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1. Lekcja

jeden, jedna, jedno one

pierwszy, pierwsza, pierwsze first

panna miss, maiden. Virgo. sierpie August. w sierpniu. wrzesie September. we wrzeniu

Konwersacje Conversations:

1.A. Cze! Meeting and greeting. Informal style. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
1.B. Dzie dobry! Meeting and greeting. Formal style. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
1.C.1. Co to jest? Asking and saying what something is. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..21
1.C.2. Kto to jest? Asking and saying who someone is. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..24
1.D. Dobrze wygldasz. Complimenting someone on their appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
1.E. Autobus Waiting for a bus. Making an acquaintance at the bus stop. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38


A. Cze! (Agata i Andrzej spotykaj si na uniwersytecie)
Informal style. Two classmates meet on campus.

Agata: Cze, Andrzej!
Hi, Andrzej!
Andrzej: Cze, Agata! Jak si masz?
Hi, Agata! How are you?
Agata: Tak sobie. <Do dobrze.> Co
So-so. <Fairly well.> What's new? <Hows it
sycha? <Jak leci?>
Andrzej: Nic nowego. A co sycha u ciebie?
Nothing new. Whats new with you?
Agata: Te nic.
Also nothing.
Andrzej: Gdzie teraz idziesz?
Where are you going?

Agata: Id na zajcia. Jak zwykle, jestem
Im going to class. As usual, Im late.

Andrzej: A ja id do domu, to na razie.
And I'm going home, so see you.
Agata: Cze, do zobaczenia!
Hey, see you!


Co sycha?
Do zobaczenia!
Do dobrze.
Gdzie teraz idziesz?
Id do domu
Id na zajcia

Do zapamitania for memorization

Jak leci? Jak si masz?

Jak zwykle, jestem spniony (f.
Na razie!
Tak sobie.

Uwagi notes

co sycha? what's up, literally, 'what's to
on he, ona she
potem av then, afterwards
cze hi, bye. An informal greeting.
sobie (here:) to each other
do zobaczenia see you, so long
spotyka si -am asz meet (one another)
i to go. id I go, idziesz you go, idzie he,
spniony (f. spniona) aj late
she, it goes (on foot)
to (here:) so, then
jak leci? Hows it going?
uwaga f note, observation
jak zwykle as usual
wic conj so
jestem I am. jeste you are, jest he, she, it is.
wita si am -asz greet each other
na razie so long. Literally, 'for the moment,
zajcia pl form classes. na zajciach in class.
for the time being'.
na zajcia to class
odpowiada -am -asz answer
egna si -am -asz say goodby

Pytania questions (for both written and oral responses)

Question words: co what? czy yes/no? dlaczego why? gdzie where? jak how? kiedy when? kto

1. Gdzie teraz idzie Agata? Where is Agata going now?

2. Gdzie idzie Andrzej? Where is Andrzej going?
3. Jak si ma Agata? How is Agata?
4. Co sycha u Andrzeja? What's new with Andrzej?
5. Kto jest spniony? Who is late?
6. Czy Agata jest zwykle spniona? Is Agata usually late?
7. Czy ona jest zawsze spniona? Is she always late?
8. Kto idzie na zajcia? Who is going to class?


9. Kto idzie do domu? Who is going home?

Answer tak yes or nie no:

1. Agata jest spniona.

2. Andrzej idzie na zajcia.

3. Agata idzie do domu. 5. Agata zawsze jest spniona.

4. Andrzej jest spniony.


Andrzej i Agata spotykaj si na uniwersytecie. Witaj si. Andrzej pyta, jak Agata si ma, i ona
mwi, e tak sobie. Ona pyta, co u niego sycha. Nic nowego, mwi Andrzej. Potem Andrzej
pyta, gdzie Agata idzie, a ona odpowiada, e idzie na zajcia i, jak zwykle, jest spniona.
Andrzej mwi, e on idzie do domu, wic mwi sobie do zobaczenia.

TRANSLATION (translations of the summary of the conversations are given in this lesson only):
Andrzej and Agata meet at the university. They greet each other. Andrzej asks how Agata is,
and she says so-so. She asks whats new with him. Nothing new, says Andrzej. Then Andrzej
asks where Agata is going, and she answers that she is going to class and, as usual, she is late.
Andrzej says that he he is going home, so they say good-bye to each other.

spotykaj si they meet. witaj si they greet each other. mwi (s)he says. potem then. u
niego (here:) with him. mwi sobie they say to each other. odpowiada answers. wic so.

na zajcia to class. na zajciach in class. A large lecture class at d University.




a. Equivalent Polish/English sounds using the same letters: p b f m t d s z n k g.
b. Equivalent Polish/English sounds using different letters: w "v", "w", j "y", ch "h". Polish
ch, also sometimes spelled h, is more heavily aspirated than English "h".
c. More or less equivalent Polish/English sounds, but still pronounced noticeably differently:
r (trilled r, rolled on the tip of the tongue); l (soft l, like r, is pronounced on the tip of the
d. Sounds which are considered to be two sounds in English, but one sound in Polish: c "ts",
dz "dz".
e. Special letters and letter-combinations for the hushing sounds and :

"soft" "hard" closest English sound
rz or
d (dzi-)

"ni" in onion
For a more thorough treatment of the consonants, with examples, see the Introduction.

WHAT IS THIS/THAT? Co to jest?
The way to ask what something is is with the construction Co to jest? The answer is of the
type To jest dugopis. Thats a ball-point., To jest szkoa. Thats a school, To jest muzeum
Thats a museum, and so on.

WHO IS THAT? Kto to jest?
One asks about the identit of someone with the question Kto to jest? The answer is of the
type To jest Marta Czechowska. That is Marta Czechowska, To jest nasz ssiad Thats our

The to jest construction may be used to introduce two people to one another, as in To jest
pani Ewa Suchecka, nasza stara znajoma, a to jest nasz ssiad, pan Jzef Wilczek. This is Ms.
Ewa Suchecka, our old acquaintance, and this is our neighbor, Mr. Jzef Wilczek.

The to jest construction is what may be called a pointing, indicating, or identifying
phrase: it says what something is, or what its name is.


NOUNS AND NOUN GENDER. Polish nouns may be of masculine, feminine, or neuter gender.
Gender is a purely grammatical property of nouns, with little or no meaning. However, from the
point of view of grammatical correctness, gender is of great practical importance, because
modifiers and some verb endings agree with a noun in gender, i.e., they change endings
according to the gender of the noun.
1. MASCULINE NOUNS usually end in a consonant: budynek building, dugopis ball-point,
dom house, home, hotel hotel, obraz picture, owek pencil, papier paper, samochd car,
automobile, st table, sufit ceiling, uniwersytet university, zeszyt notebook. A good many
masculine names for persons end in -a: kolega colleague, class-mate, mczyzna man.

2. FEMININE NOUNS usually end in -a (rarely, in -i). kobieta woman, koleanka f. colleague,
class-mate, kreda chalk, ksika book, lampa lamp, light, mapa map, Polska Poland, podoga
floor, szkoa school, ciana wall, tablica blackboard, pani lady. Some feminine nouns end in
consonants: noc night, rzecz thing, twarz face.

3. NEUTER NOUNS usually end in -o: biurko desk, drzewo tree, dziecko child, krzeso chair,
ko bed, okno window, piro pen, feather, radio radio, sowo word. Some neuter nouns end
in -e: pytanie question, zadanie assignment, zdanie opinion, sentence, ycie life; some end in
-: imi first name, zwierz animal; and a few end in -um: muzeum museum, laboratorium

Masculine, feminine, and neuter nouns: st, lampa, ko.

4. NOUNS REFERRING TO PEOPLE are generally masculine or feminine according to sex; and
many personal nouns have separate male and female forms: kolega (m.), koleanka (f.)
colleague, class-mate, lektor (m.), lektorka (f.) language teacher, nauczyciel (m.), nauczycielka
(f.) (school)teacher, student student (m.), studentka (f.) student, ssiad (m.), ssiadka (f.)
neighbor, ucze (m.), uczennica (f.) school-boy/girl. However, the word osoba person is simply
a noun of feminine gender. It always takes feminine agreement, whether it refers to a man or a
woman. The word profesor professor does not have special male and female forms. Instead,
one distinguishes reference if necessary by prefacing the word with the titles pan or pani: pan


profesor (m.), pani profesor (f.). When preceded by ten, ta, the titles pan and pani also serve
as the words for 'gentleman' and 'lady': Ten pan to nasz ssiad. That gentleman is our
neighbor. Ta pani jest mia. That lady is nice.

