, impun
realizarea unui management integrat al frontierelor comunitare. Totodata, pe
domeniul de securitate Politica European de Vecintate va trebui s evolueze
concomitent cu Politica Extern i de Securitate Comun (PESC), care ncearc s
dea Europei o voce extern comun.
Astfel, s-a creat un suprastat, care trebuie s elaboreze strategii compatibile
pentru statele de apartenen, n scopul dezvoltrii durabile a zona transfrontalier.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

BIBLIOGRAFIE:
Chistruga Boris, monografie Integrarea Postindustrial a rilor Eurpei
Centrale i de Est: aspecte teoretico-aplicative, ASEM 2006;
Chistruga Marcel, monografie Evoluia dezvoltrii economice a rilor Eurpei
Centrale i de Est n perioada post-integrare, ULIM 2009;
Srbu Olesea, monografie, Cooperarea Regional Transfrontalier
oportunitate de dezvoltare a statelor mici n procesul extinderii Uniunii
Europene, ASEM 2009 ;
Moisescu Gheorghe, monografie, Politici Transfrontaliere ale Uniunii
Europene, ULIM 2008 ;
http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy
http://www.undp.md/border/Pol_vecin_ue.html
http://www.europeana.ro/comunitar/Comunitar.htm
http://uniuneaeuropeana.sitestudio.org/politici-comunitare-europene.html
189

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-


,

Abstract:
In the article Socio-economic issues regarding the integration of the Republic of
Moldova in the European Union, the author reveals, on the one hand, the basic traits of
the socio-economic situation of the European Union, on the other hand, those problems
which have to be solved by the Republic of Moldova on its path toward the integration into
European Union as well as a mechanism their solution.



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3. Stigler, George. The Economics of Information. Journal of Political Economy.
69/) ., 1996.
4. Anuarul Statistic al Republicii Moldova. Chiinu, 2009.
5. . , 2009.
6. Measure of the Information Society. 2007.
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8. Comerul i dezvoltarea uman. PNUD, 2011.
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5. Pachnowski, L. M., Jurczyk, J. P. Perceptions of Faculty on the Effect of
Distance Learning Technology on Faculty Preparation Time. / L. M.
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PROBLEMATICA I REALIZRILE
REPUBLICII MOLDOVA N VEDEREA CRETERII
NIVELULUI DE TRAI A POPULAIEI
URCAN Rina, UTM

Abstract:
The concept of the quality of life gathers one of the most important parts, the level
of life. The assurance of a decent level of life depends on the degree of development of the
society quantified in GDP and in the way that this is used. Another important research
direction of the population living standards is its revenues and their ability to cover
necessary consumption. In this article aims at studying the dynamics of indicators
reflecting the level of living standards in Moldova, highlighting major shortcomings and
advancing measures to restore the status quo.
Key words: living quality standards, gross domestic product, nominal and real
wage, budget and real sector, bare subsistence.

Termenul nivelul de trai, denumit n limba englez Standard of living se


trateaz ca nivelul bunstrii materiale a unui individ sau a unei familii. n analiza
economic, se consider c nivelul de trai este determinat de cantitile de bunuri i
servicii consumate, incluznd aici i timpul liber. Asigurarea unui nivel de trai
decent depinde de gradul de dezvoltare a societii cuantificat n produsul intern
brut i a modului de repartizare a acestuia. Standardele de via mai ridicate sunt
reflectate nu numai n venituri mai mari i previziuni de via mai ridicate, ci i n
numrul redus al forei de munc i ntr-un nivel mai ridicat de via.
Produsul intern brut (PIB) exprim valoarea brut sau total a produciei finale
produse n decursul perioadei de calcul de agenii economici care i desfoar
activitatea n interiorul rii [3, p.436]. Pentru a estima nivelul de trai n vederea
comparrii acestuia ntre ri, produsul intern brut este raportat la numrul populaiei i se
obine indicatorul denumit produsul intern brut pe cap de locuitor.
Principalele componente din care este format PIB-ul sunt:
Consumul privat este n mod normal cea mai mare component a PIB,
reprezentnd cheltuielile gospodriilor n economie;
Cheltuielile statului, sau consumul sectorului public, reprezint suma
tuturor cheltuielilor guvernamentale pentru bunuri finite i servicii;
Investiiile includ investiii n fabrici, echipamente, inventar i nu include
schimburile de active existente;
Exporturile reprezint exporturile brute ale unei ri, incluznd bunuri i
servicii, destinate consumului ntr-o alt ar;
Importurile reprezint importurile brute.
PIB-ul pe cap de locuitor este PIB-ul mprit la numrul locuitorilor.
Acesta este adesea dat ca ajustat, nsemnnd c este astfel calculat nct nivelurile
diferitelor preuri sunt mascate n diferite ri. Astfel poate fi comparat eficiena
diferitelor ri.
Urmtorul grafic reflect n evoluie nivelul mediu a produsului intern brut
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pe cap de locuitor n lume i valoarea acestui indicator n unele ri ale lumii,


pentru a prezenta nivelul Republicii Moldova pe plan mondial.
Din graficul prezentat (figura 1) se observ c nivelul mediu a produsului
intern brut pe cap de locuitor n lume n perioada 1990-2009 are o tendin de
cretere treptat cu ritmuri destul de modeste, sporind n aceast perioad de circa
2,23 ori. rile nalt dezvoltate, nregistreaz PIB-ul pe cap de locuitor mult mai
nalt dect valoarea medie n lume i anume n aceste ri, tendina de cretere a
indicatorului n perioada analizat este mult mai nalt, fiind urmat de o reducere
n anul 2009 cu circa 2,5-3,0%, ceea ce este legat de consecinele crizei financiare
mondiale. E de evideniat c din fostele ri ale URSS care sunt apropiate teritorial
cu Republica Moldova, Federaia Rus i Belorus ncepnd cu anul 2000
nregistreaz o valoarea a PIB-ului pe cap de locuitor mai nalt dect valoarea
medie n lume. n aa fel, n anul 2009 n Federaia Rus PIB-ul pe cap de locuitor
a depit cu circa 73% valoarea medie mondial. Cu regret, Republica Moldova pe
parcursul ntregii perioade analizate se caracterizeaz sub nivelul mediu mondial a
PIB-ului pe cap de locuitor, decalajul respectivi devenind din ce n ce mai mare.
Astfel, n anul 2009 PIB-ul pe cap de locuitor n Republica Moldova constituie
doar 28% din valoarea medie n lume, ceea ce atest o poziie foarte slab a rii
noastre i argumenteaz corespunderea unui nivel sczut de trai a populaiei.
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25000

20000
F e d e r a ia R u s
15000
B e lo r u s
10000

V a lo a r e a m e d ie n lu m e
U c r a in a

5000

M o ld o va
0
1990

1992

1994

1996

1998

2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

2009

a n ii

Figura 1. Evoluia PIB-ului pe cap de locuitori n diferite ri ale lumii n


perioada 1990-2009
Sursa: www.google.com/publicdata.
Evoluia economiei presupune n mod organic distribuirea permanent a
veniturilor astfel nct aceasta s favorizeze dezvoltarea individului i societii n
ansamblu,pe coordonatele bunstrii, mbinndu-se aspectele economice cu cele social
culturale [3, p.709]. O direcie important n creterea nivelului de trai a populaiei este
206

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achievements, obstacles and perspectives

sporirea veniturilor acesteia i acoperirea coului minim de consum. n acest context


vom examina evoluia principalelor indicatori economici ce caracterizeaz veniturile i
nivelul de trai a populaiei n RM. n tabelul 1 se prezint evoluia principalilor indicatori
economici ce caracterizeaz veniturile i nivelul de trai a populaiei n RM n anii 20012010.
Tabelul 1. Evoluia principalilor indicatori economici ce caracterizeaz veniturile
i nivelul de trai a populaiei n Republica Moldova n anii 2001-2010
Indicatorii
Salariul nominal
mediu lunar al
unui salariat n
economie, lei
Veniturile
disponibile ale
populaiei*, lei
Mrimea medie a
pensiei lunare
stabilite, lei
Minimul de
existen *, lei
Raportul cu
minimul de
existen, %:
- venitul
disponibil
- salariul
nominal mediu
lunar
- mrimea
medie a pensiei
lunare stabilite

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

543,7

691,5

890,8

1103,1

1318,7

1697,1

2065

2529,7

2747,6

2972,2

241

321,6

422,4

491,4

568,6

839,6

1018,7

1188,6

1166,1

1278,2

135,8

161

210,5

325,3

383,2

442,3

546,2

646,4

800,8

809,1

468,7

538,4

628,1

679,9

766,1

935,1

1099,4

1368,1

1187,8

1403,2

51,42

59,73

67,25

72,28

74,22

89,79

92,66

86,88

98,17

91,09

116,00

128,44

141,82

162,24

172,13

181,49

187,83

184,91

231,32

211,82

28,97

29,90

33,51

47,85

50,02

47,30

49,68

47,25

67,42

57,66

Sursa: www.statistica.md
* - media lunar pe un membru/ persoan
Salariul nominal mediu lunar al unui salariat n economie n perioada 20012010 are o tendin de cretere continu sporind n aceast perioad de circa 5,5 ori,
ceea ce constituie un ritm mediu anual de cretere de 21%. Odat cu creterea
salariului mediu lunar, sporesc i veniturile disponibile ale populaiei (calculate ca
valoarea medie lunar pe un membru) care n perioada analizat au crescut de 5,3
ori cu un ritm mediu anual de cretere de circa 20%. Comparnd ritmurile de
cretere a salariului mediu nominal pe ar i a veniturilor disponibile ale populaiei
pe cap de locuitor, se constat c ele se difereniaz foarte neesenial, fiind
aproximativ egale. n urma comparrii valorilor absolute a acestor indicatori, se
constat c salariul mediu nominal e de circa 2,0-2,3 ori mai mare dect veniturilor
disponibile ale populaiei pe un membru. Aceast diferen se explic prin prezena
persoanelor ntreinute i a persoanelor ce nregistreaz alte forme de venituri n
afara salariului: pensionari, invalizi, omeri etc.
O categorie mai vulnerabil a populaiei Republicii Moldova care obine
venituri foarte modeste sunt pensionarii. Pensie reprezint suma de bani lunar ce
207

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se acord persoanelor care au ieit din activitatea profesional pentru limita de


vrst, pentru invaliditate etc. sau care i-au pierdut susintorul i sunt incapabile
de munc. Mrimea medie a pensiei lunare n perioada 2001-2010 a sporit de la
135,8 lei pn la 809,1 lei, adic de circa 6 ori, ritmul mediu anual de cretere a
acestui indicator constituind circa 22%. Ritmurile de cretere a pensiei medii n
republic nu se difereniaz mult de ritmurile de cretere a salariului nominal mediu
lunar al unui salariat n economie i a veniturilor disponibile ale populaiei
calculate ca media lunar pe un membru, ba chiar sunt ceva mai nalte.
La prima vedere, toi indicatorii analizai ce atest nivelul veniturilor
populaiei Republicii Moldova nregistreaz creteri considerabile, fapt ce se
estimeaz pozitiv. n economia real, contracte de munc nu fixeaz puterea de
cumprarea a salariului i sunt axate doar pe salariul nominal [1, p.205]. n aa fel,
analiza n dinamic a salariului nominal nu ne reflect schimbarea puterii de
cumprare a acestuia. Analogic este situaia privind puterea de cumprare a
pensiei lunare stabilite n ar i a veniturilor disponibile ale populaiei calculate ca
media lunar pe un membru. n aceast ordine de idei se argumenteaz necesitatea
de a compara sursele de venituri examinate ale populaiei cu evoluia nivelului
coului minim de existen, corelaia dintre care se va prezenta n continuare.
n perioada 2001-2010 nivelul minimului de existen n Republica Moldova
s-a modificat de la 468,7 lei pn la nivel de 1403,2 lei pe lun, sporind de 3 ori,
ceea ce e de circa dou ori mai puin fa de ritmurile de cretere a surselor
analizate de venituri ale populaiei. Totodat e de menionat c n anul 2009 acest
indicator nregistreaz o scdere ce circa 13,2% faa de valoarea anului precedent,
ceea ce se explic prin efectele crizei financiare ce au condiionat diminuarea
preurilor la unele categorii de mrfuri. Examinnd n dinamic raportul cu
minimul de existen a venitului disponibil pe cap de locuitor, a salariul nominal
mediu lunar i a pensiei lunare medii stabilite putem evidenia urmtoarele
momente:
Dinte indicatorii examinai ce atest n dinamic veniturile populaiei doar
salariul nominal mediu lunar n raport cu minimul de existen n ar depete
nivelul de 100%, ceea ce ne vorbete despre faptul c persoanele ncadrate n
cmpul muncii i pot asigura acoperirea minimului de existen;
Raportul dintre salariul nominal mediu lunar i minimul de existen n
Republica Moldova n perioada 2001-2010 nregistreaz o cretere continu,
sporind de la 116% pn la nivel de 211,82%, ceea ce constituie un aspect forte n
evoluia nivelului de retribuire a muncii i permite de a direciona o parte a
veniturilor spre economii n cazul cnd nu dispun de persoane ce necesit
ntreinere;
Cu toate c raportul dintre venitul disponibil pe cap de locuitor i minimul
de existen n perioada examinat nregistreaz o continu cretere, sporind de la
52,42% pn la nivel de 91,09%, el rmne a fi sub nivel de 100%, adic veniturile
ce revin unui membru a familiei nu acoper minimul de existen un aspect foarte
negativ a situaiei reale n ar;
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achievements, obstacles and perspectives

Cea mai dificil situaie se constat la examinarea nivelului raportului dintre


mrimea medie a pensiei lunare stabilite i minimul de existen n ar. n aa fel,
cu toate c acest coeficient a sporit n perioada examinat de la 28,97% pn la
57,66%, nivelul lui este mult mai mic dect cel necesar pentru asigurarea minimul
de existen a pensionarilor, plasndu-i n categoria celei mai srace pturi ale
populaiei.
Analiza efectuat a indicatorilor economici ce caracterizeaz veniturile
populaiei n raport cu minimul de existen ne atest c nivelul de trai este redus i
ne permite s concludem c situaia n ar este foarte dificil. Totodat e de
menionat c aspectul pozitiv al situaiei constatate constituie momentul c raportul
dintre categoriile de venituri analizate ale populaiei i minimul de existen este n
cretere pe toate poziiile.
n literatura economic o caracteristic relevant a rilor subdezvoltate este
nivelul sczut al veniturilor care nu permite satisfacere nevoilor primare ale
populaiei [4, p.517]. Dac ne referim la situaia constatat n Republica Moldova,
coul minim de consum nu este acoperit de veniturile medii pe cap de locuitor, ceea
ce denot faptul c o parte a populaiei nu-i permite satisfacere nevoilor
elementare.
Prezint interes de a examina n comparaie dinamica salariilor n sectorul
bugetar i n sectorul real al economiei. Tradiional, n sectorul real al economiei
nivelul de retribuire a muncii era considerabil mai nalt fa de nivelul de retribuire
n sectorul bugetar. Graficul 2 reflect evoluia comparativ a salariului mediu
nominal in sectorul bugetar i cel real a economiei Republicii Moldova n perioada
2001-2010.
3500
le i
3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0
2001

2002

2003

2004

s a la riu l m e d iu n o m in a l

2005

2006

2007

s e c to ru l b u g e ta r

2008

2009

2010

a n ii

s e c to ru l re a l

Figura 2. Evoluia salariul mediu nominal n Republica Moldova n sectorul


bugetar i real al economiei n anii 2000-2010, MDL
Sursa: www.statistica.md
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raportul dintre salariul mediu


in sectorul bugetar si real

Din graficul prezentat se observ c att salariul n sectorul real, ct i cel


din sectorul bugetar a economiei Republicii Moldova au o tendin de cretere
continu. n perioada 2001-2010 salariul mediu n sectorul real a sporit de la 487,6
lei pn la 3213,5 lei, ceea ce constituie o cretere de circa 6,6 ori. La rndul su,
salariul mediu n sectorul bugetar a sporit n aceast perioad de la 292,9 lei pn la
2549,3 lei, nregistrnd o cretere de circa 8,7 ori. Astfel, n sectorul bugetar a
economiei Republicii Moldova, ritmul de cretere a salariului mediu este
considerabil mai nalt fa de sectorul real.
Un interes deosebit prezint examinarea raportului dintre salariul mediu n
sectorul bugetar i cel real al economiei Republicii Moldova, raportul fiind
prezentat pe urmtorul grafic.
85
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005
anii

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Figura 3. Evoluia raportului dintre salariul mediu n sectorul bugetar i real


a economiei Republicii Moldova n anii 2000-2010
Sursa: calculat de autor n baza datelor prezentate din www.statistica.md
Din graficul prezentat se observ c n perioada 2000-2010 raportului dintre
salariul mediu n sectorul bugetar i real a economiei Republicii Moldova are o
tendin de cretere, cu toate c aceast tendin este foarte neuniform. n aa fel,
dac n anul 2000 salariul mediu n sectorul bugetar constituia 60% din salariul
mediu caracteristic sectorului real, atunci n anul 2010 acest raport se ridic pn la
nivel de circa 80%. Pe parcursul ultimelor 10 ani diferena dinte salariul mediu n
sectorul bugetar i sectorul real al economiei Republicii Moldova devine tot mai,
raportul analizat sporind n fiecare an n mediu de 1,03 ori. Dac tendina
respectiv se va pstra n viitor, peste 10 ani de zile salariul mediu din sectorul
bugetar se va egala cu salariul mediu din sectorul real al economiei.
Principalul factor ce argumenteaz creterea raportului dintre salariul mediu
n sectorul bugetar i real n Republica Moldova n anii 2000-2010 este faptul c n
cadrul sectorului real este destul de larg utilizat achitarea salariilor n plic, n aa
fel fiind ascuns nivelul obiectiv al veniturilor n acest sector.
Un alt moment caracteristic ce susine veniturile populaiei existente n ar
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achievements, obstacles and perspectives

constituie acele fluxuri de resurse financiare i materiale ce vin din exteriorul rii.
n rezultat se obine o situaie cnd consumurile reale a populaiei din interiorul
rii depesc considerabil nivelul veniturilor reale a acesteia, n special din sursa
de salariu.
Pe parcursul ultimelor ani n republic numrul populaiei active, dar mai
ales a celei ocupate, este n continu descretere, n timp ce numrul pensionarilor
crete, iar numrul celor plecai la munc peste hotare nu scade. Tot mai puini
salariai vor avea de susinut tot mai muli pensionari. Aceasta este o alt problem
care argumenteaz nivelul redus al pensiilor care nu acoper minimum de existen.
n concluzie e de menionat c pentru Republica Moldova sporirea nivelului
de trai i asigurarea unei creteri economice trebuie s fie axat pe urmtorii piloni:
sporirea populaiei active, mbuntirea calitii forei de munc, acumularea de
capital prin atragerea investiiilor strine directe, perfecionarea diviziunii i
organizrii muncii (orientndu-se spre ramurile economiei cu o valoarea adugat
mai nalt), susinerea dezvoltrii progresului tehnic i promovarea inovaiilor.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

REFERINELE BIBLIOGRAFICE:
Bcescu M., Bcescu-Crbunaru A. 2004. Macroeconomie intermediar,
Editura Universitar, Bucureti, 540 pag.
Bucur I., 1999. Bazele macroeconomiei, Editura Economic, Bucureti, 238
pag.
Ciucur D., Gavril I., Popescu C., 2001. Economie, Editura Economic,
Bucureti, 736 pag.
Dobrot N. 1997. Economie politic, Editura Economic, Bucureti, 591 pag.
www.statistica.md, www.pension.md, www.google.com/publicdata

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DEZVOLTAREA COMERULUI INTERIOR AL REPUBLICII


MOLDOVA: PROGRESE I DIFICULTI
URCAN Iuliu, UTM

Abstract:
Trade today plays an increasingly important role in economic development of any
state. Trade within the country we characterize how well this area is developed, which are
consumer preferences, ways of commercialization products and goods, how evolve
commercial business units and how many of these units come to 10,000 inhabitants.
Key words: merchandise retail, commercial establishments, markets, shops,
counters, form of ownership.

Actualmente, comerul joac un rol primordial n dezvoltarea economiei unei


ri i a economiei mondiale n general.
Dicionarul wikipedia, definete comerul ca schimbul voluntar (trading) ntre
dou entiti al unor bunuri valoroase, comerul fiind conceptul central din care a
derivat capitalismul i toate celelalte sisteme economice, iar prin comercializare
nelegndu-se procesul de transformare a unui bun sau serviciu ntr-o valoare
echivalent (mai preioas) [2].
Comerul include, comerul exterior i comerul interior. Pentru dezvoltarea
durabil a economiei oricrei ri comerul exterior este foarte important, ns i
comerul n interiorul rii la fel caracterizeaz situaia economic n domeniul dat.
Coninutul activitii de comer este foarte complex. n aa fel, alturi de activitatea
de intermediere, comerul cuprinde i alte activiti, precum cercetarea pieei,
informarea populaiei, educarea consumatorilor, publicitatea, promovarea, crearea
cadrului ambiental necesar actului de vnzare-cumprare etc.
Un rol important n cadrul sistemelor de distribuie a mrfurilor revine
comerului cu amnuntul, care, alturi de comerul cu ridicata, reprezint o verig
intermediar n fluxul relaiilor productor-consumator. ntr-o asemenea
accepiune, cunoaterea multiplelor aspecte pe care le ridic ansamblul proceselor
ce dau profilul acestei activiti ofer att orientarea, ct i instrumentarul de
aciune de care au nevoie ntreprinderile din domeniul circulaiei mrfurilor.
Reieind din considerente c ponderea cea mai mare n domeniile de
activitate a republicii moldova l ocup comerul, n continuare n acest articol se
propune de a studia mai detailat comerul interior de bunuri cu amnuntul.
Comerul cu amnuntul reprezint acea form a circulaiei mrfurilor care are
drept funcie cumprarea de mrfuri pentru a le revinde consumatorilor sau
utilizatorilor finali, de regul n cantiti mici i n stare de a fi ntrebuinate [1,
p.13]. Comerul cu amnuntul are o anumit specificitate, dat de urmtoarele
elemente:
Mrfurile vndute sunt destinate, n cea mai mare parte, consumului
individual;
Actele de vnzare-cumprare se realizeaz prin intermediul relaiilor
bneti;
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achievements, obstacles and perspectives

Mrfurile se desfac n partide mici, corespunztor consumului normal al


unei persoane sau familii, ntr-o anumit perioad de timp;
Dup vnzare, mrfurile prsesc sfera circulaiei mrfurilor, intrnd n cea
a consumului.
n continuare se propune de a analiza dinamica vnzrilor de mrfuri cu
amnuntul dup categoriile de mrfuri n republica moldova n perioada anilor
2003-2009 (tabelul 1).
Tabelul 1. Dinamica vnzrilor de mrfuri cu amnuntul dup categoriile de
mrfuri n Republica Moldova n perioada anilor 2003-2009

Indicatorii
Produse alimentare,
mil. lei
Ritmul de cretere fa
de anul precedent, %
Mrfuri nealimentare,
mil. lei
Ritmul de cretere fa
de anul precedent, %
Total, mil. lei
Ritmul de cretere fa
de anul precedent, %

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

5885,6

6632,0

7060,2

7178,4

9418,0

11301,2

11346,9

100,0

112,7

106,5

101,7

131,2

120,0

100,4

8651,4

9943,8

12427,5

16178,2

18802,1

23383,2

20796,1

100,0

114,9

125,0

130,2

116,2

124,4

88,9

14537,0

16575,8

19487,7

23356,6

28220,1

34684,4

32143,0

100,0

114,0

117,6

119,9

120,8

122,9

92,7

Sursa: www.statistica.md
Dinamica vnzrilor mrfurilor nealimentare, n Republica Moldova n
perioada anilor 2003-2009 are o tendin de cretere pn n anul 2008, nregistrnd
nivelul de 23383,2 mil. lei. Apoi n anul 2009 are loc o micorare cu 11,1% fa de
anul 2008, ceea ce a constituit 20796,1 mil. lei.
Aceast diminuare este condiionat de criza aprut n Republica Moldova
pe seama crizei mondiale. ns, totui, cererea fa de produsele de prima necesitate
rmne practic aceeai indiferent de situaia economico-financiar n ar i n
lume.
n continuare se vor studia ritmurile de cretere a volumelor vnzrilor de
mrfuri cu amnuntul dup categoriile de mrfuri n Republica Moldova n
perioada anilor 2003-2009 (diagrama 1). Din diagrama de mai jos observm cum a
evoluat volumul vnzrilor de mrfuri cu amnuntul dup categoriile de mrfuri.
Volumul vnzrilor mrfurilor nealimentare are un ritm de cretere relativ constant
pe parcursul perioadei analizate (pn n anul 2008 inclusiv), iar apoi n anul 2009
o diminuare destul de considerabil de 30%.
O alt situaie observm la volumul vnzrilor produselor alimentare.
Valoarea acestui indicator pe parcursul anilor 2003-2006 are un ritm de cretere
destul de modest. ns, n urmtorii doi ani 2007 i 2008 are loc o cretere
vertiginoas cu 38% i respectiv 32%. n comparaie cu volumul vnzrilor
mrfurilor nealimentare care s-a micorat n anul 2009 (cu 30%), volumul
vnzrilor produselor alimentare s-a majorat aproape cu un 1%.
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280
260
240
220

200
180
160
140
120
100
2003

2004

2005

P r o d u s e a lim e n ta r e

2006

2007

M r f u r i n e a lim e n ta r e

2008

2009

a n ii

T o ta l p r o d u s e i m r f u r i

Figura 1. Evoluia ritmurilor de cretere a volumelor vnzrilor de mrfuri cu


amnuntul dup categoriile de mrfuri n Republica Moldova fa de 2003
Sursa: www.statistica.md
Prezint interes studierea structurii volumelor vnzrilor de mrfuri cu
amnuntul dup categoriile de mrfuri n Republica Moldova n perioada anilor
2003-2009. Aceasta o putem efectua cu ajutorul diagramei 2.
100%
90%
80%
70%

59,5

60,0

63,8

40,5

40,0

36,2

2003

2004

2005

69,3

66,6

67,4

64,7

30,7

33,4

32,6

35,3

2006

2007

2008

60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%

Produse alimentare

2009 anii

Mrfuri nealimentare

Figura 2. Evoluia structurii volumelor vnzrilor de mrfuri cu amnuntul


dup categoriile de mrfuri n Republica Moldova n perioada 2003-2009
Sursa: www.statistica.md
Reieind din diagrama 2, observm c ponderea cea mai mare, pe parcursul
ntregii perioade analizate 2003-2009, revine volumului vnzrilor mrfurilor
nealimentare care variaz ntre limitele 59,5% (n anul 2003) i 69,3% (n anul
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achievements, obstacles and perspectives

2006). Dac pn n anul 2006 ponderea volumului vnzrilor produselor


alimentare pe teritoriul Republicii Moldova treptat se diminua (de la 40,5% n anul
2003 i pn la 30,7% n anul 2006), atunci ncepnd cu anul 2007 ea are o tendin
de cretere alctuind n anul 2009 o pondere de 35,3%.
Cunoscnd valoarea vnzrilor de mrfuri cu amnuntul dup categoriile de
mrfuri, ar prezenta interes studierea acestui indicator dup cile de comercializare,
pentru aceasta vom utiliza informaia din diagrama 3.
24
mld. lei
22

21,39
19,96

20
18

16,87

16
13,62

14
12
10
8
6

13,30

11,03
7,67
6,87
2003

11,35

8,34

12,18

9,74

8,24

8,46

2004

2005

2006

Uniti comerciale

2007

2008

2009 anii

Piee

Figura 3. Dinamica volumelor vnzrilor de mrfuri cu amnuntul dup cile


de comercializare n Republica Moldova n perioada anilor 2003-2009
Sursa: www.statistica.md
Pe parcursul anilor 2003-2009 valoarea vnzrilor de mrfuri cu amnuntul
dup cile de comercializare n Republica Moldova variaz. n anul 2003 valoarea
vnzrilor de mrfuri n unitile comerciale a constituit 6869,7 mil. lei, iar n piee
cu 11,6% mai mult, alctuind 7667,3 mil. lei.
ncepnd cu anul 2004 volumul vnzrilor de mrfuri n unitile
comerciale a nceput s depeasc volumul vnzrilor de mrfuri n piee. n anul
2004 n unitile comerciale au avut loc vnzri cu 1,2% mai mult dect n piee.
Dinamica volumului vnzrilor n unitile comerciale cretea cu ritmuri mult mai
sporite dect n piee. Astfel, n unitile comerciale s-au vndut n anul 2008 de
21387,2 mil. lei, iar n piee cu 37,8% mai puin, alctuind 13297,2 mil. lei. n anul
2009 acest indicator att n unitile comerciale, ct i n piee s-a micorat cu 6,6%
i 8,4% respectiv. Fapt condiionat att de situaia economico-social ct i cea
politic aprut n ar.
Creterea vertiginoas a volumelor vnzrilor de mrfuri cu amnuntul n
unitile comerciale poate fi explicat prin faptul c preurile de comercializare s-au
apropiat de cele ale pieii; cu timpul majoritatea oamenilor au nceput s prefere
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shopping-ul dup serviciu; multe uniti comerciale sunt amplasate n apropierea


domiciliului sau serviciului.
Reieind din considerente c pe parcursul anilor studiai 2003-2009,
volumul vnzrilor de mrfuri cu amnuntul n unitile comerciale a sporit de
cteva ori, prezint interes studierea acestui indicator dup magazine i gherete i
numrul de uniti de comer cu amnuntul la 10000 locuitori (figura 4).
10000

30
8889

9000

8527

8000

23

5000

6662

6220

5791

25

24

7159

21

7000
6000

25

7833
22

20

20

16

15

4000
10

3000
2000

1367

1498

1688

1855

2147

2539

2193
5

1000
0

0
2003

2004
Magazine

2005
Gherete

2006

2007

2008

anii

2009

Unitati de comert cu amanuntul la 10000 locuitori

Figura 4. Evoluia unitilor de comer cu amnuntul n Republica Moldova


n perioada 2003-2009
Sursa: www.statistica.md
Un al indicator de pe grafic este numrul de uniti de comer cu amnuntul
la 10000 locuitori. Momentul interesant poate fi observat n anul 2006, cnd
numrul de uniti de comer cu amnuntul la 10000 locuitori a constituit 20, cu
13% mai puin dect n anul 2005, nectnd la faptul c att numrul magazinelor
ct i numrul gheretelor a crescut cu 7,5% i 9,9% respectiv n acest an. Pe
parcursul perioadei analizate 2003-2009 numrul unitilor de comer cu amnuntul
la 10000 locuitor a crescut cu 56,3%, de la 16 n 2003 pn la 25 n anul 2009.
Conform datelor statistice, de-a lungul anilor 2003-2009 observm o
cretere n dinamic a volumului de vnzri cu amnuntul la formele de proprietate
public, privat i a ntreprinderilor mixte i strine, i diminuare la cea mixt
(public i privat) fr participare strin. Cea mai mare cretere a volumului de
vnzri cu amnuntul dup forma de proprietate n aceast perioad este
nregistrat la ntreprinderilor mixte i strine, care a crescut n anul 2009 fa de
anul 2003 de 4,1 ori, de la 1439,2 mil. lei pn la 5887,1 mil. lei. ns dup
ponderea n total volum vnzri cu amnuntul, locul al doilea, deinnd o pondere
ntre 20,9-29,5%. Pe locul al doilea, s-a situat forma de proprietate privat, care a
216

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achievements, obstacles and perspectives

crescut de 2,8 ori, de la 4696,1 mil. lei n anul 2003 pn la 13266,3 mil. lei n anul
2009. ns dup ponderea n volumul total de vnzri cu amnuntul proprietatea
privat ocup limitele ntre 66,5-69,0%. Pe al treilea loc, este proprietatea public,
care a crescut cu 58,3% n anul 2009 fa de 2003 i proprietatea mixt (public i
privat) fr participare strin s-a micorat cu 13,7% n perioada corespunztoare.
n concluzie, se poate spune c pe parcursul perioadei analizate 2003-2009,
valoarea total a vnzrilor de mrfuri cu amnuntul s-a mrit de 2,2 ori, a
produselor alimentare cu 93% i a celor mrfurilor nealimentare de 2,4 ori.
Valoarea volumelor vnzrilor de mrfuri cu amnuntul n unitile comerciale a
crescut n anii 2003-2009 de 2,9 ori, iar n piee cu 59%. Numrul unitilor
comerciale n Republica Moldova de-a lungul anilor 2003-2009 a crescut cu 55%.
Volumul vnzrilor cu amnuntul dup formele de proprietate n anul 2009 n
Republica Moldova s-a repartizat n felul urmtor: privat - 13266,3 mil. lei
(66,5%), a ntreprinderilor mixte i strine 5887,1 mil. lei (29,5%), mixt
(public i privat) fr participare strin 426,3 mil. lei (2,1%) i public 380,9
mil. lei (1,9%).
Analiza efectuat n sectorul comerului cu amnuntul al Republicii
Moldova a demonstrat c acesta se dezvolt pe parcursul ultimelor ani foarte rapid.
Cu toate acestea, exist nc un ir mare de lacune care redus eficiena economic a
acestui sector. n aa fel, pentru economia Republicii Moldova restructurarea
comerului interior trebuie s reprezinte un obiectiv strategic. n acelai timp,
direciile strategice de coordonare i dezvoltare a comerului cu amnuntul,
reflectate n politicile de dezvoltare durabil, trebuie s fie elaborate n raport cu
tendinele de dezvoltare a comerului cu amnuntul pe plan mondial.
1.
2.
3.
4.

