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Guitar chord
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In music, a guitar chord is a set of notes played on a

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guitar. A chord's notes are often played simultaneously,

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but they can be played sequentially in an arpeggio.

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The implementation of guitar chords depends on the guitar

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tuning. Most guitars used in popular music have six strings

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with the "standard" tuning of the Spanish classical-guitar,

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namely E-A-D-G-B-E' (from the lowest pitched string to the

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highest); in standard tuning, the intervals present among

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adjacent strings are perfect fourths except for the major

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third (G,B). Standard tuning requires four chord-shapes for

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the major triads. There are separate chord-forms for


chords having their root note on the third, fourth, fifth, and
sixth strings. For a six-string guitar in standard tuning, it
may be necessary to drop or omit one or more tones from
the chord; this is typically the root or fifth. The layout of

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notes on the fretboard in standard tuning often forces

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guitarists to permute the tonal order of notes in a chord.

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Ry Cooder plays slide guitar using


an open tuning that allows major
chords to be played by barring the
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The playing of conventional chords is simplified by open

strings anywhere along their length.

tunings, which are especially popular in folk, blues guitar


and non-Spanish classical guitar (such as English and
Russian guitar). For example, the typical twelve-bar blues uses only three chords, each of which
can be played (in every open tuning) by fretting six-strings with one finger. Open tunings are used
especially for steel guitar and slide guitar. Open tunings allow one-finger chords to be played with
greater consonance than do other tunings, which use equal temperament, at the cost of increasing
the dissonance in other chords.

The playing of (3-5 string) guitar chords is simplified by the class of alternative tunings called

regular tunings, in which the musical intervals are the same for each pair of consecutive strings.

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Regular tunings include major-thirds tuning, all-fourths, and all-fifths tunings. For each regular
tuning, chord patterns may be diagonally shifted down the fretboard, a property that simplifies
beginners' learning of chords and that simplifies advanced players' improvisation. On the other
hand, in regular tunings 6-string chords (in the keys of C, G, and D) are more difficult to play.
Conventionally, guitarists double notes in a chord to increase its volume, an important technique
for players without amplification; doubling notes and changing the order of notes also changes the
timbre of chords. It can make a possible a "chord" which is composed of the all same note on
different strings. Many chords can be played with the same notes in more than one place on the
fretboard.
Contents [hide]
1 Musical fundamentals
1.1 Intervals
1.1.1 Perfect fifths
1.1.1.1 Cycle of fifths
1.1.1.2 Power chord

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1.2 Chords in music theory


1.2.1 Triads
1.2.1.1 Major
1.2.1.1.1 Progressions
1.2.1.2 Minor
1.2.2 Seventh chords: Major-minor chords with dominant function
1.3 Twelve-bar blues
2 Playing chords: Open strings, inversion, and note doubling
3 Fundamental chords
3.1 Standard tuning
3.1.1 Power chords: Fingerings
3.1.2 Triads
3.1.2.1 Major
3.1.2.2 Minor
3.1.3 Dominant sevenths: Drop two
3.1.4 Other chord inversions
3.2 Alternate tunings
3.2.1 Open tunings
3.2.2 Regular tunings
4 Intermediate chords
4.1 Tertian harmonization
4.1.1 More triads: Diminished and augmented
4.1.2 More sevenths: Major, minor, and (half-)diminished
4.1.3 Chord progression: Circle of fifths
4.2 Specific tunings
4.2.1 Standard tuning: Minor and major sevenths
4.2.2 Major-thirds tuning
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5 Advanced chords and harmony


5.1 Sequences of thirds and seconds
5.2 Extended chords
5.3 Alternative harmonies
5.3.1 Scales and modes
5.3.2 Beyond tertian harmony
5.3.2.1 Quartal and quintal harmony
6 See also
7 References
7.1 Footnotes
7.2 Citations
7.3 Bibliography
8 Further reading
8.1 Berklee College of Music
9 External links

Musical fundamentals

[edit]

The theory of guitar-chords respects harmonic conventions of Western music. Discussions of


basic guitar-chords rely on fundamental concepts in music theory: the twelve notes of the octave,
musical intervals, chords, and chord progressions.

