HuangJen Chiu
Dept. of Electronic Engineering
National Taiwan University of
Science and Technology
Office: EE5021
Tel: 0227376419
Email: hjchiu@mail.ntust.edu.tw
Textbook
Power Electronics
Converters, Applications, and Design
Third Edition
Mohan / Undeland / Robbins
0223657999 023651662
Midterm: 50%
Final: 50%
Outlines
Power Electronic Systems
Overview of Power Semiconductor Switches
SwitchMode DC/DC Converters
SwitchMode DC/AC Inverters
Resonant Converters
Switching DC Power Supplies
Power Conditioners and Uninterruptible Power Supplies
Practical Converter Design Considerations
Chapter 1
Power Electronic Systems
Power Electronic Systems
Linear Power Supply
Series transistor as an adjustable resistor
Low Efficiency
Heavy and bulky
SwitchMode Power Supply
Transistor as a switch
High Efficiency
HighFrequency Transformer
Basic Principle of
SwitchMode Synthesis
Constant switching frequency
Pulse width controls the average
LC filters the ripple
Application
in Adjustable Speed Drives
Conventional drive wastes energy across the
throttling valve to adjust flow rate
Using power electronics, motorpump speed is
adjusted efficiently to deliver the required flow rate
Scope and Applications
Scope and Applications
Classification of Power Converters
acdc converters (controlled rectifiers)
dcdc converters (dc choppers)
dcac converters (inverters)
acac converters (ac voltage controllers)
Power Processor as a
Combination of Converters
Most practical topologies require an energy
storage element, which also decouples the input
and the output side converters
Power Flow through Converters
Converter is a general term
An ac/dc converter is shown here
Rectifier Mode of operation when power from ac to dc
Inverter Mode of operation when power from ac to dc
AC Motor Drive
Converter 1 rectifies linefrequency ac into dc
Capacitor acts as a filter; stores energy; decouples
Converter 2 synthesizes lowfrequency ac to motor
Polarity of dcbus voltage remains unchanged
ideally suited for transistors of converter 2
Matrix Converter
Very general structure
Would benefit from bidirectional and bipolarity switches
Being considered for use in specific applications
Interdisciplinary Nature of
Power Electronics
Chapter 2 Overview of
Power Semiconductor Devices
Diodes
On and off states controlled by the power circuit
Diode TurnOff
Fastrecovery diodes have a small reverserecovery time
Thyristors
Semicontrolled device
Latches ON by a gatecurrent pulse if forward biased
Turnsoff if current tries to reverse
Thyristor in a Simple Circuit
For successful turnoff, reverse voltage required for
an interval greater than the turnoff interval
Generic Switch Symbol
Idealized switch symbol
When on, current can flow only in the direction of the arrow
Instantaneous switching from one state to the other
Zero voltage drop in onstate
Infinite voltage and current handling capabilities
Switching Characteristics
(linearized)
Switching Power Loss is proportional to:
switching frequency
1
Ps = Vd I o f s (t c(on) + t c(off) )
turnon and turnoff times
2
Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT)
Used commonly in the past
Now used in specific applications
Replaced by MOSFETs and IGBTs
Various Configurations of BJTs
MOSFETs
Easy to control by the gate
Optimal for lowvoltage operation at high switching frequencies
Onstate resistance a concern at higher voltage ratings
GateTurnOff Thyristors (GTO)
Slow switching speeds
Used at very high power levels
Require elaborate gate control circuitry
GTO TurnOff
Need a turnoff snubber
Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor
(IGBT)
MOSControlled Thyristor
(MCT)
Simpler Drive and faster switching speed than those of GTOs.
Current ratings are significantly less than those of GTOs.
Comparison of Controllable Switches
Summary of Device Capabilities
Rating of Power Devices
Chapter 3
Review of Basic Electrical and
Magnetic Circuit Concepts
Sinusoidal Steady State
P
PF = = cos
S
ThreePhase Circuit
Steady State in Power Electronics
Fourier Analysis
1
f(t) = F0 + f h (t) = a0 + {a h cos(h t) + bh sin(h t)}
2
h =1
h =1
Distortion in the Input Current
I s1
P I s1
PF = =
cos 1 =
DPF =
S
Is
Is
Voltage
1
1 + THD i2
DPF
is assumed to be sinusoidal
Subscript 1 refers to the fundamental
The angle is between the voltage and the current fundamental
Phasor Representation
Response of L and C
di L
vL = L
dt
dv c
ic = C
dt
Inductor Voltage and Current
in Steady State
Voltseconds over T equal zero.
Capacitor Voltage and Current
in Steady State
Ampseconds over T equal zero.