BIBLIOGRAFIA:
Pistol Gh. i alii. 2004. Comerul interior. Teorie i practic, Editura.
Economic, Buc., 512 pag.
Kotler, Ph. 2008. Managementul marketingului, Ediia a V-a, Ed. Teora, Buc.,
1300 pag.
http://ro.wikipedia.org
http://www.statistica.md

217

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..,

Summary:
The changes in the dynamics of ethnic structure have been characterized. The
interconnection between the dynamics of ethnic structure and migration processes has
been considered. Attention has been focused on the factors affecting the formation of
ethnic structure. The role of historical ties (historical past, neighbourhood), language
skills and proximity of customs and traditions, migration ties, as well as conduct of
migration policy by the state in the process of forming modern ethnic structure of the
population of Belarus has been analyzed. The dynamics of ethnic structure of the Belarus
population has been presented from the historical point of view. It was discovered that the
peoples of the states bordering on Belarus have the largest share in the ethnic structure of
the population of the Republic of Belarus. The article analyzes the impact of the transition
from a command economy system to market relations and consequent destruction of a
single economic and demographic space caused by this transition on the changing trends
in immigration and emigration behavior of Belarus population has been analyzed. We can
conclude that different ethnic groups living in the Republic of Belarus have positive and
stable relationships.
Keywords: Belarus, population, ethnic structure, migration, ethnic relations, tolerance.


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achievements, obstacles and perspectives

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European neighbourhood policy and eastern partnership:


achievements, obstacles and perspectives


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Scientific-practical conference with international participation

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Scientific-practical conference with international participation

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:
1. Etco C. Management n Sistemul de Sntate. Chiinu: Epigraf, 2006, . 521546, 675-693.
2. .., . . 1000 . :
, 2008, . 42-47.
3. . . . , , 2007,
c. 56.
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6. . . . -, , 2004, . 214.
7. . . , -, , 2010, . 151.

228

European neighbourhood policy and eastern partnership:


achievements, obstacles and perspectives

CUANTIFICAREA FENOMENULUI CONTRAFACERILOR


PRIN PLATFORMA E-ANTICONTRAFACERI
PASCU Emilia, GOGU Emilia
Universitatea Cretin Dimitrie Cantemir, Bucureti
Abstract:
Although copying is considered by some a form of recognition of value, counterfeit
items stolen identity of a brands and consumers while missing confidence, and personal
safety. To reduce the devastating effect of economic and social impact of counterfeiting,
required solutions at least as well as sophisticated counterfeiting techniques, so that they
can be reduce the effect of this phenomenon and ways of estimation.
Quantification of magnitude of counterfeiting is possible and requires compiling a
database on the actual state of counterfeiting, whose role is to increase efficiency of
management control operators to reinforcing intellectual property rights holders.
Key words: counterfeiting; database; intellectual property; management etc.

Pentru a contracara efectul devastator din punct de vedere economic i social al


contrafacerilor, se impun soluii cel puin la fel de sofisticate ca i tehnicile de
contrafacere, astfel nct s poat fi diminuate efectele acestui fenomen precum i
modaliti de estimare a acestuia.
Cuantificarea magnitudinii contrafacerilor este posibil i necesit
alctuirea unei baze de date privind situaia real a contrafacerilor, avnd rolul de
cretere a eficienei managementului operatorilor de control n vederea sprijiniri
titularilor drepturilor de proprietate intelectual.
n prezent exist o nou provocare: cea de a asigura un mediu pe deplin
interoperabil la nivel european prin e-Guvernare. Aceast nou dimensiune a
procesului de administrare public ridic o serie de aspecte care trebuie
planificate n scopul de a integra cu succes sistemele administrative de diverse
modele.
Sistemul naional electronic actual, e-Government, necesit un punct de
contact unic (PCU) care poate fi accesat de furnizori i beneficiari de servicii de la
distan. n acelai sens, pentru un control mai bun al fenomenului contrafacerilor,
comunicarea rapid a datelor i informaiilor privind contrafacerile i o vedere de
ansambul corect propun crearea unei reele electronice e-Anticontrafaceri care s
prezinte ca obiectiv principal acela de a asigura mijloacele prin care diferite PCU s
poat s interopereze, pentru a pune n comun toate informaiile privind contrafacerile
provenind de la toi factorii implicai n stoparea acestui flagel. Desigur c aceasta este
o sarcin complex, deoarece fiecare PCU are particulariti specifice i se bazeaz pe
diverse tipuri de documente i formate. Din acest motiv, pentru nceput este imperativ
crearea specificaiilor comune privind tipurile de documente, formatele lor, etap
obligatorie a acestui proiect pentru realizarea interoperabilitii dorite ntre documente
i date. Se poate spune c, prin realizarea acestei reele e-Anticontrafaceri se poate
crea un model de document unic bazat pe punerea n comun a documentelor pan229

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europene viznd schimbul rapid de informaii privind contrafacerile. Documentul se va


utiliza pentru comunicarea ntre toate PCU, fiind interconectat cu sistemul COPIS
(Common European IT System).
Comunicarea ntre PCU i autoritile naionale implicate n lupta
anticontrafaceri ar urma s se fac independent. Modelul de document unic se va
baza att pe metadate semantice ct i de securitate fiind derivat n mod
corespunztor din ontologia de e-guvernare.
Pentru a crea un model complet funcional (care s permit
interoperabilitate ntre toate PCU conectate) care s faciliteze accesul agenilor
economici, al autoritilor competente ct i al consumatorilor este necesar
stabilirea un cadru juridic i tehnic comun la nivelul UE, care trebuie s traseze
principiile de baz privind culegerea i raportarea datelor privind contrafacerilor i
care de asemenea s simplifice procesele administrative.
Prin urmare, obiectivele generale ale acestui proiect au n vedere:
crearea unui pol administrativ de control serviciu de verificare i
identificare a produselor contrafcute;
crearea unui punct de control unic pentru a observa n mod transparent
i facil toat activitatea de verificare;
simplificarea procedurilor administrative i a formalitilor;
crearea unui proces unic de identificare la nivel naional compativ cu
cel al rilor membre UE;
metod unic intercomunitar /internaional de cuantificare a
nivelului contrafacerilor pe categorii de produse i servicii;
tehnici pentru o mai bun transparen i un grad ridicat de comparaie
intercomunitar prin utilizarea acelorai metode, tehnic de observare, verificare,
prelucrare, analiz i interpretare a fenomenului de contrafaceri;
formulare standard tipizate la nivel intern n format bilingv;
formulare unice tipizate la nivel transfrontalier;
crearea unui portal informaional curent de agregare prin master a
tuturor formularelor inregistrate la nivel zonal.
Aceste obiective vor putea permite accesul la toate informaiile legate de
produsele contrafcute o particularitate deosebit fiind aceea c se permite efectuarea
tuturor formalitilor de la sediul sau din ara de origine i prin punerea n comun a
acestor informaii, se creaz mijloacele/instrumentele care vor permite administraiilor
naionale, productorilor ct i titularilor de drepturi de proprietate intelectual s
vizualizeze, s analizeze i s interpreteze conform scopului urmrit informaiile pe
care le va primi de la un furnizor de informaii specifice, naional sau din alt stat
membru, i chiar de a verifica exactitatea acestora. Acest lucru ar urma s faciliteze
procesarea datelor i luarea deciziilor care se impun n timp util. Acest tip de
instrumente necesit o actualizare permanent n toate statele membre.
Conceperea unei arhitecturi care s realizeze interoperabilitatea ntre
informaiile sistemelor naionale i crearea unui mediu european interoperabil prin
e-Anticontrafaceri trebuie s respecte urmtoarele cerine:
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European neighbourhood policy and eastern partnership:


achievements, obstacles and perspectives

actualizare continu i automat a formatelor pentru fiecare PCU;


documente comune coninnd specificaii i definiii;
schimb de date sigur i interoperabil.

Sistemul informaional ar urma s solicite statelor membre s nfiineze


puncte unice de contact - PCU prin care s poat fi obinute toate informaiile
relevante fr a fi nevoie s contacteze mai multe autoriti, informaii care s poat
fi accesate de la distan prin mijloace electronice. Acest obiectiv se poate realiza
prin definirea precis a coninutului i structurii documentelor oficiale ct i a celor
transforntaliere care s permit prelucrarea electronic a acestora n mod automat i
integrarea lor n documentul unic.
Prelucrarea automat a datelor ncrcate pe platforma e-Anticontrafaceri sar putea realiza aa cum precizam anterior, prin standardizarea documentelor
electronice i implementarea unor concepte comune, pan-europene. Realizarea
acestui model trebuie s se bazeze pe urmtoarelor cerine:
documentele s prezinte un coninut structurat care permite
procesarea automat (de exemplu format XML);
s se utilizeze formate de reprezentare vizual de tipul PDF, XPS,
RTF;
s se foloseasc tehnologii care s permit identificarea sursei
informaiilor i garantarea autenticitii documentelor;
necesitatea autentificrii utilizatorilor platformei e-anticontrafaceri.
Pentru a se ajunge la interoperabilitatea documentelor naionale i
integrarea acestora ntr-un document unic privind contrafacerile vor trebui parcurse
urmtoarele etape:
identificarea tipurilor de documente care se vor utiliza;
generarea formatelor comune pentru aceste documente;
crearea unor tehnologii de identificare utilizate pentru
crearea/validarea/ livrarea/stocarea documentelor;
identificarea fluxului de documente i a cazurilor de utilizare;
identificarea de reguli pentru validarea documentelor;
modelarea unei reele pentru documente electronice i dezvoltarea/
actualizarea specificaiilor pentru documentul unic;
modelarea structurii de dependen dintre documentele platformei
pan-europene;
crearea unor metode de procesare a informaiilor ncrcate pe aceast
platform care s permit performana i securitatea acesteia.
n prezent se nregistreaz costuri ridicate privind raportarea att la nivele
naionale ct i la nivel comunitar a cifrelor privind comerul cu produse
contrafcute, fiind greu de estimat adevrata amploare a fenomenului.
Prin crearea unei platforme comune de date, e-Anticontrafaceri, ar elimina
aceste neajunsuri i n plus informaia se poate accesa i utiliza n termen real,
msurile putnd fi luate prompt, fr ntrzieri care uneori sunt fatale i nu n
ultimul rnd, corelarea acestor date ntr-un document unic va determina
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comunicare ntre instituiile abilitate i transparen. Modelul de raportare la nivel


naional se poate realiza conform figurii 1.
Raportri instituionale la nivel
naional
Raportarea Instituiei X - produse
contrafcute conform CPA* depistate:
i.Grupa
ii.Clasa
iii. Categoria
iv.Subcategoria

Reguli de validare a
informaiilor

Figura 1. Model de colectare a datelor privind produsele


contrafcute la nivel naional
Chiar dac din reprezentare nu reiese clar, Documentul Unic la nivel
naional (DUN) se poate realiza prin aplicarea unor reguli precise de validare care
s permit integrarea unitar a datelor ncrcate online de instituiile implicate.
Documentul Unic la nivel naional, ar putea fi obinut prin integrarea
seturilor de date ncrcate pe platform de instituiile implicate pe modelul din
figura 2.

Produse contrafcute raportate


la nivelul Romniei
i. Grupa
ii. Clasa
iii. Categoria iv. Subcategoria

Reguli de validare a
informaiilor

Agregator

Raportrile Instituiei X
privind produsele contrafcute

Raportrile Instituiei Y
privind produsele
contrafcute

Figura 2. Alctuirea platformei naionale privind contrafacerile pe baza


agregrii informaiilor raportate de autoritile implicate
Urmrind aceeai logic i set de reguli, documentele trimise de autoritile
competente i agregate n documente unice naionale (DUN) se vor integra n
documentul unic intercomunitar (DUI) realiznd platforma e-Anticontrafaceri.
La fel ca n cazul unui singur raport, la nivel naional se vor stabili reguli de
232

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validare a formatului documentelor transfrontaliere astfel nct s devin posibil


integrarea global a documentelor privind contrafacerile ntr-un document pan
european care asigur existena platformei e-Anticontrafaceri. Importana realizrii
platformei e-anticontrafaceri deriv din faptul c poate integra toate rapoartele de
ar privind contrafacerile permind astfel centralizarea datelor furnizate de toate
statele membre fapt ce conduce la adoptarea n timp util a celor mai bune msuri de
contracarare a efectelor contrafacerilor.
Pentru a-i putea atinge scopul, platforma e-Anticontrafaceri, va trebui s
conin informaii relevante pentru toate statele membre ntr-o form standardizat,
prin respectarea urmtoarelor condiii minime:
s conin toate informaiile depuse de autoritile competente din toate statele
membre/participante la alctuirea platformei e-Anticontrafaceri;
s solicite un cod de validare identic, indiferent de locaia de unde se depun
informaiile pentru asigurarea integritii informaiilor;
centralizarea n mod corect i complet a datelor, evitnd repetarea acestora n mod
nedorit.

Reguli de
validare intracomunitare

Platform eanticontrafaceri
Platform e-Anticontrafaceri
Produse contrafcute raportate de:
Statul 1
Statul 2

Reguli de
validare intracomunitare

.
.
.

Statul 27

Figura 3. Model de platform e-Anticontrafaceri pe baza agregrii


informaiilor raportate de statele membre
Pornind de la cele prezentate se poate prefigura modelul platformei eAnticontrafaceri bazat pe un Document Unic Comunitar care s conin toate
datele privind comerul cu produse contrafcute pe baza crora s poat fi estimat
magnitudinea contrafacerilor i stabilite msurile ce se impun n aceast direcie.
Prin intermediul aceastei baze de date, folosind un sistem de autentificare a
utilizatorului platformei e-Anticontrafaceri, se vor putea obine informaii despre
produsele contrafcute corespunztoare oricrui stat membru prin agregarea
automat a informaiilor stocate pe platform.
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Dei informaiile electronice sunt destul de vulnerabile, consider c


aprarea intereselor profesionale, economice i sociale ale membrilor unei
comuniti (Romnia sau Uniunea European) solicit punerea n comun a tuturor
datelor privind contrafacerile i conectarea n acest fel a tuturor celor implicai n
diminuarea magnitudinii fenomenului. Prin urmare sunt necesare anumite msuri
cum ar fi transpunerea informaiilor n limbile naionale/comunitare astfel nct
orice modificare sau informare suplimentar s fie uor de recunoscut n toate
statele membre care vor utiliza platforma e-Anticontrafaceri, alegerea unor
formate comune, standardizate a documentelor interoperabile precum i construirea
mecanismelor care s permit schimbul de date ntre mai multe PCU naionale i
indirect crearea platformei e-Anticontrafaceri.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

BIBLIOGRAFIE:
Atanase, A., Standardizarea in sprijinul comertului, Revista de comert v. 7, nr.
2, 2006
Avery P., The economic impact of counterfeiting and piracy, OECD
Publishing, Paris, 2008
Blakeney M.- The Pheaomenon of Counterfeiting and Piracy in the European
Union: factual overview and legal and instituional framework, ed.Schneider,
M. and Vrins, O., Oxford University Press, 2006
Autoritatea Naional a Vmilor din Romnia, comunicat de pres, resurse
online, http://www.customs.ro
Autoritatea Naional a Vmilor, Raportul privind situaia mrfurilor dovedite a
nclca
un
DPI
reinute
n
2008-2009,
resurse
online,
http://www.customs.ro/744/section.aspx
Berman B., Strategies to detect and reduce counterfeiting activity,Hofstra
University, 222 Weller Hall, Hempstead, NY 11549, USA, April 2008, resurse
online www.sciencedirect.com

234

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achievements, obstacles and perspectives

EFECTELE POLITICILOR FISCALE I BUGETARE


POTRIVIT MODELULUI KEYNESIST COMPLET
CMPEANU Emilia Mioara,
Academia de Studii Economice din Bucureti,
Rezumat
n vederea realizrii obiectivelor economice de interes general sunt necesare
intervenii majore ale statului n economie att prin perfecionarea cadrului legislativ i
instituional, ct i prin msuri concrete de politic fiscal i bugetar. Interveniile au loc
prin intermediul instrumentelor politicilor fiscale i bugetare. ns, lucrrile de
specialitate din domeniul politicilor fiscale i bugetare au artat c interveniile
guvernamentale au efecte diferite asupra economiei n funcie de contextul
macroeconomic. Lucrarea urmrete s prezinte aceste efecte pornind de la modelul
keynesist complet.
Cuvinte cheie: politic fiscal; politic bugetar; teorie economi keynesist;
obiective; eficien; eficacitate; viabilitate.

Introducere. Prezentarea modelului complet are drept scop evidenierea


rolului stabilizator al politicilor fiscal i bugetare n raport cu obiectivul utilizrii
depline a forei de munc. Intervenia statului este justificat prin dou ipoteze de
lucru. Pe de o parte, echilibrul economiei nu este rezultatul mecanismelor automate
decurgnd din flexibilitatea preurilor i raionalitatea agenilor economici, ci al
mai multor funcii de comportament. Dac agenii economici sunt victimele iluziei
monetare atunci echilibrul economiei rezult dintr-o ajustare a cantitilor pe piaa
bunurilor i serviciilor, piaa monetar, precum i pe piaa titlurilor mobiliare. Pe de
alt parte, echilibrul obinut are anse reduse s asigure utilizarea deplin a
factorilor de producie, iar msurile fiscal-bugetare de scdere a salariilor sau de
corecie a condiiilor de pe piaa muncii s-au dovedit ineficiente n combaterea
omajului. De aceea, dispoziiile exogene viznd veniturile i cheltuielile bugetare,
politicile de transfer sau politica monetar sunt singurele susceptibile s asigure
variaia output-ului i a factorilor de producie.
Lucrarea urmrete s prezinte efectele politicilor fiscale i bugetare asupra
echilibrului general pornind de la modelul keynesist complet. Ca urmare, lucrarea
este structurat pe patru seciuni. Seciunea a doua prezint aspectele generale ale
modelului considerat, urmnd ca n seciunea a treia s fie indicate efectele
politicilor fiscal i bugetare. Concluziile se regsesc n seciunea a patra.
Lucrarea de fa este parte integrant din tema de cercetare postdoctoral
Efectele Politicilor Fiscale i Bugetare Asupra Economiei cofinanat din
Fondul Social European, prin Programul Operaional Sectorial Dezvoltarea
Resurselor Umane 2007-2013, proiect numrul POSDRU/89/1.5/S/59184
Performan i excelen n cercetarea postdoctoral n domeniul tiinelor
economice din Romnia (contract nr. 0501/1.11.2010).
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Aspecte generale privind modelul keynesist complet. Impactul politicii


fiscal i bugetare a fost apreciat pornind de la modelul IS-LM sau modelul lui
Hicks i Hansen. Este important prezentarea logicii acestui model pentru a
evidenia efectul politicilor fiscale i bugetare asupra condiiilor echilibrului global.
Pentru aceasta sunt considerate dou situaii, respectiv: i) efectul pur al unui
mprumut public fr o creaie monetar corespunztoare; ii) efectul unui
mprumut cu creaie monetar corespunztoare n ipoteza n care trezoreria i banca
central nu sunt independente.
Specificul modelului complet este de a afirma non-neutralitatea monedei
cerute pentru speculaii i nu pentru tranzacii sau precauie. Speculatorii de rat a
dobnzii realizeaz arbitraje ntre deinerea de moned i de titluri n ipoteza n
care moneda i titlurile sunt perfect substituibile. De asemenea, se consider un
context al iluziei monetare n care agenii efectueaz anticipaii adaptive.
Sistemul macroeconomic descris este ierarhic i toate variabilele sunt
nominale. Aceasta nu exclude luarea n considerare a salariilor reale. De fapt,
putem admite c salariile reacioneaz mai lent n raport cu creterile de preuri.
Echilibrul macroeconomic rezult din funcionarea simultan a pieei
bunurilor i serviciilor i a pieei monetare. Acesta este dat de raportul venit/rat a
dobnzii rezultat din patru ecuaii, respectiv:
I
(1)
0
I I (r )
r
S
(2)
0
S S (Y ) cu
Y
(3)
Ms Ms
L
L2
(4)
M d L1 (Y ) L2 (r ) cu 1 0 ;
0
Y
r
unde: I investiiile private; S economisirea privat; Y venitul brut; r
rata dobnzii; L1 (Y ) cererea de moned pentru tranzacii; L2 (Y ) cererea de
moned speculativ.
Ecuaia (4.) se poate rescrie astfel: M d P L(Y , r ) . Ecuaiile (1) i (2.)
descriu piaa bunurilor i serviciilor a crei coeren cere
(5)
I ( r ) S (Y )
Piaa monedei are echilibrul dat de relaia:
(6)
Ms Md
Nivelul preurilor fiind exogen, ecuaiile (1) i (2.) arat c rata dobnzii i
nivelul activitii economice sunt determinate simultan i dependent de M s .
Nivelul forei de munc decurge din condiiile de echilibru pe piaa bunurilor i
serviciilor i piaa monetar pentru c presupunem:
(7)
Y Y (N )
Nu trebuie specificat oferta de for de munc pentru c nivelul forei de
munc depinde de cererea de munc fixat de antreprenorii care anticipeaz cererea
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European neighbourhood policy and eastern partnership:


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pieei i investesc n funcie de rata dobnzii pentru a satisface cererea global.


Aceasta este reprezentat grafic n figura 1.
W/P
(2)
(W/P)

Nd
(1)

N
IS
Y

LM

Y
Y=Y(N)

Figura 1. Modelul complet


Sursa: [5, p. 231].

Inversnd prezentarea obinuit a IS-LM, nivelul produciei este sub axa


ordonatelor i rata dobnzii sub axa abscisei. Venitul de echilibru, prin
confruntarea IS LM, determin la rndul su nivelul forei de munc, iar, pe
curba cererii de for de munc, se realizeaz egalitatea dintre cererea i oferta de
for de munc.
n acest model, se stabilete, pe baza ecuaiilor (1) i (2.), o relaie
S
I
descresctoare ntre Y i r (curba IS). De fapt: S (Y ) I ( r )
dY dr sau
Y
r
S
I
(8)
0
0
Y
r
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I
Y
r 0
de unde:
(9)

r S
Y
Creterea ratei dobnzii descurajeaz investiiile, iar venitul trebuie s se
diminueze pentru a nu se nregistra un exces al economisirii. Invers, plecnd de la
L2
Y
r 0
ecuaia cererii i ofertei de moned, obinem:
(10)

L1
r
Y
Aceast ultim ecuaie semnific faptul c o cretere a ratei dobnzii
provoac o reducere a cererii de moned pentru speculaii. Trebuie, deci, ca venitul
s creasc pentru ca cererea pentru tranzacii s compenseze diminuarea ncasrilor
din speculaii.
Efectele politicilor fiscale i bugetare. Pentru a studia efectele politicilor
fiscal i bugetare n cadrul modelului complet se consider c se nregistreaz un
deficit bugetar ce va fi finanat prin mprumuturi de stat. O prezentare complet
este cea a lui Denburg i Mac Dougal 1. Economia descris este formalizat
astfel:
Y C I G
(11)
C C0 cYd
0<c<1
(12)

Yd Y T

(13)
T t 0 tY
(14)
(15)
I I (r )
D T G
(16)
cu G GT GE
(17)
unde C consumul privat; GT - cheltuielile bugetare finanate prin venituri
bugetare; GE - cheltuielile bugetare finanate prin mprumut.
Cum D T G T (GT GE ) i T GT
(18)
D GE (deficit bugetar)
I (r ) S (Yd ) GE o parte din economii servete finanrii mprumutului (19)
(20)
M d L1 (Y ) L2 (r )
nclinaia marginal spre consum este afectat de valoarea ratei impunerii.
Variaia consumului ca urmare a modificrii venitului implic:
C
(21)
c (1 t ) unde C c(1 t )Y cT0 C0
Y
S
i la fel pentru economisire
(22)
1 c (1 t )
Y
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European neighbourhood policy and eastern partnership:


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nclinaia marginal spre investiii, notat cu , este msurat de:


I
(23)
; 0
r
nclinaia marginal a cererii de moned la rata dobnzii este dat de
L2 ( r )
L (Y )
(25)
; 0 (24.) i 1
; 0
r
Y
Putem evidenia efectele mprumutului, drept instrument de finanare a
cheltuielilor publice, asupra nivelului venitului naional i a ratei dobnzii. Astfel,
difereniind obinem:
I ( r ) S (Yd ) G E
potrivit
ecuaiei
(19)

r
G E
G E
S (Yd ) Y
I ( r ) r
(26)

1
r
G E
Y
G E
r
Y

s
1
GE
GE
De asemenea, putem scrie:
r
Y
(27)

s
1
GE
GE
M
L (Y ) L2 ( r )
De altfel stim c:
(28)
1

G E
G E
G E
Dar, cum am presupus la nceput, c masa monetar nu variaz, putem
M
spune c
0 (IS se deplaseaz ns nu i LM).
G E
L1 (Y ) L2 (r )

0
GE
GE

L1 (Y ) Y
L2 (r ) r

Y
GE
r
GE

Y
r

GE
GE

(29)

r
Y

GE GE
Am stabilit deja c:
r
Y

s
1
GE
GE

(30)

Y
Y

1
s
GE
GE
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Y
s 1

GE

Y
1

GE s

(31)

r
Y

1


GE GE s

(32)

Aceste ultime dou expresii evideniaz eventualele efecte ale politicilor


fiscal i bugetare asupra nivelului venitului naional i a ratei dobnzii.
Remarcm c , i

sunt pozitive i

Y
1
1

GE s
s

cu

1
s

1
.
s

Aceasta implic faptul c mprumutul fr creaie monetar reduce

1
multiplicatorul obinut fr intervenia statului ( ). Putem acum s considerm
s
diverse segmente caracteristice modelului IS-LM.
Prima posibilitate. Cazul clasic n care cererea de moned speculativ tinde
spre zero ( 0 ). LM are o elasticitate nul i IS intersecteaz LM n partea sa
vertical. Aici teoria cantitativ a monedei este validat de analiza keynesist. n
aceast ipotez:
Y
1
- efectul asupra venitului naional este: lim

0;
0 G

E
s

1

.
0 G
s
E

efectul asupra ratei dobnzii este: lim

Concluzii. Rata dobnzii crete (inflaie) pentru c nu exist cerere pentru


ncasrile speculative. Problema este de a cunoate dac, n condiiile unei inflaii
susinute, titlurile publice i vor gsi cumprtori. Trebuie ca ratele s fie
atrgtoare. Venitul naional nu variaz i, astfel, politica bugetar este ineficace
(mai ales n raport cu politica monetar).
A doua posibilitate. Cazul keynesist prin excelen: IS se deplaseaz i
intersecteaz LM la nivelul trapei lichiditii, adic LM avnd o elasticitate
punctual infinit ( ). IS intersecteaz LM n partea sa orizontal:
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European neighbourhood policy and eastern partnership:


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1

0
G
s
E
lim

Y
1

G
s
E
Concluzii. Venitul crete datorit jocului multiplicatorului cheltuielilor
finanate prin mprumut fr dificultate i fr impact asupra ratei dobnzii. Astfel,
statul se poate mprumuta n voie la nivelul trapei lichiditii.
A treia posibilitate. Cazul clasic keynesist: IS se deplaseaz i intersecteaz
LM n partea sa oblic. LM are o elasticitate punctual finit dar poate tinde spre
zero sau infinit.
Dac 0 observm o rigiditate a investiiilor n raport cu rata
dobnzii:
Y
1
lim

0 G
s
E
r
1
lim

0 G
s
E
i n ipoteza absenei rigiditii:
Y
r
lim
0 lim
0
G
G
E
E
,
lim

n general, se constat un efect pozitiv asupra venitului naional i a ratei


dobnzii dac 0 i/sau c cererea pentru speculaii este elastic infinit n
raport cu rata dobnzii. Creterea ratei dobnzii faciliteaz subscrierea la emisiunile
de titluri de stat i asigur transferul necesar de moned ntre sectorul public i cel
privat pentru c nu s-a considerat i emisiunea monetar.
Concluzii. Studierea efectelor politicilor fiscale i bugetare este o continu
preocupare la nivelul specialitilor ce urmresc s identifice msurile active care
asigur un maxim de rezultate pozitive la nivel economic n condiiile unor
pierderi ct mai mici. Ca urmare, este necesar s se cunoasc modul n care au
fost analizate aceste efecte de-a lungul timpului pentru a se putea stabili reguli
generale valabile n anumite contexte economice. Keynes este unul dintre
economitii care s-a pronunat pentru rolul activ al statului n economie prin
stimularea cererii agregate utiliznd instrumentele politicilor fiscale i bugetare. De
asemenea, a elaborat i un model care permite indicarea unor efecte ale
politicilor fiscale i bugetare precum creterea ratei dobnzii, n condiiile
interveniilor asupra asigurrii stabilitii monedei naionale prin evitarea erodrii
puterii de cumprare. Cu toate aceste, sunt induse efecte i de nclinaiile
speculative.

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BIBLIOGRAFIE:
1. Cmpeanu, E. (2011a). Importance of fiscal and budgetary policies in the
macroeconomy, Economie Economie Teoretic i Aplicat. Supliment.
2. Cmpeanu, E. (2011b), Investigation of fiscal and budgetary policies based on
economic theories, n curs de publicare n CKS 2011 Proceedings.
3. Cmpeanu, E. (2011c), Rolul stabilizator al politicilor fiscale i bugetare n
modelul keynesist simplificat, n curs de publicare n revista Studii Financiare.
4. Denburg T. F. i Mac-Dougall M. D. 1970. Macroeconomics, Mac Graw-Hill,
3e dition, London.
5. Semedo, G. 2001. conomie des Finances Publiques, Ellipses dition
Marketing S.A., Paris.

