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Ghép kênh phân chia theo tần số trực giao (OFDM) đã trở thành một kỹ thuật phổ biến và ứng dụng rộng rãi cho phát sóng và truyền tải các tín hiệu qua kênh vô tuyến và đã được áp dụng trong nhiều chuẩn vô tuyến. OFDM có thể được kết hợp với các mảng anten bên máy phát và bên máy thu để tăng độ lợi phân tập và cải thiện năng lực hệ thống vào thời gian khác nhau và các kênh tần số có chọn lọc, kết quả là một thành phần nhiều đầu vào nhiều đầu ra (MIMO). Khối mã hóa không gian-thời gian (STBC) cho các hệ thống OFDM với nhiều ăng-ten phát là một loại mã hóa mà được áp dụng trong miền thời gian (các ký tự OFDM). Đặc biệt mã Alamouti được xem xét, mà được xem là mã khối có lợi nhất cho hai ăng-ten phát và mã hóa trong miền. Khác biệt giữa các mã không gian thời gian là các phương thức truyền dữ liệu trong truyền thông vô tuyến và chúng là những dạng mã không gian thời gian mà không cần phải biết các khiếm khuyết kênh ở bên nhận để có thể giải mã các tín hiệu. Một nghiên cứu phân tích hiệu suất được khảo sát cho các hệ thống DSTBC MIMO-OFDM khác nhau với các phương pháp điều chế pha nhị phân(BPSK), điều chế pha cầu phương (QPSK), điều chế biên độ cầu phương 16 ký tự (16-QAM) và điều chế biên độ cầu phương 64 ký tự (64-QAM) và hiệu suất của nó được đánh giá theo Tỷ lệ lỗi bit dưới kênh truyền Rayleigh đa đường

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MIMO-OFDM System

M. A. Ahmed, S. A. Jimaa, and I.Y. Abualhaol

ECE Department, College of Engineering

Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research

Sharjah,UAE

Email :{20059,saj}@kustar.ac.ae, ibrahimee@ieee.org

is considered as a spectrally efficient approach to achieve

high throughput communications. This paper investigates the

performance of MIMO-OFDM system using the proposed

NLMS adaptive equalizer and the developed Singular Value

Decomposition (SVD) technique in estimating the channel.

The performances of using various values of the NLMS

algorithms step-size were also investigated and an optimum

value, based on a trade-off between the convergence speed

and the steady state noise floor, was chosen. Then, the bit

error rate (BER) performance of the NLMS adaptive receiver

is compared with that of the SVD algorithm. It is clear that

the SVD gives better performance over the NLMS adaptive

filter.

Keywords- MIMO-OFDM; Adaptive Filter; NLMS; Step-Size; SVD

I.

INTRODUCTION

narrowband interference affects a small percentage of subchannels whereas in a single channel system, a single fade or

interference might cause the entire channel to fail. To realize

OFDM, we have to maintain orthogonality between subchannels (i.e., reducing crosstalk between them).

Orthogonality can be maintained using a cyclic prefix which

is the copy of the last part of an OFDM symbol. Cyclic prefix

will be appended to the transmitted symbol [1]. This

introduces a loss in the signal to noise ratio (SNR). However,

the zero inter channel interference (ICI) mitigates the loss.

Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) can be avoided using pulse

shaping. Raised cosine windowing of the transmitted pulses

will result into a sinc shaped frequency response of each subchannel where the roll off region acts as a guard interval.

Thus, the frequency spectrum of each sub-channel falls much

more quickly and therefore reduces the interference to the

adjacent frequency bands. In a discrete time model of an

substituted with inverse FFT and FFT, thereby achieving

frequency division multiplexing by a baseband filtering

process. Furthermore, it will eliminate the banks of subchannels oscillators and coherent demodulators required by

frequency division multiplexing [2]. One of the simplest, yet

robust adaptive filter algorithms is the normalized least mean

square (NLMS). The weight vector of NLMS can be changed

automatically, while that of LMS cannot [3]. If the rate of

convergence is fast, the filter will be adapted quickly to a

stationary environment of unknown statistics. The most

important parameter that dominates the NLMS algorithm is

the step-size. If the step-size is set to a large value, the

convergence rate of NLMS algorithm will be fast. However,

the steady state MSE will increase. On the other hand, if the

step-size is set to a small value, the convergence rate will be

slow but the steady state MSE will decrease [4]. Recent

related work is given in [5] and [6]. In [5], only the MMSE

performances of using the NLMS adaptive algorithm for

different MIMO systems have been investigated. While in

[6], there is a new channel estimation method for OFDM by

combining LS and MMSE using Evolutionary Programming

was proposed. The realization of SVD algorithm has been

investigated in OFDM system [7], [8]. In this work we

evaluated the performance of the NLMS algorithm for

MIMO-OFDM system using various step-sizes and an

optimum step-size was chosen, based on a trade-off between

the convergence speed and the steady state MSE. Then, the

BER performance of the proposed NLMS adaptive receiver

with optimum step-size is compared with that of the

conventional receiver. In addition to that, the SVD algorithm

was studied and compared to the NLMS adaptive filter. The

remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Section II

introduces the system overview. Sections III, and IV describe

the system model and simulation results. Finally, Section V

concludes the paper.