Amperes Law
H dl = i
Direction of magnetic field due to currents
Amperes Law: Magnetic field along a path
Direction of Magnetic Field
B = H
BH Relationship; Saturation
Definition of permeability
Continuity of Flux Lines
1 + 2 + 3 = 0
Concept of Magnetic Reluctance
Flux is related to ampereturns by reluctance
Analogy between Electrical and
Magnetic Variables
Analogy between Equations in
Electrical and Magnetic Circuits
Faradays Law and Lenzs Law
d
di
e= N
= L
dt
dt
Inductance L
Inductance relates fluxlinkage to current
Analysis of a Transformer
Transformer Equivalent Circuit
Including the Core Losses
N1 2
Ll2' = (
) Ll2
N2
N1 2
R2' = (
) R2
N2
Chapter 4
Computer Simulation
System to be Simulated
Challenges in modeling power electronic systems
LargeSignal System Simulation
Simplest component models
SmallSignal Linearized Model
for Controller Design
System linearized around the steadystate point
ClosedLoop Operation:
Large Disturbances
Simplest component models
Nonlinearities, Limits, etc. are included
Modeling of Switching Operation
Detailed device models
Just a few switching cycles are studied
Modeling of a Simple Converter
di L
+ v c = v oi
dt
dv c v c
iL  C
=0
dt
R
rL i L + L
di L
dt
dv c
dt
rL
 L
= 1
1
L
1
CR

1
iL
+ L v oi
0
vc
Modeling using PSpice
Schematic approach is far superior
PSpicebased Simulation
Simulation results
Simulation using MATLAB
Chapter 5
Diode Rectifiers
Diode Rectifier Block Diagram
Uncontrolled utility interface (ac to dc)
A Simple Circuit
Resistive load
A Simple Circuit (RL Load)
Current continues to flows for a while even
after the input voltage has gone negative
A Simple Circuit
(Load has a dc backemf)
Current begins to flow when the input voltage exceeds the dc backemf
Current continues to flows for a while even after the input voltage has
gone below the dc backemf
SinglePhase Diode Rectifier Bridge
Large capacitor at the dc output for filtering and energy storage
DiodeRectifier Bridge Analysis
DiodeRectifier Bridge Input Current
Current Commutation
Assuming inductance in this circuit to be zero
Current Commutation
Current Commutation
in FullBridge Rectifier
Current Commutation
Rectifier with a dcside voltage
DiodeRectifier with a Capacitor Filter
Power electronics load is represented by
an equivalent load resistance
Diode Rectifier Bridge
Equivalent circuit for analysis on onehalf cycle basis
DiodeBridge Rectifier: Waveforms
Analysis using PSpice
Input LineCurrent Distortion
Analysis using PSpice
LineVoltage Distortion
PCC is the point of common coupling
LineVoltage Distortion
Distortion in voltage supplied to other loads
Voltage Doubler Rectifier
In 115V position, one capacitor atatime is
charged from the input.
A ThreePhase, FourWire System
A common neutral wire is assumed
ThreePhase, FullBridge Rectifier
Commonly used
ThreePhase, FullBridge Rectifier
Output current is assumed to be dc
ThreePhase, FullBridge Rectifier:
Input LineCurrent
Assuming output current to be purely dc and
zero acside inductance
Rectifier with a Large Filter Capacitor
Output voltage is assumed to be purely dc
Chapter 6
Thyristor Converters
Controlled conversion of ac into dc
Chapter 6
Thyristor Converters
Controlled conversion of ac into dc
Thyristor Converters
Twoquadrant conversion
Primitive circuits with thyristors
Thyristor Triggering
FullBridge Thyristor Converters
Singlephase and threephase
SinglePhase Thyristor Converters
Average DC Output Voltage
is ( t) = 2 I s1 sin( t  ) + 2 I s3 I s1 sin[3( t  )] + ...
I s1 =
2 I d = 0.9I d P = 0.9cos
Assuming zero acside inductance
Input LineCurrent Waveforms
Harmonics, power and reactive power
1Phase Thyristor Converter
Thyristor Converter
DC Voltage versus Load Current
Various values of delay angle
Thyristor Converters:
Inverter Mode
Assuming the acside inductance to be zero
Thyristor Converters:
Inverter Mode
Family of curves at various values of delay angle
Thyristor Converters:
Inverter Mode
Thyristor Converters:
Inverter Mode
3Phase Thyristor Converters
Chapter 7
DCDC SwitchMode Converters
dcdc converters for switchmode dc power supplies and
dcmotor drives
Block Diagram of DCDC Converters
Functional block diagram
Stepping Down a DC Voltage
A simple approach that shows the evolution
PulseWidth Modulation in
DCDC Converters
StepDown DCDC Converter
(Vd Vo )Ton = VoToff
Vo Ton
=
= D <1
Vd
T
Waveforms at the boundary of
Cont./ Discont. Conduction
ton
TsVd
1
I LB = I L, peak =
(Vd  Vo ) =
D(1  D) = 4I LB,max D(1  D)
2
2L
2L
Critical current below which inductor current becomes
discontinuous
StepDown DCDC Converter:
Discontinuous Conduction Mode
Vo
D2
=
Io
1
Vd
D2 + (
)
4 I LB, max
Steady state; inductor current discontinuous
Limits of Cont./ Discont.
Conduction
Vo
= D : CCM
Vd
Vo
D2
: DCM
=
Io
1
Vd
2
D + (
)
4 I LB, max
Output Voltage Ripple
Vo =
Q
C
I LTs
8C
StepUp DCDC Converter
Vd Ton = ( Vo Vd )Toff
Vo
1
=
>1
Vd
1 D
Output voltage must be greater than the input
Limits of Cont./ Discont.
Conduction
ton
TsVo
1
I LB = I L,peak = Vd =
D(1 D) = 4ILB,maxD(1 D)
2
2L
2L
TsVo
2 27
I oB = (1  D)I LB =
D(1  D) =
D(1  D)2 I oB,max
2L
4
Discont. Conduction
Io
4 Vo Vo
D=
(  1)
27 Vd Vd
IoB,max
Limits of Cont./ Discont.
Conduction
Vo
1
: CCM
=
Vd 1 D
D=
I
4 Vo Vo
(  1) o : DCM
27 Vd Vd
IoB,max
Output Ripple
I o ton Vo DTs
Vo =
=
C
R C
StepDown/Up DCDC Converter
V d T on = V o T off
Vo
D
=
Vd
1 D
The output voltage can be higher or lower than
the input voltage
Limits of Cont./ Discont.