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SISTEMUL DE RESTITUIRE A TVA PERSOANELOR FIZICENEREZIDENTE: STUDIU DE FEZABILITATE PENTRU


REPUBLICA MOLDOVA
VRAGALEVA Veronica,
Institutul de Economie, Finane i Statistic
al Academiei de tiin a Moldovei
Rezumat:
n lucrare au fost studiat practica internaional i european de restituire
a TVA nerezidenilor i s-a concluzionat c sistemul de restituire a TVA
nerezidenilor este o operaiune binevenit i necesit anumite adaptri la cerinele
Republicii Moldova.
Cuvinte cheie: Tax-free, sistem fiscal, Republica Moldova, restituire, tax pe
valoare adugat, cec tax-free
Noiuni generale. Taxa pe valoarea adugat (TVA) este un impozit
indirect, care se aplic asupra consumului i este suportat de consumatorul final al
bunului/serviciului respectiv. De fapt, TVA este un impozit ncasat n cascad de
fiecare agent economic care particip la ciclul economic al realizrii unui produs
sau prestrii unui serviciu care intr n sfera de impozitare.
Prin intermediul TVA se colecteaz la buget o parte din valoarea
mrfurilor. Aceast pondere, care nu reprezint nimic altceva dect cota TVA,
variaz de la o ar la alta. Astfel, printre rile care promoveaz cote mici ale TVA
pot fi menionate, n mare parte, rile asiatice (Singapore 5%, Malaysia 5% i
Japonia 5%) [8]. O cot joas a TVA se nregistreaz i n Elveia (6,8%),
Republica Dominican (6%) sau Canada (5%).
Totodat, printre rile cu cea mai mare cot a TVA pot fi menionate rile
nord-europene (Norvegia 25%, Finlanda 22%, Suedia 25% i Islanda
24,5%). O cot ridicat a TVA se nregistreaz i la unele ri din Europa Central
(Ungaria 25%, Romnia 24%) [2].
Odat cu extinderea globalizrii i deschiderea (sau semideschiderea)
frontierelor ntre unele ri i dezvoltarea parteneriatelor transnaionale i a
turismului, s-a ridicat problema restituirii TVA achitat ntr-o alt ar dect cea de
reedin.
Astfel, restituirea TVA nerezidenilor vine ca un produs al maturitii
economico-fiscale a unui stat i se prezint drept un mecanism atractiv i viabil.
Procedura tax-free. n principiu, pentru a putea beneficia de restituirea
TVA pentru o marf procurat ntr-o ar ter, urmeaz a se ine cont de cteva
principii de baz:
1. marfa trebuie procurat n anumite uniti comerciale care ofer servicii
de tax-free;
2. marfa trebuie s prseasc ara n stare intact i nu mai trziu dect un
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termen fixat (de obicei acesta nu depete 3 luni) de la data efecturii


cumprturii;
3. cel mai des exist o limit inferioar pentru valoarea mrfii procurate.
De fapt, pot fi destinse 3 faze prin care trece un nerezident pentru a beneficia
de restituirea TVA: etapa de procurare, etapa de prsire a rii i etapa restituirii
sumei TVA.
Etapa de procurare. Odat ce bunurile au fost procurate ntr-un magazin
aparinnd sistemul european de Tax-free Shopping, vnztorul elibereaz un cec
Tax-free, care trebuie s conin foarte cite numele cumprtorului, date personale
din paaportul acestuia (numrul de identitate, adresa de reedin etc.). La cec se
anexeaz bonul de cas, iar marfa procurat se pune ntr-o pung special care se
sigileaz.
Etapa de prsire a rii. La plecare, cecul tax-free, paaportul i marfa se
nmneaz vameului pentru ca acesta s aplice tampila pe cec. n cazul n care
bunul a fost procurat din Uniunea European, tampila se aplic la prsirea ultimii
ri din cadrul Uniunii Europene. Aici merit a fi atras atenia asupra faptului c n
unele ri exist un termen restrictiv care nu trebuie depit din momentul
procurrii bunului. Bunul procurat trebuie s fie n stare intact n momentul n care
este scos de pe teritoriul rii n care acesta a fost procurat.
Etapa restituirii sumei TVA. Restituirea TVA se realizeaz prin una din cele 3
modaliti: fie n vam (naintea sau dup trecerea puctului de control, dup caz),
fie la restituirea n patrie (n una din bncile partenere a companiilor ce ofer
servicii de tax-free), fie prin expedierea unei scrisori recomandare cu tax-free cecul
sigilat de vam, copia paaportului i datele din contul bancar unde urmeaz a fi
transferate sumele TVA retituite. n unele situaii poate fi solicitat i viza de
cltorie n calitate de document confirmativ. De fapt, mai este o modalitate de
restituire a TVA achitate n alt ar. n cazul n carepersoana fizic se rentoarce n
ara unde a fcut cumprtura pn la scadena acesteia (de obicei, trei luni din
momentul procurrii), aceasta poate cere restituirea TVA direct n magazinul unde
a realizat procurarea.
Mai multe detalii cu privire la condiiile specifice de restituire pot fi
vizualizate n anexa la lucrare. Un caz interesant l prezint sistemul de restituire a
TVA persoanelor fizice nerezidente practicat n Romnia. Astfel, prin Ordinul
Ministerului Economiei i Finanelor Pentru aprobarea Normelor privind
restituirea taxei pe valoarea adaugat cumprtorilor, persoane fizice, care nu sunt
stabilii n Comunitatea European [1] a fost aprobat mecanismul de restituire a
TVA nerezidenilor persoane fizice.
Este de menionat c spre deosebire de alte state, n Romnia se practic un
sistem de restituire destul de specific. Restituirea taxei pe valoarea adaugat
cumprtorilor nestabilii n Comunitatea European se efectueaz de ctre
magazinele autorizate care au efectuat vnzarea bunurilor, direct ctre cumprtori
sau prin intermediul unor uniti specializate n restituirea taxei pe valoarea
adaugat, stabilite n Romnia sau n alt stat membru. Magazinele nu pot efectua
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restituirea taxei pe valoarea adaugat dect pentru bunurile vndute n propria


unitate.
Totodat, la restituire nu se reine un comision (ca n cazul companiilor
specializate n restituirea TVA, gen Global Refund sau Prime Tax Free), iar TVA
restituit se recupereaz ulterior din contul bugetului de stat.
Merit a fi menionat c magazinele autorizate i unitile specializate pot
restitui taxa pe valoarea adugat cumprtorilor nestabilii n Comunitatea
European n numerar, prin mandat potal sau prin transfer bancar ntr-un cont
indicat de cumprtor.
Astfel, principalele deosebiri fa de sistemele tradiionale de restituire a
TVA ar fi urmtoarele:
- nu implic obligatoriu prezena unui operator specializat pe restituirea
TVA nerezidenilor persoane fizice;
- se prezint drept un sistem simplu din punct de vedere al administrrii
fiscale;
- ar putea crea incomoditi i costuri suplimentare solicitantului
restituirii (legate de serviciile potale);
- ofer solicitantului o valoare a TVA mai apropiat fa de valoarea real
solicitat, din cauza lipsei comisioanelor (spre deosebire de companiile specializate
care rein comision de ca 5%).
n rezultatul efecturii trecerii n revist de mai sus, apare ntrebarea cu
privire la necesitatea implementrii unui astfel de mecanism n Republica Moldova
i modalitatea prin care acesta urmeaz a fi implementat, la nevoie.
La moment, n Republica Moldova nu exist baz normativ ce ar reglementa
operaiunile de restituire a TVA nerezidenilor persoane fizice care procur mrfuri
pe teritoriul rii.
Neprivind la asta, exist, totui, oferirea serviciilor de restituire a TVA pentru
bunurile procurate n alte ri prin intermediul Bncii Comerciale Moldindconbank
SA [4] i a companiei transnaionale specializate pe restituirea TVA Global Blue
Refund [3].
Procedura este una simpl [5]:
1.Se efectueaz cumprturi n magazinele cu logotipul Tax Free Shopping al
companiei Global Blue Refund. La cerere, vnztorul va elibera pe numele
solicitantului cecul Global Blue Refund. Pentru completarea cecului se prezint
paaportul, deoarece unele date (numrul paaportului, numele) se nscriu pe cec.
Cecurile de cas trebuie s fie anexate la cecul Global Blue Refund. n centrele
comerciale mari, de regul, sunt amenajate birouri destinate eliberrii cecurilor.
2. La ieirea din ara, n care au fost procurate mrfurile sau la ieirea din
spaiul Uniunii Europene, se prezint cecul Global Blue Refund, paaportul i
cumprturile angajailor serviciului vamal pentru aplicarea tampilei
confirmtoare pe cec.
3. Sumele TVA spre restituire se ncaseaz n birourile speciale Tax/Cash
Refund la sediul filialei Centru a BC Moldindconbank S.A. - agent exclusiv al
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companiei Global Blue Refund n Republica Moldova.


Astfel, pentru cetenii republicii care efectueaz cumprturi peste hotarele
rii exist un sistem de restituire. Apare ntrebarea: ct este de oportun
introducerea unui astfel de sistem de restituire a TVA persoanelor fizice
nerezidente ce fac cumprturi pe teritoriul rii?
Dintr-un punct de vedere (cel pozitiv) introducerea unor mecanisme fiscale
noi, promovate n alte ri (n special n Uniunea European) este privit
ntotdeauna drept o posibilitate de perfecionare a sistemului fiscal existent.
Totodat, aceast norm ar putea contribui la sporirea credibilitii statului ca
o structur cointeresat n promovarea turismului i a exportului i o structur
stabil i consecvent n aciunile sale de protejare a intereselor att a cetenilor, ct
i a nerezidenilor.
Pe de alt parte, introducerea unui astfel de sistem ar genera costuri
suplimentare de popularizare, instruire i implementare. n afar de aceasta,
guvernanii ar trebui s dea prioritate anumitor centre comerciale, clienii crora
vor beneficia de astfel de servicii, ceea ce ar putea fi interpretat drept favorizare i
ar putea prejudicia imaginea statului drept un promovator al principiilor pieii
libere.
Pe lng acestea, apare problema operatorului care va efectua aceast
restituire: fie acesta va fi una din cele dou companii transnaionale specializate
Global Refund sau Premier Tax Free [7] sau se va oferi aceast posibilitate unei
companii locale.
Astfel, n rezultatul cercetrii efectuate, autorul a identificat urmtoarele
concluzii i propuneri:
1.Implementarea sistemului tax-free este o posibilitate excelent de
promovare a imaginii statului drept o structur credibil i consecvent att n ochii
cetenilor rii, ct i a altor state.
2.Autorul consider c restituirea TVA persoanelor fizice nerezidente
urmeaz a fi realizat, n prim faz, n exclusivitate pentru bunurile fabricate n
Republica Moldova fapt ce ar contribui, totodat, la stimularea produciei
autohtone i a exportului acesteia. Respectiv, restituirea TVA urmeaz a fi
efectuat doar de ctre centrele comerciale ce comercializeaz producie de
fabricaie autohton fapt ce va contribui la excluderea efectului de favorizare a
unor anumite lanuri de centre comerciale. Totodat ar trebui s existe anumite
restricii n ceea ce ine de valoarea minim a bunurilor procurate i tipul acestora.
rile Uniunii Europene practic scutirea de tax-free a produselor accizabile.
Pentru Republica Moldova, unde producerea buturilor alcoolice reprezint una din
ramurile eseniale ale industriei, ar trebui permis i restituirea TVA la buturile
alcoolice i a produselor de tutun de fabricaie moldoveneasc, cu condiia stabilirii
plafonului minim de 175 euro (dup exemplul Romniei [1]);
3.Pentru simplificarea sistemului de restituire a TVA persoanelor fizice
nerezidente, autorul consider oportun preluarea practicii Romniei (restituirea
TVA nemijlocit de centrul comercial care a comercializat produsul cu compensarea
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ulterioar a statului a TVA astfel achitat) fr implicarea companiilor


internaionale. Acest fapt ar putea contribui la o mai bun monitorizare a
mijloacelor financiare restituite de la bugetul de stat i ar scuti de cheltuieli
suplimentare legate de tranzacionare cu companiile transnaionale sau naionale
(alegerea uneia);
4.Posibila perioad de implementare urmeaz a fi stabilit la cel puin o
jumtate de an dup publicarea actului legislativ care ar viza aceste tranzacii.
Acest fapt este dictat de necesitatea promovrii prevederilor n cauz prin
intermediul misiunilor diplomatice ale Republicii Moldova n alte ri.
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

BIBLIOGRAFIE:
Ordinul Ministerului Economiei i Finanelor Romniei nr. 1692/2007 din 19
octombrie 2007 Pentru aprobarea Normelor privind restituirea taxei pe
valoarea adugat cumprtorilor, persoane fizice, care nu sunt stabilii n
Comunitatea European;
http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/taxinv/welcome.do
http://www.global-blue.com/
http://www.moldindconbank.com/
http://www.moldindconbank.com/cecuri-persoane-fizice/cecuri-tax-free/
http://www.moldindconbank.com/cecuri-persoane-fizice/lista-tarilorramburseaza/
http://www.premiertaxfree.com/
http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taxa_pe_valoarea_ad%C4%83ugat%C4%83

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EFICIENTIZAREA COSTURILOR INCLUSE N TARIFE PRIN


REGLEMENTAREA PROCESELOR DE ACHIZIIE N SECTORUL
ENERGETIC
MORARU Tatiana,
Academia de Studii Economice din Moldova
Abstract:
This article touches on the problem of regulating the acquisitions in energy sectors
entreprises. There are related the factors which influence acquisitions costs formation in
this sector. It is being argued the necessity of improving the legal framework by observing
the principles of acquisition procedures according to European standards.
Key words: regulation, acquisition, acquisition procedures, excessive costs, tariffs.

Experiena pe scar mondial arat c, n condiii de pia, combinaia dintre


concurena sporit, profesionalism i procedurile de achiziii eficace poate oferi
tarife mai joase, o calitate mai nalt a serviciilor i, prin urmare, o mbuntire a
eficienei costurilor n sectorul energetic.
Dei, ncepnd cu anul 1997, Republica Moldova deine un cadru legal
privind achiziiile de mrfuri, lucrri i servicii pentru necesitile statului, totodat
lipsete cadrul legal privind achiziiile efectuate de ntreprinderi din sectorul
energetic cu capital privat. Necesitatea de coordonare a procedurilor de adjudecare
a contractelor de achiziii de ctre beneficiarii de achiziii care opereaz n sectorul
energetic, rezult i din caracterul nchis al pieelor pe care acestea opereaz, din
cauza existenei unor cerine speciale referitoare la aprovizionarea, punerea la
dispoziie sau exploatarea reelelor care furnizeaz serviciul respectiv.
n Republica Moldova, legea de baz care reglementeaz procesul de
achiziie, este Legea privind achiziiile publice nr. 96-XVI din 13.04.2007, care a
fost perfecionat n conformitate cu standardele internaionale privind cele mai
bune practici n sistemele de management al cheltuielilor publice i achiziiilor
publice. Prevederile noii legi exclud diferenele substaniale fa de legislaia
comunitar de domeniu i sunt bazate pe aa principii importante, recunoscute pe
plan internaional, precum nondiscriminarea i transparena. Totodat, cadrul
normativ naional care ar reglementa achiziile efectuate n sectorul energetic
lipsete.
n Uniunea European procedura de efectuare a achiziiilor n sectorul
energetic este reglementat prin Directiva de coordonare a procedurilor de
atribuire a contractelor de achiziii n sectoarele ap, energie, transporturi i servicii
potale.
Sectoarele energie electric,termic i gaze naturale din Republica Moldova
reprezint monopol natural, unde toate procurrile de bunuri, lucrri i servicii sunt
efectuate de fiecare ntreprindere n parte, la propria discreie, att prin licitaii i
oferte, ct i prin contracte bilaterale sau nelegeri directe cu furnizori i
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antreprenori. n multe cazuri procurrile sunt netransparente, bazate pe principii


necompetitive, fapt ce duce la procurri cu costuri mari i nejustificate. n lipsa
transparenei n organizarea licitaiilor, n afar de procurri la preuri nejustificate,
apar i cazuri de procurri a bunurilor i lucrrilor de calitate dubioas. n
consecin apar necesiti de organizare a altor licitaii, respectiv de efectuare a
unor cheltuieli suplimentare ce duc la majorarea nejustificat a consumurilor i
cheltuielilor.
Este necesar de menionat, c o parte din ntreprinderile din sectorul
energetic, anume a ntreprinderilor cu capital de stat, efectueaz achiziiile n baza
prevederilor Legii privind achiziiile publice, iar cealalt categorie de ntreprinderi,
adic ntreprinderile cu capital privat, aplic procedurile de achiziii conform
regulamentelor interne proprii.
Dat fiind faptul c, Legea privind achiziiile publice nu ia n consideraie
particularitile activitii ntreprinderilor din sectorul energetic, ntreprinderile din
acest sector efectueaz procurri de bunuri, lucrri i servicii la bunul lor plac i ca
rezultat pot include n tarife cheltuieli nejustificat majorate. Chiar i n cazul
efecturii procurrilor prin licitaii publice exist unele abateri de la practica de
competitivitate i transparen, care influieneaz majorarea costurilor.
n urma analizei acestor regulamente a fost constatat existena unor
neajunsuri care afecteaz att calitatea, ct i costurile achiziiilor. Din acestea fac
parte:
- unele definiii utilizate nu corespund cu normele legislaiei naionale n
vigoare;
- atribuiile de baz ale beneficiarului i ofertantului, n unele cazuri, nu sunt
stipulate, fapt ce poate influena calitatea contractelor de achiziii i nivelul
transparenei;
- criteriile formrii valorii estimate a contractului, n unele cazuri lipsesc, fapt
ce influeneaz nivelul costurilor achiziiei;
- metodele de informare a tuturor ofertanilor privind achiziiile organizate nu
ntotdeauna sunt specificate sau sunt limitate, n consecin fiind nclcat principiul
transparenei i accesibilitii la informaie;
- procedurile de identificare a necesitilor i stabilirea prioritilor uneori nu
sunt specificate, aceste proceduri reprezint baza constituirii costurilor achiziiei,
element inclus n formarea tarifelor;
- rolul comisiilor de concurs (grupelor de lucru) la procesul de achiziie este
diminuat, activitatea acestora influeneaz direct calitatea organizrii licitaiilor;
- criteriile de baz de elaborare a caietului de sarcini lipsesc, fapt ce poate
conduce la nclcarea tuturor principiilor organizrii achiziiilor.
Ca urmare, aceste neajunsuri cauzeaz majorarea neargumentat a costurilor
de investiii, a cheltuielilor de ntreinere i exploatare a mijloacelor fixe, a
cheltuielilor comerciale, generale i administrative ale ntreprinderilor. Cele mai
multe cazuri de majorare a costurilor sunt nregistrate la achiziiile de lucrri
privind construcia noilor reelele de transport i distribuie a energiei electrice,
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termice i gaze naturale, la lucrrile de reconstrucie i reparaie capital a


mijloacelor fixe, la procurri de materiale, utilaj, etc.
Un alt aspect al procesului de achiziii, care trebuie evideniat, reprezint
respectarea etapelor procesului. Teoretic, n fiecare situaie de procurare,
cumprtorii parcurg cinci etape ale procesului decizional. Acestea sunt:
recunoaterea/sesizarea nevoii, cutarea informaiilor, evaluarea variantelor,
decizia de achiziie i comportamentul post-achiziie. Dar n realitate, cnd este
vorba de achiziii ordinare, ntreprinderile din sectorul energetic (n continuare
beneficiarii) trec peste unele etape sau le parcurg n alt ordine de idei. Dei, la
prima vedere, nerespectarea ordinii acestor etape nu influeneaz costurile
achiziiei, totui este de enumerat posibilele consecine rezultate din neglijarea
consecutivitii procesului de achiziie.
Cu ct etapele i activitile din cadrul unui proces de achiziie sunt mai bine
identificate i planificate, cu att eficiena procesului, ct i maniera de desfurare
i monitorizare a acestuia sunt semnificativ mbuntite.
Prima etap din procesul decizional al beneficiarului de achiziii, este
sesizarea existenei unei nevoi sau a unei probleme. La aceast etap, are loc
planificarea achiziiilor, dup mai multe criterii precum tipul achiziiei, volumul,
valoarea etc.
Etapa studierii oportunitilor, este etapa din procesul decizional n care
beneficiarul de achiziii, cerceteaz opiunile existente, n scopul efecturii
achiziiei optimale din punct de vedere tehnico-economic. Durata i amploarea
efecturii studiilor referitor la achiziiile preconizate, depinde de termenul
disponibil pn la anunarea oficial a organizrii concursului de achiziii,
accesibilitatea i cantitatea informaiei referitor la obiectul achiziiei, resursele
financiare i potenialul personalului antrenat n proces etc.
Modalitatea obinerii informaiei, variaz n dependen de domeniul concret
de activitate a ntreprinderii (energiei electrice, energiei termice, livrarea gazelor
naturale), vechimea ntreprinderii, tradiiile constituite i statutul juridic. Sursele
de obinere a informaiei pot fi: sursele personale, comerciale (publicitate,
reprezentani de vnzare, distribuitori) i publice (mass media), precum i
experiena proprie. Aceste surse direct influeneaz valoarea achiziiilor, astfel la
aceast etap este necesar de exclus posibilitatea influenrii deciziei finale de
preferinele personale, selectarea fiind efectuat dup criterii tehnico-economice
clar stabilite.
La aceast etap, cele mai dese nclcri admise de ntreprinderi reprezint
lipsa planurilor anuale de achiziii i nepublicarea anunurilor de intenie, astfel
fiind redus participarea potenialilor operatori economici la concurse, nclcat
principiul transparenei i eficienei ct mai nalte a achiziiei realizate.
De cele mai dese ori, participarea operatorilor economici la procesul de
achiziii este limitat prin impunerea unor restricii "artificiale", precum
nregistrarea prealabil ai acestora n Cataloagele beneficiarului. Condiiile de
nregistrare n aceste baze de date nu sunt transparente i de aceea nu pot fi
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ndeplinite de cea mai mare parte din potenialii ofertani. Solicitarea de la


operatorii economici de a prezenta un numr exagerat de documente obligatorii,
care la momentul depunerii ofertei au o importan nensemnat, a influenat
negativ la naintarea propunerilor, respingnd ofertele cu cel mai mic pre.
Selectarea procedurii de achiziie, influeneaz direct asupra formrii
costurilor de achiziii. n prezent, n Legea privind achiziiile publice sunt
prevzute 10 tipuri de proceduri de achiziii publice. Totodat, unele ntreprinderi,
n majoritatea cazurilor de achiziionare, aplic doar o singur procedur de
achiziie - cererea ofertei de preuri, dei conform legii, achiziiile efectuate prin
aceast procedur pot fi folosite doar n condiii expres.
Evaluarea ofertelor, este etapa din procesul decizional, n care beneficiarul
folosete informaiile obinute pentru a constitui cadrul opiunilor reale existente la
moment. Procedura de evaluare are loc prin intermediul unor criterii stabilite.
Modul n care are loc evaluarea este determinat de specificul bunului sau serviciilor
preconizate de achiziionat.
Lipsa prevederilor clare ce in de divizarea sarcinilor, atribuiilor i
responsabilitilor ntre membrii grupului de lucru, precum i lipsa regulamentelor
interne cu privire la procedurile specifice prevzute de lege, au provocat, n unele
cazuri, ineficiena activitii Comisiei de achiziii. Conform analizei efectuate,
aceste inaciuni au condus la urmtoarele nereguli, care au influienat la majorarea
neargumentat a costurilor achiziiilor:
- Cerinele minime obligatorii de calificare a operatorilor economici la
desfurarea licitaiilor deschise n-au fost stabilite, nu s-au respectat exigenele
prevzute de lege referitor la dosarul achiziiilor i invitaia de participare la
licitaie, garania pentru ofert i executarea contractului, drile de seam i altele.
Astfel, nu a fost asigurat transparena maxim i combaterea concurenei neloiale,
tratamentul egal al potenialilor ofertani, evitarea riscurilor de neexecutare a
contractelor, de cretere a soldurilor de bunuri neutilizate i, respectiv, a datoriilor
fa de beneficiari.
- Procesele de iniiere i de desfurare a achiziiilor nu sunt documentate n
modul corespunztor, fapt ce ofer posibilitatea de ocolire a unei proceduri mai
transparente - licitaia deschis.
Comportamentul post - achiziie este etapa procesului decizional, n care
beneficiarii trec la noi aciuni dup efectuarea achiziiei, n funcie de satisfacia
sau insatisfacia resimit. n acest sens, lipsa unei monitorizri adecvate a realizrii
contractelor, au drept consecin nerespectarea termenelor de ncheiere a
contractelor, neexecutarea clauzele contractelor ncheiate, neaplicarea sanciunilor
fa de operatorii economici care nu au respectat prevederile contractuale.
Transparen n constituirea costurilor care sunt incluse n formarea tarifelor
la ntreprinderile din sectorul energetic este necesar s existe. n acest scop este
necesar reglementarea prin constituirea unui cadrul normativ care ar definitiva
criteriile de efectuare a achiziiilor. Buna funcionare a sistemului energetic, este
de o importan naional. Din aceste motive, la proiectarea cadrului legal, privind
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achiziiile n sectorul energetic este necesar de avut n vedere principiile generale


acceptate n Uniunea European, n acest domeniu.
Astfel, cadrul normativ referitor la procesul de achiziii trebuie s respecte
urmtoarele principii:
1) Utilizarea eficient a mijloacelor financiare, respectiv prin aplicarea n
cadrul sistemului concurenial a criteriilor economice pentru atribuirea contractului
de achiziie. Efectele vor fi obinerea de:
- bunuri, servicii lucrri de o calitate mai bun;
- costuri supravegheate.
2) Respectarea principiul transparenei, respectiv prin punerea la dispoziia
celor interesai a tuturor informaiilor referitoare la aplicarea procedurii pentru
atribuirea contractului de achiziie. Respectarea principiului transparenei, este unul
din cele mai importante principii, dat fiind faptul c acesta influeneaz direct
costurile achiziiei. Efectele obinute n urma respectrii acestui principiu vor fi
urmtoarele:
- cunoaterea succesiunii activitilor pe parcursul derulrii unei proceduri;
- claritatea regulilor, proceselor, nregistrrilor datelor i rezultatelor
concursurilor;
- nelegerea de ctre operatorii economici a necesitilor beneficiarului .
3) Principiul tratamentului egal, respectiv prin aplicarea n mod
nediscriminatoriu a criteriilor de selecie i a criteriilor de adjudecare a contractului
de achiziie, astfel, nct orice operator economic s aib anse egale n competiia
pentru atribuirea contractului respectiv. Efectele obinute ca rezultat al aplicrii
acestui principiu vor fi:
- instituirea unui cadru bazat pe ncredere, corectitudine i imparialitate pe
tot parcursul derulrii procedurii de achiziie;
- furnizarea, concomitent, ctre toi participanii la procedura de achiziii a
informaiilor aferente procedurii;
- eliminarea elementelor de natur subiectiv care pot influena deciziile n
procesul de atribuire a contractelor de achiziie. Astfel nici un beneficiar nu are
dreptul s acorde tratament preferenial unei companii din motive neargumentate.
4) Principiul confidenialitii, respectiv prin garantarea protejrii secretului
comercial i a dreptului de proprietate intelectual a ofertantului. Efectele obinute
vor fi urmtoarele:
- evitarea actelor de concuren neloial;
- evitarea impunerii de solicitri abuzive.
Aplicarea acestor principii vor conduce la realizarea unei proceduri de
atribuire a contractului de achiziie caracterizat prin corectitudine, eficien,
accesibilitate la informaii. Transparena poate ajuta la eliminarea discriminrilor
fa de doritorii de a participa la procesul de achiziii
n contextul celor expuse, este necesar de a elabora un act normativ care ar
prevedea pentru toate ntreprinderile din sectorul energetic reguli unice i
transparente privind procurrile de bunuri, lucrri i servicii. Elaborarea i
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implementarea unor astfel de proceduri de reglementare va da posibilitatea ca toate


ntreprinderile din sector s fie puse n condiii de a efectua procurrile n maxim
transparen i de competitivitate, la costuri minime pe pia i de a evita cazurile
de efectuare a procurrilor la propria discreie, la costuri neargumentate. Ca rezultat
al implementrii unor proceduri de procurri bine determinate i transparente,
consumatorii vor fi aprai de la abuzul ntreprinderilor monopoliste prin
excluderea posibilitilor acestor ntreprinderi de a include n tarife cheltuieli
nejustificate sau majorate.
BIBLIOGRAFIE:
1. Directiva 2004/17/CE Parlamentului European i a Consiliului din 31 martie
2004 de coordonare a procedurilor de atribuire a contractelor de achiziii n
sectoarele apei, energiei, transporturilor i serviciilor potale, Jurnalul Oficial al
Uniunii Europene din 30.04.2004
2. Legea Republicii Moldova privind achiziiile publice, Nr. 96 din 13.04.2007,
Monitorul Oficial al Republicii Moldova din 27.07.2007, cu modificrile
ulterioare.
3. Hotrrea Curii de Conturi privind Raportul auditului performanei Unele
obiective ale Legii privind achiziiile publice nr.96-XVI din 13.04.2007 s-au
realizat, dar sunt necesare mbuntiri nr.19 din 28.05.2009, Monitorul
Oficial al Republicii Moldova din 31.07.2009

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PARTICULARITILE DEZVOLTRII REGIONALE I SPAIALE


A ROMNIEI N CONTEXTUL UNIUNII EUROPENE
BLTREU Andreea,
Universitatea Cretin Dimitrie Cantemir, Bucureti, Romnia
Abstract:
The European Union territorial cohesion represents a premise for sustainable
growth and implementation of the application of an economic and social cohesion a
European social model. The individual strategies of cities and regions development should
take into account in a greater measure, the national and European context. The strategies,
programs and plans for integrated development in the regions and localities in Romania
will incorporate, therefore, the common orientations for the European space arranged,
with a prior reference for mantaining a reasonable balance between private and public
interests, strictly respecting the legal regime of lands property.
Key words: territorial cohesion, arranged space, regional identity, territorial
challenging, regional development policy, spatial planning, urban development.