5. ADJECTIVAL NOUNS are adjectival in form, but have the function of nouns in sentences.
They often refer to people. Examples are krewny (f. krewna) relative, narzeczony (f.
narzeczona) fianc(e). znajomy (f. znajoma) friend, acquaintance.

ABSENCE OF DEFINITE AND INDEFINITE ARTICLES. Polish does not have correspondents to the
English definite and indefinite articles a(n), the. One determines the definiteness of an item
from context:
Tu jest dugopis. Here is a/the ball-point.
Tu jest ksika. Here is a/the book.
Tu jest krzeso. Here is a/the chair.

The pronominal adjective ten (m.) ta (f.) to (n.) may be used for emphasis:
Gdzie jest ten dugopis? Where is this/that ball-point?
Gdzie jest ta ksika? Where is this/that book?
Gdzie jest to krzeso? Where is this/that chair?

The modifier tamten (m.) tamta (f.) tamto (n.) is used for especially contrastive emphasis: 'that
other one', 'that one over there'.
Ten dom jest nowy, a tamten jest stary. That house is new, while that one over there is old.

modifies a noun as to characteristic, quality or type. Adjectives and most pronominal modifiers
(like 'this', 'that', 'our', etc.) agree with the modified noun according to the noun's gender. In
practice, this means that the adjective or pronominal modifier changes endings according to
the gender of the noun modified. The typical adjective endings are -y (m.), -a (f.), and -e (n.).
Adjectives are cited in dictionaries in the masculine form.

dictionary form masculine feminine neuter
dobry good dobry dobra dobre
duy big, large duy dua due
adny pretty adny adna adne
may small may maa mae
miy nice miy mia mie
mody young mody moda mode


nowy new nowy nowa nowe

pierwszy first pierwszy pierwsza pierwsze
stary old stary stara stare
wany important wany wana wane
zy bad zy za ze

See also interesujcy interesting, wymagajcy demanding, wspaniay great, marvelous, and so
on. Examples:
nowy dom new house wspaniay hotel a great hotel
nowa lampa new lamp wspaniaa szkoa a great school
nowe piro new pen wspaniae muzeum a great museum

Some masculine nouns designating persons end in -a but take masculine gender agreement:
nasz nowy kolega our new class-mate, colleague.

After k and g, the ending -y is respelled i, and -i- is added before the ending -e:
drogi expensive drogi droga drogie
jaki what kind, what sort jaki jaka jakie
taki such (a), so taki taka takie

Pronominal modifiers may have slightly different masculine or neuter endings from adjectives:

ten this, that ten ta to
tamten that over there tamten tamta tamto
jeden one jeden jedna jedno
nasz our nasz nasza nasze

m. ten nowy samochd that new car
f. ta nowa szkoa that new school
n. to nowe sowo that new word

m. nasz nowy lektor our new language instructor
f. nasza nowa szkoa our new school
n. nasze nowe zadanie our new assignment

m. jeden dobry student one good student (m.)
f. jedna dobra osoba one good person
n. jedno mae dziecko one small child


Co to jest? biurko desk, dugopis ball-point, dom house, krzeso chair, ksika book, mapa
map, okno window, owek pencil, piro pen, st table, tablica blackboard, zeszyt notebook.



1.1. Give a logical response:
Cze! Gdzie teraz idziesz?
Jak si masz? Jeste spniona?
Co sycha? Idziesz na zajcia?
Do zobaczenia! Na razie.

1.2. Demonstrative pronoun ten ta to. Gender agreement.
biurko: to biurko that desk.

budynek, dugopis, imi, kobieta, kolega, koleanka, kreda, krzeso, ksika, laboratorium,
lektor, mczyzna, muzeum, noc, obraz, osoba, pytanie, radio, rzecz, ssiad, sowo, st, szkoa,
zadanie, zeszyt, znajoma, znajomy, zwierz.


1.3. 'our nasz nasza nasze. From Exercise 1.2, choose at least six appropriate nouns of different
genders to use with 'our'.

To jest nasze zadanie. This is our assignment.


1.4. Identity statements with to jest. In b, use the adjective 'new', or any other adjective that
makes sense.

lampa: a. To jest lampa. That's a lamp.

b. To jest nowa lampa. That's a new lamp.

tablica, sufit, krzeso, kreda, st, zeszyt, owek, biurko, ciana, obraz, szkoa.

1.6. 'Here' tu 'there' tam; adjective and modifier agreement. Vary the adjective.


a. Tu jest dobra szkoa. Here's a good school.

b. Tam jest nasza nowa szkoa. There is our new school.

st, samochd, radio, muzeum, ksika, uniwersytet.




1.7. 'That one over there' tamten tamta tamto.

nowa szkoa: Tamta szkoa jest nowa. That school over there is new.

wane sowo, drogi samochd, adny obraz, interesujca ksika, wspaniae muzeum.



1.8. 'one' jeden jedna jedno. In b., supply your own adjective.
krzeso: a. jedno krzeso.
b. Tu jest jedno dobre krzeso. Here is one good chair.

lampa, radio, owek, drzewo, szkoa, student, zdanie, dugopis, imi, lekcja.

1.9. such a taki taka takie.

due krzeso: To krzeso nie jest takie due. That chair is not so large.

adny obraz, drogi hotel, interesujca ksika, wymagajca szkoa, dobry student, adne imi,
wane sowo.



1.10. Identity statements using to as a connector. Choose between ten pan and ta pani.

lektor: Ten pan to nasz nowy lektor. That man is our new language-teacher.

ssiad, kolega, koleanka, lektorka, ssiadka, profesor.



Dzie dobry! Hello!

1.B. Dzie dobry!
Formal style. Two people out shopping, casual acquaintances, meet on the street.

Pan Karol: Dzie dobry pani!
Hello (madam)!
Pani Maria: Dzie dobry panu! Jak si pan
Hello (sir)! How are you, sir?
Fine thanks. And you (madam)?
Pan Karol: Dobrze, dzikuj. A pani?
Also fine. What are you doing here?
Pani Maria: Te dobrze. Co pan tu robi?
I'm doing (some) shopping. Excuse me, but
Pan Karol: Robi zakupy. Przepraszam, ale
I'm in a big <a bit of a> hurry. <I've got to
bardzo <troch> si piesz. <Musz lecie.>

I have to go too. So good-bye.
Pani Maria: Ja te musz i. To do widzenia. Good-bye.
Pan Karol: Do widzenia.



Bardzo si piesz.
Co pan(i) tu robi?
Do widzenia.
Dobrze, dzikuj.
Dzie dobry pani!

Do zapamitania

d obry

Ja te musz i.
Jak si pan(i) ma?
Robi zakupy.


ale but
Pan Karol Mr. Karol, Pani Maria Ms. Mary.
co pan (pani) tu robi? What are you doing
The titles Pan Mr. and Pani Ms. are used
here? Literally, 'what is sir (madam)
with first names in normal friendly but
doing here?'. An ordinary level of
formal conversation.
formality with casual acquaintances.
pan gentleman, sir. pani lady, madam
do widzenia good-bye
(southern U.S. ma'am) These are forms
dzie dobry hello. Literally, 'good day'. This
of polite address, used as de facto 2nd-
greeting is used as a general all-purpose
person pronouns in the sense "you".
greeting in the morning, daytime, and
dzie dobry panu/pani. Dative case
early evening. In the late evening one
forms of pan/pani (Lesson 7).
uses dobry wieczr good evening.
przepraszam excuse me, I'm sorry, I beg
dzie dobry panu (pani). literally, 'good day
your pardon. The letter-combination
to you, sir (madam)'. The expression uses
prze- is pronounced "psze-": "prze-PRA-
Dative-case forms of pan and pani.
ja te I too ("me too")
robi do: robi I do, robisz you-sg. do robi
jak si pan(i) ma? how are you? A fairly
he, she, it does.
earnest inquiry about someone's health.
pieszy si to be in a hurry piesz si I
Informal jak si masz is more frequent
am in a hurry pieszysz si you are in a
(see conversation A).
hurry, pieszy si (s)he is in a hurry.
musz i I have to go. musz wraca I have
bardzo si piesz I'm in a big hurry.
to be getting back.
troch si piesz I'm in a bit of a hurry
te also



Pytania (for both written and oral response)

In your anwers, you may want to make use of the phrases Tak yes. Nie no. Chyba tak probably
so. Chyba nie probably not. Nie wiemy we don't know.

1. Jak si ma pan Karol?
2. A jak si ma pani Maria?
3. Co robi pan Karol?
4. A co robi pani Maria?
5. Kto si pieszy?
6. Kto robi zakupy?
7. Kto musi ju i?