Conduction
ton
TsVo
1
I LB = I L, peak =
Vd =
(1  D) = I LB,max (1  D)
2
2L
2L
TsVo
I oB = (1  D)I LB =
(1  D)2 = I oB,max (1  D)2
2L
Discontinuous Conduction Mode
Vo
Io
D=
Vd IoB,max
This occurs at light loads
Limits of Cont./ Discont.
Conduction
Vo
D
=
: CCM
1 D
Vd
V
Io
D= o
: DCM
Vd IoB,max
Output Voltage Ripple
I o ton Vo DTs
Vo =
=
C
R C
ESR is assumed to be zero
Cuk DCDC Converter
The output voltage can
be higher or lower than
the input voltage
Converter for DCMotor Drives
Converter Waveforms
Output Ripple in Converters for
DCMotor Drives
Switch Utilization
in DCDC Converters
It varies significantly in various converters
Reversing the Power Flow
in DCDC Converters
Chapter 8
SwitchMode DCAC Inverters
Converters for ac motor drives and
uninterruptible power supplies
SwitchMode DCAC Inverter
SwitchMode DCAC Inverter
Synthesis of a Sinusoidal Output
by PWM
^
ma =
V control
^
V tri
fs
mf =
f1
Details of a Switching Time Period
Small mf (mf21): Synchronous PWM
Large mf (mf>21): Asynchronous PWM
Harmonics in the DCAC Inverter
Output Voltage
Harmonics appear around the carrier frequency and its multiples
Harmonics due to Overmodulation
These are harmonics of the fundamental frequency
SquareWave Mode of Operation
Harmonics are of the fundamental frequency
Less switching losses in high power applications
The DC input voltage must be adjusted
HalfBridge Inverter
Capacitors provide the midpoint
SinglePhase FullBridge DCAC Inverter
Consists of two inverter legs
PWM to Synthesize Sinusoidal Output
Analysis assuming Fictitious Filters
Small fictitious filters eliminate the switchingfrequency
related ripple
DCSide Current
Unipolar Voltage Switching
DCSide Current
in a SinglePhase Inverter
Sinusoidal Synthesis by Voltage Shift
Phase shift allows voltage cancellation to synthesize a
1Phase sinusoidal output
SquareWave and PWM Operation
PWM results in much smaller ripple current
PushPull Inverter
Only one switch conducts at any instant of time
High efficiency for lowvoltage source applications
ThreePhase Inverter
Three inverter legs; capacitor midpoint is fictitious
ThreePhase PWM Waveforms
ThreePhase Inverter Harmonics
ThreePhase Inverter Output
SquareWave and PWM Operation
PWM results in much smaller ripple current
DCSide Current
in a ThreePhase Inverter
The current consists of a dc component and the
switchingfrequency related harmonics
Effect of Blanking Time
Results in nonlinearity
Effect of Blanking Time
2t
T Vd , io > 0
Vo = s
2t
 Vd , io < 0
Ts
Voltage jump when the current reverses direction
Effect of Blanking Time
Effect on the output voltage
Programmed Harmonic Elimination
Angles based on the desired output
ToleranceBand Current Control
Results in a variable frequency operation
FixedFrequency Operation
Better control is possible using dq analysis
Chapter 9
ZeroVoltage or ZeroCurrent Switchings
converters for soft switching
Hard Switching Waveforms
The output current can be positive or negative
Turnon and Turnoff Snubbers
Switching Trajectories
Comparison of Hard versus soft switching
Undamped SeriesResonant Circuit
Vd
di L
+ vc = V d
dt
dv c
Cr
= iL
dt
Lr
i L (t) = I Lo cos o (t  t o ) +
V d  V co
sin o ( t t o )
Zo
v c (t) = V d  (V d  V co )cos o (t  t o ) + Z o I Lo sin o ( t t o )
SeriesResonant Circuit
with CapacitorParallel Load
di L
+ vc = Vd
dt
dv c
ic = C r
= iL  I o
dt
Lr
i L (t) = I o + (I Lo  I o )cos o (t  t o ) +
V d  V co
sin o ( t t o )
Zo
v c (t) = V d  (V d  V co )cos o (t  t o ) + Z o (I Lo  I o ) sin o ( t t o )
Impedance of a SeriesResonant Circuit
Q =
o Lr
R
Z
1
= o
oC r R
R
The impedance is capacitive below the resonance frequency
Undamped ParallelResonant Circuit
dv c
= Id
dt
di L
vc = Lr
dt
iL + C r
V co
sin o ( t t o )
i L (t) = I d + (I Lo  I d )cos o (t  t o ) +
Zo
v c (t) = Z o (I d  I Lo )sin o (t  t o ) + V c o cos o ( t t o )
Impedance of a ParallelResonant Circuit
Q = o RC r =
R
R
=
o Lr
Zo
The impedance is inductive at below the resonant frequency
SeriesLoaded Resonant (SLR) Converter
2s<o
Turn off with ZVS and ZCS
Turn on with ZCS
Thyristors
used
Large peak current, high conduction losses
ZVS, ZCS
ZCS
SLR Converter Waveforms
1/2o<s<o
Turn off with ZVS and ZCS
Thyristors
used
Large turn  on switching losses
ZVS, ZCS
SLR Converter Waveforms
s>o
Turn on with ZVS and ZCS
Large turn  off switching losses
Controllable switches used
ZVS, ZCS
Lossless Snubbers in SLR Converters
The operating frequency is above the resonance frequency
SLR Converter Characteristics
The operating frequency is varied to regulate the output voltage
SLR Converter Control
The operating frequency is varied to regulate the output voltage
ParallelLoaded Resonant (PLR) Converter
No turn  on and turn  off losses
ZVS, ZCS
ZCS
1
o
2
PLR Converter Waveforms