Introducere. Economia statelor membre ala Uniunii Europene reprezint


aproximativ o treime din Produsul Intern Brut mondial. Dimensiunea teritorial a
UE este caracterizat prin puterea sa economic i un teritoriu de peste 4 milioane
km2, precum i o populaie de 490 milioane de locuitori.
Prioriti teritoriale pentru dezvoltarea Uniunii Europene. Agenda
teritorial pornete de la cele trei obiective principale ale Schemei de Dezvoltare
a Spaiului Comunitar (ESDP), care rmn valabile, i anume [4]:
1. dezvoltarea unui sistem urban policentric i echilibrat i un nou parteneriat
urban-rural;
2. asigurarea egalitii n accesul la infrastructur i cunoatere;
3. dezvoltarea durabil, managementul prudent i protejarea naturii i a
motenirii culturale.
n acest context trebuie menionate i principiile de dezvoltare spaial
european, adoptate la Conferina european a minitrilor responsabili cu
amenajarea teritoriului CEMAT, Hanovra 2000, sub titlul de Principii
directoare pentru dezvoltarea teritorial durabil a continentului european [3]:
promovarea coeziunii teritoriale printr-o dezvoltare socio-economic
echilibrat i prin ameliorarea competitivitii;
susinerea dezvoltrii generate de funciunile urbane i de mbuntirea
relaiilor rural-urban;
asigurarea unor condiii de accesibilitate mai echilibrate;
dezvoltarea accesului la informaie i cunoatere;
reducerea prejudiciilor provocate mediului;
valorificarea i protecia resurselor i patrimoniului natural;
valorificarea patrimoniului cultural ca factor de dezvoltare;
dezvoltarea resurselor energetice cu conservarea siguranei;
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promovarea turismului calitativ i durabil;


limitarea preventiv a efectelor catastrofelor naturale.
n politica de coeziune teritorial trebuie s fie susinute urmtoarele
prioriti ale dezvoltrii teritoriale n UE:
consolidarea dezvoltrii policentrice i a inovrii prin crearea unor reele
de regiuni urbane i orae.
Regiunile urbane i oraele de diferite dimensiuni sunt cele mai apte s i
valorifice atuurile n contextul unei cooperri la scar european cu ntreprinderile
i factorii interesai din sfera social i politic. Dac acestea reuesc n punerea n
practic a reelelor ntr-un teritoriu european policentric ntr-un mod inovativ, vor
crea condiii care s le permit s beneficieze de concurena global n dezvoltarea
lor. Oraele care funcioneaz ca centre regionale ar trebui s coopereze, ca
elemente ale modelului policentric, pentru a oferi o parte din propria valoare
adugat altor orae, din zone rurale i periferice, precum i din zone cu provocri
i necesiti geografice specifice (de exemplu zone cu structuri slabe din insule,
zone costiere i montane).
apare necesitatea unor noi forme de parteneriat i guvernan teritorial
ntre zonele rurale i cele urbane.
O Europ competitiv i durabil cuprinde, ntr-o mare varietate i cu
interdependene diverse, regiuni urbane de diferite dimensiuni i zone rurale.
Autoritile implicate ar trebui, ca parteneri interdependeni, s-i identifice
atuurile, s elaboreze strategii de dezvoltare comune la nivel regional i subregional
i astfel s pregteasc mpreun regiunile i subregiunile pentru a deveni atractive
i s fac posibile deciziile de investiii att ale sectorului privat, ct i ale celui
public. Acesta este ceea ce se numete parteneriat urban-rural.
se dorete promovarea grupurilor de activiti (clusterele) regionale de
concuren i inovare n Europa.
Zonele de cretere economic ar trebui extinse dincolo de principala zon
economic a UE printr-o politic de cooperare i colaborare n reea. O cale de a
combina atuurile poate fi crearea unor grupuri de activiti (clustere) adecvate i
inovatoare n care comunitatea de afaceri, comunitatea tiinific i administraia s
lucreze mpreun. Aceasta se aplic att ntre frontierele interne, ct i la frontierele
externe.
sprijinirea consolidrii i extinderii reelelor transeuropene.
Pentru satisfacerea cerinelor de mobilitate ntr-un teritoriu european
policentric, inclusiv rile nvecinate Uniunii, i consolidarea unui mediu urban este
important s se asigure o dezvoltare integrat i durabil a sistemelor de transport
multimodale. Este nevoie de reele puternice att pentru pasageri ct i pentru
mrfuri, feroviare, rutiere i aeriene (inclusiv reele de aeroporturi regionale
viabile), ci eficiente de navigaie interioar, costier i maritim, de reele
secundare care s fac legtura cu respectivele hinterlanduri, precum i de o
gestionare transfrontalier a transporturilor.
promovarea gestionrii transeuropene a riscului, inclusiv n cazul
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impactului schimbrilor climatice.


Ar trebui elaborate abordri i strategii comune, transregionale i integrate,
pentru a nfrunta pericolele naturale, a reduce i a diminua efectele emisiilor de
gaze de ser i a ne adapta la schimbrile climatice.
consolidarea structurilor ecologice i a resurselor culturale, ca valoare
adugat pentru dezvoltarea economic.
Valorile de nenlocuit ale structurilor ecologice i ale motenirii culturale i
naturale europene, n special peisajele culturale, calitatea proiectelor i proceselor
de creaie arhitectural i mediul construit ar trebui s constituie, pe fundalul
potenialului i circumstanelor regionale individuale, fundamentul unei dezvoltri
orientate spre ecologie i cultur, care s ofere perspective protejnd n acelai timp
diferitele identiti culturale, n special n regiunile rmase n urm sau care sufer
transformri structurale.
Politicile de dezvoltare teritorial integrat ar trebui, de asemenea,
consolidate n zonele vulnerabile din punct de vedere ecologic sau cultural din
Uniunea European, pentru a rspunde provocrii principale, aceea de a reconcilia
dezvoltarea economic cu durabilitatea ecologic, social i cultural.
Consolidarea coeziunii teritoriale la nivelul Uniunii Europene.
Coeziunea teritorial presupune adecvarea resurselor teritoriului (naturale i
antropice) la necesitile dezvoltrii socio-economice n vederea eliminrii
disparitilor i disfuncionalitilor ntre diferite uniti spaiale n condiiile
pstrrii diversitii naturale i culturale a regiunilor.
Coeziunea teritorial poate fi realizat numai printr-un dialog continuu i
intens ntre toi factorii interesai n dezvoltarea teritorial. Sectorul privat (n
special ntreprinderile locale i regionale), comunitatea tiinific, sectorul public
(n special autoritile locale i regionale), organizaiile neguvernamentale i
diferite alte sectoare trebuie s acioneze mpreun pentru a utiliza ct mai bine
principalele investiii din regiunile europene i s contribuie la abordarea
schimbrilor climatice.
Pe baza articolelor 2, 6, 16 i 158 cuprinse n Tratatul CE, coeziunea
teritorial a fost considerat cea treia dimensiune a politicilor de coeziune.
Consolidarea identitii regionale i o mai bun utilizare a diversitii
teritoriale este punctul cheie n acest caz.
Provocrile teritoriale majore cu care ne confruntm n prezent sunt
urmtoarele [1]:
efectele diversificate la nivel regional ale schimbrilor de clim pe
teritoriul UE i al vecinilor si, n special avnd n vedere dezvoltarea durabil;
creterea preurilor la energie, ineficiena energetic i diverse
oportuniti teritoriale pentru noi forme de furnizare a energiei;
accelerarea integrrii regiunilor, inclusiv a zonelor transfrontaliere, n
competiia economic global i, n acelai timp, creterea interdependenei dintre
statele i regiunile lumii;
efectele extinderii UE asupra coeziunii economice, sociale i teritoriale,
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n special n ceea ce privete integrarea Europei de Est i a noilor state membre, n


raport cu infrastructura de transport i energie;
supraexploatarea resurselor ecologice i culturale i pierderea
biodiversitii, n special prin urbanizare accentuat, n timp ce zonele ndeprtate
se confrunt cu depopularea;
efectele teritoriale ale schimbrilor demografice (n special mbtrnirea),
ale migraiei spre i dinspre Uniunea European i ale migraiei interne asupra
pieei muncii, a furnizrii de servicii publice de interes general i asupra pieei
locuinelor, a dezvoltrii structurii aezrilor umane i a modului n care oamenii
locuiesc mpreun n oraele i regiunile comunitare.
Crearea n toate regiunile a premiselor asigurrii unor anse egale pentru
cetenii acestora i ale dezvoltrii perspectivelor pentru ntreprinderi reprezint o
misiune esenial i un act de solidaritate. Identitatea i potenialul regional,
necesitile i caracteristicile diverse ale regiunilor, oraelor i satelor din Europa
sunt puse n valoare prin politici de coeziune teritorial i prin alte politici de
dezvoltare regional.
Fiecare regiune i fiecare ora poate, prin angajamentul su, trebuie s
contribuie la economisirea energiei i furnizarea descentralizat a acesteia, precum
i la diminuarea efectelor schimbrilor climatice, de exemplu sprijinind o
dezvoltare edilitar n care emisiile de noxe s fie reduse sau nule, prin aducerea n
stadiu de exploatare a noi surse poteniale de energie regenerabil i promovarea
eficienei energetice, n special n cazul cldirilor.
Strategiile de dezvoltare individuale ale oraelor i regiunilor ar trebui, n
mod explicit, s in seama n mai mare msur de contextul naional propriu i de
cel european. Este important ca preocuprile naionale, regionale i locale s se
mpleteasc strns cu politicile UE. Aceasta se aplic n special politicilor privind
dezvoltarea rural, mediul i transporturile, precum i politicilor de coeziune ale
UE.
Dezvoltarea/planificarea spaial a Romniei. Conceptul de planificare
spaial reprezint un cumul de metode, programe, proiecte i aciuni prin care se
realizeaz dezvoltarea direcionat, ghidat de strategii explicite, a spaiului fizic
pentru a echilibra componentele economice, sociale, culturale i istorice, de peisaj
i mediu natural ale unui teritoriu [5, p. 126]. Planificarea spaial presupune
demersuri interdisciplinare i include paliere diferite de analiz i proiectare,
constituind baza conceptual a politicilor de dezvoltare regional i intervenind
pentru corectarea anomaliilor i disfuncionalitilor care pot s apar n derularea
acestora.
n sprijinul dezvoltrii urbane durabile a Romniei se propun
urmtoarele obiective generale:
Adaptarea dinamicii i caracteristicilor locuinelor la nevoile prezente i
viitoare ale populaiei;
Precizarea direciilor de dezvoltare viitoare a construciei de locuine
(principii de construcie, materiale i structur adaptate la condiiile specifice);
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Dezvoltarea controlat a zonelor rezideniale (asigurarea accesului la


utiliti, transport, servicii publice i sociale);
Realizarea unor politici de locuire care s integreze grupurile vulnerabile
i s asigure mixitatea social;
Constituirea de rezerve funciare suficiente i dispuse n amplasamente
diverse prin realizarea unor politici locale coerente referitoare la folosina
terenurilor;
Asigurarea accesului la condiii de locuire sigure i sntoase pentru
persoanele care nu i pot achiziiona locuine pe piaa liber.
n completare, n Strategia Naional de Dezvoltare Durabil a
Romniei se prevd urmtoarele direcii de aciune prioritare-Orizont 2013
[5]:
Completarea cadrului legislativ pentru integrarea viziunii strategice de
planificare spaial i amenajare a teritoriului n programele de dezvoltare
regional, pentru eliminarea neclaritilor privind raportul dintre proprietatea
privat i cea public, pentru ntrirea prevederilor legale mpotriva
urbanismului derogatoriu (care anuleaz caracterul strategic al planurilor
urbanistice generale - PUG) i pentru pstrarea integritii fizice a zonelor
simbolice cu valoare de patrimoniu, monumentelor istorice i de art i
peisajului;
Determinarea viitoarelor centre urbane de polarizare a zonelor rurale pentru a
mri gradul de accesibilitate a populaiei rurale la servicii de calitate (sntate,
educaie, servicii sociale);
Stabilirea cadrului legislativ i tehnico-normativ pentru demararea unui
program multianual viznd strmutarea locuinelor aflate n zone de risc
(cutremur, inundaii, alunecri de teren, avalane, poluare chimic sau
radioactiv);
Elaborarea, aprobarea i aplicarea normelor care impun consultarea populaiei
asupra deciziilor de urbanism i a celor care privesc dezvoltarea comunitii;
Limitarea prin lege a expansiunii spaiului intravilan al localitilor urbane
pentru o perioad de 10 ani n favoarea restructurrii (reciclrii) terenurilor
intravilane existente pentru noile investiii;
ntocmirea planurilor strategice de dezvoltare a oraelor mari i aprobarea lor
ca planuri-tem pentru planurile urbanistice generale, reactualizate conform
principiilor de dezvoltare integrat i sustenabilitate urban acceptate n cadrul
UE;
ntocmirea, la nivelul fiecrei localiti, a planului local de dezvoltare durabil
(Agenda Local 21) cu antrenarea larg i activ a comunitii;
Statuarea obligativitii ca planurile strategice i urbanistice pentru oraele mari
s fie elaborate i aprobate n corelare cu cele ale unitilor teritorialadministrative adiacente;
Stabilirea i aplicarea planurilor de msuri pentru realizarea centurilor verzigalbene (spaii verzi i terenuri agricole) n jurul oraelor de rangul I i II;
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mrirea suprafeelor de spaii verzi intravilane cu 10% pentru atingerea unui


indicator de minimum 15 metri ptrai pe locuitor;
Lansarea proiectelor pentru sporirea substanial a spaiilor de parcare n
oraele mari;
Promovarea orientrilor strategice ale UE privind cooperarea teritorial
european prin implementarea programelor operaionale comune n interiorul
frontierelor UE (cu Ungaria i Bulgaria) i n zonele frontierei externe (cu
Serbia, Ucraina-Moldova, Ungaria-Slovacia-Ucraina, zona extins a Mrii
Negre), programului operaional de cooperare transnaional n sud-estul
Europei (SEES) i programelor de colaborare inter-regional ale UE, respectiv
INTERREG IVC, URBACT II, ESPON 2013 i INTERACT 2007-2013. n
acest scop se va utiliza n regim transfrontalier i experiena pozitiv a
Romniei n implementarea Agendei Locale 21.
n acelai scop al dezvoltrii urbane durabile sunt identificate urmtoarele
inte orientative-Orizont 2020:
Asigurarea n totalitate a terenurilor pentru construcii noi prin reciclarea
terenurilor intravilane i extravilane desemnate prin planurile strategice sau
restructurarea terenurilor subutilizate sau prsite i limitarea expansiunii
zonelor urbanizate;
Realizarea structurilor fizice i instituionale care s permit declararea ca
localiti urbane a viitoarelor centre de polarizare a zonelor rurale;
Reconfigurarea spaial la nivelul comunelor n vederea micorrii numrului
de uniti teritorial-administrative;
Dezvoltarea spaial policentric i echilibrat a ariilor cu funciuni
metropolitane (Bucureti i Timioara, apoi Constana i Iai) i pregtirea
accesului la categoria de metropole a 4 municipii cu peste 300 mii locuitori
(Braov, Cluj-Napoca, Craiova i sistemul urban Galai-Brila);
Realizarea efectiv a centurilor verzi-galbene din jurul oraelor de rangul I;
atingerea unui indicator de spaiu verde de 26 metri ptrai pe locuitor pentru
oraele de rangul I i II;
Atingerea unei valori medii pe ar a indicelui suprafeei locuibile de 15 metri
ptrai pe locuitor;
Reducerea la 40% a proporiei locuinelor nclzite cu sobe cu combustibil solid
prin nlocuirea instalaiilor i introducerea unor sisteme moderne de nclzire;
Realizarea de spaii publice de calitate n toate zonele principale ale oraelor;
Rezolvarea problemei parcajelor pentru oraele de rangul I, inclusiv Municipiul
Bucureti; dezvoltarea traseelor funcionale pietonale i pentru bicicliti n
oraele de rangul I i II;
Obinerea unei mixiti funcionale i sociale optime a localitilor pentru a
evita enclavizarea socio-economic;
Continuarea i amplificarea programelor de colaborare transfrontalier,
transnaional i interregional pentru a asigura ndeplinirea obiectivelor de
coeziune teritorial a Uniunii Europene i a mbunti conectivitatea i
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interaciunea cu spaiile nvecinate.


La Orizont 2030 se menioneaz urmtoarele obiective ce trebuie atinse:
Creterea nivelului de urbanizare pn la 70% prin atingerea indicatorilor care
s permit includerea a circa 650 de localiti rurale n categoria de orae i prin
aplicarea generalizat a instrumentelor de dezvoltare urban integrat;
Realizarea principalelor elemente ale tramei naionale de interconectare
funcional a regiunilor Romniei (inclusiv prin coridoarele transcarpatice) ca
armtur a dezvoltrii lor durabile i a racordrii lor la sistemul european;
Folosirea politicilor i instrumentelor de amenajare a teritoriului pentru
refacerea fondului forestier, renaturarea luncii Dunrii, re-crearea bazinelor
naturale de retenie a apelor i reabilitarea zonei de litoral;
Realizarea centurilor verzi-galbene n jurul oraelor de rangul II; atingerea unui
indicator de spaiu verde de 35 metri ptrai pe locuitor pentru oraele de rangul
I i II;
ncheierea programului de strmutare a locuinelor aflate n zone de risc la
hazardurile naturale sau antropice;
Atingerea unei valori medii pe ar a indicelui suprafeei locuibile de 17 metri
ptrai pe locuitor.
Se are n vedere evitarea dispersiei zonelor de locuit, asigurarea diversitii
sociale i culturale intraurbane, controlul jocurilor speculative de ocupare a
spaiilor publice i peisajului, mixajul optim ntre elementele funcionale i cele
sociale. n acest fel, dezvoltarea echilibrat a localitilor, mbinat cu respectarea
spaiului cultural i natural, va oferi o contribuie esenial la ameliorarea calitii
vieii n armonie cu mediul ambiant, la folosirea corect a resurselor i la
prevenirea unor evoluii negative ireversibile.
Specificitatea dezvoltrii regionale n Romnia. n Legea nr. 350/2001
privind Amenajarea teritoriului i Urbanismului, Anexa nr. 2, dezvoltarea
regional reprezint ansamblul politicilor autoritilor administraiei publice
centrale i locale, elaborate n scopul armonizrii strategiilor, politicilor i
programelor de dezvoltare sectorial pe arii geografice, constituite n "regiuni de
dezvoltare", i care beneficiaz de sprijinul Guvernului, al Uniunii Europene i al
altor instituii i autoriti naionale i internaionale interesate.
Conform reglementrilor Comisiei Europene din 2003 privind stabilirea
unui sistem comun de clasificare statistic a unitilor teritoriale, transpuse n
legislaia romneasc nc din 1998 i adaptate n 2004, Romnia cuprinde opt
regiuni de dezvoltare, incluznd fiecare ntre 4 i 7 judee (cu excepia regiunii
Bucureti-Ilfov). Ele corespund nivelului NUTS II potrivit clasificrii EUROSTAT
i reprezint cadrul de colectare a datelor statistice specifice n profil teritorial.
Consiliile de Dezvoltare Regional grupeaz reprezentani ai autoritilor judeene
i locale i au drept organisme executive Ageniile de Dezvoltare Regional
(ADR).
Punctele slabe ale dezvoltrii regionale identificate n cazul rii
noastre se refer la [5, p. 114]:
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Concentrarea creterii economice, impulsionat de investiiile strine


directe, n jurul Bucuretiului i creterea disparitilor dintre regiunea BucuretiIlfov i celelalte apte regiuni, precum i apariia problemelor de congestionare a
oraului-capital;
Declinul socio-economic al unui numr nsemnat de centre urbane mari i
diminuarea rolului lor n dezvoltarea arealelor adiacente i a regiunilor;
Accentuarea dezechilibrelor demografice la nivel regional, degradarea
structurii pe vrste i mbtrnirea populaiei cptnd dimensiuni alarmante n
regiunile din sudul rii;
Pierderea funciilor urbane ale multor orae mici i mijlocii, n special ale
celor monoindustriale afectate de restructurare, frecvent asociat cu accentuarea
problemelor sociale;
Reapariia dezechilibrului istoric de dezvoltare ntre jumtatea de est i
cea de vest a rii, decuplarea economic a unor zone tradiional subdezvoltate din
nordul i estul rii i de-a lungul Dunrii;
Accesibilitatea redus a unor zone cu efecte negative asupra dezvoltrii
locale;
Existena unor zone extinse cu deficit de for de munc datorit scderii
populaiei, migraiei temporare masive i mbtrnirii, ceea ce duce la o presiune
sporit asupra serviciilor sociale i de sntate;
Posibila apariie a unui fenomen de stagnare economic n zonele
montane;
Slaba competitivitate a multor afaceri, n special n turism, nivelul sczut
al productivitii muncii, lipsa investiiilor de capital i a capacitii manageriale,
gradul sczut de utilizare a tehnologiilor moderne;
Calitatea sczut a infrastructurii publice, degradarea utilitilor urbane,
incapacitatea de a conserva bunurile istorice i culturale;
Experiena i calificarea limitate ale autoritilor locale n gestionarea
unor programe complexe de dezvoltare durabil incluznd componentele
economice, sociale i de mediu.
Din perspectiva principiilor i obiectivelor dezvoltrii durabile, evoluiile la
nivel regional prezint o importan crucial, accentuat n condiiile specifice ale
Romniei de tendina de cretere a disparitilor teritoriale n ceea ce privete
dezvoltarea economic i social, utilizarea raional a resurselor i calitatea
infrastructurii de mediu.
Astfel, n Strategia Naional de Dezvoltare Durabil a Romniei.
Orizonturi 2013-2020-2030, unul dintre obiectivele naionale se refer la
sprijinirea dezvoltrii economice i sociale echilibrate teritorial i durabile a
regiunilor Romniei corespunztor nevoilor i resurselor lor specifice prin
concentrarea asupra polilor urbani de cretere; mbuntirea condiiilor
infrastructurale i a mediului de afaceri pentru a face din regiunile Romniei, n
special cele rmase n urm, locuri mai atractive pentru a locui, a le vizita, a
investi i a munci. n scopul realizrii acestui obiectiv central se va pune accentul
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principal pe creterea rolului economic i social al centrelor urbane prin


adoptarea unei abordri policentrice n vederea unei dezvoltri mai echilibrate a
regiunilor.
Concluzii. Orientarea strategiilor i politicilor de dezvoltare pe termen
lung este condiionat de patru vectori ai dezvoltrii: 1. Populaia i resursele de
munc; 2. tiina i tehnologia; 3. Restructurarea sectorial; 4. Viziunea spaial.
n literatura de specialitate se menioneaz faptul c Romnia, odat cu
restructurarea sectorial, va nregistra o cretere accentuat a urbanizrii (ca ritm
peste media categoriei rilor din care face parte) de la 56,2% n anul 2000 la
66,9% n anul 2025. De aceea, apare necesitatea promovrii parteneriatelor ntre
orae/aglomeraii urbane i forme moderne de asociere a comunelor rurale.
n concluzie, Romnia trebuie s treac la transformarea particularitilor
dezvoltrii spaiale n raport cu obiectivele de dezvoltare spaial comunitar, pe de
o parte, n avantaje n contextul competiiei internaionale iar, pe de alt parte, n
mijloace de susinere a dezvoltrii economice i sociale i deci, de reducere a
actualelor decalaje fa de rile Uniunii Europene.
BIBLIOGRAFIE:
1. Agenda Teritorial a Uniunii Europene, Reuniunea Informal a Minitrilor
Europeni Responsabili cu Dezvoltarea Urban i Coeziunea Teritorial,
Leipzig, 24-25 mai 2007
2. Legea nr. 350/2001 privind Amenajarea teritoriului i Urbanismului
3. Principii directoare pentru dezvoltarea teritorial durabil a continentului
european, Council of Europe, Hanovra, 2000
4. Schema de Dezvoltare a Spaiului Comunitar, Centrul de Documentare pentru
Construcii, Arhitectur, Urbanism i Amenajarea Teritoriului, Bucureti, 2003
5. Strategia Naional de Dezvoltare Durabil a Romniei. Orizonturi 20132020-2030, Guvernul Romniei, Ministerul Mediului i Dezvoltrii Durabile,
Programul Naiunile Unite pentru Dezvoltare, Centrul Naional pentru
Dezvoltare Durabil, Bucureti, 2008

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PERSPECTIVELE DE DEZVOLTARE A SECTORULUI TIC


N CONTEXTUL REALIZRII PLANULUI INDIVIDUAL
DE ACIUNI UE-RM
URCANU Tatiana,
Universitatea Tehnic a Moldovei

Abstract:
European Neighborhood Policy represents a new approach for UE relations with its
neighbors. The realization of policy is done through individual actions plan. One of the
major domains of individual plan of Republic of Moldova refers to telecommunication
sector. The present paper has as major aim the presentation of actual situation in the field
and its evolution. The synthesis made allows us to make some conclusion in order to
assure continuous developing of the field in order to correspond to EU conditions.
Key words: European Neighborhood Policy, individual actions plan,
telecommunication sector

Introducere. Politica European de Vecintate (PEV) reprezint o nou


abordare n cadrul relaiilor dintre Uniunea European i vecinii si, abordare ce o
depete pe cea tradiional bazat pe cooperare. Aceast politic constituie un
cadru de consolidare a relaiilor de vecintate i vizeaz intensificarea cooperrii cu
statele vecine UE lrgite n vederea crerii unei zone de prosperitate i bun
vecintate, a unui cerc de prieteni" la frontierele Uniunii.
Obiectivul principal al PEV este mprirea beneficiilor aduse de extinderea
UE din 2004 cu rile sale vecine. Un alt obiectiv este cel stabilit prin Strategia
European de Securitate din 2003, i anume creterea securitii n vecintatea
Uniunii extinse.
Politica European de Vecintate nu ofer statelor vizate (statele din estul
Europei i statele mediteraneene, i din iunie 2004 i statele sud-caucaziene)
perspectiva aderrii la UE, ci permite o relaie privilegiat cu vecinii i o mai bun
focalizare a eforturilor n domenii de importan vital pentru apropierea statelor
vizate de standardele europene.
Printre beneficiile oferite de PEV se numr cele ce in de dezvoltarea
economic i social precum i obinerea posibilitii de acces pe piaa intern i
integrarea n cadrul altor alte politici europene:
Educaia, pregtirea profesional i tineretul;
Cercetarea;
Probleme de mediu;
Cultura;
Politica audio-vizualului.
Necesitatea unei Politici Europene de Vecintate (PEV) se face acut simit n
2003, cnd apare problema crerii a noi bariere n Europa dup extinderea Uniunii
Europene. n martie 2003, Comisia European n Comunicarea sa asupra Europei
Extinse traseaz principiile politicii de vecintate a UE i pune accentul pe
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importana acordat de ctre Uniunii relaiilor cu vecinii si. Conform acestei


Comunicri, ajutorul financiar furnizat pn acum statelor vecine, ndeosebi prin
programele TACIS i MEDA, va fi suplimentat n viitor prin crearea unui nou
instrument financiar, Instrumentul European pentru Vecintate i Colaborare care
va susinea implementarea politicii de vecintate.
n octombrie 2003, Consiliul European a salutat iniiativa i a invitat Comisia
i Consiliul de Minitri s o continue. Pe 12 mai 2004 Comisia European prezint
Comunicarea Politica European de Vecintate. Strategia i Rapoartele pe ar
care stabilete paii concrei de implementare a politicii de vecintate i modul de
extindere a beneficiilor lrgirii UE asupra noilor si vecini.
Atingerea acestor scopuri urma s se fac prin definirea mpreun cu rile
vecine vizate a unui set de prioriti ce vor fi notate n Planuri de Aciune (PA),
care reprezint documentul politic-cheie n dezvoltarea relaiilor dintre UE i
vecinii si.
Materiale i Metode. Planul individual de Aciuni UE-RM reprezint un
document politic ncheiat ntre UE i Republica Moldova i care stabilete
programul, obiectivele strategice i prioritile relaiilor dintre UE i RM, plan
semnat n februarie 2005, suportul financiar acordat de UE fiind considerabil,
atingnd cifra de 70 milioane euro, urmnd s ating valori anuale de 100 milioane
euro n 2013.
PA prevede o serie de msuri pe termen scurt i lung n apte domenii
generice de cooperare:
1. Dialogul i reforma politic;
2. Cooperarea pentru soluionarea conflictului transnistrean;
3. Reformele i dezvoltarea economic i social;
4. Relaii comerciale, reforma de pia i cea regulatorie;
5. Cooperarea n domeniul justiiei i afacerilor interne;
6. Transport, energie, telecomunicaii, mediu nconjurtor, cercetare,
dezvoltare i inovaie;
7. Contacte umane.
Din cele expuse, domeniul TIC este unul din domeniile generice de
cooperare, care are drept scop realizarea unei mai bune legturi cu UE. Structura
PA este foarte asemntoare cu criteriile de aderare la UE, cunoscute i ca criteriile
de la Copenhaga:
1. Criteriul politic: stabilitatea instituiilor care garanteaz democraia,
supremaia legii, drepturile omului i respectarea i protecia drepturilor
minoritilor.
2. Criteriul economic: existena unei economii de pia funcionale i
capacitatea de a face fa competiiei pe piaa intern a UE.
3. Criteriul acquis-ului: capacitatea de asumare a obligaiilor de membru,
inclusiv adeziunea la obiectivele uniunii politice, economice i monetare
Evaluarea situaiei din sectorul TIC va fi efectuat prin prizma realizrii
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criteriului economic i a acquis-ului. Cel din urm are la baz necistatea


armonizrii legislaiei din domeniu la cerinele UE. Organul regulatoriu care
monitorizeaz situaia pe piaa dat i contribuie la armonizarea legislaiei locale
cu cea mondiala este Agenia Naional pentru Reglementare n Comunicaii
Electronice i Tehnologia Informaiei (ANRCETI). ANRCETI este o autoritate
public central care reglementeaz activitatea n acest domeniu, asigur
implementarea strategiilor de dezvoltare a comunicaiilor electronice i
supravegheaz respectarea legislaiei de ctre furnizorii de reele i/sau servicii de
comunicaii electronice.
Astfel, pe parcursul ultimilor ani au fost adoptate mai multe legi i hotrri,
referitor la funcionarea pieei TIC, cea de baz fiind Legea comunicaiilor
electronice nr. 241-XVI din 15.11.2007, la elaborarea creea s-au luat n
consideraie recomandrile UE. ncepnd cu 14 martie 2008 ncepe procesul de
implementare a prevedrilor prezentei legi, care impune aprobarea mai multor
hotrri i regulamente de funcionarea a pieei.
Realizarea criteriului economic presupune asiguarea unei dezvoltri
durabile a economiei rilor vecine ale UE. Sectorul TIC al R. Moldova este unul
prioritar din punct de vedere strategic pentru economia R. Moldova, precum i
pentru dezvoltarea regiunii Transfrontaliere. Importana sectorului reiese din faptul
c conform datelor telecomunicaiile au atras n toat Europa i Asia Central din
anul 1997 circa 150 miliarde dolari de investiii private, ceea ce reprezint 65 la
sut din total. Activitatea de export n domeniul TIC a creat peste 200 mii locuri de
munc la nivel global numai n 2007. Reieind din faptul c factorii de producie
tradiionali sunt limitai, se pune accent pe dezvoltarea factorilor de producie noi,
pe dezvoltarea serviciilor, precum sunt i cele furnizate de ctre sectorul TIC.
Lund n considerare cele expuse anterior, Moldova trebuie s valorifice potenialul
existent al sectorului TIC.
Evaluarea situaiei n orice sector presupune nelegerea coninutului
economic al sectorului. Pornind de la faptul c la moment se observ o tendin de
reorganizare accelerat a sectorului TIC n corespundere cu definiia de coninut
economic al sectorului n redacia OECD-2007, aprobat n 2009 de Direcia de
Statistic a Organizaiei Naiunilor Unite (ONU), vom lua ca baz definiia data de
organul dat i vom evalua situaia n ramur prin prisma definiiei date. n
conformitate cu definiia OECD-2007, prin Sector al Tehnologiilor Informaiei i
de Comunicaii nelegem un sector economic format convenional din patru
industrii: tehnologia informaiei (TI), comunicaiile electronice (CE), producerea
echipamentelor TIC i comerul cu echipamentele TIC, incluznd urmtoarele
activiti:
Industria tehnologiei informaiei:
- activiti de realizare a soft-ului la comand (software orientat client)
(62.01);
- activiti de consultan n tehnologia informaiei (62.02);
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- activiti de management (gestiune i exploatare) a mijloacelor de calcul