1. Pan Karol robi zakupy. 3. Pani Maria te robi zakupy.
2. Pan Karol bardzo si pieszy. 4. Pan Karol musi ju i.


Pan Karol i Pani Maria spotykaj si na ulicy i witaj si. Oni nie znaj si zbyt dobrze. Pani
Maria pyta, jak Pan Karol si ma i on mwi, e dobrze, a potem on pyta, jak ona si ma. Pani
Maria odpowiada, e ona te ma si dobrze. Potem ona pyta, co on tam robi, a on odpowiada
e robi zakupy. On te mwi, e bardzo si pieszy. Pani Maria mwi, e ona te musi i, wic
mwi sobie do widzenia.

TRANSLATION. Karol and Maria meet each other on the street. They dont know each other
very well. Maria asks how Karol is, and he says fine, and then he asks how he is. Maria answers
that she is also fine. Then she asks what he is doing there, and he answers that he is shopping.
He also says that hes in a big hurry. Maria says that she also has to go, so they say good-bye to
each other.

ulica f street. na ulicy on the street. witaj si they greet each other. oni nie znaj si zbyt
dobrze they dont know each other too well. sobie to each other.




THIRD-PERSON SINGULAR PRONOUNS. The 3rd-person pronouns on he, it, ona she, it, ono it
refer to nouns according to grammatical gender, not according to sex (although on and ona
also have their expected sexual reference). Hence one refers to szkoa school with ona she, to
hotel hotel with on he, and to muzeum museum with ono it.

To jest nasz hotel. On jest nowy. That is our new hotel. It is new.
To jest nasza szkoa. Ona jest nowa. That is our new school. It is new.
To jest nasze muzeum. Ono jest nowe. That is our new museum. It is new.

The 3rd-person titles pan sir, Mr. and pani madam, lady, Mrs., Ms. are used in the sense of
'you' when addressing strangers and persons with whom one is on a formal basis. THEY NEVER
MEANS HE, SHE. These de facto 2nd-person pronouns take the 3rd-person form of the verb:
Co pan (pani) robi? What are you doing? (formal; literally, 'what is sir/madam doing?').

Contrast with:
Co robisz? What are you doing? (informal).

As noted earlier, when preceded by modifiers, especially by the pronominal modifiers ten and
ta, these words acquire the meaning 'gentleman', 'lady' or, more generally, 'man', 'woman':
Ten pan jest bardzo stary. That man (gentleman) is very old.
Ta pani jest bardzo mia. That woman (lady) is very nice.

THE VERB TO BE IN THE PRESENT AND FUTURE (SINGULAR). Here are the present and future
tense forms (singular) of the verb by to be. The optional (for the moment) plural forms are
given in plain type.

by to be
jestem I am bd I will be
jeste you (sg.) are (informal) bdziesz you will be
jest he, she, it is bdzie he, she, it will be
jestemy we are bdziemy we will be
jestecie you (pl.) are bdziecie you (pl.) will be
s they are bd they will be



Jestem I am (women's magazine cover). The lead article deals with Wiosenne manewry z wag
springtime maneuvers with one's weight.

PRESENT TENSE OF VERBS. Verbs are listed in the glossary in the infinitive (the form that means
'to go', 'to do', and so on). Next to the infinitive are the 1st person singular (the "I" form) and
the 2nd person singular (the "you" form), from which the other verb forms may be derived.

verb (infinitive):
by be
i go (on foot)
mie to have
mwi say
musie must
myle think
pyta ask
robi do
rozumie understand
wiedzie know info
zgadza si agree
zna know s.t. or s.o.

1st pers. sg.

zgadzam si

2nd pers. sg.

zgadzasz si

he, she, formal 'you'

on, ona, pan(i) jest
on, ona, pan(i) idzie
on, ona, pan(i) ma
on, ona, pan(i) mwi
on, ona, pan(i) musi
on, ona, pan(i) myli
on, ona, pan(i) pyta
on, ona, pan(i) robi
on, ona, pan(i) rozumie
on, ona, pan(i) wie
on, ona, pan(i) zgadza si
on, ona, pan(i) zna


Often, the 1st and 2nd person forms are abbreviated: mwi wi isz, pyta am asz.

The 1st pers. and 2nd pers. forms of a verb are usually used without any pronoun; robi all by
itself means 'I do, I am doing', and robisz means 'you do, you are doing'. The pronouns ja I and
ty you (informal, singular) are used for emphasis:
Ja te id do domu. As for me, Im also going home.
A ty jak mylisz? And what do you think?

For all verbs except by to be (see above), the 3rd pers. sg. may be derived from the 2nd pers.
sg. by subtracting -sz:

2nd pers. sg. 3rd pers sg.
idziesz you go idzie he, she, it goes
pytasz you ask pyta he, she, it asks
robisz you do, robi he, she it does
and so on.

The 1st pers. pl. we form may be derived by adding my to the 3rd pers. sg. form; the 2nd
pers. pl. you form takes cie:

3rd pers. sg. 1st pers pl. 2nd pers. pl.
idzie he, she, it goes idziemy we go idziecie you (pl.) go
pyta he, she, it asks pytamy we ask pytacie you (pl.) ask
robi he, she it does robimy we do robicie you (pl.) do

and so on.

See Lesson 8 for the complete present tense of verbs.



FORMAL VS. INFORMAL ADDRESS. As noted briefly above, the 2nd pers. sg. form of a Polish
verb is used for informal address, with persons with whom one is on a familiar, first-name basis
(family members and close friends). Otherwise, one uses pan sir or pani madam in combination
with the third-person singular form of the verb:

Informal: Formal:
Co robisz? Co pan(i) robi? What are you doing?
Gdzie idziesz? Gdzie pan(i) idzie? Where are you going?
Jak mylisz? Jak pan(i) myli? What (how) do you think?
Co mwisz? Co pan(i) mwi? What are you saying?
Dlaczego pytasz? Dlaczego pan(i) pyta? Why do you ask?

and so on.

The titles pan and pani are usually used with a persons first name or, in introductions, with
both first and last name. The use of pan and pani with the last name only is extremely stiff and
formal. In other words, given Julia Skoczyska, as long as one has met her and she is, therefore,
an acquaintance, one should address her as pani Julia, but not as !pani Skoczyska.


1. The 1st and 2nd person pronouns (ja I, ty you) are used only for emphasis or contrast; in
general, omit them: Id I am going. Robisz You are doing.

2. The 3rd person pronouns on he/it, ona she/it, ono it are usually not omitted. On pyta He
asks. Ona idzie She is going. Ono jest. It is.

3. The titles pan sir, Mr. and pani madam, Ms. are used in formal 2nd-person address. Co
pani robi? What are you doing (sir)? Jak pani myli? What do you think (madam)? The
pronoun-titles pan and pani are almost never omitted.

IMPORTANT QUESTION WORDS. Here is a summary of the most important question words:
co? what?
kiedy? when?
kto? who?
dlaczego? why?
czy? whether (asks yes-no questions)
jak? how?
dokd? where to?
jak dugo? for how long?
gdzie? where?
jak daleko? how far?


1.11. Respond logically:
Dzie dobry! Gdzie pan idzie?
Jak si pan(i) ma? Czy pan robi zakupy?
Co pan(i) tu robi? Bardzo si piesz.
Przepraszam, musz i. Do widzenia!

1.12. Formal versus informal verb use. Use either pan or pani.

Jak si masz? Jak si pani ma? How are you (formal)

Gdzie idziesz? Czy robisz zakupy?
Co robisz? Czy idziesz na zajcia?
Gdzie jeste? Jak mylisz?
Czy jeste spniona? Jak si masz?
Bardzo si pieszysz? Jeste spniony (spniona)?
Czy dobrze rozumiesz?


1.13. 3rd-person narrative. Narrate the following direct statements.

Agata: Id na zajcia. Agata mwi, e ona idzie na zajcia. Agata says that she is going to
Andrzej to Agata: Jak si masz? Andrzej pyta, jak Agata si ma.

Andrzej to Agata: Gdzie teraz idziesz?
Pan Karol: Robi zakupy.
Agata: Jestem spniona.
Pan Karol: Bardzo si piesz.
Andrzej: Id do domu.
Pan Karol: Musz lecie.
Pani Maria to Pan Karol: Jak si pan ma?
Pani Maria: Ja te musz i.
Pani Maria to Pan Karol: Co pan tu robi?



1.14. Logical adjective use answering questions posed by jaki jaka jakie what kind; gender
agreement. Use of third-person pronouns. Choose from: dobry, drogi, duy, interesujcy, adny,
mody, may, miy, nowy, spniony, stary, wany, wspaniay, wymagajcy, zy:

dom: a. Jaki jest ten dom? What's that house like?
b. On jest nowy. It is new.

krzeso, obraz, sowo, ssiadka, profesor, osoba, uniwersytet, lekcja, zwierz, radio, sufit,
ksika, pytanie, muzeum, hotel.



