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MAT132

Take Home Exam 1


Name___
Please copy and paste all requested Minitab output into the document. Type all other
answers in the space for the problem. For any problem where you need to do a
Fisher's LSD calculation, please type out the formula that you use to find the LSD. If
you cannot make a square root symbol, you can use the following abbreviation:
sqrt(x) = If you are told that you are a consultant or asked to provide advice, you
must provide the type of answer that would be most appropriate in a professional
setting. Think: If someone was paying me for this, what kind of answer would that
client want?
1. Carolina, Inc. has three stores located in three different areas. Random samples of
the sales of the three stores (in $1,000) are shown below. Please note that the
sample sizes are not equal. (9 points)
Store 1
Store 2
Store 3
88

76

85

84

78

67

88

60

58

82

62

93

a) Copy/Paste the ANOVA table obtained from Minitab.

Source
Factor
Error
Total

DF
2
9
11

SS
902.3
710.0
1612.3

MS
451.1
78.9

F
5.72

P
0.025

b) At 95% confidence, test to see if there is a significant difference in the


average sales of the three stores. If a significant difference exists, use
Fishers LSD to determine which pairs are significantly different.
1) Since P- value= 0.025 < = 0.05, we support that at least 1 Mean is
different.
Inverse Cumulative Distribution Function
Student's t distribution with 9 DF

P( X <= x )
0.975

x
2.26216

T/2 = 2.26216

Level
Store 1
Store 2
Store 3

N
5
4
3

Mean
87.000
69.000
70.000

Individual 95% CIs For Mean Based on


Pooled StDev
StDev --+---------+---------+---------+------4.243
(--------*--------)
9.309
(---------*---------)
13.748 (-----------*-----------)
--+---------+---------+---------+------60
70
80
90

[MSE (1/n + 1/n )]


= 2.26216 [78.9 (1/5 + 1/4)]

LSD(5,4) = t/2

= 13.4793

[MSE (1/n + 1/n )]


= 2.26216 [78.9 (1/5 + 1/3)]

LSD(5,3) = t/2

= 14.6744

[MSE (1/n + 1/n )]


= 2.26216 [78.9 (1/4 + 1/3)]

LSD(4,3) = t/2

= 15.3469
M1 M2 = 18 > LSD(5,4)
M1 M3 = 17 > LSD(5,3)
M2 M3 = 1 < LSD(4,3)
Pairs 1, 2 and 1, 3 are significantly different.

2. A dietician wants to see if there is any difference in the effectiveness of three diets.
Eighteen people were randomly chosen for the test. Then each individual was
randomly assigned to one of the three diets. Below you are given the total amount of
weight lost in six months by each person. (9 points)
Diet A
14
18
20
12
20
18

Diet B
12
10
12
12
16
12

a. State the null and alternative hypotheses.

Diet C
25
32
18
14
17
14

H0 : M1= M2 = M3
H1 : At least 1 Mean is different.
b. Copy/Paste the ANOVA table obtained from Minitab.

Source
Factor
Error
Total

DF
2
15
17

SS
179.1
327.3
506.4

MS
89.6
21.8

F
4.10

P
0.038

c. What would you advise the dietician about the effectiveness of the three diets?
Use a .05 level of significance.
1) Since P- value= 0.038 < = 0.05, we reject H 0 and support that at least 1
Mean is different.
Inverse Cumulative Distribution Function
Student's t distribution with 15 DF
P( X <= x)
0.975

x
2.13145

T/2 = 2.13145

Level
A
B
C

N
6
6
6

Mean
17.000
12.333
20.000

Individual 95% CIs For Mean Based on


Pooled StDev
StDev ---------+---------+---------+---------+
3.286
(----------*---------)
1.966 (---------*---------)
7.127
(---------*---------)
---------+---------+---------+---------+
12.0
16.0
20.0
24.0

[MSE (1/n + 1/n )]


= 2.13145 [21.8 (1/6 + 1/6)]

LSD(6,6) = t/2

= 5.7457
MA MB = 5 < LSD(6,6)
MA MC = 3 < LSD(6,6)
MB MC = 8 > LSD(6,6)
2) There appears to be a significant difference in the effectiveness of the Diet
Pairs B and C.

3. The Ahmadi Corporation wants to increase the productivity of its line workers. Four
different programs have been suggested to help increase productivity. Twenty
employees, making up a sample, have been randomly assigned to one of the four
programs and their output for a day's work has been recorded. You are given the
results below. (9 points)
Program A
150
130
120
180
145

Program B
150
120
135
160
110

Program C
185
220
190
180
175

Program D
175
150
120
130
175

a.Copy/Paste the ANOVA table obtained from Minitab.

Source
Factor
Error
Total

DF
3
16
19

SS
8750
7600
16350

MS
2917
475

F
6.14

P
0.006

b.As the statistical consultant to Ahmadi, what would you advise them? Use a .05
level of significance.
H0 : M1= M2 = M3 = M4
H1 : At least 1 Mean is different.
Conclusion:
1) Since P- value= 0.006< = 0.05, we reject H0.
2) We conclude that at least 1 program Mean is significantly different.