(62.03);
- alte activiti i servicii privind tehnologia informaiei (62.09);
- prelucrarea datelor, administrarea paginilor web i activiti conexe (62.11);
- activiti ale portalurilor web (62.12);
- activiti de editare a jocurilor de calculator (58.21);
- activiti de editare a altor produse software (58.29).
Industria comunicaiilor electronice:
- activiti de telecomunicaii prin reele cu cablu (61.10);
- activiti de telecomunicaii prin reele fr cablu (exclusiv prin satelit)
(61.20);
- activiti de telecomunicaii prin satelit (61.30);
- alte activiti de telecomunicaii (61.90).
Industria de producere a echipamentelor TIC:
- fabricarea calculatoarelor i a echipamentelor periferice (26.20);
- fabricarea echipamentelor de comunicaii (26.30);
- fabricarea de cabluri cu fibr optic (27.31);
- repararea echipamentelor de comunicaii (95.12);
Industria de comer cu echipamentele TIC:
- comer cu ridicata al calculatoarelor, echipamentelor periferice i softwarelui (46.51);
- comer cu amnuntul al calculatoarelor, unitilor periferice i software-lui
n magazine specializate (47.41);
- comer cu ridicata de componente i echipamente electronice i de
telecomunicaii (46.52);
- comer cu amnuntul al echipamentului pentru telecomunicaii n magazine
specializate (47.42);
- activiti de nchiriere i leasing cu maini i echipamente de birou (inclusiv
calculatoare) (77.33)
La moment R. Moldova este n proces de armonizare a sistemului naional
de eviden statistic la cerinele Direcia de Statistic a Organizaiei Naiunilor
Unite (ONU), de aceea sistemul de raportare actual utilizat n R.Moldova nu
permite de a face o analiz complet a tuturor prilor componente a sectorului.
ANRCETI reglementeaz activitatea a dou industrii: cea a tehnologiei
informaiei i cea a comunicaiilor electronice. Conform datelor agentiei n
conformitate cu prevederile Legii privind reglementarea prin liceniere a activitii
de ntreprinztor nr.451-XV din 30.07.2001, Agenia elibereaz licene pentru dou
genuri de activitate n domeniul tehnologiei informaiei:
pentru furnizarea serviciilor de elaborare, ntreinere i implementare a
produselor program, echipamentelor i sistemelor informatice de importan statal
n 2009 ANRCETI a eliberat 36 licene;
pentru furnizarea serviciilor de proiectare, elaborare, implementare a
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sistemelor i resurselor informaionale automatizate de importan statal (crearea


bazelor de date, exploatarea acestora i serviciile privind furnizarea informaiei) i
serviciilor de asigurare a funcionrii acestora n 2009 au fost eliberate 35 licene.
Imperfeciunea sistemului de eviden statistic nu permite ducerea
evidenei indicatorilor cantitativi de activitate a industriei date, ceea ce trebuie s
fie una din direciile de perfecionare pe viitor al sistemului dat. n 2008, cifra de
afaceri a industriei TI se estimeaz la 184,7 mil. lei. Astfel, n perioada anilor 20062008, cifr de afaceri a industriei TI a crescut de 2,8 ori. n perioada anilor 20032008, volumul exportului de produse program (software) a crescut de 10 ori, de la
1,2 mln. dolari SUA pn la 26,3 mln. dolari SUA. Aceast cretere este urmare a
unei politici publice incipiente orientate spre susinerea dezvoltrii sectorului TIC.
Totalul de cheltuieli pentru TI n anul 2008 a constituit 833 mln. lei, atestnd o
cretere de 228 mil. lei fa de anul 2006. n structura cheltuielilor pentru TI se
observ un ritm de cretere avansat a procurrilor software (23 % din totalul de
cheltuieli) care a sporit de 2,5 ori fa de anul 2006. Aceast tendin se explic
prin creterea utilizrii software cu respectarea drepturilor de autor asupra acestuia.
n acest sens, ultimul studiu al Business Software Alliance (BSA) cu privire la
pirateria software pentru PC-uri, constat c ponderea software-ului ilegal n totalul
software-ului utilizat n Republica Moldova a sczut de la 96% n 2006 la 90% n
2008 i a constituit circa 40 milioane dolari SUA. Utilizarea ilegal a software-ului
limiteaz dezvoltarea industriei i reduce considerabil piaa de TI din Republica
Moldova. Totodat, cheltuielile pentru TI, fiind raportate la cap de locuitor 20
dolari per capita, fiind cu mult mai mici fa de cheltuielile similare din rile
Europei de sud-est i de aproape 50 de ori mai mici dect media cheltuielilor rilor
UE 725 dolari per capita.
Industria comunicaiilor electronice presupune asigurarea activitilor de
telecomunicaii prin diferite modaliti. Conform datelor ANRCETI, ncepnd cu
15 septembrie 2008, data intrrii n vigoare a clauzelor cap. IV al Legii 241/2007,
referitor la aplicarea regimului de autorizare general, care reprezint un regim
juridic aplicabil furnizrii reelelor i serviciilor de comunicaii electronice i care
determin drepturile i obligaiile furnizorilor fiecrui tip de reea sau serviciu. Prin
aplicarea regimului de autorizare general, n anul 2009, Agenia a acordat dreptul
de a activa pe piaa comunicaiilor electronice la 166 companii. Printre acestea, 75
snt juctori" noi intrai pe piaa respectiv, iar 91 -juctori" vechi care au fost
autorizai de ctre Agenie n legtur cu expirarea termenului de valabilitate a
licenelor primite anterior sau cu renunarea benevol la licenele deinute n
favoarea noului regim de autorizare general. n acest sens, au fost depuse 116
notificri n vederea furnizrii reelelor publice de comunicaii electronice i 141
notificri n vederea furnizrii serviciilor publice de comunicaii electronice. Pe
primele trei locuri n topul preferinelor acestor companii s-au clasat serviciile de
acces la Internet (63), transmisiuni de date (52) i serviciile de programe
audiovizuale (42).
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La 31 decembrie 2009, de dreptul de a activa pe piaa comunicaiilor


electronice beneficiau: 214 companii autorizate pentru furnizarea reelelor i/sau
serviciilor de comunicaii electronice, conform prevederilor cap. IV al Legii
241/2007; 859 deintori a 918 licene pentru diverse genuri de activitate n
domeniul telecomunicaiilor i informaticii, obinute n condiiile Legii
telecomunicaiilor nr.520-XIII din 07.07.1995, n vigoare la momentul respectiv, i
8 deintori ai licenelor individuale.
Cele 918 licene obinute n condiiile Legii telecomunicaiilor includ:
101 licene generale pentru prestarea serviciilor de telefonie fix local;
656 licene generale pentru prestarea serviciilorn domeniul
informaticii;
38 licene tehnice pentru construirea, ntreinerea, exploatarea, precum
i crearea posturilor de radio prin eter i/sau prin cablu;
123 licene tehnice pentru construirea, ntreinerea, exploatarea, precum
i crearea posturilor de televiziune prin eter i/sau cablu.
Licenele individuale includ:
1 licen individual pentru prestarea serviciilor de telefonie fix local,
interurban i internaional (Moldtelecom" S.A.);
4 licene individuale pentru prestarea serviciilor de telefonie mobil celular
(Orange Moldova" S.A., Moldcell" S.A., Eventis" S.R.L. i Moldtelecom"
S.A.);
3 licene pentru utilizarea frecvenelor radio n scopul furnizrii reelelor i
serviciilor de comunicaii electronice mobile celulare de generaia a treia (3G)
(Orange Moldova" S.A., Moldcell" S.A. i Moldtelecom" S.A.).
Ponderea telefoniei mobile n structura pieei de comunicaii electronice a
crescut cu 3 puncte procentuale (p. p.) i a constituit 53,9%, iar serviciile de acces
la Internet - cu 1,4 p. p. i au alctuit 7,8%. Totodat, ponderea telefoniei fixe a
sczut cu 4,4 p. p. i a constituit 34,2%, iar a serviciilor de difuzare i retransmise a
programelor audiovizuale s-a meninut la nivelul anului 2008 i a alctuit 4,1%.
Dei trendul vnzrilor pe cele patru piee de comunicaii electronice a fost,
n 2009, diferit, numrul utilizatorilor de servicii a continuat s creasc. Numrul
total al acestora a sporit, fa de 2008, cu 10,7% i a atins cifra de 4 mil. 353 mii.
Potrivit datelor statistice, 64% din numrul total al beneficiarilor de servicii
de comunicaii electronice sunt utilizatori ai serviciilor de telefonie mobil, 26,1% de telefonie fix, 4,7% - de acces la Internet i 5,2% - ai serviciilor TV prin cablu.
Urmare a creterii numrului de utilizatori ai serviciilor de comunicaii
electronice ratele de penetrare a serviciilor de telefonie mobil s-a ridicat la 78,1%,
de telefonie fix - la 31,9%, de acces fix la Internet - la 5,7% i a serviciilor TV
prin cablu - la 6,34%.
n anul de referin, volumul total al investiiilor efectuate n dezvoltarea
pieelor de comunicaii electronice s-a redus, fa de 2008, cu 10,9% i a nsumat
1750 mil. lei. Aceast evoluie a fost cauzat, n temei, de diminuarea investiiilor
n telefonia fix, mobil i serviciile de difuzare i retransmisie a programelor
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audiovizuale. Cei mai mari investitori au fost trei companii de comunicaii


electronice Moldtelecom" S.A., Orange Moldova" S.A. i Moldcell" S.A. care
mpreun au asigurat 95,5% din totalul investiiilor. Moldtelecom"S.A. a investit
742,8 mil. lei sau 42,4% din total, Orange Moldova" S.A.- 692,3 mil. lei sau
39,6%, iar Moldcell" S.A. - 235,4 mil. lei sau 13,5% din totalul investiiilor.
n 2009, cele mai semnificative investiii au fost efectuate n reelele mobile
- 1 136 mil. lei sau 64,9% din total. Investiiile n serviciile de acces la Internet au
crescut cu 56,2% i au alctuit 238,6 mil. lei. Totodat, volumul investiiilor n
reelele fixe au sczut cu 29,8% i au constituit 340,8 mil. lei, iar n reelele
audiovizuale - s-au redus cu 41,3% i au nsumat 34,2 mil. lei.
La momentul actual, n Republica Moldova n calitate de surs oficial de
informaie referitor la situaia curent i dinamica dezvoltrii industriilor de
producere i comer cu echipamentele TIC servesc datele Biroului Naional de
Statistic. n calitate de surs neoficial de informaii consolidate despre aceste
industrii servete Cartea Alb. Sectorul TIC n Moldova" elaborat de ctre
Asociaia Naional a Companiilor private n domeniul TIC. Conform datelor din
Cartea Alb, n anul 2007 n Moldova activau circa 89 de companii specializate n
producerea de echipament TIC, fa de 75 companii n anul 2005. In anul 2007
circa 154 de companii se specializau n comerul angro de echipamente TIC, fa de
124 companii n anul 2005. Calculele pe baza datelor BNS arat c producia de
echipament TIC are un rol marginal n rezultatele totale ale sectorului TIC, dar
tendinele generale snt totui pozitive (ponderea sa evolund de la 0.75% din PIB
n 2005 la 1.44% n 2007). La rndul su, comerul angro cu echipament TIC
deinea o cot n cretere n total valoare adugat TIC: 30% n 2007 comparativ cu
16,5% n 2005. Presupunem c estimrile fcute sunt aproximative din cauza
activitilor economice nenregistrate. n 2007 valoarea total a TVA pltit de
industria de producere TIC constituia 23 milioane lei i 167,8 milioane lei - de
industria de comer angro cu echipamente TIC.
Problema major a industriilor de producere i comer cu echipamentele
TIC snt cerinele complexe i costisitoare de standardizare i certificare, cadrul
fiscal i vamal complex care n ansamblu nu stimuleaz dezvoltarea industriei i
nici consumul, genernd o anumit pondere a activitilor nenregistrate. Politicile
publice pentru aceste industrii vor fi orientate spre stimularea consumului i
oficializarea ofertei.
Rezultate i discuii. Cele prezentate atest c sectorul TIC este n
dezvoltare, pe viitor preconizindu-se extinderea acestuia. Trendurile existente
permit afirmarea c cele mai dinamice piee vor fi piaa accesului n band larg,
prin refuzul la servciile de band ngust, precum i piaa servciilor de difuzare i
retransmisie a programelor audiovizuale. Rata de penetrare a serviciilor de acces la
Internet n band larg la puncte fixe a ajuns n 2009 la 5,2%, acest indicator este
mult sub media de 23,5% nregistrat n rile din Uniunea Europeana. n prezent,
exist rezerve enorme pentru creterea acestei piee, n special prin promovarea de
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ctre furnizori a ofertelor convergente de date, voce, video i mobil. Potrivit


estimrilor Ageniei, numrul abonailor la serviciile n band larg se va majora cu
peste 45% i va atinge cifra de 270 mii. Cel mai rapid va crete numrul de
utilizatori n localitile din afara mun. Chiinu, unde acesta ar putea s se
dubleze. Se estimeaz, de asemenea, creterea rapid a numrului de utilizatori ai
serviciilor mobile n band larg. Potrivit rapoartelor statistice, furnizorii de
telefonie mobil au nregistrat, n 2009, circa 80.000 de utilizatori de Internet mobil
n band larg. n anul 2010 numrul acestor utilizatori va crete cu cel puin 80%.
Aceleai estimri arat c n 2010 piaa serviciilor de difuzare i retransmisie va fi
marcat de o dezvoltare mai dinamic a serviciilor TV multicanal digitale, precum
ar fi TV digital prin cablu, IPTV, DTH. Estimrile efectuate de ANRCETI arat c
telefonia fix va realiza o stabilizare, creterea fiind nesemnificativ, telefonia
mobil va continua s ctige teren n faa telefoniei fixe, din contul mobilitii
oferite i diversificarea serviciilor oferite.
Concluzii. Concluzionnd cele expuse anterior sectorul TIC este un sector
dinamic, n dezvoltare continu, care contribuie la formarea PIB al R. Moldova.
ns estimrile fcute arat c exist rezerve n dezvoltarea sectorului, cum ar fi:
a) nivelul sczut de competitivitate a companiilor TIC autohtone;
b) sistemul de indicatori statistici al sectorului TIC neactualizat, ce se
rsfrnge la poziiile Republicii Moldova n rating-urile internaionale;
c) ponderea mare a software-ului utilizat ilegal;
d) cerinele de standardizare i certificare complexe i costisitoare, standardele
tehnice n sectorul TIC neactualizate;
e) eficientizarea mecanismelor de reglementare a pieei TIC;
f) nivelul sczut de penetrare a accesului la Internet n band larg;
i) cererea sczut la produsele i serviciile de TI din partea statului.
Soluionarea problemelor menionate anterior se realizeaz prin intermediul
implementrii strategiilor de stat n sector, care vor permite transformarea

sectorului TIC ntr-un sector economic bine consolidat, eficient i


competitiv, i ca urmare realizarea planului individual de aciuni UE-RM.

BIBLIOGRAFIE:
1. Planul de aciuni UE-R.Moldova, ghid, http://www.e-democracy.md
2. Raport privind activitatea ANRCETI i evoluia pieelor de comunicaii
electronice, 2009.
3. Strategia de dezvoltare a sectorului tehnologiilor informaiei i de comunicaii
pe anii 2010-2013.
4. http://www.undp.md/border/Pol_vecin_ue.html
5. http://eeas.europa.eu/delegations/moldova/eu_moldova/political_relations/index
_en.htm

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ANALYSIS OF SOME DECISIONAL


PROCESSES IN BANK POLITICS
GURGHI Mariana,
Universitatea de Stat din Moldova

Abstract:
The paper proposes a quantitative analysis for this approach considering the money
offer volume coming from the depositors as a linear function, growing in respect with
deposit interest rates, and money volume offered for crediting represents a part from the
demand volume. Initially, an analytical analysis using conditional optimization methods
was done, using lagrange function. The analyzed situation describes a model containing 2
agents, in their aggregate form. The model complicates becoming multidimensional (goal
function being concave, but the restrictions convex), analytical methods being difficult to
use in order to find an efficient solution.
Key words: bank politics, money supply and demand, mathematical decisional
model.

Introduction: Problems that arise at the edification of adequate situation


politics for those environments in which the commercial bank is acting like an
economic agent, with the purpose of financial potential improvement, in maximum
attention reaction conditions of the two environments confronted: creditors and
debtors, are frequently approached[1,2,4,5]. On the other hand, every economic
agent, deponent or creditor solicitor tends to obtain o bigger interest rate,
respectively, a smaller one.
Methods and materials: The current paper proposes an quantitative analysis,
subject to this approach, considering that the money supply volume succeeded
from the deponents represents a linear function, growing in respect to interest
deposit interest rates, whereas the money supply volume represent a part of the
total demand volume.

b1

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Figure 1. Money supply (deposits)

Figure 2. Money demand (credits)

Money supply represents the multitude of deposits registered by the


bank depending on the interest rate a1 b1 , where a1 0, b1 0 . Of
course, the offer of money supply might include some other banking activity
revenues, as disparities in currency sale/buy, bank commissions, other payments
performed by banks clients.
Suppose the bank has a innovative approach, living at the discretion of the
client the assignation of the two values, a1 and b1 , but negotiating their assignation

in specific limits imposed by the bank: a1 a 1 ; a 1 and b1 b1 ;b1 . A graphical


representation then, of linear functions of the deposits registered by the bank for
three deponent categories, with diverse interest rates , where ; is given
by Figure 3:


a3
b3

a1
a2

b1
b2

Figure 3. Diversity of money supply (deposits)


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Lets suppose that all the clients are homogenized, everyone is subjected to
the same interest rate. The total or global money supply constitutes:
n

j
j 1

Respectively, the money demand function is: a 2 b2 , and


a 2 , b2 0 . On the other hand, the bank offers money volume for
individuals and businesses, where 0;1 . The case when is equal to zero
determine a general stop in the crediting process held by the bank.
Figure 4 represents schematic the entire money flow, under the conditions
in which the bank is oriented to maximize its revenue. The total money mass, that
the bank has to return to deponents, at a given moment of time, is equal to
1 , whereas the cash flows following from banks debtors are given by
1 .
Money demand

Money supply
Individuals or
businesses that
make deposits

a1b1

a2 b2

1a1b1

Individuals or
businesses that
1a2 b2request credits

Bank

Figure 4. Supply and demand money flows


Results and discussions: The authors present a mathematical model that
analytically represents banks interests, taken into consideration the severity of the
commitment with respect to two external agents: creditors and debtors. The
purpose function F, given by notation (1), represents bank revenue at a given
moment of time, regarding the restrictions of the bank space (2) and obviously, the
ones where interest rates with respect to both environments are limited, given by D
domain (3):
m

i 1

j 1

F ; 1 i 1 j max
m

i 1

j 1

i k j 0
, D , : ;

(1)
(2)

(3)
Evidently, revenue function maximization will come true under the
restriction 0 and its regard. In the situation in which the bank
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reserves are modest, the quantity of money offered by the bank should
not exceed deposits quantity, subtracting the volume o binding reserves distributed
by the bank, noted as 0 0 0 .
Initially, an analytical analysis is performed using conditional optimization
methods, that is, making use of Lagrange function. We are entitled to use this
instrumentation, because the given model frames itself in Kuhn-Tucker theorem
limits, objective function is concave in respect to control variables ; ,
restrictions being convex.
L ; ; F ; 0
Out of the necessary and sufficient conditions results that the optimal
solution (in relation to the Lagrange function) is given by * , * , * :

L , , max min L , , min max L , ,

; D , 0

0 , ; D

If , frames into the D domain, then this pair of values represent the
optimal solution, or in an economic context deposits and credits interest rates,
suitable to be established by the banking institution, in order to obtain a maximum
revenue.
Application of analytical methods in order to solve this kind of models,
ordinarily, is impossible. First of all, a real problem is of very big dimensions;
secondly, the necessary and sufficient conditions are applied by a essential number
of restrictions. An alternative would be a modification and adaptation of known
Arrow-Hurwitz method to the given model, having all the initial data. A formal
description of this method, in respect to the problem approached, consists of
minimization by and maximization by , of Lagrange function[3,6].
Lets note the partial derivation vectors of Lagrange function, calculated in
L
L
L
relation to respective variables, as:
,
,
. 0 , 0 , 0 values are

determined arbitrary. When constructing an iterative process (according to ArrowHurwitz method), k , k , k admissible set is being determined, according to the
scheme:

L k ; k ; k
, A :
k 1 PA k hk1

L k ; k ; k
, B :
k 1 PB k hk2

k
k
k

L ; ;
, : 0
k 1 P k hk3

Specialty reviews identify and demonstrate the convergeness of this


method, only if the underneath conditions are respected:
*

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i
k

h 0,
hki

k 0

h
k 0

i
k

(divergent series ) ,

for

example,

Hi
, H i 0, i 1,2,3.
k 1
In some situations, the following requirement might be also useful:

hki 0
,

i 2
k

, i 1,2,3 .

Conclusions: In order to obtain adequate solutions, of course approximate,


for sufficiently big k values, it is important to specify initially the number of
economic agents classified by categories, deponents preferences and restrictions,
constraint grades accepted by credit solicitors and values of this parameters, that
would characterize the state of bank, explained by input and output flows, for a
certain period of time.
Adequate modeling of a decision process, generated by banking politics is
confronted by difficulties of high complexity. First, it is due to the stochastic or
even uncertain nature of input and output flows[1,3,5]. Second, obviously, for
certain periods of time these flows identify themselves with a dynamic character
and elaboration of acceptable, optimal decisions, and the models, in this case,
present effects of lag processes[2,4,6].
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

REFERENCES:
Altman, Edward .I., and A. Saunders, 1997, Credit risk measurement:
Development over the last 20 years, Journal of Banking and finance 21,
1721-1742.
Crosbie, Peter, and Jeff Bohn, 2003, Modeling default risk, (Moody's KMV).
Jackson, Patricia, and William Perraudin, 2000, Regulatory implications of
credit risk modelling, Journal of Banking and Finance 24, 1-14.
Martin, D., 1977, Early warning of bank failure - A logit regression approach,
Journal of Banking and Finance 1.
www.mit.edu/asuman/www/documents/Allerton_Paper.pdf

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PROSPECTS FOR LONG-TERM INVESTMENTS


AFTER THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS
ILIE Georgeta,
Dimitrie Cantemir Christian University, Bucharest, Romania
Abstract:
The recent financial and economic crisis has shaken the foundation of the global
financial system and raised difficult questions about the future global economy.
Recognizing the increasing importance of long-term investments, this paper explores the
place of long-term investing and long-term investors in the global financial architecture.
More exactly, it aims to provide some answers to the questions such as where the worlds
long-term capital comes from, what might constrain its flows, how and where it is directed
and what type of developments we can expect to see over the next years. The work
furthermore contains some directions to reduce the constraints on long-term investing and
increase the benefits that come from it.
Key words: long-term investing, investors, impact, constraints, changes,
developments

1. Introduction. The recent global financial crisis has been a challenging


moment for many investors. In this paper, there are analyzed what happened during
the crisis in terms of the preparation and response of long-term investors. In this
context, there are emphasized the important lessons that have been learned and
what that means for investment strategies, particularly new approaches to liquidity
management and investor asset allocation frameworks. In conclusion, there are
underlined how the investor response to the crisis, combined with longer-term
trends including impending regulatory changes, might affect flows of long-term
capital.
2. Who are long-term investors? Long-term investing can be defined as
investing with the expectation of holding an asset for an indefinite period of time
by an investor with the capacity to do so. Usually a long-term investment is
expected to be held for at least 10 years or through a complete business cycle. A
long-term investment focuses on the intent of the investor when making the
investment and the investors ability to follow through on that intention in the face
of market pressure. Besides, a long-term investment might be sold more quickly if
the market puts a high enough value on them.
There are a range of long-term assets in terms of both their time horizon and
their liquidity that attract long-term investors, such as: major infrastructure
investments, direct private equity and venture capital, and strategic stakes in public
companies.
3. The new significance of long-term investing in the crisis. Long-term
investing has received new significance taking into account the global economic
crisis of the last few years. Debate has focused on long-term investors helping to
stabilize financial markets, impacting the time horizon of corporate managers and
funding important long-term projects such as infrastructure and the development of
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a low-carbon economy.
4. Market volatility, as an effect of the crisis. The financial crisis caused
extreme market volatility in 2008 and 2009. In the most recent crisis a large
amount asset classes, not just equities, were affected resulting in higher than
expected levels of losses and unanticipated short-term liabilities on the part of
long-term investors.
For many long-term investors, the crisis and the current economic climate
have raised a few questions and highlighted the need for rebuilding investment
frameworks and governance processes.
5. Investment framework and governance process changes in the crisis.
The crisis put considerable pressure on the investment framework and governance
process of long-term investors, forcing some institutions to restructure every aspect
of it, including their attitude about long-term investing, their approach to
formulating risk appetites and how they make investment decisions. Perhaps
surprisingly, investors say the most critical lessons they are taking away from the
crisis concern people and cultural issues, rather than investing matters in a more
technical sense.
5.1. Investment attitude in the crisis. The crisis has led many long-term
investors to highlight their need to reassess and formalize their investment attitude
and set out this attitude more clearly as part of a better governance and stakeholder
communication process.
The development of an appropriate set of investment beliefs is complicated
by the uncertain macroeconomic outlook and its implications, e.g. uncertainty
about the likely level of long-term investment returns and the best areas in which to
invest. Some beliefs that support traditional long-term investing strategies have
been questioned in light of the crisis.
In the meantime, many long-term investors have been struggling in an
environment where they expect average future returns to be lower combined with
greater interim volatility in asset prices. This atypical intensity of volatility makes
short-term trading strategies more attractive for some investors, if also more risky.
Making the right think on just a few days can possibly generate the total market
returns for an entire year, when in more peaceful times it would take many times
the number of right calls to reach that goal.
Although the debate is still ongoing, most of the investors seem to think
that the crisis will not fundamentally change their investment beliefs and
philosophies that support long-term investing. As an alternative, they consider that
essential changes will be seen in the governance and execution of strategies.
In this situation, numerous institutions have been taking the initial steps
towards formalizing these investment beliefs by encouraging a strong debate
centered on:
the available sources of return;
the comparative advantages of this institution;
the positive and negative implications of the investment strategy.
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This debate is seen as one approach to re-establish confidence inside the


organization. Many long-term investors have been making great efforts to hold
their stakeholders in the debate as they further work to enhance the communication
of investment beliefs. Some sovereign wealth funds, for example, have directed a
mass education effort towards the whole population of the country via academic
research and more direct dissemination such as the media.
5.2. Risk appetite - increase risk versus decrease risk. Currently, a
tension exists for long-term investors when reassessing the amount and type of risk
they are willing to assume, specifically. their risk appetite. There are important
opposing pressures, consequential from the crisis itself and from other structural
changes, to both decrease and increase risk in their portfolios.
Managing this tension and taking a position on risk appetite is a crucial step
for long-term investors. Particularly, should the return targets drive the amount of
risk taken or the risk appetite drive the return targets?
In this debate, it is helpful to recognize the three options an individual
institution can take regarding their risk appetite:
maintain pre-crisis risk levels; keep risk levels or risk/return levels at their
stable position, pre-crisis level;
decrease risk; diminish long-term risk in order to take away the impact of
future attacks of market volatility and institutional illiquidity;
increase risk; raise long-term risk, specifically increase exposure to risky
asset classes compared to pre-crisis levels.
5.3. Decision-making structure in line with long-term interests. The
crisis underlined the significance of putting into place a decision-making structure
that enables appropriate and successful decision-making by long-term investors.
From this point of view, investors are oriented towards:
ensuring individual accountability of decision makers;
measuring and tracking long-term investment performance;
structuring of incentive compensation systems to align with a long-term
mandate;
balancing between internal and external fund managers.
6. Changing investment strategies. Besides re-examining their investment
framework and governance process, investors have been seeking to build:
investment strategies that take better account of liquidity requirements;
asset allocation frameworks that better capture the fundamental drivers of
risk and return.
However, due to the market swings of the last few years, the advanced
thinking on some of these topics only really began during 2010, and new ideas as
well as relevant methods of implementation are still emerging.
6.1. New approaches to liquidity management. The major lesson from the
crisis for many long-term investors was that liquidity management must be
incorporated more explicitly into an overall investment strategy and asset allocation
framework.
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European neighbourhood policy and eastern partnership:


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Long-term investors

During the crisis, some long-term investors were forced to make suboptimal
investment decisions when the available liquidity in their portfolio was lacking to
meet liquidity needs. One reason for this was that they did not precisely predict
their cash flow, either because of increased requirements of beneficiaries, external
managers or counterparties or the deficient funding from sponsors.
In addition, the market dried up for those assets that might have been
considered part of a liquidity defense, forcing institutions that needed to sell to do
so at a deep discount to the assets perceived fundamental value.
Finally, investors expected that diversification would prevent all assets
from simultaneously dropping significantly below their perceived value and that
assets which did not lose their value could be sold to meet short-term obligations;
instead, investors were faced with high degrees of asset correlation that limited the
benefits of this strategy. Increasingly, many long-term investors are likely to
allocate a greater proportion of their assets to safe, liquid investments such as cash
or high-grade bonds.
6.2. Rising approaches to asset allocation. Before the crisis, many
investors increased the number of asset classes in their portfolio considering that
this would give diversification benefits and increase risk-adjusted returns.
However, the financial crisis highlighted that these asset classes may in fact be
associated during economic downturns.
The result has been a shift by long-term investors towards new, more riskfocused asset allocation frameworks that potentially better capture diversification
benefits. Going forward, many long-term investors are likely to use a selection of
these approaches in combination with more traditional techniques. The investors
hope that triangulating between approaches will give them a better and more
flexible perspective.
The recent crisis has exposed a few constraints that some of the long term
investors face when executing long-term investment strategies. In order to ease
these constraints on long-term investing and increase the benefits that flow from it,
there are obvious the followings recommendations:
Amplify positive impact
Diminish constraints to making long-term
of a long-term investing
investments
strategy
Long-term investors should build up performance
measurement systems that balance development a
More engaged ownership long-term perspective with short-term
by shareholders of public accountability;
companies should be
Long-term investors should put into action
encouraged by policycompensation systems that better bring into line
makers and long-term
stakeholders with the long-term mandate;
investors.
Long-term investors should support among
stakeholders a better understanding of the
implications of a long-term investing strategy.
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Amplify positive impact


of a long-term investing
strategy

Diminish constraints to making long-term


investments

Policymakers

Policy-makers should consider the not deliberate


impact of regulatory decisions on investor
capacity to make long-term investments;
Policy-makers should diminish the impact of
capital protectionism on long-term investors.
7. Conclusions. The role of long-term investing has received increasing
attention. Recent studies suggest that there is a growing global need for long-term
capital in both private and public markets, while it is recognized that short-term
investors play an important role in capital markets by providing liquidity and
ensuring short-term accountability. As the overall capacity for long-term investing
is diminishing, ensuring an adequate supply of long-term capital is a crucial issue.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

REFERENCES:
Bool, H. 2008. The Investment Crisis - Where Are the Real Leaders?,
http://ezinearticles.com/
Guellec, D.; Wunsch-Vincent, S. 2009. Policy Responses to the Economic
Crisis: Investing in Innovation for Long-Term Growth, OECD, available on:
http://www.oecd.org
Sahu, R.P., Gupta, J.K. 2008. Investment tips for crisis times, available on:
http://www.rediff.com/money/
Scheven, F. 2011. Financial Crisis Sent Long-Term Investing Spiraling
Downward,
in
Institutional
Investor,
available
on:
http://www.institutionalinvestor.com/
Wyman, O. 2011. The Future of Long-term Investing, World Economic Forum
USA
Inc.,
Geneva,
Switzerland,
available
on:
http://www.institutionalinvestor.com/
World Investment Report 2010, UNCTAD, Geneva, available on:
http://www.unctad.org/

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DEPOZITELE SURSA DE ASIGURARE A BUNSTARII


POPULAIEI N CONTEXTUL REALIZRII PLANULUI INDIVIDUAL
DE ACIUNI UE-RM
LOZOVANU Carolina, ROMANCIUC Elina
Universitatea Tehnic a Moldovei
Abstract:
European Neighborhood Policy represents a new approach for UE relations with its
neighbors. The realization of policy is done through individual actions plan. One of the
major domains of individual plan is poverty reduction and economical welfare of Republic
of Moldova. Banking system has the major role to provide a wide range of banking
products to cover the necessity of different category of people. The deposits are one of
them, representing one of revenue sources contributing to nation welfare.
Key words: European Neighborhood Policy, individual actions plan, deposits,
banking system.

Introducere. Anul 2004 aduce pe agenda UE doua evenimente notabile.