545

II.

SYSTEM OVERVIEW

of MATLAB/SIMULINK. The execution process is binary

data that is modulated using BPSK and mapped into the

constellation points. The digital modulation scheme will

transmit the data in parallel by assigning symbols to each

sub-channel and the modulation scheme will determine the

phase mapping of sub-channels by a complex I-Q mapping

vector [7]. The complex parallel data stream has to be

converted into an analogue signal that is suited to the

transmission channel. This is performed by the Inverse Fast

Fourier Transform (IFFT). IFFT converts the signal to the

time domain since OFDM treats the transmitted symbols as

they are in the frequency domain. Assuming that the subchannels number is N, the transmitted symbol X(k) is

transformed to x(n) by IFFF as following:

!

receiver side, the received symbol yt(n) will be transformed

back to the frequency domain Y(k) by FFT after omitting the

cyclic prefix.

!

()

()

()

()

()

()

= , . . ,

= , ,

= [ , , , ! ]

= [, , , , , ,! ]

(5)

(6)

(7)

= ( + )()

(8)

the weight vector wi(v) is characterized as

(2)

+ = + ()

(9)

is the step-size parameter

=

()

(10)

=

()

()

()

(11)

(3)

+ () =

Gaussian sub-channels; hence it can be expressed as

following:

!

A. NLMS Algorithm

The weight vector of an adaptive filter should be changed

in a minimal mechanism, subject to a constraint imposed on

the updated filters output. The NLMS algorithm is based on

the principal of minimal disturbance from one iteration to the

heading iteration [1]. Let the received symbol vector at time

associating to the vth OFDM symbol be

(1)

The symbols will follow into the fading channel with impulse

response h(n) that has additive noise n.

The MIMO OFDM system with At transmit and Ar receive

antennas can be described as:

()

=

()

size to the original OFDM symbol resulting in making the

transmitted signal periodic, which plays a major role in

avoiding ISI and ICI. The transmitted symbol after adding the

cyclic prefix:

= 1,2

+ = ! , ! + 1, . .1

()

!

= , . . ,

! () =

(4)

amplitude response of path q, fDq is the Doppler shift of path

q, q is the delay of path q. Single path fading will omit the

()

()

(12)

that w(v+1) cannot be bounded when the tap-input vector y(v)

is too small, and then the final expression of NLMS can be

()

+ () =

(13)

+ ()

B. Step-Size

The stability of the NLMS filter depends on the step-size

parameter. Therefore, we have to find the optimum step-size

for the adaptive filter. The desired response is set as follows

546

+ + ()

(14)

unknown parameter w is calculated from the tap-weight

vector w(v). The weight error vector is

= ()

(15)

E[|y(v)|2] is the estimation of the input signal power, is

the estimation of the mean-square deviation, is the stable

parameter and optimum is the optimum step-size parameter [8],

[9].

C. SVD Algorithm

We can simplify (3) as follows

()

+ =

+ ()

= +

(16)

identifying the mean square deviation, denoting E as the

expected value

! noise vector, and H is the ! ! matrix of channel gains.

Channel gain matrix can be obtained at the receiver using

SVD decomposition.

~

(17)

(18)

as follows

= ()

(19)

()()/

[ / ]

= ! +

= ! ! +

= ! + !

(25)

(21)

<<

= !

(20)

For real valued data input, we can use the following equation

y =U H y

channel into ! parallel SISO channels with an input and

an output . From singular value decomposition and using

(24), we can have transmitter precoding and receiver shaping

as follows

obtained from (18) as follows

y = Hx+ n

based on NLMS algorithm

+ =

()()

x =V x

<<

(24)

= +

(26)

< <

(22)

!

0

0

!

(23)

547

(27)

transmitter and receiver with a gain equal to the

summation of ! and ! .

III.

IV.

SYSTEM MODEL

IFFT

+

Appending

CP

Splitter

Rayleigh

Flat Fading

Channel

+

AWGN

Adder

FFT

+

Removing

CP

Baseband Demodulation

FFT

+

Removing

CP

Adaptive Receiver

Baseband Modulation

tests is shown in Fig. 2

Channel

Estimation

on NLMS algorithm

the number of sub-channels is 64, and the number of the

cyclic prefix is 16 sub-channels. The transmitted symbols will

be sent by two antennas on the transmitter side and received

by two antennas on the receiver side. The symbols will pass

through a Rayleigh fading channel. The power will be

divided evenly among the two antennas at the transmitter.

The NLMS adaptive filter at the receiver will compensate the

effect of the communication channel on the transmitted

symbols. The adaptive NLMS receiver subsystem is shown in

Fig. 2. It comprises the OFDM demodulation, the NLMS

adaptive filter, and then the received symbols were

demodulated and I-Q de- mapped to obtain the original

transmitted symbols.