Intervals [edit]
Main article: Interval (music)
See also: Major scale
The octave consists of twelve notes. Its natural notes
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constitute the C major scale, (C, D, E, F, G, A, B, and C).


The intervals between the notes of a chromatic scale are
listed in a table, in which only the emboldened intervals
are discussed in this article's section on fundamental
chords; those intervals and other seventh-intervals are
discussed in the section on intermediate chords. The
unison and octave intervals have perfect consonance.
Octave intervals were popularized by the jazz playing of
Wes Montgomery. The perfect-fifth interval is highly
consonant, which means that the successive playing of the

The chromatic circle lists the twelve


notes of the octave. Consecutive notes
differ by exactly one semitone.

two notes from the perfect fifth sounds harmonious.


A semitone is the distance between two
adjacent notes on the chromatic circle,
which displays the twelve notes of an
octave.[1]

A one-octave C major scale.


C major scale
Sorry, your brow ser either has JavaScript
disabled or does not have any supported
player.
You can dow nload the clip or dow nload a
player to play the clip in your brow ser.
One octave played up and dow n in the c
major scale on the piano
Problems playing this file? See media help.

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Initial eight harmonics on C, namely


(C,C,G,C,E,G,B,C)
Play simultaneously (helpinfo)

Intervals
Number of Minor, major, or perfect
semitones

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intervals

Audio

Harmoniousness[2][3]

Perfect unison

Play (helpinfo) Open consonance

Minor second

Play (helpinfo) Sharp dissonance

Major second

Play (helpinfo) Mild dissonance

Minor third

Play (helpinfo) Soft consonance

Major third

Play (helpinfo) Soft consonance

Perfect fourth

Play (helpinfo) Ambivalence

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Augmented fourth

Play (helpinfo) Ambiguous

Perfect fifth

Play (helpinfo) Open consonance

Minor sixth

Play (helpinfo) Soft consonance

Major sixth

Play (helpinfo) Soft consonance

10

Minor seventh

Play (helpinfo) Mild dissonance

11

Major seventh

Play (helpinfo) Sharp dissonance

12

Octave

Play (helpinfo) Open consonance

As indicated by their having been emboldened in the table, a handful of intervalsthirds (minor
and major), perfect fifths, and minor seventhsare used in the following discussion of fundamental
guitar-chords.
As already stated, the perfect-fifths (P5) interval is the most harmonious, after the unison and
octave intervals. An explanation of human perception of harmony relates the mechanics of a
vibrating string to the musical acoustics of sound waves using the harmonic analysis of Fourier
series. When a string is struck with a finger or pick (plectrum), it vibrates according to its harmonic
series. When an open-note C-string is struck, its harmonic series begins with the terms
(C,C,G,C,E,G,B,C). The root note is associated with a sequence of intervals, beginning with the
unison interval (C,C), the octave interval (C,C), the perfect fifth (C,G), the perfect fourth (G,C),
and the major third (C,E). In particular, this sequence of intervals contains the thirds of the C-major
chord {(C,E),(E,G)}.[4]
"With a note of music, one strikes the fundamental, and, in addition to the root note,
other notes are generated: these are the harmonic series.... As one fundamental note
contains within it other notes in the octave, two fundamentals produce a remarkable
array of harmonics, and the number of possible combinations between all the notes
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array of harmonics, and the number of possible combinations between all the notes
increases phenomenally. With a triad, affairs stand a good chance of getting severely
out of hand."
Robert Fripp, Denyer (1992, p. 114)
Perfect fifths [edit]
The perfect-fifth interval is featured in guitar playing and in sequences of chords. The sequence of
fifth intervals built on the C-major scale is used in the construction of triads, which is discussed
below.[5]