Primul eveniment este lrgirea istorica UE prin primirea a dousprezece state n
doua valuri - primul val (2004) cuprinznd zece state i al doilea val (2007) format
din Romnia i Bulgaria. Pentru a prentampna impresia apariiei unei noi falii pe
continentul european, UE lanseaz conceptul de Europa extins i conceptul de
politic european de vecintate pentru statele vecine nemembre i vecine.
Conceptul de Europa extins proiecteaz o Europa nealterat de noi linii de
separare cu un set de valori comune, un spaiu al cooperrii i prosperitii.
Conceptul de Politica european de vecintate (PEV) lansat de ctre
Parlamentul European, are un scurt, gradual i intens istoric, materializat ntr-un
cadru programatic i acional de politici, ce urmrete transformarea noiunii de
grania ntr-un spaiu al cooperrii i al legturilor politice, economice i sociale
care sa evite crearea unei falii de genul cortinei de fier.
Ambele concepte sunt construite a fi o alternativa la integrarea n UE. Ele
sunt concepute ca un rspuns la cererile vecinilor pentru obinerea de promisiuni
privind o eventual aderare i n acelai timp ca garanii pentru actualele state
membre ca Uniunea nu se va extinde pe termen nedefinit.
De la bun nceput, politica de vecintate european este alturata i distinct
de politica de lrgire a UE: totodat, aceasta politic nu poate fi considerat ca o
etap de pregtire a lrgirii, deoarece statele crora li se adreseaz nu sunt vizate
a fi integrate.
PEV este structurata pe patru direcii: Rusia, grupului de noi state
independente occidentale (Ucraina, Moldova, Belarus), Caucazul de Sud (Armenia,
Azerbaijan si Georgia) i statele din Sudul Mediteranei (Algeria, Egipt, Israel,
Iordania, Liban, Libia, Maroc, Autoritatea Palestinian, Siria i Tunisia).
Printre beneficiile oferite de PEV se numr cele ce in de dezvoltarea
economic i social precum i obinerea posibilitii de acces pe piaa intern i
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integrarea n cadrul altor alte politici europene: Educaia, Pregtirea profesional i


tineretul; Cercetarea; Probleme de mediu; Cultura; Politica audio-vizualului.
Pentru fiecare stat vizat de PEV, n baza Comunicrii Politica European de
Vecintate. Strategia i Rapoartele pe ar, care stabilete paii concrei de
implementare a politicii de vecintate i modul de extindere a beneficiilor lrgirii
UE asupra noilor si vecini, pentru atingerea scopurilor au fost elaborate Planuri de
Aciune (PA). PA reprezint un set de prioriti pentru statele vizate n contextul
PEV i este documentul politic-cheie n dezvoltarea relaiilor dintre UE i vecinii
si. Din 1991 pana acum asistena acordat R. Moldova de ctre UE a atins cifra de
circa 300 milioane de euro. Aceasta a inclus asisten acordat prin intermediul
Programului TACIS (componentele: naional, regional i cooperare
transfrontalier), precum i prin intermediul unor programe tematice.
Prin intermediul noului Programului National IEVP, n perioada 2007-2010
R. Moldova i-au fost alocate 209,7 milioane de euro. Asistena este concentrat pe
3 sectoare prioritare, selectate in baza obiectivelor politicii definite n Planul de
Aciuni UE - Moldova:
susinerea n dezvoltarea democratic i n buna guvernare;
susinerea n reforma sistemului judiciar i crearea capacitii
administrative;
susinerea n reducerea nivelului srciei i n creterea nivelului economic
Materiale i metode. Dezvoltarea sectorului bancar, disponibilitatea acestuia
de a satisface cereri distincte n produsele pe care le ofer reprezint una din
sarcina de baz a acestuia. Depunerile bneti efectuate la banc reprezint una din
sursele de venit a populaiei, iar volumul lor caracterizeaz i bunstarea populaiei.
Unul din instrumentele de economisire a banilor este depozitul bancar. Acesta
reprezint o sum de bani depus la banc pe o perioad definit, pentru care banca
pltete depuntorului o recompens, n form de dobnd. Exist mai multe
accepiuni referitoare la dobnd, aceasta fiind definit ca:
plata pentru o sum mprumutat (Guitton Henri, Economie politique);
recompensa pentru renunarea la lichiditate pe o anumit perioad de timp
(Keynes, Teoria general a folosirii minii de lucru, a dobnzii i a banilor);
prima pltit pentru gestionarea curent a resurselor (Heyne, Modul
economic de gndire);
preul pentru a pune economia n serviciul investiiei (Andre Page,
Economie politique);
valoarea banilor la momentul actual n banii de mine (conceptul neoclasic
dup Irving Fischer).
Altfel zis, dobnda este suma ce revine depuntorului la rambursarea depunerii
sau preul folosirii capitalului i remunerarea riscului ce-l implic mprumutatul.
Fie c este n lei, fie n valut, aceast form de economisire aduce beneficii celor
care prefer s in banii n bnci.
Bncile ofer o gam larg de depozite, n funcie de durat, moneda de
economisire i modalitatea de restituire a dobnzii. Criteriul cel mai important
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pentru o persoan care decide s-i deschid un depozit la banc este nivelul
dobnzii. Atractivitatea unei bnci rezid tocmai n valoarea anual ct mai mare a
dobnzii. Inflaia influeneaz decisiv dobnda pe care bncile o ofer la depozite.
Ctigul depuntorului pe un an constituie diferena dintre rata inflaiei i valoarea
dobnzii. Rata dobnzii poate fi fix (protejeaz economiile de fluctuaiile negative
ale dobnzilor bancare i fructific eficient resursele financiare) sau variabil (se
modific, de regul la fiecare 3 luni, n funcie de evoluia pieei i de politica
intern a bncii i nu poate fi previzionat).
Susintorii masurilor de ncurajare a economisirii susin ca actuala criza s-a
declanat tocmai pe fondul avntului consumist scpat de sub control. Att
guvernele, corporaiile, ct si consumatorii casnici s-au angajat ntr-o spirala
consumist bazat n cea mai mare parte pe credit, ce a condus la lipsa de
lichiditate nregistrat n prezent n sistemul financiar-bancar i la suprasaturarea
pieelor mature cu case, maini, magazine de retail, restaurante, saloane cosmetice
i aproape orice alt produs comercial. Susintorii adoptrii msurilor de sprijinire a
economisirii spun ca ncurajarea pe mai departe a consumului nu poate fi dect o
tactic incontienta, care ar duce i mai mult la agravarea efectelor negative ale
crizei. Acest punct de vedere este ntlnit cu precdere printre economitii din
Europa. n Statele Unite ale Americii predomin ins ideea contrar. Pe principiul
cui pe cui se scoate, majoritatea macro-economitilor americani susin c ieirea
rii din criz se poate realiza numai prin creterea cererii de produse i servicii din
partea populaiei, corporaiilor i Guvernului. Altfel spus, prin ncurajarea
consumului i descurajarea economisirii. Asta dei dezechilibrele economice au
pornit de la dezordinea creat de criza creditelor sub-prime, caracterizata tocmai de
consumul pe credit. Adversarii msurilor de ncurajare a economisirii spun ca banii
pstrai n depozite bancare sunt echivaleni cu inerea economiilor la saltea, ei
necontribuind cu nimic la susinerea unei economii aflate deja in recesiune. De
cealalt parte, susintorii economisirii spun c aceasta asigur fondurile necesare
pentru investiiile viitoare. Cheltuirea ultimului bnu pe consum nu asigur o
migraie sntoas a capitalului, nu susine nfiinarea de noi afaceri, din lipsa
fondurilor pentru investiii. n schimb, contribuie la sprijinirea necondiionat a
firmelor active n prezent, indiferent ct de solide sunt i ct de sntos susin ele
economia aflat n criz.
Economisirea pe timp de criz pare un lucru fantezist, ns exist numeroase
instrumente financiare - cu precdere bancare - ce pot contribui la punerea deoparte
a unei sume de bani: la un moment dat ori periodic.
n plus, pentru a putea obine venituri n plus de pe urma economisirii banilor
proprii, trebuie analizate cu atenie sporit ofertele bncilor. Dincolo de produsele
standard ale bncilor, exist o serie de plasamente ce conduc la sporirea banilor
agonisii. Nivelul beneficiului depinde, n mare msur, de bugetul propriu, nevoile
personale i posibilitile de economisire.
Incertitudinea locurilor de munc i posibila involuie a ctigurilor salariale i
determin pe tot mai muli oameni s recurg la economisirea banilor. Unii aleg s
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i chiverniseasc veniturile punnd deoparte bani la saltea, n timp ce alii aleg s


fac economii la bnci. Cei din a doua categorie par s ias mai n ctig dect cei
care opteaz pentru varianta punerii banilor la ciorap. Produsele bancare pot oferi
un randament sporit banilor agonisii, dac se opteaz pentru cele mai bune
plasamente.
Contul de economii - bun pentru sraci
Soluiile cele mai la ndemn constau n contul de economii i depozitul la
termen. Acestea reprezint cele mai simple instrumente de economisire i sunt
potrivite celor care nu dispun de sume importante de bani ori nu au un bagaj de
cunotine financiare adecvat pentru a apela i la plasamente mai sofisticate, care
aduc beneficii mai mari. Contul de economii este o variant ideal, dac se
previzioneaz depunerea de sume mici de bani, la intervale de timp regulate.
Atenie la comisioane i carduri
n cazul n care se dispune de o sum mai mare de bani, se poate opta pentru
un depozit la termen, situaie n care dobnzile sunt ridicate. Exist dezavantajul c,
la depozitele la termen, nu pot fi retrai banii nainte de termen, fr a fi penalizat
deponentul. Dac se opteaz pentru un depozit la termen i se scot banii nainte de
timp, se pierde dobnda care se aplic depozitului. Cu alte cuvinte, contul de
economii este cel mai flexibil instrument de economisire, att sub aspectul
depunerilor periodice, ct i n privina retragerilor de bani. n privina conturilor de
economii, trebuie avut grij la utilizarea cardurilor ataate, cci bncile - de regul calculeaz dobnzile n mod diferit pentru sumele aflate n cont. Sunt uniti
bancare ce calculeaz dobnda pentru soldul existent la finalul fiecrei zile i o
vireaz n cont la sfritul lunii. Exist alte bnci care calculeaz dobnda la
anumite date fixe. Nu trebuie omise nici comisioanele care pot diminua ctigurile
de pe urma folosirii instrumentelor bancare, n discuie fiind comisioanele de
deschidere, de administrare i cele pentru retragerea de numerar.
Dobnzi mai mari pentru depozitele la termen
n cazul n care avei o sum mare de bani, indicate sunt depozitele la termen
sau certificatele de depozit. n linii mari, cele dou instrumente bancare ofer
avantaje similare, pn la un punct. Aceste avantaje constau n plasarea banilor pe
termene prestabilite, denominarea n lei, euro sau alte valute i au dobnzi anuale
mai mari dect n cazul contului de economii. Diferenele constau, n primul rnd, n
faptul c depozitul la termen ofer posibilitatea prelungirii automate, ceea ce nu
este valabil n cazul certificatului de depozit. ns, certificatul de depozit are un
avantaj care lipsete depozitului: permite retragerea de bani nainte de scaden,
fr a fi penalizai. La depozitul la termen, nu se primete dobnda la termen dac
se retrag bani nainte de scaden, caz n care se achit de ctre banc doar dobnda
aferent contului curent (dobnd ce are o valoare mult mai mic, de regul).
Pe parcursul anilor 2003-2010 rata dobnzii la depozite a nregistrat att
urcuuri, ct i coboruri. n 2003-2004 observm o cretere a ratei depozitelor i
un declin n 2004-2006 (figura 1). La nceputul perioadei de criz mondial,
bncile ncep s atrag economiile cetenilor pentru a suplini contul de lichiditi.
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R a t a

d o b (n% z) i i

E v o lu ia r a t e i d o b n z ii la d e p o z it e n p e r io a d a 2 0 0 3 - 2 0 1 0
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

P e rs
MD L
P e rs
USD
P e rs
MD L
P e rs
USD

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

A n i i

o a n e ju rid ic e
o a n e ju rid ic e
/E U R O
o a n e fi z i c e
o a n e fi z i c e
/E U R O

2010
ia n . s e p t.

Figura 1. Evoluia ratei dobnzii n perioada 2003-2010


Potrivit datelor BNM, n 9 luni ale a. 2010 bncile au atras de la populaie 20,5
mld. lei. Numai n luna septembrie persoanele fizice au depus n depozite bancare
la termen 2 mld. 425 mil.lei. Aceasta dup ce i n august economiile au crescut cu
cca 4%. Specialitii pun creterea din ultimele 3 luni pe seama majorrii
transferurilor bneti de peste hotare. Depuntorii ns sunt precaui fa de
termenul de pstrare a banilor n bnci, 53% din depozite n septembrie au fost
constituite pe o perioad de 3-6 luni, alte 40% pe 6-12 luni i doar 42,6 mil.lei
(cca 5% din total) au fost depuse pe o perioad mai mare de un an.
Evoluia ratei dobnzii n primele 9 luni ale anului 2010
12

Pers one
juridice MDL

R a t a d o b n z i i (%)

11
10
9

Pers one
juridice
USD/EURO

8
7
6

Pers oane
fizice MDL

5
4
3

Pers oane
fizice
USD/EURO

2
1
0

ianuarie

februarie

martie

aprilie

mai

iunie

iulie

aug ust

septembrie

Lunile

Figura 2 Evoluia ratei dobnzii n primele 9 luni ale lui 2010


Fa de anul 2009 populaia a depus n depozitare la termen cu 10,3% mai
puini bani. Reducerea aproape la jumtate a ratei dobnzilor la depozitele n lei i a
ponderii depunerile de cca. 3 ori timp de doar un an a fost un oc, fiind resimite
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efectele crizei. Totodat, bncile cu un mare surplus de lichiditate nu mai sunt la fel
de agresive ca acum un an i jumtate cnd erau n criz de lichiditate. Astfel se
explic reducerea cu peste 2 mld. lei a mijloacelor atrase de la populaie n primele
9 luni ale anului 2010. Ponderea depozitelor persoanelor fizice s-a ridicat la
63,05%, fa de 62,33% la finele anului 2009.
Pe de alt parte, i bncile manifest mult precauie n ceea ce privete
atragerea surselor de la populaie. Nevoia sczut de lichiditi nu mai ndeamn
bncile s atrag bani de la populaie. Politica bncilor n domeniul dobnzilor la
depozite difer de la o banc la alta, dar tendina general este de scdere. Dac la
nceputul lui 2009 bncile ofereau dobnzi de 20%, chiar i 25% anual, iar media pe
sistem n ianuarie era de 20,69%, apoi spre finele anului, n decembrie, a ajuns la
9,79%. i mai mult a sczut rata dobnzii la creditele n valut, de la o medie de
11,81% n ianuarie la 3,81% n decembrie. n 2010 dobnzile au continuat trendul
descendent. Rata dobnzii la depozitele n lei a sczut n nou luni cu 23%,
cobornd la o medie de 7,43% anual, iar dobnzile la economiile n valut s-au
modificat nesemnificativ.
Dobnzile oferite de bnci difer de la o banc la alta. Astfel, n septembrie
Moldova Agroindbank, banca cu cele mai multe depozite acumulate de la
populaie, a oferit o rat medie la depozitele n lei la termen de 8,18% i n valut
de 2,6%, Banca de Economii 9,15% i respectiv 3,3%, iar Comerbank 11,26%
i respectiv 6,15%.
Ratele dobnzilor nu sunt atractive pentru populaie, ele fiind in descretere,
fiind mai multe motive a descreterilor. pe de o parte, bncile nu mai simt nevoia
de lichiditi, ca urmare au renunat la politica agresiv pe care au promovat-o la
finele lui 2008 i pn la mijlocul lui. 2009. Pe de alt parte, BNM a micorat n
anul trecut rata de baz de la 12% la 5% i doar n februarie a mrit-o la 6%, iar din
luna martie la 7%. Reprezentanii mai multor bnci afirm c bncile dispun de
bani, dar nu are unde le plasa, bncile concentrndu-se mai mult pe plasamente
dect pe atragerea de resurse. Acum cteva luni i guvernatorul BNM, Dorin
Drguanu, declara c bncile comerciale au deja lichiditi de 4 mld. lei pe care
nu le pot plasa n credite. Nu din cauz c nu vor, ci pentru c riscurile sunt mari.
De aceea, i dobnzile nu sunt att de joase, cum s-ar dori.
Cele mai sczute dobnzi la depozitele la termen n lei, constituite de populaie,
n septembrie, au pornit de la 3,61% la depozitele de pn la o lun, pn la 10,8%
la plasamentele de peste 12 luni. Rata dobnzii la depozitele de la 6 la 12 luni a fost
de 9,93%, la plasamentele de la 3 la 6 luni 8,4%. Regula e veche: cu ct depui mai
muli bani, cu att crete dobnda. De asemenea, cu ct termenul pe care se
constituie depozitul este mai mare, cu att dobnda este mai nalt.
La data de 30 iunie 2010 portofoliul de depozite acceptate de bncile
comerciale din RM a constituit 26.126 mil.lei (2.124 mil. USD), n scdere cu 1,1%
fa de situaia din 31 decembrie 2009 i n cretere cu 8% comparativ cu situaia
din 30 iunie 2009. Din portofoliul de depozite a bncilor comerciale 88,49% sunt
depozite la care bncile pltesc dobnzi, 64,05% sunt depozite de la persoane fizice.
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Tabelul 1. Liderii pieei la capitolul mrimea portofoliului de depozite


N/o

Banca
1
2
3
4
5

Moldova Agroindbank
Victoriabank
Moldindconbank
Banca de Economii
Banca Social

Suma portofoliului de depozite, mil.


lei
4,999
4,900
3,514
3,476
1,668

Ponderea pieei
19,14%
18,75%
13,45%
13,31%
6,38%

Liderii pieei (tabelul 1) dein 71,03% din piaa depozitelor. Comparativ cu


situaia din 31 decembrie 2009, Banca Social de pe poziia 8 n top a ajuns pe
poziia 5, iar Mobiasbanc de pe poziia 5 pe poziia 6. Liderii pieei pentru
portofoliul de depozite de la persoane fizice sunt aceleai 5 instituii, care dein
76,26% din piaa depozitelor acceptate de la persoane fizice (tabelul 2, 3).
Tabelul 2. Liderii pieei la depozite persoane fizice
N/o
1
2
3
4
5

Banca
Moldova Agroindbank
Victoriabank
Moldindconbank
Banca de Economii
Banca Social

Suma depozitelor de la pers. fizice,


mil. lei
3,771
3,126
2,544
2,266
1,055

Ponderea pieei
22,53%
18,68%
15,2%
13,54%
6,3%

Suma depozitelor nu este direct proporional cu mrimea ratelor dobnzilor.


Pentru depozitele la termen atrase n lei de la persoanele juridice cele mai mari
dobnzi medii le-au oferit: Comerbank 12,09%, Banca Social 10,83%,
Fincombank - 10,3%, Procredit Bank 9,3%, Eximbank 8,87%. Iar pentru
depozitele n lei de la persoanele fizice cele mai mari dobnzi medii le-au oferit:
Banca Social 12,78%, Fincombank 12,4%, BCR Chiinu 12,36%,
Eximbank 11,93%, Procredit Bank 11,32%. Universalbank a nregistrat cea mai
mic dobnd medie pentru depozitele la termen atrase n lei de la persoanele fizice
6,81%.
n trimestrul III 2010 cu o cot de 36% din mijloacele atrase n valut strin i
33% n lei ntietatea o deine Moldova Agroindbank: portofoliul de depozite a
persoanelor fizice s-a mrit cu 2 432 mil.lei, nregistrnd i cele mai mici rate ale
dobnzii n medie 8,18% n lei i 2,6% n valut. Victoriabank a atras de la
populaie 435,8 mil.lei, n depozite n lei (+31,62% fa de trimestrul II) i valut n
sum echivalent cu 769,8 mil.lei (+23,9%). Banca de Economii a avut o cretere
puternic (cu 14,1% la depozitele n lei, 42% n valut) a numrului de depozite
de la persoanele fizice. Populaia a depus n iulie-august n BEM 291 mil.lei i
valut echivalent cu 352,2 mil.lei. Dei a oferit dobnzi relativ nalte, 11,26% la
depozitele n lei i 6,15% n valut, Comerbank a atras n depozite n lei 7,7 mil.,
iar n valut 16,3 mil.lei.
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Tabelul 3. Lideri depozite la termen acceptate, trimestrul II 2010


N/o
1
2
3
4
5

Banca
Moldova Agroindbank
Victoriabank
Moldindconbank
BCR Chiinu
Banca de Economii

Suma depozitelor n trim. II


2010 (mil. lei)
2,435
1,992
1,532
1,02
500

Ponderea depozitelor la
termen n trim. II 2010
26,9%
22%
16,93%
11,27%
5,52%

Concluzii i recomandri. Dac n prezent exist probleme n repornirea


motorului economiei autohtone, aceasta se datoreaz inclusiv structurii dobnzilor.
Bncile menin dobnzi mari la depozite, determinnd astfel deponenii s nu
consume i s nu investeasc. Totodat, bncile practic dobnzi nalte la credite,
strangulnd orice posibilitate de investiie pe credit.
ns bncile nu au interesul s reduc dobnzile la depozite. Oamenii s-au
obinuit s in banii n banc i s nu fac nimic cu ei, avnd o dobnd bun.
Banii din depozitele la termen ajung la dispoziia bncii, care i poate investi pe
termen scurt. n loc ca aceste mijloace s ajung n consum sau investiii private,
ele se rotesc pe piaa interbancar.
E un cerc vicios, n care bncile au interes sa atrag depozite, din care s
profite de ctiguri rapide. Cine sufer n consecin? Economia real, locurile de
munc. Rata dobnzii ridicat la depozite induce o problem macroeconomic
major n strangularea consumului i a investiiilor.
Evident, bncile sunt libere s practice dobnzile pe care le doresc piaa
dicteaz nivelul dobnzii. ns lipsa concurenei face ca piaa s fie distorsionat,
iar bncile i pot impune politici de dobnzi bizare. Considerm optim o dobnd
de cel mult 6% la depozite bancare la termen i de maxim 9% la credite. n
asemenea condiii motorul economic ar porni mult mai repede, fr puseuri
inflaioniste.
De fapt, un principiu economic simplu spune c trebuie s-i ii economiile n
valuta n care vei avea cheltuieli astfel evii anumite riscuri financiare. Pentru
persoanele care i programeaz anumite cheltuieli sfatul este s i le planifice n
valuta n care obin veniturile de baz. n concluzie, dac o persoan are venituri n
lei, nu trebuie s-i planifice cheltuielile n valut strin, pentru c, din cauza
cursului, lucrurile ar putea fi diferite.
BIBLIOGRAFIE:
1. Dardac N., Floricel C. Moned, Credit, Bnci. Editura Didactic i Pedagogic,
Bucureti, 1994.
2. www.bnm.md
3. www.statistica.md
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OPTIMIZAREA AMBIENTULUI HOTELIER


PRIN ELEMENTE DE DESIGN
APOSTOL Mihaela-Simona,
Universitatea Cretin Dimitrie Cantemir, Bucureti, Romnia
Abstarct:
The first concerns regarding the hotelier design occurred since the early twentieth
century. Under the pressure of contemporary social and economic factors and under
constraints within different categories, designers with a broad vision and who are able to
work in an integrated system facing the constraints of legal, environmental and safety
regulations imposed by European Union are in high demand.
This paper aims to highlight through scientific approach that only an integrated
hotelier design system can provide a unified vision in Europe regarding the creation of
unitary standards, but with high specificity to enhance competitiveness.
Key words: european development, human factors, technical standards, hotel,
interior design.

Introducere. nc de la nceputul secolului XX s-au nregistrat primele


preocupri n domeniul designului hotelier. n anul 1904, putem spune c prin
activitatea pe care a desfurat-o Elsie de Wolfe s-a pus baze designului de interior,
concept adoptat i de industria turismului n dinamica lanurilor hoteliere. Din acest
moment se manifest prezena unui nou domeniu de activitate economic prin
recunoaterea importanei designului de interior. Exist o mare diferen ntre
abordarea designului n construciile civile, comerciale i domeniul hotelier. Ceea
ce determin ca pregtirea designrilor care se specializeaz n decoraiunile
interioare hoteliere s aib un bagaj de cunotine interdisciplinare i specifice. n
afara cunotinelor tehnice i specifice designerul fiind un contractant, un agent de
legtur i un gestionar de resurse materiale, financiare i umane, pentru o bun
relaie cu beneficiarii i furnizorii trebuie s posede urmtoarele competene:
abiliti n domeniul comunicrii, caliti antreprenoriale, abiliti artistice,
capacitatea de a vedea n spaiu, cunotine ergonomia, etic profesional,
managementul proiectelor, noiuni de baz juridice privind relaiile contractuale,
noiuni economice de baz privind gestiunea resurselor.
n prezent industria turismului este influenat de urmtorii factori:
dezvoltarea pieei produsului turistic, extinderea reelelor de lanuri hoteliere,
intensificarea competiiei pe fondul creterii nivelului de educaie al
consumatorilor. n contextul dezvoltrilor nevoilor specifice n cltorie i la
destinaie, componentele de design este necesar s fie atent i inteligent utilizate de
ctre furnizorii de servicii hoteliere. Aceast abordare constituind un adevrat atu
n procesul de difereniere i specializare a ofertei de servicii [2, p.10]. Aceste
elemente de design sunt utilizate n mod contient i tiinific de lanurile hoteliere
i mai puin de ctre hotelierii independeni. Acest fapt ridic problema unei
specializri a designerilor n amenajarea i decorarea spaiilor hoteliere.
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n momentul n care standardizarea n domeniul tehnologiilor n construcii


a generat metode moderne, rapide i flexibile n realizarea hotelurilor i a
facilitilor specifice s-a pus problema elaborrii de standarde i n domeniul
designului de interior. Cu att mai mult cu ct aceste componente de design au
funcii estetice, de confort i funcionalitate att pentru personalul hotelier ct i
pentru clienii [5, p.125].
Lucrarea i propune prin demersul tiinific s evidenieze faptul c doar un
sistem integrat de design hotelier poate s asigure ntr-o viziune unitar n spaiul
european crearea unor standarde cu caracter unitar i totodat cu grad mare de
specificitate care s permit creterea competitivitii.
Materiale i metode. Activitatea de design de interior n domeniul hotelier
este complex, solicitant fapt ceea ce determin o bun organizare i gestiune a
resurselor.
Proiectarea i realizarea designului de interior n hotel presupune
parcurgerea urmtoarelor etape:
proiectarea i organizarea structurii echipei;
elaborarea i transmiterea instruciunilor tehnice de lucru;
estimarea costurilor, elaborarea bugetelor i metodelor de control a
acestora;
identificarea i evaluarea parametrilor i limitelor tehnice ale
construciei;
elaborarea standardelor i documentaiei tehnice adaptate la profilul
hotelului;
organizarea structurii operaionale de antier;
elaborarea proiectului de amenajare interioar i a facilitilor;
realizarea i supravegherea parametrilor tehnici n teren;
planificarea ordinii n execuie a activitilor;
planificarea decontrilor cu furnizorii i beneficiarii
identificarea unor vicii ascunse;
recepia lucrrii [1, p.393].
Profesionitii specializai n design hotelier ofer management de proiect i
execut documente pentru construcii, cum ar fi desenele i specificai tehnice.
Designeri de interior moderni trebuie s fie capabili s efectueze sarcini multiple n
care necesit un nivel ridicat de creativitate, dar n limitele standardelor i
reglementrilor existente n domeniu. Acetia trebuie s fie capabili s negocieze
contracte, managementul proiectelor, proiectele de buget, i coordoneaz
activitatea n progres. Indiferent de proiect, acetia trebuie s fie capabili s
identifice problemele, s analizeze cerinele specifice i s evalueze n mod realist
standardele, tehnologiile, resursele i constrngerile de timp [3, p. 341].
Toate aciuni de proiectare i amenajare trebuie s asigure sntatea i
sigurana personalului i a clienilor i s-i protejeze n orice moment. n contextul
actual european se pune accentul pe reducerea factorilor de risc pentru protejarea
clienilor prin
securizarea instalaiilor electrice, sanitare, a ascensoarelor,
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ferestrelor i a altor componente constructive i de ambient.


n vederea eliminrii oricror factori de risc i pentru exercitarea
coordonrii controlului fiecrei etape se impune elaborarea unui checklist care s
cuprind urmtoarele elemente:
locul de amplasare, accesul i legturile de transport;
dimensiunea, poziionarea elementelor de structur i a facilitilor;
obinerea autorizaiilor specifice;
identificarea contractanilor performani;
identificarea zonelor care necesit soluii tehnice speciale;
identificarea i evaluarea punctelor critice de cost;
identificarea i planificarea pierderilor;
planificarea gestiunii stocurilor;
elaborarea unor metode de aprecierea a gradului de performan a
proiectului (msura n care s-au aplicat metodele cel mai bune care s pun n
valoare spaiile pentru a se asigura cel mai nalt nivel de confort i satisfacie a
clienilor).
n Europa, primele criterii cu caracter relativ unitar a structurilor de cazare
au fost realizate n anul 1974. Acestea au avut ca principal scop prezentarea
criteriilor de ordin constructiv i dotare a spaiilor hoteliere. n prezent, rii cu
vocaie turistic ca de exemplu: Frana, Anglia, Elveia i-au reconsiderat criteriile
de clasificare a structurilor de primire, centru de greutate revenind criteriilor de
ordin calitativ, respectiv primirea clienilor atmosfera, calitatea finisajelor
[1, p.291]
n Romnia, aplicarea elementelor de design trebuie s in cont de
existena legislaiei specifice privind clasificarea structurilor de primire care
cuprinde normativele minime obligatorii pentru organizarea i funcionarea
activitii hoteliere pe categorii de confort. Criteriile care stau la baza clasificrii
sunt grupate n:
1. Criterii constructive - starea general a cldirii: aspect, firm, nsemne
distinctive reprezentnd categoria unitii, parcri auto (garaj), ramp de acces
crucior pentru persoane cu deficiene fizice, intrri turiti, personal, bagaje.
2. Criterii privind organizarea spaiilor i a serviciilor aferente:
- numr minim de spaii de cazare;
- suprafaa minim a holului de primire;
- serviciu de recepie prevzut cu spaii pentru comercializare, pentru
pstrarea bagajelor, pentru personalul administrativ, spaiu pentru pstrarea
echipamentelor sportive (garderob), sistem de pstrare a valorilor turitilor i cu
personal calificat.
3. Instalaii: sistem de climatizare, aer condiionat, nclzire central,
izolaie fonic, iluminat electric, grup electrogen, ascensoare (turiti, bagaje,
personal).
4. Suprafaa minim a camerelor;
5. Suprafaa minim a bilor;
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6. nlimea minim a camerelor;