1.15. Give the verb in the 1st person sg. and pl.:

i: id I am going, idziemy we are going.

robi, myle, by, pyta, mie, mwi, musie, rozumie, wiedzie, zna.

1.16. Make up questions using question words and the verbs of exercise 1.15. in the 2nd person
sg. Then answer them appropriately in the 1st person sg..

I: - Gdzie idziesz? Where are you going?
- Id na zajcia. Im going to class.



Ratusz (medieval town hall) in Szczecin.

1.C.1. Co to jest?
Two people walking along the street, one a local, the other a visitor. The visitor wonders what a
building they see is.

Mietek: Co to jest?
What's that?
Magosia: Co? Gdzie?
What? Where?
Mietek: Tamten budynek. Czy to jest koci?
That building there. Is that a church?
Magosia: Nie, to jest stary ratusz <stara szkoa, No, thats the old city hall <an old school, an old
stare muzeum>.
Mietek: On <ona, ono> jest wspaniay
It's marvelous.
<wspaniaa, wspaniae>.

Magosia: Tak mylisz?
You think so?
Mietek: Tak.
Magosia: A ja myl, e on jest dziwny.
Well I think its strange.



Co to jest?
Ja myl, e on jest dziwny.
Jak mylisz?
Nie zgadzam si
Tak mylisz?
Ten budynek jest po prostu dziwny.

Do zapamitania

Ten budynek jest wspaniay.

To chyba jest koci.
To jest nowa szkoa.
To jest nowe muzeum.
To jest stary ratusz.
n ie j est koci tylko ratusz.

1.C.1. Uwagi

budynek building
czy conj 1 whether, or. 2 yes-no question
dziwny aj strange
jak mylisz? what do you think?
Magosia. Diminutive or familiar form of
Magorzata Margaret.
Mietek Diminutive or familiar form of
nowy koci new church, nowa szkoa,
new school, nowe muzeum new
on he, it, ona she, it, ono it. Remember
that these items refer to nouns by

grammatical gender, not by sex; hence

koci: on; szkoa: ona; muzeum: ono.
myle -l, -lisz think. jak mylisz? what do
you think? tak mylisz? you think so?
nie mylisz? don't you think so?
ratusz mi a (medieval) city hall
Szczecin. w Szczecinie in Szczecin, a town
in the far north west of Poland, near the
Baltic Sea
wspaniay aj marvelous
zgadza si -am -asz agree
zwyczajny aj ordinary

Pytania questions


Gdzie s Mietek I Magosia?

Kto dobrze zna Szczecin?
Co to jest za budynek? Czy to jest koci?
Kto myli, e ten ratusz jest wspaniay?
Kto nie zgadza si? Dlaczego?

6. Jak ty mylisz: czy ten ratusz jest wspaniay, dziwny, czy zwyczajny?
7. Czy masz jaki interesujcy budynek czy pomnik (monument) w twoim miecie? Jaki?
8. Co w twoim miecie zwykle pokazujesz zwiedzajcym? What in your town/city do you
usually show to visitors?


Mietek i Magosia s w Szczecinie. Magosia dobrze zna Szczecin, a Mietek nigdy tam nie by.
Mietek widzi jaki interesujcy budynek. On pyta, co to jest. On myli, e to chyba jest koci.
Magosia mwi, e to nie jest koci tylko stary ratusz. On tylko wyglda jak koci. Mietek
mwi, e on myli, e ten budynek jest wspaniay. Magosia nie zgadza si. Ona myli, e on jest
po prostu dziwny.

TRANSLATION. Mietek and Magosia are in Szczecin. Magosia knows Szczecin, while Mietek
was never in Szczecin. Mietek sees some sort of interesting building. He asks what it is. He thinks
that its probably a church. Magosia says that its not a church but an old city hall. Mietek says
that he thinks that that building is marvelous. Magosia doesnt agree. She thinks that it is
simply strange.

nigdy nie by never was. widzi sees. jaki some sort of. pyta asks. chyba probably. koci
church. tylko only. ratusz city hall. wyglda look, appear. zgadza si agrees. po prostu simply.

stara szkoa. old school in the old part of Toru



Do wymagajcy lektor a rather demanding instructor

1.C.2. Kto to jest?

On campus, two students talk about their new teacher.

Magda: -Kto to jest?

Marek: -Kto? Gdzie?
Magda: -Tamten pan (tamta pani).
Marek: - To jest nasz nowy lektor (nasza nowa
Magda: -On (ona) jest do stary/mody
(stara/moda), <nie mylisz?>
Marek: -Wcale nie. On (ona) nie jest tak
stary/mody (tak stara/moda).
Magda: -Podobno on(a) te jest bardzo
wymagajcy (wymagajca).
Marek: -To bardzo moliwe. <On (on)
tak wyglda.>

Who is that?
Who? Where?
That gentleman (lady) there.
You dont know? That's our new language-
tutor (m./f.).
S(he) is rather old/young, <don't you think?>

Not-at-all. (S)he's not so old.

Supposedly (s)he is also very demanding.

Thats very likely. <(S)he looks that way.>



Kto to jest?
Nie mylisz?
On jest do mody.
On jest bardzo wymagajcy.
On nie jest tak stary.
Ona jest bardzo wymagajca.
Ona jest do moda.

Do zapamitania

Ona nie jest tak stara.

On rzeczywicie tak wyglda.
Podobno ons jest bardzo wymagajca.
Ta pani to nasza nowa lektorka.
Ten pan to nasz nowy lektor.
bardzo moliwe.

dlaczego why
do av rather, fairly
lektor (f. lektorka) lecturer. Used to refer
to one's language instructor or tutor.
Magda. Familiar form of Magdalena.
Marek. Familiar form of Mariusz or Marian.
moliwy aj possible
podobno av supposedly
raczej rather


skd literally, 'from where'? Colloquially,

what do you mean?
sysz sz szysz hear
tamten pan that gentleman, tamta pani
that lady
widzie dz dzisz see
wyglda -am asz look, appear
wymagajcy aj demanding


1. Gdzie teraz s Marek i Magda?

2. Kogo (whom) Magda widzi? Kto to jest?
3. Kto myli, e ten pan (ta tani) jest raczej stary (stara)? Kto nie zgadza si? Co on (ona)
myli i mwi?
4. Czy Magda wie na pewno (for sure), e ich nowy lektor (nowa lektorka) jest bardzo
wymagajcy (wymagajca)? Co Marek mwi?




Magda i Marek s na uniwersytecie. Magda widzi kogo i pyta, kto to jest, bo ona nie wie.
Marek natomiast wie. On mwi, e to jest ich nowy lektor (nowa lektorka). Magda mwi, e
ona myli, e ta osoba jest raczej stara. Marek nie zgadza si. On mwi, e on (ona) wcale nie
jest taki stary (taka stara). On (ona) podobno te jest bardzo wymagajcy (wymagajca), mwi
Magda. Marek myli, e to jest bardzo moliwe. On (ona) rzeczywicie tak wyglda, on mwi.

na uniwersytecie at the university. widzi kogo sees someone. natomiast by contrast,
however. ich poss pron their. moliwy possible. tak (here:) that way. wyglda am asz look,

TRANSLATION. Magda and Marek are at the university. Marta sees someone and asks who it is,
because she doesnt know. Marek, however, knows. He says that that is their new language
tutor. Magda says that she thinks that (s)he looks rather old/young. Marek doesnt agree. He
says that (s)he is not at all so old. He supposedly is also very demanding, says Magda. Marek
thinks that that is very possible. He (she) certainly looks like it, he says.

Bardzo wymagajcy lektor a very demanding instructor



ch The letter-combination ch is similar to English "h", but with slightly more friction. Do not
pronounce ch like English ch in cheese or patch because this is interpreted as Polish cz. The
difficulty with the sound ch is partly visual; however, it also has to do with the fact that the
English "h" sound does not occur between vowels and at the end of words, as Polish ch does, so
English speakers do not expect it to occur there. Practice: chyba probably, chory sick, cichy
quiet, ucho ear, dach roof, szachy chess, niech let, miech laughter, orzech nut, kuchnia
kitchen, ruch movement, traffic, duch spirit.

c Before the letter i, the letter c (without any mark above it) is pronounced like : , ciasto
"asto" dough, cicho "icho" quiet. Otherwise, c is pronounced like English ts in cats. Do not
pronounce c like "hard English c" in cat, because this is only the sound of Polish k. The difficulty
with this sound is partly visual, but it also has to do with the fact that the English "ts" sound
does not occur between vowels and at the beginning of words, as c does in Polish. Practice: co
what, cay "CA-y" whole, cena "CE-na" price, cudzy "CU-dzy" foreign, cyrk circus, taca "TA-ca"
tray, dziecko "DEC-ko" child, koc blanket, noc night, nic nothing.