Optimized NLMS adaptive receiver

FFT

+

Removing

CP

Adder

Adaptive

NLMS Filter

SIMULATION RESULTS

algorithm is explored by performing extensive computer

simulations. In these simulations, we considered 2 by 2

MIMO-OFDM system. The data symbol is based on a BPSK

modulation. Various values of the algorithms step-size have

been used and the signal to noise ratio is 15 dB. The BER

performance of using different NLMS algorithm step-sizes on

the MIMO-OFDM has been investigated and the result is

shown in Fig. 3. It is clear that the step-sizes with values 0.3 0.5 give fewer errors.

Also the MSE performances, shown in Fig. 4, for various stepsizes have been investigated to measure the convergence

speed of the NLMS algorithm. It is clear that the step-size of

0.4 gives fast convergence and the step-size of 0.3 gives

lowest MSE level. Hence the step-size of 0.3 was chosen as

the best step-size since it provides a trade off between the

convergence speed and the steady state noise floor. Finally,

the BER performance versus Eb/No for step-sizes 0.3, 0.4, 0.5,

and 0.6 have been investigated and compared with that of the

conventional MIMO-OFDM receiver. It is clear that using the

conventional receiver (i.e., without using the NLMS adaptive

filter) the BER is almost 50% because the channel state

information is not known at the receiver. However, utilizing

the NLMS adaptive receiver structure greatly enhanced the

BER performance [10]. The BER performances of the

optimized NLMS adaptive equalizer against the SVD channel

estimation technique is shown in Fig. 6. The SVD curve with

full knowledge of the channel shows an identical result to the

theoretical result of the 2x2 MIMO-OFDM over Rayleigh

fading channel. The previous data shows a high skew and can

be comparable to the optimized NLMS adaptive equalizer.

Therefore, the current and the previous data can be added to

achieve a more realistic estimation of the channel. The

averaging of the current and the previous data proves a better

performance than a mere previous data. The SVD will

decompose the channel into parallel channels and the channel

will be multiplied by ! and ! to achieve a performance close

to the theoretical one.

Baseband

Demodulation

V.

FFT

+

Removing

CP

varying the step-size of the NLMS adaptive filter algorithm on

the BER performance of the MIMO-OFDM system and

also to test the impact of utilizing the NLMS adaptive filter on

the BER performance.

CONCLUSION

algorithm for MIMO-OFDM system over fading channels

were studied and extensive simulations results presented. The

BER performance of using different step-sizes for the NLMS

algorithm has been investigated and the results showed that

the step-sizes with the values of 0.3 - 0.5 give a minimum

BER. Also the developed SVD technique has been compared

with that of the proposed optimum step-size NLMS adaptive

algorithm and the results show that SVD outperforms the

NLMS adaptive algorithm.

548

10

10

-1

10

BER

BER

-1

10

data1

BER without NLMS adaptive filter

Step Size = 0.3

Step Size = 0.4

Step Size = 0.5

Step Size = 0.6

-2

10

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Step Size

0.7

0.8

0.9

-2

10

10

15

20

25

Eb/No

1

Step Size = 0.3

Step Size = 0.4

Step Size = 0.5

Step Size = 0.6

0.9

0.8

10

MSE

0.7

-1

0.6

10

BER

0.5

0.4

-2

10

0.3

0.2

10

20

30

40

50

60

Number of Iterations

70

80

90

100

VI.

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

data1

Averaging of SVD

Current and Previous SVD

SVD

Outdated SVD

NLMS with step-size = 0.3

-3

10

REFERENCES

A. L. Intini, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing for Wireless

Networks,Dept. Elect. and Comp. Eng.,Uni of California,CA,

LA,2000

Ahmedul Kabir, Khandaker Abir Rahman, and Ishtiaque Hussain,

Performance study of LMS and NLMS adaptive algorithms in

interference cancellation of speech signals.Journal of State University

of Bangladesh, Vol. 1,No. 1, pp. 57-65, 2007.

Ling Qin, and Maurice G.Bellanger Convergence analysis of a

variable step-size normalized adaptive filter algorithmProc.

EUSIPCO, Adaptive Systems, PAS.4, 1996.

Md. M. Rana and Md. K. Hosain. Adaptive Channel Estimation

Techniques for MIMO-OFDM Systems. International Journal of

Advanced Computer Science and Applications, Vol. 1, pp. 134-138,

Dec. 2010

K. Vidhya and K. R. S. Kumar. Enhanced Channel Estimation

Technique for MIMO-OFDM Systems with the Aid of EP

Techniques. European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol. 67, pp.

140-156, Dec. 2011

5

Eb/No

10

[7]

Hoboken,New Jersey: J. Wiley and Sons INC, 2005, pp. 13-29

[8] Q.Feng and H. Li. The Research and Realization of SVD Algorithm in

OFDM System. in Proc. CISP,2010, pp. 4467-4471

[9] T. Arnantapunpong, T. Shimamura and S. A. Jimaa. A new variable

step size normalized LMSalgorithm.in Proc.NCSP, 2010

[10] A. Goldsmith, Wireless Communications, 3rd edition, New York:

Cambridge University Press, 2009, (see pp 321-324)

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