4. The marketing department of a company has designed three different boxes for its
product. It wants to determine if there is a significant difference amongst the
number of sales for the three boxes. Each box will be test marketed in five different
stores for a period of a month. Below you are given the information on sales.
(9 points)
Box 1
Box 2
Box 3

Store 1
210
195
295

Store 2
230
170
275

Store 3
190
200
290

Store 4
180
190
275

Store 5
190
193
265

a.Copy/Paste the ANOVA table obtained from Minitab.

Source
Store
Box
Error
Total

DF
4
2
8
14

SS
711.1
24467.2
2022.1
27200.4

MS
177.8
12233.6
252.8

F
0.70
48.40

P
0.611
0.000

b.What conclusion do you draw?


Box Hypothesis:
H0 : M1= M2 = M3
H1 : At least 1 Mean is different.
Conclusion:
1) Since P- value= 0.000< = 0.05, we reject H0.
2) We can conclude that box is a significant factor.

5. Complete the following ANOVA table for a completely randomized design


where 8 experimental units were used in each of 6 levels of the factor. Show
how you find the p-value. Copy and paste either the graph of the F distribution
with the shaded p-value or the output from the session window for the nongraphical method. (9 points)
Source of
Variation

Sum of
Squares

Degrees of
Freedom

Mean Square

Treatments 1300

260

23.4839 3.4954
* 10-11

Error

42

11.0714

465

p-value

Total

1765

nt = 48

47

K= 6

= 0.05

Distribution Plot
F, df1=5, df2=42
0.8
0.7

Density

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0

6.

3.4954E-11
23.4839

A research organization wishes to determine whether four brands of batteries for


transistor radios perform equally well. Three batteries of each type were randomly
selected and installed in the three test radios. The number of hours of use for each
battery is given below. (10 points)
Radio
A
B
C

1
25
29
21

Brand
2
27
38
28

3
20
24
16

4
28
37
19

a. Use the analysis of variance procedure for completely randomized designs to


determine whether there is a significant difference in the mean useful life of the
four types of batteries. (Ignore the fact that there are different test radios.)
Use the .05 level of significance. Copy/Paste the ANOVA table obtained from
Minitab and state your conclusion.
H0 : M1= M2 = M3 = M4

H1 : At least 1 Mean is different.

Two-way ANOVA: Batteries versus Brand, Radio


Source
Brand
Radio
Error
Total

DF
3
2
6
11

SS
198
248
52
498

MS
66.000
124.000
8.667

F
7.62
14.31

P
0.018
0.005

Conclusion:
1) Since P- value= 0.018< = 0.05, we reject H0.
2) We can conclude that the brand of the batteries is a significant factor.
b. Now consider the three different test radios and carry out the analysis of
variance procedure for a randomized block design. Copy/Paste the ANOVA
table obtained from Minitab and state your conclusion.
H0 : M1= M2 = M3
H1 : At least 1 Mean is different.

Two-way ANOVA: Batteries versus Brand, Radio


Source
Brand
Radio
Error
Total

DF
3
2
6
11

SS
198
248
52
498

MS
66.000
124.000
8.667

F
7.62
14.31

P
0.018
0.005

Conclusion:
1) Since P- value= 0.005< = 0.05, we reject H0.
2) We can conclude that the test radio of the batteries is a significant factor.
c. Compare the results in Parts a and b.
In part a, there is a significant difference in the mean useful life of the four
types of batteries, while there is significant difference in test radios in part b.

7. Employees of MNM Corporation are about to undergo a retraining program.


Management is trying to determine which of three programs is the best. They also
want to know if gender is a significant factor and if the effectiveness of the programs
is affected by gender. A factorial experiment was designed. You are given the
following information. (9 points)

Factor B: Sex
Factor A: Program
Program A

Male
320
240
160
180
240
290

Program B
Program C

Female
380
300
240
210
360
380

What advice would you give MNM? Use a .05 level of significance.
Copy/Paste the ANOVA table obtained from Minitab and state your conclusion.
ANOVA Table:
Source
Gender
Program
Interaction
Error
Total

DF
1
2
2
6
11

SS
16133.3
36150.0
1516.7
8500.0
62300.0

MS
16133.3
18075.0
758.3
1416.7

F
11.39
12.76
0.54

P
0.015
0.007
0.611

Gender:
H 0 : M 1= M2
H 1 : M 1 M2
Since P- value= 0.015< = 0.05, we reject H0 and conclude that Gender is a
significant factor.