The letter z by itself is pronounced like English z. Before the letter i, the letter z (without
any mark above it) is pronounced like : ziarno "arno" grain, zima "ima" winter. Otherwise, z
is pronounced just like English z in zoo. While the letter z is not frequent in English, the letter
and sound "z" is common in Polish. Do not slur plain Polish z, for this becomes confused with
the Polish sound or . Practice: za in exchange for, zebra zebra, zysk profit, ze mn "ZE-mn"
with me, faza phase, beze mnie "be-ZE-me" without me. In word-final position, z is
pronounced "s": bez "bes"without, paz "pas" reptile, raz "ras" once, wz "vus" cart, car.
cz The letter-combination cz represents a sound similar to "tch" in English watch. Practice:
czas time, czsto often, oczy eyes, uczy teach, poczta mail, post-office.
dz Before the letter i, the letter-combination dz is pronounced like d: dzib "dup" beak,
dziwny "diwny" strange. Otherwise, the letters dz (without any mark above the z) are
pronounced like English dz in adze. Practice: chodz "CHO-dz" I walk, widz "WI-dz" I see. In
word-final position, dz is pronounced "c": wdz "wuc" leader. Polish verbs often show an
alternation between dz and d; see chodz chodz- I walk vs. chodzisz chod-isz you
rz/ The letter-combination rz is an alternate way of spelling the same sound as (similar to
s in treasure). The words morze sea and moe maybe are pronounced exactly the same.
Practice: rzeka river, dobrze "DO-be" fine, twarze "TFA-e" faces, orze "O-e" eagle. After t,
p, k, the letter-combination rz is pronounced "sz": trzeba "TSZE-ba" one must, przepraszam
"psze-PRA-szam" excuse me, krzeso "KSZE-so" chair. The basis for spelling rz or has to do
with etymology. The sound spelled rz is etymologically related to r, which will often be found in



related words; see morze "MO-e" sea, related to morski maritime. Here are some words with
: aba frog, ona wife, plaa beach, kouch sheepskin coat. In final position both and rz
sound like sz: n nusz knife, str strusz guard, twarz "tfasz" face, tchrz tchusz
sz The letter-combination sz is pronounced close to English "sh" as in shop. Practice: kasza
""KA-sza" buckwheat groats, szampan "SZAM-pan" champagne, szukam "SZU-kam" I am
searching, tusz mascara.

PREDICATE ADJECTIVES. Adjectives which are linked to the subject of a sentence with the verb
'be' are called PREDICATE ADJECTIVES. They agree in gender with the subject-noun referred to:
Ten pan jest bardzo miy. That man is very nice (masculine agreement).
Ta pani jest do moda. That woman is fairly young (feminine agreement).
To radio nie jest zbyt stare. That radio is not too old (neuter agreement).

A predicate-adjective question can be formed with jaki jaka jakie what (kind of) in combination
with the to jest construction; jest may be omitted:
Jaki jest ten dom)? What is that house like?
Jaka jest ta osoba? What is that person like?
Jakie jest to radio? What is that radio like?

This construction is more or less the equivalent of the more frequent construction Co to jest za
___, in which only the item under question changes; jest may be omitted here too.
Co to (jest) za budynek? What sort of building is that?
Co to (jest) za szkoa? What sort of school is that?
Co to (jest) za muzeum? What sort of museum is that?

YES-NO QUESTIONS AND STATEMENTS. Questions expecting 'yes' or 'no' for an answer are
typically preceded by the interrogative particle czy, literally meaning 'whether'. It is important
to remember that czy does not mean or substitute for the verb "is"; it simply signals a following
yes-no question. One typically answers a yes-no question with either tak yes or nie no.
-Czy ten obraz jest nowy? Is that picture new?
-Tak, on jest nowy. Yes, it is new.
-Nie, on nie jest nowy. No, it is not new.

Czy also means 'or' in either-or choice-questions of the type
Czy to jest st czy biurko? Is that a table or a desk?


The word tak, besides meaning 'yes', can mean 'thus, so, as':
Ten samochd nie jest tak stary. That car isn't so old.

The word nie, besides meaning 'no', can mean 'not':

To nie jest koci tylko ratusz. Thats not a church but a town hall.


The word for the adverb 'here' is tu or, slightly emphatically, tutaj. The word for 'there' is
tam. Both of these words answer questions posed with gdzie where:
Nasza nowa szkoa jest tutaj. Our new school is here.
Tu jest nasz dom. Here is our house.
Tam jest nasz nowy lektor. There's our new language-teacher.

Note that 'existential' there in English is not translated by tam in Polish, but is included in the
sense of jest (there) is:
Jest tu dobre museum? Is there a good museum here?

VERY', 'RATHER', 'TOO', 'NOT TOO', 'A LITTLE TOO'. The item bardzo very is used to intensify
predicate adjectives:
Nasz lektor jest bardzo wymagajcy. Our (m.) language-teacher is very demanding.
Ta studentka jest bardzo moda. That student (f.) is very young.

The adjective modifiers do rather and nie zbyt not too function in a positive/negative
reciprocal relationship:
To pytanie jest do wane. That question is fairly important..
To pytanie nie jest zbyt wane. That question is not too important.

The word zbyt can also be used in the sense 'excessively':
On jest zbyt wymagajcy He is too (excessively) demanding.

The word za is the usual correspondent of English too, especially in combination with troch a
little, hence the phrase troch za a little too:
Ten hotel jest troch za drogi. That hotel is a little too expensive.

AS, AS. The adverb tak goes together with jak to form sentences of the type
Ten hotel nie jest tak dobry jak tamten. That hotel is not as good as that other one.
To nie jest tak jak mylisz. Its not the way you think.




1.17. Modifiers of predicate adjectives: do fairly and nie zbyt not too.

stary uniwersytet a. Ten uniwersytet jest do stary. That university is fairly old.
b. Ten uniwersytet nie jest zbyt stary. That university is not too old.

moda osoba, drogi hotel, due krzeso, nowy dom, wymagajca praca, interesujcy obraz,
wane sowo, stary samochd.


1.18. The adverb tak thus,so.

adne imi:

a. To imi nie jest tak adne. That first-name is not so pretty.

b. To nie jest tak adne imi. Thats not such a pretty name.

za ksika, nowy uniwersystet, drogi hotel, mia pani, may budynek, dobre zadanie, moda
osoba, wymagajcy lektor, wspaniay budynek, wane pytanie.


1.19. What sort of jaki jaka jakie.

biurko: Jakie jest ten dom? What's that house like?

Use the vocabulary of exercise 1.17, choosing at least six words with varying adjectives.


1.20 Forming yes/no questions with some verbs used in this section. Use the 2nd pers. sg. form of
the verb to make a simple yes/no question. The particle czy here is omitted.

wtpi: Wtpisz?

zgadzam si, myl, id, widz, rozumiem, sysz, myl.



Ale ty dzi adnie wygldasz my but you look nice today. An on-line greeting card.

1.D. Dobrze wygldasz
A conversation on the subject of how one looks and feels.

Marian: Bardzo dobrze <adnie> wygldasz
Mirka: To dziwne, bo bardzo le si czuj.
Jestem chora. Mam katar.
Marian: Moe le si czujesz, ale wygldasz
znakomicie <wspaniale>.

Mirka: Ciesz si, e tak mylisz.
Marian: Zreszt, zawsze dobrze wygldasz.
Mirka: Dzikuj. Jeste miy.

You look very good <nice> today.

Thanks a lot. So do you.
Thats strange, because I feel very bad. Im
sick. I have a headcold.
Maybe you feel bad, but you look grear
Im glad you think so.
For that matter, you always look good.
Thanks, youre sweet (nice).



Bardzo si ciesz.
Ciesz si, jeli tak mylisz.
Czuj si okropnie.
Dobrze si czuj.
Dobrze wygldasz dzisiaj.
Dziwi si.