No turn  off losses
ZVS, ZCS
1
o < s < o
2
PLR Converter Waveforms
No turn  on losses
ZVS
PLR Converter Characteristics
Output voltage as a function of operating frequency
for various values of the output current
HybridResonant DCDC Converter
Combination of series and parallelloaded resonances
A SLR offers an inherent current limiting under shortcircuit conditions and
a PLR regulating its voltage at no load with a highQ resonant tank is not a
problem
ParallelResonant
CurrentSource Converter
Resistive
Induction Coil
Capacitive
Basic circuit to illustrate the operating principle at the
fundamental frequency
ParallelResonant
CurrentSource Converter
Using thyristors; for induction heating
ClassE Converters
Used for high  frequency
electronic ballasts
Sinwave Current
Singleswitch
ZCS Turnon
No switching losses
ZVS Turnoff
High peak volatge and current
ClassE Converters
Resonant Switch Converters
ZCS ResonantSwitch Converter
Voltage is regulated by varying
the switching frequency
ZCS Turnoff
ZCS Turnon
ZCS ResonantSwitch Converter
Accelerating diode
ZCS Turnoff
ZCS Turnon
Discharge slowly at light load
ZVS ResonantSwitch Converter
ZVS Turnoff
ZVS Turnon
MOSFET Internal Capacitances
ZVS is preferable over ZCS at
high switching frequencies
These capacitances affect the MOSFET switching
ZVSCV DCDC Converter
ZVS Turnon
The inductor current must reverse direction
during each switching cycle
ZVSCV DCDC Converter
ZVSCV Principle Applied to
DCAC Inverters
ThreePhase ZVSCV DCAC Inverter
Very large ripple in the output current
Output Regulation by Voltage Control
Each pole operates at nearly 50% dutyratio
ZVSCV with Voltage Cancellation
Commonly used
Resonant DCLink Inverter
ZVS Turnon
The dclink voltage is made to oscillate
ThreePhase Resonant DCLink Inverter
Modifications have been proposed
HighFrequencyLink Inverter
Basic principle for selecting integral halfcycles of
the highfrequency ac input
HighFrequencyLink Inverter
Lowfrequency ac output is synthesized by selecting
integral halfcycles of the highfrequency ac input
HighFrequencyLink Inverter
Shows how to implement such an inverter
Chapter 10
Switching DC Power Supplies
One of the most important applications of power electronics
Linear Power Supplies
Very poor efficiency and large weight and size
Switching DC Power Supply
High efficiency and small weight and size
Switching DC Power Supply:
Multiple Outputs
In most applications, several dc voltages are required,
possibly electrically isolated from each other
Transformer Analysis
Needed to discuss highfrequency isolated supplies
PWM to Regulate Output
Flyback Converter
Derived from buckboost; very power at small power
(> 50 W ) power levels
Flyback Converter
Switch on and off states (assuming incomplete
core demagnetization)
Flyback Converter
Switching waveforms (assuming incomplete
core demagnetization)
Other Flyback Converter Topologies
Forward Converter
Derived from Buck; idealized to assume that the
transformer is ideal (not possible in practice)
Forward Converter: in Practice
Switching waveforms (assuming incomplete
core demagnetization)
Forward Converter:
Other Possible Topologies
Twoswitch Forward converter is very commonly used
PushPull Inverter
Leakage inductances become a problem
HalfBridge Converter
Derived from Buck
FullBridge Converter
Used at higher power levels (> 0.5 kW )
CurrentSource Converter
More rugged (no shootthrough) but both switches must
not be open simultaneously
Ferrite Core Material
Several materials to choose from based on applications
Core Utilization in Various
Converter Topologies
At high switching frequencies, core losses limit excursion
of flux density
Control to Regulate Voltage Output
Linearized representation of the feedback control system
Linearization of the Power Stage
x = A1x + B1vd , dTs
x = A2 x + B2vd , (1 d)Ts
vo = C1x , dTs
vo = C2 x , (1 d)Ts
x = [ A1d + A2 (1 d)]x +[B1d + B2 (1 d)]vd
vo = [C1d + C2 (1 d)]x
X + x = {A1 (D + d ) + A2[1 (D + d )]}(X + x) + [B1 (D + d ) + B2[1 (D + d )]Vd
~
= [ A1D + A1 d + A2 (1 D) A2 d](X + x) +[B1D + B1 d + B2 (1 D) B2 d]Vd
~
= [ A1D + A2 (1 D)]X +[B1D + B2 (1 D)]Vd +[(A1 A2 ) X + (B1 B2 )Vd ] d
~
~ ~
+[ A1D + A2 (1 D)]x+ ( A1 A2 ) d x
Linearization of the Power Stage
X + x AX + BVd + A x+[(A1 A2 ) X + (B1 B2 )Vd ] d
X = 0 = AX + BVd
~
x = A x+[(A1 A2 ) X + (B1 B2 )Vd ] d
~
Vo + vo = {C1(D + d ) + C2[1 (D + d )][X + x]
~
~ ~
= [C1D + C2 (1 D)]X +[(C1 C2 ) X ] d +[C1D + C2 (1 D)] x+ (C1 C2 ) x d
~
Vo + vo CX +[(C1 C2 ) X ] d + C x
Vo = CX
vo = C x+[(C1 C2 ) X ] d
Linearization of the Power Stage
X = 0 = AX + BVd
and Vo = CX
Steadystate
Vo
1
= CA B
Vd
DC voltage transfer ratio
~
x = A x+[(A1 A2 ) X + (B1 B2 )Vd ] d
~
s x(s) = A x(s) +[(A1 A2 ) X + (B1 B2 )Vd ] d (s)
~