Program:
H 0 : M 1= M2 = M 3
H1 : At least 1 Mean is different.
Since P- value= 0.007< = 0.05, we reject H0 and conclude that Program is a
significant factor.
Interaction GP:
H0 : No Interaction
H1 : Significant interaction
1) Since P- value= 0.611> = 0.05, we fail to reject H0 and conclude that there is
not significant interaction.
2) This means that which program is most effective does not depend on gender.
8.
Five drivers were selected to test drive 2 makes of automobiles. The following
table shows the number of miles per gallon for each driver driving each car.
Drivers

Automobile
A
B

1
30
36

2
31
35

3
30
28

4
27
31

5
32
30

Consider the makes of automobiles as treatments and the drivers as blocks. Test
to see if there is any difference in the miles/gallon of the two makes of automobiles.
Let = .05. Copy/Paste the ANOVA table obtained from Minitab and state your
conclusion. (9 points)
Automobile:
H 0 : M 1= M2
H 1 : M 1 M2
ANOVA TABLE:

Source
Automobile
Drivers
Error
Total

DF
1
4
4
9

SS
10
32
28
70

MS
10
8
7

F
1.43
1.14

P
0.298
0.450

Since P- value= 0.298> = 0.05, we fail to reject H0 and conclude that the makes
of automobiles are not a significant factor.
9.

A factorial experiment involving 2 levels of factor A and 2 levels of factor B resulted in


the following.
Factor B
Level 1

Level 1
14
16

Level 2
18
12

18
20

16
14

Factor A
Level 2

Test for any significant main effect and any interaction effect. Use = .05.
Copy/Paste the ANOVA table obtained from Minitab and state your conclusion.
points)
ANOVA TABLE:
Source
DF SS MS
F
P
Factor B
1
8
8 1.33 0.312
Factor A
1
8
8 1.33 0.312
Interaction
1
8
8 1.33 0.312
Error
4 24
6
Total
7 48
Factor B:

(9

H 0 : M 1= M2
H 1 : M 1 M2
Since P- value= 0.312> = 0.05, we fail to reject H0 and conclude that Factor B is
not a significant factor.
Factor A:
H 0 : M 1= M2
H 1 : M 1 M2
Since P- value= 0.312> = 0.05, we fail to reject H0 and conclude that Factor A is
not a significant factor.
Interaction AB:
H0 : No Interaction
H1 : Significant interaction
1) Since P- value= 0.312> = 0.05, we fail to reject H0 and conclude that there is
not significant interaction.
2) This means that Factor A does not depend on Factor B.
10. Bob is a telemarketer. He has a difficult job and he is not particularly good at it.
His employer has calculated that Bob makes a sale on only 7% of his calls. Assume
that this probability remains constant for all of his calls. Bob makes 75 calls during a
workday. Calculate the following probabilities. (9 points)
a) Bob makes exactly 12 sales. Copy/Paste your Minitab output. You can
copy/paste either your histogram with the area shaded or the output from the session
window for the non-graphical method.
n= 75
p= .07
P(x=12) = 0.00374

Distribution Plot

b)

Binomial, n=75, p=0.07


0.20

Probability

0.15

0.10

0.05

0.00

0.00374
0

12

13

Bob makes fewer than 6 sales. Copy/Paste your Minitab output. You can copy/paste
either your histogram with the area shaded or the output from the session window for
the non-graphical method.
n= 75; p= .07
P(x<6) = 0.571

Distribution Plot
Binomial, n=75, p=0.07
0.20

Probability

0.15
0.571
0.10

0.05

0.00

13

c) On Friday, Bob's boss tells him that if he does not make at least 10 sales that day,
he will no longer have a job. What is the probability that Bob has a job at the end of
the day? Copy/Paste your Minitab output. You can copy/paste either your histogram
with the area shaded or the output from the session window for the non-graphical
method.
n= 75; p= .07
P(x10) = 0.0360
Distribution Plot
Binomial, n=75, p=0.07
0.20

Probability

0.15

0.10

0.05

0.00

0.0360
0

10

11. Timmy the trash picker collects items of value from other people's trash. From
experience he knows that he expects to find 3 items of value for every 15 miles that
he trash picks. He also knows that the probability of finding an item of value is the
same for any 2 intervals of equal distance that he trash picks. Timmy plans to trash
pick a 50-mile route. Calculate the following probabilities. (9 points)
a) Timmy finds exactly 20 items of value. Copy/Paste your Minitab output. You can
copy/paste either your histogram with the area shaded or the output from the session
window for the non-graphical method.
Mean: (3*50)/15 = 10
P(x=20) = .00187

Distribution Plot

b)

Poisson, Mean=10
0.14
0.12

Probability

0.10
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0.00

0.00187
2

20 21

Timmy finds 5 or fewer items of value. Copy/Paste your Minitab output. You can
copy/paste either your histogram with the area shaded or the output from the session
window for the non-graphical method.
Mean: (3*50)/15 = 10
P (x5) = 0.0671

Distribution Plot
Poisson, Mean=10
0.14
0.12

Probability

0.10
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0.00

0.0671

21

c) Timmy finds 10 or more items of value. Copy/Paste your Minitab output. You can
copy/paste either your histogram with the area shaded or the output from the session
window for the non-graphical method.
Mean: (3*50)/15 = 10
P(x10) = 0.542

Distribution Plot
Poisson, Mean=10
0.14
0.12

Probability

0.10
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.542

0.02
0.00

10