Do zapamitania

Jak si dzisiaj czujesz?
Jestem chory (chora).
Mam katar.
Troch si dziwi.
Zawsze adnie wygldasz.
le si czuj.

cieszy si sz szysz be glad
chory aj sick
czu si czuj si, czujesz si +av feel (good,
bad, etc.).
doskonale excellent, wietnie great,
znakomicie fine. Various adverbial ways
of paraphrasing bardzo dobrze "very
dzisiaj av today
dziwi si wi wisz be surprised
fatalnie fatally, okropnie dreadfully,
strasznie terribly. Various adverbial
ways of paraphrasing bardzo le very


gorzej av worse
lepiej av better
ni conj than
normalnie av normal(ly)
okropnie av awful, terrible
sam sama samo pron aj (one)self, same
tak samo phr the same (way)
wole wol wolisz prefer
wyglda -am -asz +av look, appear (good,
bad, etc.)
le av badly
zmczony aj tired


1. Jak Mirka dzisiaj si czuje? A Marian?
2. Czy Mirka jest chora? Co jej jest? (whats wrong with her)
3. Dlaczego Mirka dziwi si, kiedy Marian mwi, e ona dobrze si wyglda?
4. Jak mylisz, czy Marian naprawd myli, e Mirka dobrze wyglda, czy on po prostu
(simply) robi jej komplement?



5. Czy wolisz (prefer) dobrze wyglda czy dobrze si czu?

6. Jak ty dzisiaj si czujesz? Dobrze? Niezbyt dobrze? Znakomicie? Niedobrze? le?
Okropnie? Normalnie?
7. Nie jeste chory (chora)? Jeste zmczony (zmczona) (tired)?
8. Czy zwykle czujesz si dobrze? Czy zawsze czujesz si dobrze?
9. Czy wygldasz tak samo (the same way), jak zwykle?


Marian i Mirka spotykaj si w stowce. Marian mwi, e Mirka bardzo dobrze wyglda dzisiaj.
Mirka troche si dziwi, bo dzi okropnie si czuje, bo ma katar. Marian mwi, e moe ona le
si czuje, ale wyglda znakomicie. Mirka cieszy si, jeli on naprawd tak myli. Marian myli, e
Mirka zawsze dobrze wyglda, i tak mwi. Jeste miy, myli I mwi Marta.

w stowce in the cafeteria. troch a little bit. dziwi si is suprprised. okropnie av terribly.
moe maybe. cieszy si is glad. naprawd really.

TRANSLATION. Marian and Mirka meet each other in the cafeteria. Marian says that Mirka
looks very good today. Mirka thanks him but she is a bit surprised, because she feels terrible
today. She has a head-cold. Marian says that maybe she feels bad, but she looks great. Mirka is
glad if he really thinks so. Marian thinks that Mirka always looks good, and says so. Youre
nice, thinks and says Mirka.

czuj si fatalnie




ADJECTIVES AND RELATED ADVERBS. Adjectives (marked with aj in the glossary) modify nouns
and agree with them in gender (masculine, feminine, or neuter), number (singular or plural),
and case (as we will eventually see). Most adjectives have an associated adverbial (av) form, in
about the same meaning, which is used to modify anything other than a noun (for example, a
verb, an adverb, or another adjectivein other words, something that has no gender). See:

dobre piwo good beer (neuter)
dobra wdka good vodka (feminine)
dobry koniak good brandy (masculine)
dobrze si czuj I feel good (adverb, modifying the verb feel).

Adverbs end in either o or -'e (i.e., e plus a change in the preceding consonant, called
softening). Here are the most important rules for forming adverbs from adjectives:

a. Most basic two-syllable adjectives, as well as adjectives ending in k, g, ch, c take -o:
daleki far, av daleko mody young, av modo
drogi dear, expensive, av drogo nowy new, av nowo

miy nice, av mio stary old, av staro
interesujcy interesting, av interesujco

Two important exceptions are:
dobry good, av dobrze zy bad, av le

b. Adjectives with stems ending in a consonant plus n take -'e, with the n softening to ,
spelled ni-:

adny pretty, av adnie wietny great, av wietnie
okropny terrible, av okropnie zwyczajny ordinary, av zwyczajnie

c. Most three- or four-syllable adjectives not covered by rules a. or b. take
-'e; note the change (softening) in the preceding consonant:

doskonay perfect, av doskonale znakomity excellent, av znakomicie
wspaniay marvelous, av wspaniale



Two important verbs which are followed by adverbial, not adjectival, complements are czu si
czuj czujesz 'feel' and wyglda -am -asz look, appear:
Bardzo le si czuj dzisiaj. I feel very bad today.
wietnie wygldasz dzisiaj. You look great today.

Ta pani jest moda. That lady is young.
Ta pani wyglda bardzo modo. That lady looks very young.

Ten budynek jest dziwny. That building is strange.
Ten budynek wyglda dziwnie. That building looks strange.

Nasz dom jest bliski. Our house is nearby.
Mieszkamy do blisko. We live rather close.


When reporting on what someone says or thinks, the verbs 'say' (mwi mwi, mwisz)
think (myle myl mylisz), and answer (odpowiada odpowiadam odpowiadasz) are
followed by the subordinating conjunction e that:

On mwi, e bardzo si pieszy. He says (that) he is in a big hurry.

Ona myli, e on dobrze wyglda. She thinks that he looks good.

Agata odpowiada, e idzie na zajcia. Agata answers that she is going to class.

The subordinating conjunction e may not be omitted, as that often is in English, and it is
always preceded by a comma. This comma is a purely visual sign and does not indicate a pause
in speech.

The verb 'ask' (pyta pytam, pytasz) is followed by various question words, just as in
English, but especially by czy whether:

Marek pyta, czy Agata idzie na zajcia. Marek asks whether Agata is going to class.

See also, with different question words:

Andrzej pyta, gdzie ona idzie. He is asking where she is going.

Agata pyta, co on robi. Agata is asking what he is doing.

Pani Maria pyta, jak on si ma. Maria asks dhow is is.

Adam pyta, dlaczego on musi i na zajcia. Adam asks why he has to go to class.

Ewa pyta, kiedy ona musi i do domu. Ewa asks when she has to be at home.



Observe how one uses 3rd-person verb forms in reporting on the words of others:

Saying (1st person): Ona: - Id na zajcia. I'm going to class.

Reporting (3rd person): Ona mwi, e idzie na zajcia. She says she is going to class.

Asking (2nd person): On: - Gdzie idziesz? Where are you going?

Reporting (3rd person): On pyta, gdzie ona idzie. He asks where she is going.

'AND' and 'BUT'

1. The conjunction i and indicates pure additive conjunction: Marek i Agata Marek and
Agata, kreda i owek chalk and pencil. st i krzeso table and chair, Warszawa i Krakw
Warsaw and Krakow.

2. If there is any contrast implied, that is, if a conjunction can be translated as either 'and'
or 'but', or possibly as 'while', then the correct conjunction is a and, but, while:
To jest piro, a to jest owek. That's a pen and (but, while) that's a pencil.

3. A strong contrast as to possible expectation is indicated with ale but:
Ten hotel jest nowy i drogi, ale nie jest zbyt dobry. That hotel is new and expensive, but it is
not especially good.

4. The sense of 'but' in a sentence like That's not a pen but a ball-point is usually expressed
with tylko only; however, ale but may also be used:
To nie jest piro, tylko (ale) dugopis. That's not a pen but a ball-point.


The verb cieszy si sz szysz means Im glad, and is often followed by the conjunction e.
Its more-or-less functional opposite is przykro mi, literally its regrettable to me, which is also
usually followed by e:

Ciesz si, e mylisz, e dobrze wygldam. Im glad you think I look good.

Przykro mi, e le si czujesz dzisiaj. Im sorry you feel bad today.




1.21. 'either/or' albo, albo, 'neither/nor ani, ani', 'not X, but Y' nie, ale/tylko.

st, krzeso: a. Czy to jest st, czy krzeso? Is that a table or a chair?
b. To nie jest st, tylko biurko. That's not a table but a desk.
c. To jest st, a to jest biurko. That's a table, and (while) thats a desk.

sufit, podoga; ciana, tablica; owek, dugopis; student, studentka; lektor, student; ksika,
zeszyt; koci, ratusz; hotel, szpital (hospital).


1.22. Informal address from formal:

Jak si pani ma?

Jak si masz? How are you?

Gdzie pan idzie? Czy pani robi zakupy? Co pani robi? Czy pan idzie na zajcia? Gdzie pan jest?
Jak pan myli? Jak pani si czuje? Czy pani jest spniona? Dlaczego pan pyta? Dlaczego pani nie
zgadza si? Czy pan dobrze si czuje? Czy pani dobrze rozumie?

1.23. ja te I also, me too. ty te you also, you too.
Dobrze si czuj. (ja) Ja te dobrze si czuj. I feel good too.


Id do domu. (ja); On dobrze wyglda. (ty); Ona robi zakupy. (ja); wietnie wygldasz. (ty);
Bardzo si piesz. (ona); Jeste spniona. (on). Ona dobrze rozumie. (on).