x(s) = [sI A] [(A1 A2 ) X + (B1 B2 )Vd ] d (s)
vo = C x+[(C1 C2 ) X ] d
Tp (s) =
vo (s)
~
d (s)
= C[sI A]1[(A1 A2 ) X + (B1 B2 )Vd ] + (C1 C2 ) X
Forward Converter: An Example
Vd + L x1 + rL x1 + R(x1 C x2 ) = 0
x2 + Crc x2 + R(x1 C x2 ) = 0
A1 =A2
Rrc + RrL + rcrL
R
L(R + rc )
L(R + rc ) 1
x1 =
+ L Vd
1 x2
R
x
0
2
C(R + rc )
C(R + rc )
B1
B2=0
C1=C2
Rrc
vo = R(x1 C x2 ) =
R + rc
A = A1
, B = B1D
R x1
R + rc x2
, C = C1
1 C = C1 = C2 [rc 1]
rc + rL
L
L
R >> (rC + rL ) A = A1 = A2
1
1 B = B D = 1/ LD
1
0
CR
C
1
1
Vo
R + rc
LC
1
CR
L
=D
D
A =
1
Vd
R + (rc + rL )
rc + rL
1+ (rc + rL ) / R
L
C
~
Tp (s) =
vo (s)
~
= C[sI A]1[(A1 A2 ) X + (B1 B2 )Vd ] + (C1 C2 ) X
d (s)
1+ srcC
o2
s + z
Vd
= Vd
2
z s2 + 2os + o2
LC{s + s[1/ CR+ (rc + rL ) / L] +1/ LC}
Forward Converter:
Transfer Function Plots
o2
s + z
Tp (s) = Vd
z s2 + 2os + o2
Flyback Converter:
Transfer Function Plots
(1+ s / z1)(1 s / z 2 )
Tp (s) = Vd f (D)
as2 + bos + c
Linearizing the PWM Block
Tm (s) =
d (s)
~
1
^
vc (s) Vr
vo (s) vo (s) d (s)
Tl (s) = ~ = ~
= Tp (s)Tm (s)
~
vc (s) d (s) vc (s)
Typical Gain and Phase Plots of the
OpenLoop Transfer Function
Definitions of the crossover frequency, phase and gain margins
A General Amplifier for
Error Compensation
Can be implemented using a single opamp
Type2 Error Amplifier
Shows phase boost at the crossover frequency
FeedbackLoop Stabilization
FeedbackLoop Stabilization
Fp
Fco
K =
=
Fz
Fco
FeedbackLoop Stabilization
K =
total
lag
= 270 tan 1 K + tan 1
1
K
Fp
Fco
=
Fz
Fco
Compensator Design Example
Vo
5V
Io(nom)
10A
Io(min)
1A
Switching frequency
100kHz
Minimum output ripple 50mVPP
3V o T 3 5 10 10 6
Lo =
=
= 15 H
I on
10
Co = 65 10 6
Fo =
dI
2
= 65 10 6
= 2600 F
Vor
0.05
1
= 806 Hz
2 L o C o
Fesr =
1
1
=
= 2 . 5 kHz
6
2 R esr C o 2 65 10
Compensator Design Example
Gm =
0 .5 (V sp 1)
3
0 . 5 (11 1)
= + 4 . 5 dB
3
G m + G s = 4 . 5 + 20 log(
2 .5
) = 4 .5 6 = 1 .5 dB
5
R2 = R1 100 ( 40 dB ) = 1k 100 = 100 k
Compensator Design Example
Fco =
1
Fs = 20 kHz
5
Fco
20 k
=
= 8 lag = 97
Fesr
2 .5 k
EA lag = 360 45 97 = 218 K = 4
Fco 20
1
=
= 5 kHz C 1 =
= 318 pF
Fz =
K
4
2 (100 k )( 5 k )
1
= 20 pF
F p = K Fco = 4 20 = 80 kHz C 2 =
2 (100 k )( 80 k )
Voltage FeedForward
Makes converter immune from input voltage variations
Voltage versus Current Mode Control
Various Types of Current Mode Control
Peak Current Mode Control
Slope compensation is needed
A Typical PWM Control IC
Current Limiting
Implementing Electrical Isolation
in the Feedback Loop
Implementing Electrical Isolation
in the Feedback Loop
Input Filter
Needed to comply with the EMI and harmonic limits
ESR of the Output Capacitor
ESR often dictates the peakpeak voltage ripple
Chapter 11
Power Conditioners and
Uninterruptible Power Supplies
Becoming more of a concern as utility deregulation proceeds
Distortion in the Input Voltage
The voltage supplied by the utility may not be sinusoidal
Typical Voltage Tolerance
Envelope for Computer Systems
This has been superceded by a more recent standard
Typical Range of Input Power Quality
Electronic Tap Changers
Controls voltage magnitude by connecting the output to
the appropriate transformer tap
Uninterruptible Power Supplies
(UPS)
Block diagram; energy storage is shown to be in
batteries but other means are being investigated
UPS: Possible Rectifier Arrangements
The input normally supplies power to the load as well
as charges the battery bank
UPS: Another Possible Rectifier
Arrangement
Consists of a highfrequency isolation transformer
UPS: Another Possible Input
Arrangement
A separate small battery charger circuit
Battery Charging Waveforms as
Function of Time
Initially, a discharged battery is charged with a constant current
UPS: Various Inverter Arrangements
Depends on applications, power ratings
UPS: Control
Typically the load is highly nonlinear and the voltage output
of the UPS must be as close to the desired sinusoidal
reference as possible
UPS Supplying Several Loads
With higher power UPS supplying several loads,
malfunction within one load should not disturb the other
loads
Another Possible UPS Arrangement
Functions of battery charging and the inverter are combined
UPS: Using the Line Voltage as Backup
Needs static transfer switches
Chapter 16
Residential and Industrial Applications
Significant in energy conservation; productivity
Inductive Ballast of Fluorescent Lamps
Inductor is needed to limit current
RapidStart Fluorescent Lamps
Starting capacitor is needed
Electronic Ballast for Fluorescent Lamps
Lamps operated at ~40 kHz
Induction Cooking
Pan is heated directly by circulating currents increases
efficiency
Industrial Induction Heating
Needs sinusoidal current at the desired frequency: two options
Welding Application
SwitchMode Welders
Can be made much lighter weight
