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Atomic bomb

The operation of an atomic bomb is similar to the operation of a nuclear reactor,


wherein the mass of fuel is well above the critical mass. Initially, the fuel is
fragmented, and each of the pieces, enough from the others, so it untreated the
critical size; Explosion occurs at closer fragments including sharply.
To increase the performance and efficiency of an atomic bomb to be used practically
pure fuels; those used so far have been uranium-235 and plutonium-239. Uranium235 is difficult and expensive to obtain, because it is not possible to chemically
separate it from natural uranium and must resort to physical processes such as
gaseous

diffusion.

Plutonium-239,

which

appears

as

byproduct

in

natural uraniumreactors, can be isolated by standard chemical procedures.


In the hydrogen bomb, the fusion of the nuclei of light atoms (hydrogen-2 and
hydrogen commonly 3) shows a specific heat energy much greater than the atomic
bombs. However, to start the fusion reaction are very high temperatures required,
you

commonly

achieved

by

associating

an

atomic

bomb

in

hydrogen

bomb.Contrary to the atomic bombs, hydrogen bombs do not pollute the place of
explosion with radioactive materials.
Explosive power of the atomic bombs is measured by comparison with the removed
by a mass of a million tons of TNT (megaton).
Historical Context of the atomic bomb
Following the discovery of fission in late 1938, a number of scientists are especially
devoted to study this phenomenon. Leo Szilard, Eugene Wigner, Albert Einstein and
others received (1939) the US government an initial credit to make a thorough
investigation of nuclear energy.
Intervening Americans in World War II did significantly increase research budgets,
making accelerated. On December 2, 1942 they managed to launch the first nuclear

reactor with Enrico Fermi direct intervention, which was the basis of the first
serious calculations of the energy that could be released in a nuclear bomb.
The work for the achievement of the first nuclear fission bomb were conducted at
Los Alamos under the direction of Jacob Robert Oppenheimer named the Manhattan
Project, and the test took place at Alamogordo (New Mexico) on July 16, 1945 . The
fuel used was plutonium-239.
An atomic uranium-235 bomb was dropped on Hiroshima (Japan) on August 6,
1945. On August 9 thereof in a plutonium-239 bomb razed Nagasaki (Japan).
Subsequently, the USSR (1949), United Kingdom (1952), France (1960) and the
PRC (1965) tested and built its own nuclear bombs.

2.1.2 Critical mass


The critical mass is the smallest amount of fissile material necessary to
maintain a nuclear chain reaction.Although each nuclear fission is produced from
two to three neutrons, not all the neutrons are valid to continue the fission reaction,
as some of them are lost. If neutrons released by each nuclear reaction are lost
faster than they are formed by the fission rate, the chain reaction will not be selfsustaining and will stop.

The amount of critical mass of fissile material depends on several


factors: physical properties and nuclear properties, the geometry and the purity.
A sphere has the smallest surface area for a given mass, so it minimizes
the

neutron

leakage.

If

you

also

bordered

the

fissile

material

with

a neutron reflector, we lose less neutrons and the critical mass is reduced.

Bibliography
See H. Foreman, ed., Nuclear Power and the Public (1970);
R. C. Lewis, Nuclear Power Rebellion: Citi
zen vs. the Atomic Industrial Establishment (1972);
C. K. Ebinger, International Politics of Nuclear Energy (1978);
S. Glasstone, Sourcebook on Atomic Energy (1979);
G. S. Bauer and A. McDonald, ed., Nuclear Technologies in a Sustainable Energy System (1983);
G. H. Clarfield and W. W. Wiecek,Nuclear America (1984).
Due to the growing nature of our economy the use and need of industry and domestic power is
increasing, the only way to suffice this demand is by indulging into Nuclear Power supply. India
has come a long way planning and using nuclear power, but now due to the increased demand of
electricity it seems to be the best and the most sustainable energy option however in this
perfect scenario cost efficiency is what makes this industry controversial. Nuclear power plants
involve high capital costs for the initial phase of building and setting up with low direct fuel
costs.
Due to the growing nature of our economy the use and need of industry and domestic power is
increasing, the only way to suffice this demand is by indulging into Nuclear Power supply. India

has come a long way planning and using nuclear power, but now due to the increased demand of
electricity it seems to be the best and the most sustainable energy option however in this
perfect scenario cost efficiency is what makes this industry controversial. Nuclear power plants
involve high capital costs for the initial phase of building and setting up with low direct fuel
costs
Due to the growing nature of our economy the use and need of industry and
domestic power is increasing, the only way to suffice this demand is by indulging into nuclear
power supply. India has come a long way planning and using nuclear power , but now due to the
increased demand of electricity it seems to be the best and the most sustainable energy option
however in this perfect scenario cost efficiency is what makes this industry controversial.
Nuclear power plants involve high capital costs for the initial phase of building and setting up
with low direct fuel costs.

Nuclear energy !