1.24. The same as usual/always. Answer either way, using either 'usual' or 'always'.

I feel:


Czuj si tak samo, jak zwykle (jak zawsze). I feel the same as usual (as always)

you look; he feels; I look; you feel; she looks.




1.E. Autobus
Waiting for a bus, two classmates after the first day of class introduce themselves. As
classmates, they automatically consider themselves on a first-name basis.

Janek: Interesujce zajcia*, prawda?
Interesting class, right?
Agnieszka: Bardzo.
Janek: Janek jestem.
Im Janek.
Agnieszka: Bardzo mi mio. Agnieszka.
Very nice (to meet you). Agnieszka.
Janek: Czekasz na autobus <na tramwaj>?
Are you waiting for the bus <trolley>?
Agnieszka: Tak. <Ju bardzo dugo.>
Yes. <Already for a long time.>
Janek: Ja te. Mieszkasz tu blisko?
Me. too. Do you live close?
Agnieszka: Nie, raczej daleko. <Tak,
No, fairly far. <Yes, rather close.> Oh, here comes
do blisko.> O, jedzie mj autobus.
my bus.
Janek: To do jutra.
Then till tomorrow.
Agnieszka: Hej! Cze!
Hey, so long.

* zajcia is a plural-only noun that can mean either class or classes. Here it is taken to mean


Do zapamitania

Bardzo mi mio.
Czekasz na autobus?
Do jutra.
Interesujce zajcia, prawda?
Ja te czekam na autobus.
Janek jestem.

Jedzie mj autobus.
Mieszkam do blisko.
Mieszkam raczej daleko.
Mieszkasz tu blisko?
To chyba jest oczywiste.


bliski aj near, close. adv blisko. mieszka blisko jecha jad jedziesz jedzie ride. go, come (of
live close by.
czeka -am -asz czeka wait. czekam na autobus jutro av tomorrow. do jutra phr till tomorrow.
I'm waiting for the bus mieszka

-am -asz live, reside.
daleki aj far. adv daleko.
mj moja moje pron aj my, mine
dugi aj long. adv dugo
oczywisty aj obvious
do siebie to one another
przedstawia si am asz introduce oneself
hej! (very informal) hi!, so-long!
s are (agrees with zajcia class(es), which is
Janek jestem I'm Janek. This way of introducing
oneself is an invitation
std av from here
to call one by one's first name.
zna si -am asz know each other, one another

Pytania (for both written and oral responses)

1. Co Agnieszka teraz robi? A Janek?

2. Czy Janek myli, e zajcia s interesujce? Czy Agnieszka si zgadza?
3. Czy Agnieszka mieszka blisko, czy daleko? A Janek?
4. Dlaczego Janek mowi 'to do jutra'?
5. Jak mylisz? Co to s za zajcia?

6. Czy ty masz teraz interesujce zajcia? Jakie? Czy s wymagajce?

7. Mieszkasz blisko czy daleko std (from here)?




Janek i Agnieszka czekaj na autobus. Janek mwi, e on myli, e ich zajcia s interesujce i
Agnieszka si zgadza. Ona mwi, e s nawet bardzo interesujce. Janek i Agnieszka nie znaj
si jeszcze, wic Janek przedstawia si i Agnieszka te. Janek pyta, czy Agnieszka czeka na
autobus, a ona mwi, e tak. Janek mwi, e on te czeka na autobus. Chyba to jest oczywiste.
Pyta, czy ona mieszka blisko i ona odpowiada, e nie, mieszka raczej daleko. Potem jedzie jej
autobus, wic mwi sobie do widzenia.

czekaj na are waiting for. ich their. s are. nawet even. nie znaj si jeszcze dont know each
other yet. przedstawia si introduces himself. oczywisty obvious. jej her. sobie to each other.

TRANSLATION. Janek and Agnieszka are waiting for a bus. Janek says that he thinks that their
class is interesting, and Agnieszka agrees. She says they are even very interesting. Janek and
Agnieszka actually dont know each other yet, so Janek introduces himself, and Agnieszka does
too. Janek asks if Agnieszka is waiting for the bus, and she says yes. Janek says that he is also
waiting for a bus. Probably that is obvious. He asks whether she lives close by, and she answers
that no, she lives rather far away. Then her bus comes, so they say goodbye to each other.

tramwaj trolley



'BOTH... AND...', EITHER... OR...', 'NEITHER... NOR...'
1. The idea of 'both... and...' is expressed with i..., i...:
Ona jest i mia, i adna. She is both nice and pretty.

2. 'Either... or...' is expressed with albo... albo...:

To jest albo owek, albo dugopis. That's either a pencil or a ball-point.

3. 'Neither... nor...' is expressed with ani... ani...:
Ona nie jest ani moda, ani stara. She is neither young nor old.

4. Questions of the type 'is that an X or a Y' are formed with czy... czy...:
Czy to jest piro, czy dugopis? Is that a pen or a ball-point?

'AS ASThe 'as' of comparison is expressed with ' tak, jak:
Ten budynek nie jest tak duy, jak tamten. That building is not as large as that other one.

QUESTION TAG prawda? right?
Polish often places prawda 'right, true' (literally, 'truth') as a tag at the end of a sentence, as
if encouraging agreement:
Nasz lektor jest do wymagajcy, prawda? Our language teacher is rather demanding,

TODAY, TOMORROW, YESTERDAY. The Polish correspondents are
dzi or dzisiaj today
jutro tomorrow
wczoraj yesterday

Dzisiaj jestem zajty (f. zajta). Im busy today.
Jutro bd wolny (f. wolna) Ill be free tomorrow.
Wczoraj byem (f. byam) chory (chora). Yesterday I was sick.

These words are introduced with additional expressions of time in Lesson 5.




1.25. 'either/or' albo, albo, 'neither/nor ani, ani'.

st, krzeso: a. To jest albo st, albo biurko. That's either a table or a desk.
b. To nie jest ani st, ani krzeso. That's neither a table nor a chair.

sufit, podoga; ciana, tablica; owek, dugopis; student, studentka; lektor, student; ksika,
zeszyt; koci, ratusz; hotel, szpital (hospital).


1.26. Give the question that the statement answers;

To jest tablica. Co to jest?

To jest lektor. Id na zajcia. Tak, to jest obraz. Robi zakupy. Nie, ten obraz nie jest adny. To
nie jest ani st, ani biurko. Ta szkoa jest nowa. To jest nasze nowe muzeum.


1.27. Adverbs after czu si 'feel' and wyglda 'look, appear'. Use whichever of the two verbs
makes sense. Use czu si in the 1st. person, or wyglda in the 2nd person. Put the adverb in
sentence-initial position.

okropny: Okropnie si czuj dzisiaj. I feel terrible today. or:
Okropnie wygldasz dzisiaj. You look terrible today.

adny, wietny, mody, stary, doskonay, dobry, zy, wspaniay, znakomity, normalny.

1.28. Translate. Use the present tense of the verb (one word):
a. How long have-you-been-waiting for the bus?
b. I-have-been-waiting a very long time.
c. Do-you-live far?
d. No, I live rather close.
e. How long have-you-been-living here?
f. I-have-been-living her five years (pi lat) already.
1.29. Statements and responses based on the conversations. Translate into Polish.


1. Hello!
Hello. How are you?

2. What's new with you?
Nothing new.

3. What are you doing here?
I'm doing some shopping.

4. Excuse me, but I have to go.
Well then good bye.

5. Excuse me, I have to go. I'm late.
Me too.

6. So long.
Bye, see you.

7. What kind of building is that?
What building? Where?

8. That's a new hotel.
It's marvelous.

9. Hi Marek!
Hi, Agata. How are you?

10. How are you? (formal, m. or f.)
So-so. And you?

13. What's new ("What's to hear")?
Nothing new.

14. Where are you going?
I'm going to class(es).

15. Are you in a hurry?
Yes, I'm late, as usual.


16. That hotel is marvelous.

You think so?