7. nlimea minim a culoarelor i casei scrilor;
8. Numrul maxim de paturi n camer;
9. Echipamente sanitare: grup sanitar comun, grup sanitar n camer.
10. Dotarea cu mobilier i alte obiecte n: camer, baie, vestibul, salon
apartament.
11. Seif;
12. Telefon/fax;
13. Spaii de alimentaie: spaiu pentru pregtirea i servirea micului dejun,
buctrie echipat complet n apartamente, bufet, restaurant, bar de zi.
14. Dotri pentru congrese i alte manifestri;
15. Sli polivalente, birouri, instalaii de traducere simultan;
16. Servicii suplimentare minime obligatorii;
17. Alte criterii;
18. Criterii suplimentare de evaluare (personalul hotelier) [4, p.112]
n contrast cu tendinele la nivel european, n Romnia sunt luate n
considerare doar aceste criterii de clasificare, fiind neglijate elementele intangibile.
La aplicare principiilor de design trebuie s se in cont de anumite
elemente specifice constructive i de dotare a spaiilor hoteliere: componenta
ergonomic i de securitate - construcie instalaii sanitare i de mobilier;
instalaiile electrice i modul n care lumina construiete atmosfera spaial [1, p.
387]; culoarea i modul n care aceasta influeneaz vizual mediul prin calitile
psiho-fiziologie; materiale i texturi pentru a simplifica procedurile de ntreinere,
dar i a oferi confort vizual; ornamente i obiecte de decor pentru construirea unei
atmosfere intime, confortabile i care s confere prestigiu i elegana spaiilor [7,
p.98].
Designerii la proiectarea i amenajarea spaiilor hoteliere trebuie s aib n
vedere o serie de principii ca de exemplu:
Alegerea acelor soluii constructive care s evite sau s diminueze efectele
negative al factorilor nocivi: umiditate, zgomot, temperaturi nalte sau joase, noxe,
lumina sau lipsa acesteia
Orientarea ncperii fa de punctele cardinale [7, p.327]
Uile ignifuge cu sistem de nchidere automat care trebuie s izoleze
focarele n caz de incendiu i care nu s permit extinderea fumului i flcrilor.
Ferestrele din camere de hotel care s mpiedice tentativele de suicid ale
clienilor prin blocarea total sau parial.
Pardoseli care s reduc riscul de accidentare a clienilor.
Mobilierul trebuie s fie realizat din materiale ignifuge, electrostatice i cu
un design uor de ntreinut i funcional care s mpiedice accidentarea.
Iluminatul trebuie s asigure o bun vizibilitate a spaiului i o stare de
confort i siguran prin protejarea prizelor cu capace; protejarea prin casetare a
copurilor de iluminat pentru a se evita accidentarea prin spargere; se exemplu
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acolo unde este posibil folosirea ledurilor care permit un consum redus, siguran i
o durat de funcionare ndelungat [7, p.333].
Lumina este un factor important n designul de interior prin modul n care
aceasta construiete atmosfera, de aceea designerii folosesc diferite moduri de
iluminare, intensiti i culoare a sursei luminoase [7, p.335].
n ceea ce privete cromatica s-a constatat c anumite culori provoac o
stare afectiv, o anumit dispoziie. Culorile deschise, cu nuane pastelate, centrate
n jurul galbenului creeaz o bun dispoziie, vioiciune, activeaz, dinamizeaz.
Vechia concepie dup care culorile nchise rezist mai bine la murdrie a fost
infirmat de practic i aceasta din considerente pur psihologice [8, p.176].
Culoarea roie face s creasc tensiunea muscular stimuleaz presiunea sngelui i
ritmul respiraiei. Aceast culoare impune un dozaj controlat n spaiile hoteliere
generale fiind utilizat cu precdere n spaii care presupun activiti dinamice:
baruri de noapte, cluburi, discoteci. Culoarea albastr face s scad tensiunea
muscular i a sngelui, calmeaz respiraia i frecvena pulsului de aceea este
utilizat n spaii care presupun relaxare i agrement: piscine, baze de tratament.
Culoarea galben are efecte favorabile asupra metabolismului, memoriei i ateniei,
de aceea este folosit cu precdere n camerele de hotel. Culoarea verde, scade
presiunea sngelui, calmeaz respiraia i are efecte antidepresive fiind asimilat cu
natura de aceea n spaiile comune ale hotelurilor se folosesc foarte multe plante
[6, p.31].
Componente de ornamentic care sunt preponderent unghiulare confer
spaiului senzaia de rigoare, ordine, curenie i, n exces, rceal i singurtate.
Elemente de ornamentic i decor constituit din linii curbe confer spaiului
senzaia de intimitate, cldur, prietenie, confort, iar, n exces, liniile curbe sunt
greoaie, masive, ncrcate ajungndu-se pn la o exacerbare a senzualului [6, p.
87].
Rezultate i discuii. n consecin, esena filozofiei designului de interior
presupune ca toi cei implicai (designeri, arhiteci, constructori) s neleag
impactul la nivel global al componentelor de design asupra sntii umane i a
mediului n concordan cu dezvoltarea durabil i protejarea elementelor
specifice [1, p.69]. Dezvoltarea tehnologiei i dezvoltarea acestora determin
creterea numrului de alternative de calitate care pot fi utilizate cu succes n
amenajarea i decorarea spaiilor hoteliere. Esena demersurilor designerilor o
reprezint nelegerea obiectivelor centrale i durabile de design, a obstacolelor cu
care se confrunt acetia n raport cu ciclul de via al anumitor materiale i al
produselor.
Adevratele provocri pentru toi cei implicai n realizarea unui hotel, i n
special pentru designeri, const n a gsi rspunsul la urmtoarele probleme:
utilizarea eficient a resurselor materiale, de energie i ap [3, p.293]; utilizarea de
materiale care s nu polueze mediu, reciclabile i pe ct posibil biodegradabile;
crearea unui mediu ambiant interior sntos; reducerea i valorificarea deeurilor n
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scopuri energetice; producerea i utilizarea de energie neconvenional; prin


elemente de design i semnalizare s induc un comportament de economisire
clienilor i angajailor.
Concluzii. Sub presiunea factorilor economico-sociali contemporani i sub
incidena constrngerilor de diferite categorii, beneficiarii, proprietarii de hoteluri,
caut n designeri o persoan cu o viziune larg i care s aib cunotine n
domenii variate care s fi capabili s lucreze ntr-un sistem integrat. n consecin,
designerul modern nsumeaz o serie de caliti i competene prin cunoaterea mai
multor domenii care s-i permit abordarea designului i amenajrii ambientale a
spaiilor hoteliere sub aspect tehnic, pshio-fiziologic, antreprenorial, relaional, n
condiii de gestiune eficient a resurselor, fcnd fa constrngerilor de natur
legal, ecologic i de securitate impuse prin reglementrile Uniunii Europene.
Optimizarea ambientului hotelier prin elemente de design tiinific realizate duc
la creterea eficienei economice resimit prin gestionarea raional a resurselor
economice, financiare i umane.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

BIBLIOGRAFIE:
Altinay Levent, 2008, Planning Resarch in Hospitality and Tourism, Elsevier,
Oxford.
Buhalis, Dimitrios, Costa, Carlos, 2006, Tourism Management Dynamics,
Elsevier, Oxford.
Coleman Cindy, 2002, Interior Design Handbook of Professional Practice,
McGraw, N. Y.
Cristea Anca Adriana, 2007, Tehnologie activitilor de turism, Ed.
ProUniversitaria, Buc.
Goldsmith, Selwyn, 2000, Universal Design, Elsevier, Oxford.
Joannes, Alain, 2009, Comunicarea prin imagini, Ed. Polirom, Iai.
Manolescu, Aurel (coord.), 2010, Ergonomie, Ed. Economic, Bucureti.
Smith, Ken (ed.) 2005, Handbook of Visual Communication, Lawrence
Erlbaum Associates, Inc., New Jersey

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INFLUENA CORPORAIILOR TRANSNAIONALE


ASUPRA ECONOMIILOR RILOR GAZD
LSI Tatiana,
Consiliul Naional pentru Acreditare i Atestare
Abstract:
Transnational corporations are not currently a new phenomenon, but occur as
subjects of international business and investment generators of fusion in the global
economy. Now the European Union is the prospect of enlargement, one of the
largest world markets. Each host country of the transnational corporations should take
into account all possible positive and negative influence of transnational capital on its
economic and political system to maximize national security interests of the state and its
citizens. Only if they target the interests of transnational capital interests coincide with the
host states, it can provide essential advantages in economic competition between
countries.
Key words: transnational corporations, competition, strategy development,
transnational capital, global economic system.

Actualmente, n economia mondial nu exist niciun proces de mare


avengur, care s se desfoare fr participarea corporaiilor transnaionale. Rolul
economic i politic al corporaiilor transnaionale a devenit att de mare, nct
acestea tind s remn n viitorul apropiat unul din factorii fundamentali care
determic dezvoltarea sistemului economic mondial. Strategia de dezvoltare a
economiilor naionale majoritii rilor lumii practic este definit de caracterul i
intensitatea funcionrii corporaiilor transnaionale, care coordoneaz mijloace ce
depesc mrimea venitului naional al multor state independente.
Potrivit unor date statistice publicate la Conferina ONU pentru Comer i
Dezvoltare, corporaiile transnaionale dein controlul peste 50% din volumul
producerii industriale din lume, 60% din comerul mondial, aproximativ 80% din
patente i lecene asupra tehnicii i tehnologiilor noi i know-how din lume. De
asemenea, acestea controleaz 90% din piaa mondial de gru, porumb, cafea,
tutun, 80 % din piaa mondial de ceai i aluminiu, 75 % din piaa petrolului
neprelucrat.
Corporaiile transnaionale tot mai activ ptrund pe pieele statelor n curs de
dezvoltare, iar istoricul economic dup mijlocul secolului XX al rilor europene
demonstreaz c capitalul naional este capabil s nfrunte concurena, doar n cazul
cnd este structurat n grupri financiar-industriale solide, adecvate analogiilor
internaionale i capabile s desfoare o politic economic extern activ i
desinestttoare.
Corporaiile transnaionale i desfoar activitatea n sistemul economic
mondial, dar influena lor se extinde asupra proceselor politicii mondiale, ceea ce
permite recunoaterea corporaiilor transnaionale de rnd cu statele independente
i organizaiile internaionale.
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Companiile transnaionale nu sunt n prezent un fenomen nou, dar apar ca


subieci ai business-ului internaional i generatori ai fuziunilor investiionale n
economia mondial. Aceste investiii sunt cauzate de obinerea oportunitilor
suplimentare de ptrundere n economia altor ri i influenarea proceselor politice
a acestor ri. Producerea, realizat peste hotare, evideniaz un ir de avantaje, care
rezult din specificul condiiilor politice i economice dintre ara de reedin i
ara gazd, unde sunt amplasate filalele corporaiilor transnaionale. Aceste
avantaje in de nivelul de asigurare cu resurselor naturale i costul de producie al
dobndiri i prelucrare a acestora; nivelul de salarizare; legislaia muncii;
impozitarea, cursul valutar; standardele ecologice; regimul i cultura politic. Toate
aceste deosebiri sporesc manevrabilitatea corporailor transnaionale pe arena
mondial. ns nc de la apariia lor, corporaiile transnaionale au devenit
subiectul unor discuii economice aprinse. Activitatea lor era evaluat ca una
distrugtoare de ctre unii specialiti din domeniu, accentul fiind pus pe
consecinele negative ale industrializrii, contrastul dintre bunstarea corporaiilor
transnaionale solide i dificultile majore ale rii gazd: istabilitatea proceselor
de producere, inflaia, omajul etc. n acelai timp, ali experi atribuie corporaiilor
transnaionale rolul principal n progresul mondial. n perioada anii 70 ai secolului
trecut s-a observat o atitudine negativ asupra corporaiilor transnaionale, fiind
privite ca un factor al agravrii unor contradicii de ordin economic, politic i
social. Iar ulterior, rolul corporaiilor transnaionale n dezvoltarea economiei
mondiale a devenit vizibil n solvarea problemelor economice, sociale i politice.
Fiecare ar gazd a corporaiilor transnaionale, trebuie s ia n considerare
toate aspectele pozitive i negative posibile de influen a capitalului transnaional
asupra sistemului su economic i politic n vederea maximizrii securitii
intereselor naionale ale statului i cetenilor si.
Analiznd situaia din domeniu din ultima perioad, se observ tendina
guvernrii unor ri de a avea un anumit control din partea statului asupra
corporaiilor transnaionale, ceea ce a cauzat apariia unui numr destul de mare de
corporaii cu participarea statutului, cele mai mari fiind n SUA, Marea Britanie
Austria, Italia, Frana.
Uniunea European este acum, din perspectiva extinderii, una dintre cele mai
largi piee ale lumii. Ca i n cazul SUA, consumatorii de pe aceast pia au o
mare putere de cumprare, iar investiiile strine reprezint un mijloc de a ocoli
barierele tarifare, dar mai ales netarifare, ce funcioneaz la graniele Uniunii.
Capitalul strin nu ntmpin dificulti administrative, iar garantarea repatrierii
capitalurilor i a profiturilor este oferit de fiecare ar.
Politica n domeniul concurenei constituie cel mai important element de
mediu din perspectiva corporaiilor strine ce acioneaz pe piaa european.
Principalele domenii de aciune ale politicii concureniale n UE sunt:
eliminarea acordurilor restrictive privind concurena i a abuzurilor de
poziie dominant. nelegerile ntre firme ce stabilesc preurile pe pia sunt
interzise, iar Comisia European a luat atitudine mpotriva Microsoft, pentru
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nclcarea regulilor concurenei, respectiv abuz de poziie dominant;


controlul fuziunilor firmelor, ceea ce nseamn c orice concentrare ce
depete un anumit nivel trebuie supus aprobrii Comisiei (dac ntreprinderile
deruleaz o cifr de afaceri mai mare de 250 milioane de euro n interiorul UE i
peste 5 milioane de euro n plan global trebuie s supun ateniei Comisiei orice
fuziune sau achiziie);
liberalizarea sectoarelor economice cu statut de monopol i deschiderea
lor ctre concuren, ca cel al telecomunicaiilor, gaze, electricitate, transport
feroviar, monitorizarea subveniilor acordate de ctre stat [2; p.6].
n epoca, cnd teritoriilor altor state nu pot fi politic controlate direct,
corporaiile transnaionale permit rilor de unde provin, care dispun de avantaje
tehnologice i economce, s obin acces la resursele altor state. Mai mult de att,
n cazurile cnd alte state aplic poltica de protejare a productorului autohton,
transnaionale amplasndu-i fabricarea pe teritoriile acestor state i scutesc rile
sale de necesitatea de a depi barierile protecioniste i astfel pstreaz nia de
pia prin diviziunea internaional a muncii. Devenind proprietari a filialelor i
comapniilor-mam pe teritoriile altor state, corporaiile transnaionale i formeaz
i consilideaz poziiile sale peste hotarele rilor sale de reedin. Astfel rile
dezvoltate susin activ dezvoltarea corporaiilor transnaionale proprii, practicnd
diverse msuri de susinere a capitalului transnaional, ca de exemplu: garanii din
partea statului, asigurarea investiiilor strine directe, protecia investiiilor
corporaiilor transnaionale peste hotare prin ncheierea acordurilor bilaterale
respective etc.
Experiena arat c prezena corporaiilor transnaionale n rile n curs de
dezvoltare evideniaz impactul negativ al capitalului transnaional aupra
economiilor acestor ri gazd. n acest context, putem meniona urmtoarele:
Posibilitatea unei concurene acerbe din partea corporaiilor transnaionale
asupra companiilor autohtone;
Pericolul de a transforma ara gazd n loc de acumulare a tehnologiilor
vechi i ecologic periculoase;
Acapararea de ctre firmele strine a celor mai dezvoltate i de perspectiv
sectoare din economia naional i structurile tiinifice de cercetare a rilor gazd.
Un alt aspect se refer la faptul c situaia stabil a corporaiilor
transnaionale predispune n cazul crizelor economice aplicarea unor msuri
radicale cum ar fi: reducerea volumului de producie; nchiderea ntreprinderilor
ceea ce duce la sporirea ratei omajului i a altor fenomene negative. Aceasta
explic fenomenul dezinvestiiilor, adic scoaterea n mas a capitalului din ar.
Totui accelerarea proceselor de transnaionalizare, nu distrug economiiile
naionale, dei contribui esenial la restructurarea lor, intensificnd tendinele
formrii unui sistem mondial de producere, preuri, consum, tehnic, informaii,
cultur, mod de via etc.
Analiznd particularitile interaciunii corporaiilor transnaionale cu diferite
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state, bazndu-ne pe bazele teoretice ale formrii, esenei i tipologiei corporaiilor


transnaionale i reeind din condiiile istorice concrete a fiecri ri, este necesar
de a defini interesele tuturor rilor implicate n procesele transnaionalizrii
producerii. i numai n cazul cnd interesele capitalului transnaional obiectiv
coincid cu interesele statelor gazd, acesta le poate asigura avantaje eseniale n
concurena economic dintre ri.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

REFERINE:
Jed Greer; Kavaljit Singh - A Brief History of Transnational Corporations,
Corpwatch, 2000
Tribuna Economic, nr. 20, mai, 2004, p. 6
..
: - .:
, 2002.
XXX World Investment Report 2003. FDI Policies for Development:
national and international perspectives, United Nations, New York, Geneva,
2003.
http://www.onuinfo.ro/download/090917_125239_35.pdf

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CRETEREA GRADULUI DE ACCESIBILITATE A OFERTEI


DE CAZARE PENTRU PERSOANELE DIZABILITI LOCOMOTORII
CRISTEA Adriana Anca,
Universitatea Cretin Dimitrie Cantemir,
Bucureti, Romnia
Abstract:
Tourism is an economic and social phenomenon which rise steadily annually,
despite economic recession, political instability and military in the world, with a positive
and constant growth rate. However in Europe there is still an untapped potential market
represented by people with disabilities.
By equipping the hotel premises with furnishings and equipment specific to
physically disabled people, it can ensure the increasing number of tourists and can attract
a segment of total underprivileged customers denied the right to travel freely.
Cuvinte cheie: tourism, travel behavior, people with disabilities, standards,
ergonomics.

Introducere. Turismul este un fenomen economico-social n continu


ascensiune, anual nregistrndu-se n pofida recesiunii economice i a instabilitii
politice din lume un ritm de cretere pozitiv i constant [1, p.12]. Astfel, n
intervalul 1950-2005 fluxurile turistice internaionale au crescut de la 25 de
milioane la 760 milioane de sosiri, ceea ce s-a concretizat n creterea veniturilor de
la 2,1 de miliarde la 514 de miliarde de dolari americani n 2003. Se estimeaz c
n orizontul de timp 2010 2020 sosirile n turismul internaional vor crete de la 1
miliard la 1,6 miliarde. Dac ritmul de cretere al numrului de sosiri n turismul
internaional n perioadele 1995-2000, 2000-2010 a fost de 4,2 procente pe an, se
estimeaz ca n intervalul 2010-2020 se va nregistra un ritm crestere de 4,4
procente pe an [5, p.556]. Aceste previziuni atrag atenia asupra faptului c se va
nregistra un ritm de cretere superior n orizontul de timp 2010-2020, fapt care se
va datora sporului natural de populaie i de ce nu i posibilei antrenri n
practicarea turismului a persoanelor cu dizabiliti.
Tabelul 1. Previziuni privind numrul de sosiri din turismul
internaional pe regiuni n perioada 2010-2020
Regiuni
2010
2020
1.
Europa
527
717
2.
Asia/Pacific
231
438
3.
America de Nord i Sud
195
284
4.
Africa
46
75
5.
Orientul Mijlociu
37
69
6.
Asia de Sud
11
19
Total
1.047
1.602
Sursa: Organizaia Mondial a Turismului (WTO) [2, p. 158]
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n ceea ce privete destinaiile viitorului se constat o tendin de cretere a


fluxurilor turistice n special n zone ca: Asia- Pacific, Asia de Sud i Orientul
Mijlociu, manifestndu-se un interes mai sczut pentru Europa i cele dou
Americi. Cu toate acestea, Europa a fost i va rmne o destinaie de interes att
pentru turitii europeni, ct i pentru ceilali turiti din toate colurile lumii.
Sub naltul patronaj al Comisiei Europene, respectiv a comisiei pentru
educaie i cultur s-a organizat n anul 2005 un studiu avnd ca tem creterea
accesului la oferta de turism a tuturor categoriilor de persoane i creterea
mobilitii acestora. Punctul de plecare al acestui studiu la constituit Conferina
internaional organizat la Londra n 1993, avnd ca titlu Turism pentru toi n
Europa[ 10, p.16]. Un alt studiu realizat pe ntreaga populaie a Europei a scos n
eviden faptul c exist o pia potenial nevalorificat de persoane cu dizabiliti
reprezentnd 11% din total. La acest procent se mai pot aduga alte 3-4 procente de
persoane cu nevoi speciale nenregistrate oficial n bazele de date statistice.
Statisticile arat c 14%, respectiv 50 de milioane de locuitori ai Europei
de Vest, sunt considerate persoane cu handicap, acestea fiind ncadrate n diferite
categorii de dizabiliti i care au anse reduse de a cltori. Cercetarea s-a realizat
prin utilizarea tehnicilor de focus grup la care au participat persoane cu dizabiliti
n calitate de turiti, intermediari, organizatori de servicii turistice i prestatori de
servicii hoteliere. Acest studiu a vizat persoane din trei ri: Germania, Spania i
Italia. S-a avut n vedere culegerea de informaii despre nevoile specifice
cltoriilor n general i asistena asigurat pentru anumite categorii de handicap,
aspectele legate de pregtirea cltoriei, sejur i ntoarcerea din cltorie precum i
rolul personalului din turism [10, p. 27].
n urma centralizrii datelor s-a constat n unanimitate c problemele
semnalate de persoanele cu diferite categorii de dizabiliti sunt legate de: spaiile
de parcare, distana traseului pn la intrare n hotel, intrarea i spaiul de recepie,
spaiile de circulaie interioar care duc spre zone de interes, spaiile de folosin
comun, dormitorul i toaletele spaiilelor de cazare i spaiile comune [3, p.359].
n concluzie nu exist condiii optime pentru practicarea turismului de ctre
persoanele cu nevoi speciale.
n Romna, numrul total al persoanelor cu handicap fizic i somatic
nsumeaz 273.371 din care 19.841 snt copii, acetia reprezint 39,6% din totalul
de 689.680 persoane cu dizabiliti de diferite categorii [11, p.2].
Ca urmare a acestui studiu i a realitilor concrete din Europa i Romnia
se propune ca n staiunile noastre s se treac la realizarea facilitilor care s
permit accesul turitilor cu dizabiliti locomotorii romni i strini. Prin dotarea
spaiilor hoteliere cu mobilier i echipamente specifice pentru persoane cu handicap
locomotor se va putea asigura creterea numrului de turiti i atragerea unui
segment de clieni total defavorizat, privat de dreptul de a cltori liber.
n practica actual n proiectarea hotelurilor arhitecii i constructorii
construiesc fr a lua n considerare faptul c dei nu se ncadreaz n nici un grad
de handicap unele persoane acestea nu sunt capabile s execute cel mai mic efort
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fr probleme, de exemplu: persoane vrstnice care nu pot s urce sau s coboare


scri pentru c nu exist balustrade de susinere.
n literatura de specialitate se utilizeaz ierarhizarea persoanelor n funcie
mobilitate i disponibilitatea de face efort prin dispunerea piramidal de jos n sus
pe opt niveluri. La baza piramidei se situeaz persoanele cu cel mai nalt grad de
mobilitate i dinamism iar la nivelul ultim, opt, se afl persoanele cu grad de
mobilitate zero care necesit asisten permanent. Din cele opt niveluri de
ierarhizare cinci dintre ele cuprind persoane cu diferite categorii de dizabiliti:
persoane vrstnice, copiii, persoane cu dizabiliti locomotorii medii i severe, ceea
ce ne face s nelegem c cea mai mare parte a populaiei este defavorizat prin
structura ofertei de servicii hoteliere.
Materiale i metode. Pentru a rezolvarea acestei probleme se impune
schimbarea mentalitii, a concepiei economice i a filozofiei manageriale a
ntreprinztorilor i deintorilor de structuri de primire prin care s se permit
accesibilizare serviciilor pentru categoriile defavorizate n contextul n care crete
sperana de via, numrul de persoanelor de vrsta a treia i se nregistreaz un
numr mare de persoane cu grade diferite de handicap.
n Romnia, n prezent prin normativul de clasificare a structurilor de primire
se prevede c doar n cazul hotelurilor de patru sau cinci stele cu un numr minim
de 50 de camere exist obligaia de a avea o camer pentru persoane cu dizabiliti
[4, p.112].
Pentru a se asigura un minim de elemente constructive i de dotare care s
permit accesul persoanelor cu dizabiliti locomotorii se propun msuri pentru
urmtoarele categorii de spaii: parcri, rampe de acces, scri cu balustrade,
ascensoare, spaii de circulaie, grupuri sanitare comune i bi.
Hotelurile trebuie s fie prevzute cu parcri n care s fie amenajate spaii
speciale pentru persoane cu handicap semnalizate corespunztor [7.p, 121].
Dimensiunile spaiilor de parcare pot varia de la 2,4 m pn la 3,6 m lime (vezi
figura 1), hotelul putnd s amenajeze mai multe tipuri de spaii de parcare pentru a
nlesni accesul mai multor categorii de automobile care transport persoane cu
dizabiliti [6. p, 478].

Figura 1. Locuri de parcare pentru persoane cu dizabiliti


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Att spaiile de acces interioare ct i cele exterioare cu diferen de nivel


mic trebuie prevzute cu planuri nclinate cocepute obligatoriu cu balustrad care
s permit accesul. Unghiul rampelor trebui s se situeze ntre gradientele de 1: 12
i 1:6 (vezi figurile 2 i 3). Se recomand ca aceste rampe s fie acoperite cu o
suprafa rugoas care s asigure o priz mai bun a roilor
[6, p. 60].

Figura 2. Rampa acces

Figura 2. Ramp nclinat cu unghi n de 1:6 i cu balustrad


Att scrile interioare ct i cele exterioare trebuie s fie prevzute cu
balustrad fix care va fie la o nlime standard la urcare i coborre de 90
cm.(vezi figura 4 a) i la o nlime de un metru pentru ultima treapt de sus. Dac
scrile sunt prevzute cu mochet sau covoare acestea trebuie s fie lipite sau fixate
cu bare metalice. n cazul scrilor din piatr, marmur, ceramic este necesar ca
treptele s fie prevzute cu poriuni antiderapante care s mpiedice alunecarea [8,
p. 245].
Dimensiunea holurilor de pe etaje i a cilor de acces spre facilitile
hotelului trebuie s permit o circulaie bun a persoanelor aflate n crucioare cu
sau fr nsoitor fr a obstruciona circulaia celorlalte persoane. Limea
recomandat a acestor spaii de circulaie trebuie s se ncadreze ntre 1,2m i 1,8m
(vezi figura 4). Spaiile de acces spre faciliti trebuie s fie mult mai spaioase
dect holurile de pe etaje pentru a se asigura un grad ridicat de confort n deplasare.

Figura 3. Dimensiuni standard pentru spaiile comune de circulaie


pentru persoane cu diferite dizabiliti
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Ascensoarele trebuie s fie silenioase moderne i s asigure sigurana n transport.


Butoanele de comand i acces trebuie s fie la o nlime de 90 cm (vezi figura 5).
Dimensiunea minim a cabinei ascensorului trebuie s fie de 90 cm i 1,300 m
(vezi figura 5 b) ca s permit accesul unei persoane instalate n crucior. n
hotelurile de tratament i cur balnear trebuie s existe ascensoare de mare
capacitate (16 persoane) cu acces pe dou pri n funcie de caracteristicile
constructive ale hotelului cu dimensiuni cuprinse ntre 1,4m i 1,95 m.

Figura 4. Dimensiuni standard pentru ascensoare


Dimensiunile standard antropometrice pentru persoanele instalate n crucior
sunt stabilite n funcie de sex i vrst. Media nlimii pentru brbaii luat n
calcul este de 1,76 m, pentru femei 1,65 i pentru copiii de 10 ani nlimea
standard este de 1,39 m. Spre exemplu n figura 6 sunt prezentate coordonatele
specifice pentru o femeie aflat n crucior i gradul de mobilitate. Aceste
dimensiuni sunt necesare pentru proiectarea mobilierului din camere, a
echipamentelor i instalaiilor n baie i a altor faciliti.

Figura 5. Dimensiuni standard pentru persoane cu dizabiliti locomotor


Pentru a veni n ntmpinarea tuturor persoanelor indiferent de nlime i
poziie, uile din spaiile de circulaie i de folosin comun din incinta hotelului
trebuie s asigure accesibilitate, o bun vizibilitate, siguran i accesarea
ergonomic (vezi figura 7). Se recomand efectuarea calculelor pe baza extremelor
antropometrice (pornind de persoanele cele mai nalte, cele mai scunde, persoanele
supraponderale) pentru realizarea dotrilor n hotel n vederea evitrii
disfuncionalitilor i a posibilelor accidente.
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Figura 6. Msurtori standard pentru persoan foarte nalt, persoan


scund i persoan cu dizabiliti locomotorii
La proiectarea cabinelor de grup sanitar comun este absolut necesar s fie i
cabine prevzute cabine separate pentru persoanele cu dizabiliti. Dimensiunea
acestora trebuie s fie cuprinse ntre 1,5 m i 2,0 m pentru a permite accesul
cruciorului i a nsoitorului [9, p. 217].

Figura 7. Dimensiuni care permit micarea n incinta grupului sanitar


O tendin specific n proiectare camerelor de hotel este conceperea bilor
fr cad, doar cu cabin de du. Cu toate acestea bile sunt impracticabile de ctre
persoanele cu dizabiliti locomotorii. Din punct de vedere constructiv, bile
trebuie s fie realizate cu dimensiuni minime cuprinse ntre 2,2m i 2,5 m, cu spaiu
liber sub lavoar pentru a permite accesul cruciorului i posibilitatea de ajunge la
duu, montarea de bare de sprijin, att la vasul de WC ct i la spaiul de du.