Chapter 17
Electric Utility Applications
These applications are growing rapidly
HVDC Transmission
There are many such systems all over the world
Control of HVDC Transmission System
Inverter is operated at the minimum extinction angle
and the rectifier in the currentcontrol mode
HVDC Transmission: ACSide Filters
Tuned for the lowest (11th and the 13th harmonic)
frequencies
Effect of Reactive Power on
Voltage Magnitude
ThyristorControlled Inductor (TCI)
Increasing the delay angle reduces the reactive power
drawn by the TCI
ThyristorSwitched Capacitors (TSCs)
Transient current at switching must be minimized
Instantaneous VAR Controller (SATCOM)
Can be considered as a reactive current source
Characteristics of Solar Cells
The maximum power point is at the knee of the characteristics
Photovoltaic Interface
This scheme uses a thyristor inverter
Harnessing of Wing Energy
A switchmode inverter may be needed on
the wind generator side also
Active Filters for Harmonic Elimination
Active filters inject a nullifying current so that the current
drawn from the utility is nearly sinusoidal
Chapter 18
Utility Interface
Power quality has become an important issue
Various Loads Supplied by
the Utility Source
PCC is the point of common coupling
DiodeRectifier Bridge
Typical Harmonics in the Input Current
Singlephase dioderectifier bridge
Harmonic Guidelines: IEEE 519
Commonly used for specifying limits on the input current
distortion
Harmonic Guidelines: IEEE 519
Limits on distortion in the input voltage supplied by the utility
Reducing the Input Current Distortion
use of passive filters
PowerFactorCorrection (PFC) Circuit
For meeting the harmonic guidelines
PowerFactorCorrection (PFC)
Circuit Control
generating the switch on/off signals
PowerFactorCorrection (PFC) Circuit
Operation during each halfcycle
SwitchMode Converter Interface
Bidirectional power flow; unity PF is possible
SwitchMode Converter Control
DC bus voltage is maintained at the reference value
SwitchMode Converter Interface
EMI: Conducted Interefence
Common and differential modes
Switching Waveforms
Typical rise and fall times
Conducted EMI
Various Standards
Conducted EMI Filter
Turnoff Snubber
D
D F
Io
R s
C s
Iotfi
Cs=2V ,
d
Io
Df
V
D s
S
Turnoff
snubber
Io i
i
C s
ton>2.3RsCs, Vd/Rs<0.2Io
sw
Cs
sw
Turnon Snubber
isw
+
D
R
Snubber
circuit
Ls
Ls
D
Io
+
Ls
D
V
Ls
Io
Without
With
snubber snubber
Ls
di
Ls sw
dt
Ls
Sw
LsIo
vsw= t
ri
toff>2.3Ls/Rs
v
sw
Sw
V
d
Pr=1/2LsIo^2fs
Aspects of EMC (EMIEMS)
EMC is concerned with the generation,
transmission, and reception of
electromagnetic energy
EMI occurs if the received energy
causes the receptor to behave in an
undesired manner
EMI Sources and Sensors
Three Ways to Prevent Interference
y
Suppress the emission at its source
Make the coupling path as inefficient as
possible
Make the receptor less susceptible to
the emission
Four Basic EMC Problems
Other Aspects of EMC
EMC Requirements
Those required by governmental agencies
Those imposed by the product manufacturer
Frequency Range of
EMC Requirements
National Regulations Summary
Federal Communications
Commission (FCC)
Class A for use in a commercial, industrial
or business environment
Class B for use in a residential
environment
FCC Emission for Class B
FCC Emission for Class A
Comparison of the FCC Class A and
Class B Radiated Emission Limits
Open Area Test Site
Chamber for Measurement of
Radiated Emissions
Radiated EMI Test Setup
Antennas
Conducted EMI Test Setup
Line Impedance Stabilization Network
(LISN)
Conducted Emissions Test Layout
Conducted Emissions Test Layout
CISPR Bandwidth Requirements
Three Detection Modes
Envelope
Detector
QuasiPeak
Detector
Average
Detector
Design Constraints for Products
y Product Cost
y Product Marketability
y Product Manufacturability
y Product Development Schedule
Advantages of EMC Design
y Minimizing the additional cost required
by suppression elements or redesign
y Maintaining the development and product
announcement schedule
y Insuring that the product will satisfy
the regulatory requirements
Effects of Component Leads
Resistors
1000, Carbon Resistor
having 1/4 Inch Lead Lengths
Capacitors
470 pF Ceramic Capacitor with
Short Lead Lengths
470 pF Ceramic Capacitor with
1/2 Inch Lead Lengths
0.15 F Tantalum Capacitor with
Short Lead Lengths
0.15 F Tantalum Capacitor with
1/2 Inch Lead Lengths
Inductors
1.2H Inductor
CommonMode Choke
CommonMode Choke
Frequency Response of the
Relative Permeabilities of Ferrite
Ferrite Beads
MultiTurn Ferrite Beads
Driver Circuit of the DC Motor
The Periodic, Trapezoidal Pulse
Train Representing Clock and
Data Signals
The key parameters that contribute to the highfrequency spectral content of the waveform are the
risetime and falltime of the pulse.