17. Who is that?
That's our new teacher (m).

18. That is our new neighbor (f.).
She is very pretty.

19. He is very young, don't you
Not at all. He's not at all that young.

20. Where are you going?
Im going to class.

21. How do you feel today?
I feel the same as (tak samo jak) usual.

22. You look terrible today.
Thanks. I feel terrible too.

23. How do I look?
You look great.

24. You look great today.
Thanks, so do you.

25. Are you waiting for the bus?
Yes. I'm going (jad) home.

26. Here comes my bus.
Then till tomorrow.

27. Do you live far away?
No, rather close.

28. That lecturer is very demanding.
Thats verty possible.


1.30. Fill in the blanks, translating the English word or phrase.

1. Bardzo ---.
(I) am in a hurry 19.
- -- jest
ta szkoa?
2. Co pan (pani) tu ---?
What kind
are doing
20. --- jest to radio?
3. Co to jest za ---?
What kind
22. Ona nie jest ani moda, --- stara.
4. Gdzie ---?
are you going

23. Ta lampa nie jest --- droga.
5. Id ---.


24. Ta pani jest --- mia.
6. Id ---.

to classes

25. Ta pani jest --- moda.

7. Jestem ---.


26. Ta pani to --- ssiadka.

8. Musz ju ---.

our new

27. Ten dom jest nowy, --- tamten jest stary.
9. No to ---.

and (while)

28. Ten hotel jest nowy, --- nie jest
10. Ona jest bardzo ---.

dobry. but

29. Ten hotel jest --- drogi.

11. On jest bardzo ---.

a little too

30. Ten hotel jest wspaniay, ---?
12. On nie jest --- mody. so

13. To jest ---.

31. Ten obraz nie jest tak adny, ---
our new teacher-f.

tamten. as
14. To jest --- muzeum.

32. Ten uniwersytet nie jest ---.
a marvelous new


15. Agata nie jest ---.

33. To jest albo owek, --- dugopis.

16. Co to jest za ---?

34. To nie jest piro, --- dugopis.
a school

17. Czy to piro jest ---?

35. Ten pan jest raczej stary, ---?
18. Czy to jest piro --- dugopis?
36. Ten hotel jest --- drogi.
a little too
21. Ona jest --- mia, i adna.
37. Bardzo si piesz, ---.


as always
38. Okropnie --- dzisiaj. I feel
39. Dobrze --- dzisiaj. you look
40. Dlaczego ---?
do you ask
41. Czekasz ---?
for the bus
42. Ona pyta, --- on jest spniony.
43. On mwi, --- idzie do domu.
44. Dzisiaj --- si czuj.

45. Ta pani wyglda bardzo ---.

46. Wygldasz ---, jak zawsze.
the same
47. ---, e czujesz si dobrze.
Im glad
48. ---, e jeste chory.
Im sorry
49. Mieszkasz tu ---?
50. Jak dugo ---?
have you been waiting (1 word, present tense)

1.31. Vocabulary in a grammatical context.. Replace the word or words in boldface with
another word in a form adapted to the grammatical context. In some instances the choice is
very broad, in others very restricted.

14. Musz i.
1. To jest dugopis.
15. Jakie jest to muzeum?
2. To jest nowa ksika.
16. Id na zajcia.
3. To jest nowa ksika.
17. Co to jest za budynek?
4. Ta pani jest mia.
18. To radio nie jest tak stare.
5. Ta pani jest mia.
19. Czy to jest st czy biurko?
6. Ten pan to nasz ssiad.
20. To nie jest koci tylko ratusz.
7. Ta pani to nasza ssiadka.
21. Nasza lektorka jest do wymagajca.
8. Gdzie jest Andrzej?
22. Nasza lektoreka jest do wymagajca.
9. Gdzie jest to krzesoA
23. Nioe zgadzam si.
10. Ten st jest nowy.
24. Bardzo le wygldam dzisiaj.
11. Tu jest nasz hotel.
25. Mieszkam do blisko.
12. Co pan robi?
26. Ja te dobrze rozumiem.
13. Co robisz?
27. Jak dugo tu czekasz?



Mini-Lekcja 1: Polskie liczebniki Polish numbers

It is useful to learn the Polish numbers even before one knows how to use them perfectly.
Polish numeral syntax is complex, and is introduced in this book gradually, and summarized in
Lesson 12. Here are the cardinal numbers 1-20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100:

1 jeden, f. jedna, n. jedno
15 pitnacie
2 m./n. dwa, f, dwie
16 szesnacie
3 trzy
17 siedemnacie
4 cztery
18 osiemnacie
5 pi
19 dziewitnacie
6 sze
20 dwadziecia
7 siedem
30 trzydzieci
8 osiem
40 czterdzieci
9 dziewi
50 pidziesit
10 dziesi
60 szedziesit
11 jedenacie
70 siedemdziesit
12 dwanacie
80 osiemdziesit
13 trzynacie
90 dziewidziesit
14 czternacie
100 sto

Zero is zero. When counting a series from 1, one often uses raz once instead of jeden.

Practice saying these Polish phone numbers. You may say the two- or three number
combinations as single numbers or as compounds (e.g. either pi osiem or pidziesit
osiem. The first two digits are area codes.

58 524 82 22. 42 778 27 78. 22 487 83 89. 61 830 78 01. 91 484 17 56. 59 863 43 22.

- Ile masz lat? How old are you (how many years do you have)?
- Mam dwadziecia lat. Im twenty years old (I have 20 years).
- Mam dwadziecia dwa lata. Im twenty-two years old.

rok year. jeden rok one year minuta minute. Jedna minuta
dwa, trzy, cztery lata 2, 3, 4 years dwie, trzy, cztery minuty 2, 3, 4 years
pi, sze, lat 5, 6, etc. Years pi, sze, ... minut 5, 6, etc. years

Mam dwadziecia dwa lata Im 22 years old. Czekam dwie minuty. Ive been waiting
Mam dwadziecia pi lat Im 25 years old. for 2 minutes.
Mam dwadziecia jeden lat Im 21 years old. Czekam pi minut. Ive been waiting for

for 5 minutes.


THE POLISH BIRTHDAY SONG. sto lat 100 years. The song is also used for other celebratory
occasions. Here are the words (for the melody, consult the internet):

Sto lat, sto lat, niech yje, yje nam! A hundred years, a hundres years, may he live for us!
Sto lat, sto lat, niech yje, yje nam! A hundred years, a hundres years, may he live for us!
Jeszcze raz, jeszcze raz, niech yje, yje nam.... Once again, once again, may he live for us,
Jeszcze yje nam! May he live for us!

USES OF prosz. Prosz literally means I ask, I beg, and reminds one a bit of Shakespearean
English prithee. One uses the word a hundred times a day at least, in all manner of situations.
Depending on context it can mean please, youre welcome, here you are, help yourself,
after you, please come in, if you please, by all means. A store owner will say prosz to
mean may I help you?, and prosz is the polite way to say I beg your pardon? when one has
not understood something. One may also use prosz? when answering the telephone instead
of sucham? The form prosz (or poprosz) is also used to ask for things in restaurants and
stores: Poprosz/prosz dwa bilety tramwajowe (Id like two trolley tickets, please).

Konwersacje uzupeniajce supplementary conversations

A. Ile masz lat?

Ile masz lat? How old are you?
-Mam dwadziecia lat. A ty? Im 20 years old. And you?
-Ja mam dwadziecia trzy lata. I am 23 years old.
-Nie wygldasz tak staro. You dont look so old.

rok, pl lata. dwa, trzy, cztery lata. Gpl lat. pi, sze, etc. lat

B. Jak dugo czekasz?

- Jak dugo tu czekasz? How long have you been waiting here?
- Czekam tu ju cztery minuty? A ty? Ive been waiting here 4 minutes already. And you?
- Ja czekam tu ju dziesi minut. Ive been waitilng here already tex minutes.
- Ja jestem gotw (f. gotowa) tu czeka Im prepared to wait here all day.
cay dzie.

minuta minute, pl. minuty, Gpl minut.



C. Jak daleko mieszkasz?

Jak daleko std mieszkasz? How far do you live from here?
Mieszkam std trzy kilometry. A ty? I live three kilometers from here.
Ja mieszkam std dwanacie kilometrw. I live 12 kilometers from here.
To duo. Thats a lot.

std from here. kilometr kilometer, pl kilometry, Gpl kilometrw

D. Prosz
-Prosze dwa bilety na tramwaj.

May I help you?

Id like 2 trolley tickets, please.
Here you are.
Thank you.
Youre welcome.

E. On ma gryp

-Gdzie jest Jarek dzisiaj?
Wheres Jarek today?
-Jest w domu. Bardzo le si czuje.
Hes at home. He feels very bad.
-Ojej! Co mu jest?
Oh dear. Whats wrong with him?
-Nie wiem. Chyba ma gryp <katar, kaca>.
I dont know. Probably he has the flu. <a
headcold, a hangover>.

co mu jest? whats the matter with him?

F. Mam chandr

-Okropnie dzisiaj wygldasz.
You look lousy today.
-Dzikuj. Bardzo le si czuj.
Thanks. I feel really bad.
-Co ci jest? Jeste chory (chora)?
Whats the matter? Are you sick?
-Nie, po prostu mam chandr.
No, I simply have the blues.

co ci jest? whats the matter with you? chandra the blues. chandr Accusative case.