Sorry, your browser either has JavaScript


disabled or does not have any supported
player.
You can download the clip or download a
player to play the clip in your browser.
Cycle of fifths [edit]
Concatenating the perfect fifths ((F,C), (C,G), (G,D), (D,A), (A,E), (E,B),...) yields the sequence of
fifths (F,C,G,D,A,E,B,...); this sequence of fifths displays all the notes of the octave.[6] This
sequence of fifths shall be used in the discussions of chord progressions, below.
Power chord [edit]
Main article: Power chord
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Main article: Power chord


The perfect-fifth interval is called a power chord by guitarists,
who play them especially in blues and rock music.[7][8]
The Who's guitarist, Peter Townshend, performed
power chords with a theatrical windmill-strum.[7][9]
Power chords are often played with the notes repeated in
higher octaves.[7]
Although established, the term "power chord" is inconsistent
with the usual definition of a chord in musical theory, which
requires three (or more) distinct notes in each chord.[7]

The Who's Peter Townshend


often used a theatrical "windmill"
strum to play "power chords"a
root, fifth, and octave.

Chords in music theory [edit]


A brief overview
The musical theory of chords is reviewed, to
provide terminology for a discussion of guitar
chords. Three kinds of chords, which are
emphasized in introductions to guitarplaying,[10][11] are discussed. These basic
chords arise in chord-triples that are
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conventional in Western music, triples that


are called three-chord progressions. After
each type of chord is introduced, its role in
three-chord progressions is noted.
Intermediate discussions of chords derive

C Major (C,E,G) begins


with the major third (C,E).

C Minor (C,E,G) begins


with minor third (C,E).

Major and minor triads contain major-third and minorthird intervals in different orders.

both chords and their progressions


simultaneously from the harmonization of scales. The basic guitar-chords can be constructed by
"stacking thirds", that is, by concatenating two or three third-intervals, where all of the lowest notes
come from the scale.[12]
Triads [edit]
Major [edit]
Both major and minor chords are examples of musical triads, which contain three distinct notes.
Triads are often introduced as an ordered triplet:
the root;
the third, which is above the root by either a major third (for a major chord) or a minor third (for
a minor chord);
the fifth, which is a perfect fifth above the root; consequently, the fifth is a third above the third
either a minor third above a major third or a major third above a minor third.[13][14] The major
triad has a root, a major third, and a fifth. (The major chord's major-third interval is replaced by
a minor-third interval in the minor chord, which shall be discussed in the next subsection.)
Major chords
Chord Root Major third Fifth
C
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B[15]

For example, a C-major triad consists of the (root, third, fifth)-notes (C, E, G).
The three notes of a major triad have been introduced as an ordered triplet, namely (root, third,
fifth), where the major third is four semitones above the root and where the perfect fifth is seven
semitones above the root. This type of triad is in closed position. Triads are quite commonly
played in open position: For example, the C-major triad is often played with the third (E) and
fifth (G) an octave higher, respectively sixteen and nineteen semitones above the root. Another
variation of the major triad changes the order of the notes: For example, the C-major triad is often
played as (C,G,E), where (C,G) is a perfect fifth and E is raised an octave above the perfect third
(C,E). Alternative orderings of the notes in a triad are discussed below (in the discussions of chord
inversions and drop-2 chords).
In popular music, a subset of triads is emphasizedthose with notes from the three major-keys (C,
G, D), which also contain the notes of their relative minor keys (Am, Em, Bm).[16]
Progressions [edit]

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The major chords are highlighted by


the three-chord theory of chord
progressions, which describes the
three-chord song that is archetypal in
popular music. When played
sequentially (in any order), the chords
from a three-chord progression sound
harmonious ("good together").[17]

Stacking the C-major scale with thirds creates a chord


progression Play (helpinfo), traditionally enumerated with the
Roman numerals I, ii, iii, IV, V, vi, viio . Its major-key subprogression C-F-G (I-IV-V) is conventional in popular music. In
this progression, the minor triads ii-iii-vi appear in the relative
minor key (Am)'s corresponding chord progression.