Figura 8. Dimensiuni standard pentru incita bii i a cabinei de du


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Rezultate i discuii. Nevoile specifice persoanelor cu dizabiliti locomotorii


sunt neglijate, att n societate, ct i n domeniul turismului. rile dezvoltate i cu
vocaie turistic i pun problema de a atrage acest segment de clieni poteniali
oferindu-le servicii accesibile la standarde europene. n acest spirit i Romnia ar
trebui s fie preocupat pentru a valorifica n mod superior elementele de potenial
natural balnear de care dispune, oferind o alternativ competitiv la serviciile
similare din staiuni cu renume din Europa. Pentru aceasta deintorii de structuri
de primire cu baz material de cur balnear, cum ar fi de exemplu cele din
staiunile Felix, Herculane, Eforie, Mangalia, Valea Oltului, Covasna, trebuie s-i
reconsidere filosofia de management i de investiii gsind soluii la problemele
specifice persoanelor cu dizabiliti adaptnd dotrile din spaiile de cazare i
bazele de tratament la nevoile acestora.
Concluzii. Se constat c exist slabe preocupri pe plan intern i internaional
n a deschide oferta de servicii hoteliere specifice pentru persoanele cu handicap de
orice natur ar fi acesta. Exist chiar mentalitatea c aceste persoane nu pot cltori
i ca atare ele sun ignorate de ctre furnizorii de servicii hoteliere i intermediari.
Un rol important revine asociaiilor de profil care pot sensibiliza atenia
intermediarilor i presatorilor de servicii n vederea soluionrii acestei probleme.
BIBLIOGRAFIE:
1. Altinay, Levent, 2008, Planning Resarch in Hospitality and Tourism, Elsevier,
Oxford.
2. Buhalis, Dimitrios, Costa, Carlos, 2006, Tourism Management Dynamics,
Elsevier, Oxford.
3. Coleman, Cindy, 2002, Interior Design Handbook of Professional Practice,
New York
4. Cristea, A. A., 2007, Tehnologie activitilor de turism, Ed. ProUniversitaria,
Bucureti.
5. Goeldner, R. Charles, 2006, Tourism Principles, Practices, Philosophies,
John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New Jersey
6. Goldsmith, Selwyn, 2000, Universal Design, Elsevier, Oxford
7. Joannes, Alain, 2009, Comunicarea prin imagini, Ed. Polirom, Iai
8. Manolescu, Aurel (coord.), 2010, Ergonomie, Ed. Economic, Bucureti
9. Smith, Ken (ed.) 2005, Handbook of Visual Communication, Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates, Inc., New Jersey

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FACTORII DETERMINANI AI COMPETITIVITII NAIONALE:


CAZUL REPUBLICII MOLDOVA
CLIPA Victoria, STRATAN Alexandru,
Institutul de Economie, Finane, Statistic
al Academiei de tiine din Moldova
Abstract:
Over the last decades competitiveness became a worldwide discussed problem.
However, there does not exist a common approach of its analysis. Its a very complex
concept that may be tackled at many levels: at product, firm, sartorial, regional or even
national level. At the microeconomic level, the concept of competitiveness is more or less
clear, while, at the national level it is somewhat vague. Different authors propose distinct
methods to analyze and to measure national competitiveness and the diversity in
competitiveness analysis methods rely on the specific of each economy and on the
multitude of competitiveness determinant factors. The main aim of the paper is to make an
overview on the level of Moldavian economy competitiveness that would let to reflect our
economy capacity to compete with other countries in the region on the world market.
Key words: national competitiveness, gross domestic product, productivity,
competition, business environment

Introducere. n ultimele decenii n cercurile oamenilor de afaceri, mediului


tiinific i al factorilor de decizie se discut foarte mult despre importana
competitivitii naionale ca un element esenial al asigurrii bunstrii unei
naiuni. La nivel microeconomic noiunea de competitivitate pare mai mult sau mai
puin clar, n timp ce la nivel naional aceasta este ntr-o oarecare msur mai
vag. Competitivitatea naionala, prin esen, reprezint un concept foarte complex
i poate fi atins prin asigurarea unor ramuri industriale, corespunztor
ntreprinderi competitive la nivel internaional.
Deseori, n studiile existente, competitivitatea naional este apreciat ca un
fenomen cu un grad nalt de sofisticare, determinat de astfel de indicatori cum sunt
deprecierea monedei naionale, rate ale dobnzii mici, abunden de resurse
naturale, for de munc ieftin, sold pozitiv al balanei comerciale e.t.c. Cu toate
acestea, M. Porter, n lucrrile sale susine c o ar nu poate fi considerat
realmente competitiv, utiliznd aa instrumente ca fora de munc ieftin,
instrumente de subvenionare, deprecierea monedei naionale sau dezvoltarea
economiei n baza mprumuturilor contractate din exterior. La un moment dat fora
de munc ieftin poate stimula penetrarea de noi piee, devalorizarea monedei
naionale - stimularea exporturilor, obinnd avantaje relative de pre, contractarea
mprumuturilor - finanarea cheltuielilor bugetare. ns aceste instrumente nu
contribuie la sporirea productivitii totale a factorilor de producie i nu pot
asigura o dezvoltare sustenabil a unei economii. Urmrind asigurarea
competitivitii naionale, instrumentele utilizate trebuie s fie orientate spre
sporirea productivitii care ar asigura venituri reale mai mari sau, altfel spus,
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salarii mari. De asemenea, productivitatea poate fi asigurat numai prin utilizarea


forei de munc calificat, implementarea tehnologiilor moderne i a inovaiilor: de
proces, produs, n sistemul de management e.t.c. i acestea vin n contradicie cu
dezvoltarea performanelor pe piaa extern n baz forei de munc ieftin.
Literatura de specialitate indic asupra existenei unei multitudini de factori
care determin competitivitatea. n acelai timp, nelegerea complexitii factorilor
care genereaz acest proces a luat oamenilor de tiin foarte mult timp - avantajul
comparativ fa de alte ri fiind explicat prin dotarea cu factori de producie n
teoria clasic, investiii n capital fix i infrastructur la neoclasici. Vorbind deja
despre avantajul competitiv, M. Porter scoate n eviden 5 factori fundamentali, pe
care i structureaz n Diamantul Naional factorii de producie, cererea intern,
industriile conexe, strategia firmei i concurenii, politicile guvernamentale.
n prezent, exist studii al cror obiect face compararea performanelor
mediului de afaceri n diferite ri i a competitivitii naionale, analizat n baza
unei multitudini de factori determinani. Competitivitatea naional este direct
determinat de mediul economic intern. De aceea un prim exerciiu n determinarea
nivelului competitivitii naionale ine de analizarea calitii mediului economic
intern. n continuare, este prezentat o succint analiz a conjuncturii economice
naionale.
ndelungatul proces de tranziie i nalta vulnerabilitate a economiei
naionale la ocuri, att interne ct i externe, pun n eviden modelul deficient de
dezvoltare al Republicii Moldova i indic asupra nivelului redus al competitivitii
naionale. Cu toate c n decursul existenei Republicii Moldova ca stat
independent s-a reuit o oarecare cretere al nivelului PIB pe cap de locuitor (de la
400 USD n 1995 la 1515 USD anul 2009) care deseori este utilizat ca unul din
indicatorii competitivitii naionale, totui acesta rmne a fi foarte mic
comparativ cu rile din regiune, nemaivorbind de rile dezvoltate.
Conjunctura nefavorabil a factorilor ce influeneaz competitivitatea
economiei moldoveneti este confirmat i de rezultatele studiilor elaborate de
organizaiile internaionale, Raportul Competitivitii Globale (Forumul Economic
Mondial) i Doing Business Report (Banca Mondial) care se focuseaz pe
aprecierea nivelului competitivitii globale i a performanei mediului de afaceri n
diferite ri.
Analiza competitivitii naionale prin prisma raportului Doing
Business. Doing Business Report este un studiu elaborat anual de ctre Banca
Mondial, ncepnd cu anul 2003 i are drept scop compararea cadrului de
reglementare a afacerii n diferite ri sau, altfel spus, al costului afacerii. n acest
raport toate rile lumii sunt categorisite ntr-un rating conform gradului de uurin
de desfurare a afacerii. Primul raport care a fost publicat n 2003, analiza mediul
de afaceri n 133 de ri dup 5 criterii. n ultimul raport, Doing Business 2011,
sunt cuprinse reglementrile din 11 etape importante ale mediului de afaceri
n 183:
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1. Iniierea afacerii;
3. nregistrarea proprietii;
5. Protejarea investitorilor;
7. Comerul exterior;
9. ncheierea afacerii;
11.
Angajarea muncitorilor.

2. Obinerea autorizaiilor de construcie;


4. Obinerea creditelor;
6. Plata taxelor;
8. Semnarea contractelor;
10. Accesul la energie electric.

Clasamentul rilor n Raportul 2011 spre deosebire de cel precedent s-a fcut
n baza primelor 9 criterii, suportnd 2 modificri:
1. Categoria Angajarea muncitorilor a fost analizat n raport, dar nu a fost
inclus ca criteriu de performan n clasament;
2. n studiu a fost inclus, de asemenea, analiza reformelor regulatorii n
domeniul accesului la energie, considerat un factor foarte important n desfurarea
afacerilor, dar care, de asemenea, nu a fost inclus ca criteriu de performan n
clasament.
Conform acestui raport, cel mai favorabil climat de dezvoltare a afacerilor
este n rile cu venituri mari din OECD, fiind urmate de rile din Europa de Est i
Asia Central, iar la coada clasamentului sunt statele din Africa de Sud i subsaharian. Clasamentul este deschis doi ani la rnd de astfel de ri cum sunt
Singapore, Hong Kong, Noua Zeeland, Marea Britanie, SUA i Danemarca i este
nchis de Chad, Republica Central African i Burundi.
n lista rilor care au nregistrat cele mai mari performane n facilitarea
desfurrii afacerilor n anul precedent i care au introdus modificri de politici n
3 sau mai multe domenii se numr: Kazakhstan, Rwanda, Peru, Vietnam, Cape
Verde, Tajikistan, Zambia, Ungaria, Brunei.
n Raportul Doing Business 2011, Moldova s-a plasat pe locul 90 n
clasament, pierznd 3 poziii comparativ cu anul precedent. Trebuie de notat c
Moldova este precedat n clasament de aproape toate rile din regiunea Europei
Centrale i de Est, dar i de o parte din rile CSI, ex. Georgia, Kazahstan,
Kirgizstan, Belarus s.a. (vezi tabelul 1).
n comparaie cu potenialii concureni, sau ri din regiune care au avut sau
au o structur a economiei mai mult sau mai puin asemntoare, poziia Moldovei
poate fi apreciat ca una relativ bun n foarte puine domenii: nregistrarea
proprietii (poz.18), executarea contractelor (poz.20). n acelai timp, cadrul de
reglementare a afacerii la unele etape foarte importante n desfurarea unei afaceri,
rmne a fi nc foarte deficitar:
Obinerea autorizaiilor de construcii poz. 159, cel mai favorabil cadru
regulator n acest domeniu, n regiune fiind n Georgia, Romnia care se plaseaz
pe locul 84, iar o situaie mai proast este atestat n astfel de ri ca Polonia,
Ucraina i Rusia (ultima plasndu-se pe locul 182 din 183);
Contractarea creditelor poz. 89, fiind pe aceeai poziie cu Rusia, Belarus,
n timp ce Romnia se plaseaz pe poziia 15, iar cea mai bun situaie, din regiune,
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se atest n Letonia i Bulgaria (poz. 6);


Protecia investitorilor poz. 109, cei mai buni reformatori n acest domeniu
fiind Republica Kirghiza poz. 12 i Albania poz. 15, n timp ce Romnia
mparte poziia 44 cu astfel de ri cum sunt Bulgaria, Polonia, Portugalia,
Kazahstan;

Plata taxelor poz. 106. La acest capitol nc n majoritatea rilor se


nregistreaz mari dificulti, iar ultima i penultima poziie fiind ocupate de
Belarus i Ucraina.
Tabelul 1. Poziia Moldovei n clasamentul Doing Business comparativ cu
rile Europei de Est i Asiei Centrale
ara

2006
83
16
15
26
37
63
52
62
78
41
54
117
100
46
86
106
79
124

Moldova
Estonia
Lituania
Letonia
Slovacia
Slovenia
Ungaria
Bulgaria
Romania
Cehia
Polonia
Albania
Georgia
Armenia
Kazalhstan
Bielarus
Rusia
Ucraina

2010
87
17
26
27
41
43
52
51
54
82
73
81
13
44
74
64
116
147

2011
90
17
23
24
40
42
46
51
56
63
70
82
12
48
56
68
123
145

Sursa: elaborat de autori n baza datelor statistice disponibile pe Doing Business,


World Bank, accesibil la : http://www.doingbusiness.org/custom-quer
Un rol important pentru dezvoltarea mediului de afaceri local i al
competitivitii naionale este reglementarea operaiunilor de comer exterior.
Facilitarea tranzaciilor comerciale internaionale a devenit o condiie imperativ
pentru dezvoltarea afacerilor. La capitolul tranzacii externe, Moldova nregistreaz
cele mai proaste performane dup autorizaiile de construcie poz. 141. Aceasta
este o problem caracteristic pentru majoritatea rilor spaiului post-sovietic.
Pentru desfurarea operaiunilor de export (import) un agent economic din
Moldova are nevoie de un dosar constituit din 6 (7) acte, 1 765 (1 960) USD pentru
exportul unui container de marf, dintre care 1300 de USD sunt necesari numai
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pentru asigurarea cheltuielilor pentru transportul intern, iar operaiunea se


desfoar n cel puin 32 (35) zile dintre care 20 de zile sunt necesare numai
pentru pregtirea actelor necesare.
Lund n consideraie cele mai bune exemple de desfurare a operaiunilor
de export/import din practica internaional, Moldova este nc foarte departe de a
nregistra astfel de performane :

Documente necesare 2 Frana;

Zile necesare 5 la export n Danemarca i 4 la import n Singapore;

Costul pentru exportul unui container de produse 450 USD la export n


Malaysia i 439 USD la import n Singapore.
n acelai timp Republica Moldova ar putea, cel puin tinde spre exemplul
rilor Baltice - Estonia, Letonia.
n ultimul Raport Doing Business, pe lng indicatorii tradiionali s-a mai
efectuat i analiza accesului la energie pe un eantion de 176 de state. Accesul la
energie este considerat a doua cea mai important constrngere n desfurarea
afacerii dup accesul la finanare. Accesul limitat la energie poate avea efecte
adverse asupra productivitii firmelor. Aprovizionarea cu energie a fost analizat
prin prisma urmtorilor indicatori: numrul de proceduri, nr. de zile necesar i
costul de conectare la energie electric. n Republica Moldova comparativ cu alte
ri din regiune Romnia, Cehia, Polonia, Ucraina i Federaia Rus numrul de
zile (140) este relativ redus, numrul de proceduri (7) mai mic ca n Rusia i
Ucraina, dei mai mare puin ca n rile din Europa Central, iar costurile sunt nc
foarte ridicate (796% din venitul pe cap de locuitor).
Tabelul 2. Accesul la energie n Republica Moldova comparativ cu alte state
din regiunea Europei de Est i Asiei Centrale
E c o no m i a
M ol do v a
R o m a n ia
R e p u bl ic a C e h a
P o lo n ia
U c ra in a
F ed e ra ti a R u s a
K a z a k hs t an
G e o rg ia

P roc e d u ri
(n r)

Ti m p ul
(z il e )

7
7
6
4
11
9
6
5

C os t
(% di n v e ni tu l pe
c ap de l o cu i to r)

140
244
279
143
309
302
88
97

796
545
187
303
276
4672
111
759

Sursa: elaborat de autori n baza Doing Business Report 2011,


accesibil la: //www.doingbusiness.org
Cadrul instituional i de reglementare reprezint factori importani ai
dezvoltrii mediului de afaceri i al asigurrii competitivitii naionale. Un
indicator al eficienei acestuia n diferire ri poate fi considerat clasificatorul
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rilor lumii elaborat de ctre Banca Mondial conform performanelor nregistrate


n reformarea cadrului de reglementare al mediului de afaceri.
Dei pe perioada ultimilor 5 ani n Republica Moldova au fost ntreprini
unii pai n vederea facilitrii condiiilor de desfurare a afacerilor, n alte domenii
importante ca obinerea creditelor i protecia investitorilor, indicatorii au rmas
practic neschimbai, iar n domeniul comerului exterior chiar s-a nregistrat un
regres. Astfel msurile ntreprinse pn n prezent sunt bune, dar prea puine, iar
per ansamblu, facilitarea cadrului de afaceri n Republica Moldova merge prea lent
comparativ cu alte ri. Timp de 5 ani poziia Republicii Moldova n clasamentul
Doing Business nu s-a modificat prea mult, n timp ce multe ri din regiune s-au
dovedit a fi mult mai active n procesul de reformare a mediului de afaceri i au
fcut salturi mari n clasament, un exemplu elocvent, n acest sens, este Georgia
care aproape de la sfritul clasamentului, poziia 100 n 2006, s-a plasat n 2011 pe
locul 12.
Analiza competitivitii naionale prin prisma Raportului
Competitivitii Globale. Pentru a fi atins obiectivul primar asigurarea
competitivitii naionale eforturile tuturor actorilor unei economii, trebuie s fie
orientate spre crearea unui climat favorabil pentru dezvoltarea afacerilor. Un climat
favorabil, ar nsemna acionarea i mbuntirea tuturor factorilor economici,
politici, sociali - care influeneaz ntr-un oarecare mod mediul n care activeaz
agenii economici i susinerea n cadrul unei naiuni a avantajelor competitive.
Aceti factori sunt foarte diveri i una dintre cele mai complexe metodologii de
calcul ale competitivitii naionale a rilor lumii, care a ncercat s cuprind cea
mai mare parte a lor, este considerat ICG (indicele competitivitii globale),
elaborat de ctre Forumul Economic Mondial n Raportul Competitivitii Globale.
Acest indicator ia n calcul o multitudine de factori ale competitivitii, clasai n 12
categorii numii piloni ai competitivitii. Aceti piloni constituie fundamentul
dezvoltrii oricrei economii, dar la diferite etape ale dezvoltrii ei au un rol diferit.
n dependen de importana lor, la difereite nivele de dezvoltare ale economiei
pilonii pot fi mprii n trei categorii:
factorii eseniali: sistemul instituional, infrastructura, stabilitatea
macroeconomic, sntatea i educaia primar;
factorii de eficien: educaia superioar, eficiena pieei bunurilor, eficiena
pieei muncii, sofisticarea pieei financiare, gradul de pregtire tehnologic,
potenialul pieei;
factorii inovaionali i de sofisticare: sofisticarea afacerii i inovarea.
Spre exemplu, prghiile utilizate pentru sporirea competitivitii naionale
ntr-o ar dezvoltat nu vor fi aceleai ca ntr-o ar srac. De asemenea,
instrumentele utilizate pentru sporirea eficienei comerului exterior, a pieei muncii
e.t.c. nu vor aduce rezultatele scontate atta timp ct nu este asigurat buna
funcionare a sistemului instituional, o infrastructur dezvoltat, condiiile de baz
pentru asigurarea unui nivel satisfctor al sntii i a instruirii primare a
populaiei acestei naiuni.
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n raport, toate rile lumii care intr n clasament sunt clasificate n trei
nivele de baz conform venitului populaiei. Ultimul nivel corespunde rilor nalt
dezvoltate a crora PIB/loc depete 17 mii USD, ex. Slovenia, Republica Ceh,
precum i alte ri dezvoltate. Aceste economii sunt considerate inovaionale, rolul
inovaiilor fiind foarte important n asigurarea competitivitii naionale, n timp ce
factorii eseniali au o influen relativ mai mic. Spre exemplu Romnia, Bulgaria
se atribuie celei de a doua categorii, iar rile baltice se afla la etapa de tranziie
de la economii a cror dezvoltare se bazeaz pe factori de eficien la o dezvoltare
bazat pe inovaii (vezi Tabelul 3).
Tabelul 3. Importana factorilor n asigurarea competitivitii
la diferite etape de dezvoltare economic
Dezvoltarea
Dezvoltarea
Dezvoltarea
bazat pe
bazat pe
bazat pe inovare
disponibilitatea
eficien
factorilor
60
40
20
Factorii eseniali
Factori de
35
50
50
eficien
Factori
5
10
30
inovaionali i de
sofisticare
Sursa: elaborat de autori n baza Global Competitiveness Report 2011 disponibil
la:
http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GlobalCompetitivenessReport_201011.pdf
Republica Moldova, n schimb, de rnd cu Tadjikistan i alte ri srace,
rmne nc n grupul rilor care concureaz pe piaa internaional n baza
factorilor de producie de care dispun: resurse naturale i for de munc ieftin i
se focuseaz, n special, pe obinerea avantajelor de pre i comercializarea de
produse cu o valoare adugat joas. Pentru a menine competitivitatea la aceast
etap, accentul trebuie pus cu precdere pe:
1. Calitatea sistemului instituional cadrul juridic i administrativ n care
indivizii, firmele i guvernele interacioneaz;
2. Dezvoltarea infrastructurii calitatea infrastructurii transporturilor: rutier,
aerian, feroviar i naval i infrastructurii de comunicare;
3. Stabilitatea macroeconomic stabilitatea principalilor indicatori
macroeconomici: PIB, datoria de stat, inflaia .a;
4. Sntatea i nivelul educaiei forei de munc nivelul sntii populaiei
i calitatea sistemului de nvmnt primar.
Concluzie. Dup dou decenii de tranziie, Republica Moldova nc se afl
n cutarea unui model care ar asigura o cretere economic sustenabil.
Actualmente tot mai discutat este problema trecerii la un model bazat pe
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exporturi, investiii i inovaii. i n acest model competitivitate devine o condiie


imperativ. n acelai timp, competitivitatea este un indicator determinat de o
multitudine de factori care acioneaz diferit asupra economiilor, n dependen de
structura fiecrei economii. n Republica Moldova, fapt confirmat i de studiile
elaborate de organizaiile internaionale, Raportul Competitivitii Globale
(Forumul Economic Mondial) i Doing Business Report (Banca Mondial),
conjunctura factorilor naionali pentru dezvoltarea afacerilor este una nefavorabil.
Tot mai deseori se vorbete despre importana inovaiilor ca un factor primordial al
dezvoltrii competitivitii naionale.
Tabelul 4. Evoluia Moldovei n clasamentul Raportului
Competitivitii Globale

Pilonul
GCI
Factorii eseniali

Instituiile
Infrastructura
Mediul
macroeconomic
Sntate i educaia
primar

GCI 2010-2011 (139)


94
97
102
97
80

GCI 2008-2009 (134)


95
95
92
113
80

GCI 2007-2008 (131)


97
96
105
107
92

84

89

85

99
78

98
88

102
81

104

105

107

68

55

68

Dezvoltarea pieei
financiare
Pregtirea tehnologic

103

104

101

89

95

108

Dimensiunea pieei

121

114

114

113

131

124

129

116

112

Factori de eficien

nvmnt superior i
instruire
Eficiena pieei de
bunuri
Eficiena pieei muncii

Factori inovaionali
i de sofisticare

Gradul de sofisticare a
afacerilor
Inovaiile

123

128

122

Sursa: elaborat de autori n baza Global Competitiveness Report 2010-2011, 20082009


disponibil
la:
http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GlobalCompetitivenessReport_2010-11.pdf
Not: n Raportul Competitivitii Globale 2009-2010 Moldova nu a fost inclus din lipsa de date
pentru ar

ntr-adevr, inovaiile au devenit un motor al dezvoltrii economice i un


factor determinant n obinerea avantajelor competitive, dar caracteristic pentru
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rile dezvoltate, care au reuit s creeze toate precondiiile necesare pentru


dezvoltarea acestora. Totui nu putem vorbi despre inovaii n Republica Moldova,
care presupun i investiii enorme, atta timp ct ntr-o economie nu sunt asigurai
factorii eseniali necesari pentru funcionarea mediului de afaceri n condiiile unei
concurene sntoase, a unui cadru regulatoriu stimulator i eficient, un sistem
funcional al instituiilor publice. n acelai timp pentru a ne bucura de succes pe
piaa internaional i a putea concura cel puin cu rile din regiunea Europei
Centrale i de Est este imperativ de a ameliora aceste condiii fundamentale pentru
mbuntirea mediului de afaceri naional i sporirea competitivitii naionale.
1.
2.
3.
4.

BIBLIOGRAFIE:
www.asesoriainternacional.com.
www.doingbusiness.org.
www.weforum.org/documents/gcr0809/index.html;
www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GlobalCompetitivenessReport_2010-11.pdf.

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CONSIDERAII PRIVIND RELAIILE


COMERCIALE ALE ROMNIEI CU REPUBLICA MOLDOVA,
N CONTEXTUL PEV
POPESCU Manoela, POPESCU Dorin Viceniu,
CRENICEAN Luminia Cecilia
Romnia
Abstract:
Enjoying a privileged position within the ENP Romania has contributed in recent
years, along with other EU countries, in increasing trade, aid and contacts, as well as
deepening the cooperation with Moldova especially.
Analysis of our country's trade with the Republic of Moldova, reveals that in 20072010, these developments have been oscillating under the impact of global economic
crisis. But the present shows that there are real prospects for economic cooperation
between Romania and Moldova. Of course, they will contribute to strengthening bilateral
economic relations between the two countries, increase trade and promote investment in
both countries.
Key words: commercial, bilateral relations, export, import, PEV

1. Introducere. Cunoscut este faptul c Uniunea European a delimitat strict


regimul relaiilor cu noua sa vecintate, lansnd n 2003 conceptul de Europ
extins - Vecintate, transformat mai apoi prin Documentul de Strategie adoptat n
2004 n Politica European de Vecintate n 2004. Politica European de
Vecintate, prin plurivalena dimensiunilor sale, intr sub incidena
diferitelor politicii ale UE [1] . Interesul UE fiind de a avea vecini bine guvernai i
prosperi, iar acest obiectiv este posibil prin intensificarea relaiilor comerciale,
mbuntirea perspectivelor investiionale, facilitarea i dezvoltarea stocului
relaional al fiecrei ri, precum i prin adoptarea unui comportament proactiv de
ctre UE.
Politica european de vecintate (PEV) vizeaz ri precum: Algeria, Egipt,
Israel, Iordania, Liban, Libia, Maroc, Siria, Tunisia i Autoritatea Palestinian
(Procesul Barcelona); Moldova, Ucraina, Belarus; precum i Armenia, Azerbaidjan
i Georgia. ns, la nivel comunitar exist o preferin clar n ceea ce privete
abordarea bilateral, difereniat n cadrul PEV [2]
Ca atare, n cadrul PEV, relaiile bilaterale dintre Romnia i Moldova, mai
ales n contextul actual, reprezint instrumente de consolidare a PEV. n vederea
demonstrrii acestui
Dei ntre cele dou ri exist diferene majore n ceea ce privete condiiile
de afaceri, structura exporturilor i importurilor, ratingul comerului transfrontalier,
obinerea creditelor, protejarea investitorilor, procedura de nregistrare a
proprietii, implementarea legislaiei muncii i a celei fiscale, indicatorul
competitivitii, sistemul de impozitare etc., totui, proximitatea geografic, limba
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comun i relaiile istorice dintre Romnia i Republica Moldova au facilitat


comerul bilateral de-a lungul timpului [4, p. 6], mai ales dup 1 ianuarie 2007
(data intergrrii Romniei n UE). Dup aceast dat, Romnia a fost principalul
susintor al Moldovei n vederea integrrii acesteia n UE, dei acest fapt a atras
ostilitatea guvernrii comuniste din perioada 2001 2009, n prezent relaiile dintre
cele dou ri fiind mult mai relaxate, aspectele contencioase viznd semnarea
tratatului de baz i a tratatului de frontier.
2. Cadrul legal i instituional de cooperare ntre Republica Moldova i
Romnia la nivel comunitar i bilateral. Evident, cunoscut este faptul c relaiile
bilaterale moldo-romne au nceput odat cu independena Republicii Moldova.
Dei dup semnarea Tratatului cu URSS n 1990, Guvernul romn a decis crearea
unui subsecretariat permanent pentru relaiile cu Republica Moldova n cadrul
Ministerului de Externe, abia la 6 august 1991 a fost semnat, la Chiinu, Acordul
ntre Guvernul Republicii Moldova i Guvernul Romniei cu privire la
colaborarea economic i schimburile comerciale i Acordul ntre Guvernul
Republicii Moldova i Guvernul Romniei privind nfiinarea Comisiei
interguvernamentale de colaborare economic, comercial i tehnico-tiinific
[4, p. 33].
n prezent, relaiile de cooperare dintre R. Moldova i UE se desfoar ntrun cadru juridic reprezentat de Acordul de Parteneriat i Cooperare (APC) [3, p.
13], semnat n 1994 i intrat n vigoare la data de 1 iulie 1998, pe durata a 10 ani.
n vederea atingerii obiectivelor APC, a fost aprobat Planul de Aciuni R.
Moldova-UE n 2005 [3, p. 33], cu rol principal de armonizare a legislaiei, a
normelor i standardelor din Moldova cu cele ale Uniunii Europene. ncepnd cu 1
ianuarie 2006, R. Moldova a beneficiat de Sistemul Generalizat de Preferine Plus
(GSP+), n baza cruia 7200 produse originare din R. Moldova au beneficiat de
acces liber pe piaa UE, fiind scutite de plata taxelor vamale [5]. De asemenea, UE
a oficializat acordarea, la 21 ianuarie 2008, de Preferine Comerciale Autonome
Republicii Moldova, aplicate efectiv din a doua jumtate a lunii martie 2008. Ca
urmare, aproape 90% din exporturile moldovene au acces liber pe piaa
romneasc. Astfel, R. Moldova beneficiaz, n limitele unor contingente tarifare,
de scutire de taxe vamale la exporturile respective pe piaa UE. La importul
produselor romneti n R. Moldova se percep taxe vamale, accize i taxe pentru
proceduri vamale.
n ceea ce privete cadrul juridic al relaiilor comerciale dintre Romnia i
R. Moldova, acesta este dat de [5]:
Acordul ntre Guvernul Romniei i Guvernul Republicii Moldova cu
privire la colaborarea economic i schimburile comerciale;
Acord ntre Guvernul Romniei i Guvernul Republicii Moldova privind
nfiinarea Comisiei interguvernamentale de colaborare economic, comercial i
tehnico-tiinific;
Acord de comer liber ntre Romnia i Republica Moldova;
Acordul ntre Guvernul Romniei i Guvernul Republicii Moldova privind
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evitarea dublei impuneri;


Acord ntre Guvernul Romniei i Guvernul Republicii Moldova privind
promovarea i protejarea reciproca a investiiilor.
n prezent, integrarea n Uniunea European este principalul obiectiv al
Republicii Moldova, iar Romnia este, evident, principalul ei susintor. Astfel,
Romnia a susinut ca Moldova s fie considerat n acelai grup cu Balcanii de
Vest n negocierile de aderare la UE i nu cu spaiul estic.
3. Premise de dezvoltare a relaiilor bilaterale dintre Romnia i
Moldova, n context PEV. Politica Europeana de Vecinatate, conform unor
specialiti, poate fi considerat ca reprezentnd un compromis ntre dorina noilor
ri vecine de a deveni membre ale Uniunii Europene i imposibilitatea Uniunii de
a accepta noi extinderi. ns, PEV nseamn, totodat i o modalitate de abordare a
relaiilor dintre UE i rile vecine care depeete nivelul de simpl cooperare ntre
statel vecine. n acest sens vine i noul document al UE privind PEV din decembrie
2006, care vizeaz consolidarea PEV prin msuri de intensificare a relaiilor
comerciale, mbuntirea perspectivelor investiionale, facilitarea contactelor de la
om la om a relaiilor turistice, de afaceri, educaionale, de cercetare, precum i o
atitudine pro-activ n cazul conflictelor ngheate. Astfel c PEV ofer un
context favorabil dezvoltrii relaiilor externe ale UE cu vecinii si, n vederea
susinerii proceselor de dezvoltare economic a acestora din urm, asigurnd
totodat stabilitatea i securitatea n plan regional.
n acest context, Romnia are nevoie nu de relaii politice privilegiate cu
Republica Moldova, ci de relaii normale, de dezvoltare, care s genereze creterea
nivelului de trai a romnilor, n general, dezvoltarea unui stoc relaional cu romnii
de peste Prut i crearea i dezvoltarea unei culturi romneti reale, adecvate
strategiei de cretere economic, social i cultural a celor dou ri. Evident,
aceste relaii se dezvolt n context european, mai precis sub incidena PEV. Astfel,
spre exemplu, unul din obiectivele PEV l reprezint mbuntirea guvernanei n
rile vecine, fapt dovedit de al doilea tur al alegerilor parlamentare din Moldova.
n ceea ce privete mobilitatea, n anul 2008 au fost eliberate peste 2 milioane de
vize Schengen UE n zona noastr de vecintate. De asemenea, au fost ncheiate
acorduri cu Moldova privind facilitarea eliberrii vizelor i readmisia. n vederea
promovrii migraiei legale, au fost ncheiate parteneriate de mobilitate cu
Moldova. Valorificarea ntregului potential al PEV, presupune inclusiv stabilirea
foii de parcurs cu Moldova n vederea instituirii unui regim fr vize pentru ederi
de scurt durat. n domeniul energetic, n 2009, Moldova, alturi de Ucraina, a
fost admis, sub rezerva anumitor conditii, pentru aderarea la Tratatul de instituire
a Comunitii Energiei.
n ceea ce privete comerul dintre cele dou ri luate n calcul, UE este
pregtit s negocieze zone de liber schimb consolidate i globale cu toi vecinii
si, n funcie de interesul lor manifestat i de gradul lor de pregtire. Astfel, n
cadrul lucrrilor Comisiei mixte de colaborare economic i integrare europeana
ntre Romnia i R. Moldova desfurate n 24 mai 2010, la Chiinu, au fost
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stabilite de comun acord aciuni viitoare care s contribuie la consolidarea relaiilor


economice bilaterale, majorarea volumului schimburilor comerciale, precum i
promovarea exportului i investiiilor dintre ambele ri. Scopul R. Moldova,
reconfirmat n septembrie 2009, o data cu schimbarea guvernrii fiind integrarea
n UE.
De asemenea, n vederea realizrii integrrii economiilor rilor vecine
consolidate, au fost negociate unele acorduri sectoriale n domenii precum
produsele agricole i pescreti sau spaiul aerian comun.
n perioada 2007-2013, au fost stabilite 9 programe care vizeaza graniele
terestre, trei programe trans-maritice i trei programe care vizeaza bazine maritime,
unul din aceste programe viznd Romnia Moldova Ucraina [6].
n vederea punerii n aplicare a PEV, n 2007-2013, UE furnizeaz
aproximativ 12 miliarde EUR. n plus, Facilitatea de investiii pentru vecintate
ofer ajutor nerambursabil pentru atragerea de credite (peste 4,7 miliarde EUR n
2007-2009) pentru investiii concrete n transporturi, mediu, energie, sectorul privat
i cel social.
4. Evoluia schimburilor comerciale ale Romniei cu R. Moldova, n
perioada 2007-2010.
Comertul UE cu rile din regiunea care intr sub incidenta PEV a crescut n