The Spectra of 1V, 10MHz,
50% Duty Cycle Trapezoidal Pulse Trains
for Rise/Falltime of 20ns/5ns
Spectrum Analyzer
The Effect of Bandwidth on Spectrum
The Effects of DifferentialMode
Current and CommonMode Currents
Commonmode current often produce larger radiated
emissions than the differentialmode currents
DifferentialMode Current Emission
E D , max

 = Kf
ID
Radiated Emission due to
the DifferentialMode Currents
Common Mistakes that Lead to
Unnecessarily Large DM Emissions
CommonMode Current Emission
E C , max

= Kf L
IC
Radiated Emission due to
the CommonMode Currents
Susceptibility Models
10V/m, 100MHz Incident
Uniform Plane Wave
Measurement of Conducted Emissions
Line Impedance Stabilization Network
(LISN)
DifferentialMode and CommonMode
Current Components
Methods of Reducing the CommonMode
Conducted Emissions
Definition of the Insertion Loss
of a Filter
Four Simple Filters
V L , wo
L
IL = 20 log 10 (
) = 20 log 10 (
)
RS + RL
V L ,w
Insertion Loss Tests
Conducted EMI Filter
CommonMode Choke
The Equivalent Circuit of the Filter
for CommonMode Currents
The Equivalent Circuit of the Filter
for DifferentialMode Currents
The Dominant Component of
Conducted Emission
I Total = I C I
A Device to Separate the CM
and DM Conducted Emissions
Measured Conducted Emissions
without Power Supply Filter
Measured Conducted Emissions
with 3300pF LinetoGround Cap.
Measured Conducted Emissions
with a 0.1F LinetoLine Cap.
Measured Conducted Emissions
with a Green Wire Inductor
Measured Conducted Emissions
with a CommonMode Choke
Nonideal Effects in Diodes
Construction of Transformers
The Effect of PrimarytoSecondary
Capacitance of a Transformer
The Proper Filter Placement in the
Reduction of Conducted Emissions
Crosstalk
The unintended EM coupling between wires and
PCB lands that are in close proximity.
Crosstalk between wires in cables or between lands
on PCBs concerns the intrasystem interference
performance of the product.
ThreeConductor Transmission
Line illustrating Crosstalk
Wiretype Line illustrating Crosstalk
PCB Transmission Lines
illustrating Crosstalk
The Equivalent Circuit of TEM Wave
on ThreeConductor Transmission Line
The Simple InductiveCapacitive
Coupling Model
Frequency Response of the Crosstalk
Transfer Functions
NE
^
VS
= j(
R NE
Lm
R NE R FE
RLC m
+
)
R NE + R FE R S + R L R NE + R FE R S + R L
IND
CAP
= j ( M NE
+ M NE
)
^
FE
VS
= j(
R FE
Lm
R NE R FE
RLC m
+
)
R NE + R FE R S + R L R NE + R FE R S + R L
IND
CAP
= j ( M FE
+ M FE
)
Effect of Load Impedance
Commonimpedance Coupling
V NE
^
IND
CAP
CI
= j ( M NE
+ M NE
) + M NE
VS
^
V FE
^
VS
IND
CAP
CI
= j ( M FE
+ M FE
) + M FE
TimeDomain Crosstalk for R=50
TimeDomain Crosstalk for R=1K
The Capacitance Equivalent for
the Shielded Receptor Wire
The Lumped Equivalent Circuit for
Capacitive Coupling
^ CAP
NE
^ CAP
= V FE
R NE R FE
C RS C GS
VG DC
R NE + R FE C RS + C GS
Illustration of Placing a Shield
on Inductive Coupling
The Lumped Equivalent Circuit
for Inductive Coupling
^ IND
NE
^
R NE
R SH
=
j LGR I G
R NE + R FE
R SH + j L SH
SF =
R SH
R SH
+ j LSH
Explanation of the Effect
of Shield Grounding
Twisted Wires
The InductiveCapacitive
Coupling Model
Terminating a Twisted Pair
A Model for the Unbalanced
Twisted Receptor Wire Pair
Explanation of the Effect
of an Unbalanced Twisted Pair
The Three Levels of
Reducing Inductive Crosstalk
A Coupling Model
for the Balanced Termination
The Effect of Balanced
and Unbalanced Terminations
Purposes of a Shield
To prevent the emissions of the electronics
of the product from radiating outside the
boundaries of the product
To prevent radiated emissions external to
the product from coupling to the products
electronics
Degradation of Shielding
Effectiveness
Termination of a Cable Shield
to a Noisy Point
y
The cable shield may become a monopole antenna, if
the ground potential is varying
Peripheral cables such as printer cables for PC tend
to have lengths of order 1.5m, which is a quarterwavelength at 50MHz
Resonances in the radiated emissions of a product due
to commonmode currents on these types of
peripheral cables are frequently observed in the
frequency range of 50100MHz
Shielding Effectiveness
y
R represents
the reflection loss
A represents
the absorption loss
M represents
the additional effects
of multiple reflections
SE dB = R dB + AdB + M dB
/ transmissions
Reflection Loss
R dB
y
)
r o
By referring to
copper,
R dB
y
1
o
20 log 10 ( ) 20 log 10 (
4
4
r
= 168 + 10 log 10 (
)
r f
The reflection loss is larger at lower
frequencies and highconductivity metals
Absorption Loss
AdB = 20 log 10 e
t/
= 131 .4 t
f r r
The absorption loss increases with increasing
frequencies as
Shielding Effectiveness
Shielding Effectiveness
y Reflection loss is the primary contributor to
the shielding effectiveness at low frequencies
y At the higher frequencies, ferrous materials
increase the absorption loss and the total
shielding effectiveness
Shielding Effectiveness of Metals
The Methods of Shielding against
LowFrequency Magnetic Fields
The permeability of ferromagnetic materials decreases
with increasing frequency
The permeability of ferromagnetic materials decrease
with increasing magnetic field strength
The Frequency Dependence
of Various Ferromagnetic Materials
The Phenomenon of Saturation of
Ferromagnetic Materials
The Bands to Reduced the
Magnetic Field of Transformer
Leakage Flux
Effects of Apertures
Since it is not feasible to determine the direction of the
induced current and place the slot direction appropriately,
a large number of small holes are used instead
ESD Events
y
Typical rise times are of order 200ps70ns, with a
total duration of around 100ns2s
The peak levels may approach tens of amps for a
voltage difference of 10kV
The spectral content of the arc may have large
amplitudes, and can extend well into the GHz
frequency range
Effects of the ESD Events
y The intense electrostatic field created by
the charge separation prior to the ESD arc
y The intense arc discharge current
Three Techniques for Preventing
Problems Caused by an ESD Event
y
Prevent occurrence of the ESD event
Prevent or reduce the coupling (conduction or radiation)
to the electronic circuitry of the product (hardware
immunity)
Create an inherent immunity to the ESD event in the
electronic circuitry through software (software
immunity)
Preventing the ESD Event
y
Electronic components such as ICs are placed in pink
polyethlene bags or have their pins inserted in antistatic
foam for transport
Some products can utilize charge generation prevention
techniques
For example, printers constantly roll paper around a
rubber platen. This causes charge to be stripped off the
paper, resulting in a building of static charge on the rubber
platen.
Wires brushes contacting the paper or passive ionizers
prevent this charge building
Hardware Immunity
y Secondary arc discharges
y Direct conduction
y Electric field (Capacitive) coupling
y Magnetic field (Inductive) coupling
Preventing the Secondary
Arc Discharges
Singlepoint Ground
Use of Shielded Cables to
Exclude ESD Coupling
The Methods of Preventing
ESDinduced Currents
Reduction of Loop Area in
Power Distribution Circuits
Reduction of Loop Areas to Reduce
the Pickup of Signal Lines
Software Immunity
y Watchdog routines that periodically check
whether program flow is correct
y The use of parity bits, checksums and errorcorrecting codes can prevent the recording of
ESDcorrupted data
y Unused module inputs should be tied to ground
or +5V to prevent false triggering by an ESD
event
Packaging Consideration
A critical aspect of incorporating good EMC design is
an awareness of these nonideal effects throughout
the functional design process
Another critical aspect in successful EMC design of a
system is to not place reliance on brute force fixes
such as shielding and grounding
Commonimpedance Coupling
The Effect of Conductor
Inductance on Ground Voltage
Segregation of Grounds
Ground Problems between
Analog and Digital Grounds
The Generation and Blocking of
CM Currents on Interconnect Cables
Methods for Decoupling
Subsystems
Interconnection and
Number of PCBs
z It is preferable to have only one system PCB rather
than several smaller PCBs interconnected by cables
z The PCBs can be interconnected by plugging their
edge connectors into the motherboard
Use of Interspersed Grounds
to Reduce Loop Areas
PCB and Subsystem Placement
Attention should be paid to the placement and
orientation of the PCBs in the system
Decoupling Subsystems
y
Commonmode currents flowing between subsystems can
be effectively blocked with ferrite, commonmode
chokes
Another method of decoupling subsystems is insert a
filter in the connection wires or lands between the
subsystems. This filter can be in the form of RC packs,
ferrite beads, or a combination
Highfrequency signals on the power distribution system
between subsystems can be reduced by the use of
decoupling capacitors
Splitting Crystal/ Oscillator Frequencies
The 16th harmonics (32MHz and 31.696MHz) are separated by
304kHz, so that they will not add in the bandwidth of the receiver
The 100th harmonic of the 2MHz signal (200MHz) and the 101st
harmonic of the 1.981MHz signal (200.081MHz) will be within
81kHz of each other and will add in the bandwidth of the receiver
Component Placement
Component Placement
A Good Layout for a
Typical Digital System
Creation of a Quiet Ground
where Connectors Enter a PCB
Unintentional Coupling of Signals
between Chip Bonding Wires
Placing a small inductor in series with that pin to block
the highfrequency signal
Ferrite beads could also be used, but their impedance is
typically limited to a few hundred ohms
Use of Decoupling Capacitors
Decoupling Capacitor Placement
Minimizing the Loop Area of
the Power Distribution Circuits