The most basic three-chord


progressions of Western harmony have only major chords.
In each key, three chords are designated with the Roman
numerals (of musical notation): The tonic (I), the
subdominant (IV), and the dominant (V). While the chords
of each three-chord progression are numbered (I, IV, and
V), they appear in other orders.[17][18]
Basic three-chord progressions[17][19]
Key Tonic (I) Subdominant (IV) Dominant (V)
C

Elvis Presley's "Hound Dog" used


the I-IV-V chord progression.

In the 1950s the I-IV-V chord progression was used in


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"Hound Dog" (Elvis Presley) and in "Chantilly Lace" (The Big Bopper).[20]
Major-chord progressions are constructed in the harmonization of major scales in triads.[21] For
example, stacking the C-major scale with thirds creates a chord progression, which is traditionally
enumerated with the Roman numerals I, ii, iii, IV, V, vi, viio; its sub-progression C-F-G (I-IV-V) is
used in popular music,[22] as already discussed. Further chords are constructed by stacking
additional thirds. Stacking the dominant major-triad with a minor third creates the dominant
seventh chord, which shall be discussed after minor chords.
Minor [edit]
A minor chord has the root and the fifth of the
corresponding major chord, but its first interval is a minor
third rather than a major third:
Minor chords
Chord Root Minor third Perfect fifth
Cm[15] C

Dm

Em

Fm[15] F

Gm[15] G

Bm[15] B

Am

An A-minor scale has the same


pitches as the C major scale, because
the C major and A minor keys are
relative major and minor keys.
Play (helpinfo)

Minor chords arise in the harmonization of the major scale in thirds, which was already discussed:
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The minor chords have the degree positions ii, iii, and vi.
Minor three-chord progressions[18][23]
Key Tonic (I) Subdominant (IV) Dominant (V)
Cm Cm

Fm

G7

Dm Dm

Gm

A7

Em Em

Am

B7

Gm Gm

Cm

D7

Am Am

Dm

E7

Minor chords arise as the tonic notes

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Minor chords arise as the tonic notes


of minor keys that share the same key
signature with major keys. From the
major key's I-ii-iii-IV-V-vi-viio
progression, the "secondary" (minor)
triads ii-iii-vi appear in the relative
minor key's corresponding chord
progression as i-iv-v (or i-iv-V or i-ivV7): For example, from C's vi-ii-iii
progression Am-Dm-Em, the chord Em
is often played as E or E7 in a minor
chord progression.[24] Among basic
chords, the minor chords (D,E,A) are
the tonic chords of the relative minors
of the three major-keys (F,G,C):
Key

Major

Minor

signature

key

key

F major

D minor

C major

A minor

G major

E minor

Major and minor keys that share the same key signature are
paired as relative-minor and relative-major keys.

The technique of changing among relative keys (pairs of relative majors and relative minors) is a
form of modulation.[25] Minor chords are constructed by the harmonization of minor scales in
triads.[26]
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Seventh chords: Major-minor chords with dominant function [edit]


Adding a minor seventh to a major
triad creates a dominant seventh
(denoted V7). In music theory, the
"dominant seventh" described here is
called a major-minor seventh,
emphasizing the chord's construction

The previously noted chord progression with a dominant


seventh Play (helpinfo). The dominant seventh (V7) chord
G7=(G,B,D,F) increases the tension with the tonic (I) chord C.

rather than its usual function.[27]


Dominant sevenths are often the
dominant chords in three-chord progressions,[18] in which they increase the tension with the tonic
"already inherent in the dominant triad".[28]
Dominant seventh chords
Chord Root Major third Perfect fifth Minor seventh
C7

D7

E7

F7[15]

G7

A7

B7

The dominant seventh discussed is the most commonly played seventh chord.[29][30]
Three-chord progressions[18][31]
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Three-chord progressions[18][31]
Key Tonic (I) Subdominant (IV) Dominant (V)
C

G7

A7

B7

D7

E7

An A-major I-IV-V7 chord progression A-D-E7 was used by


Paul McCartney in the song "3 Legs" on his album Ram.[32]
These progressions with seventh chords arise in the
harmonization of major scales in seventh

chords.[33][34]

Twelve-bar blues [edit]

Paul McCartney used an A-major IIV-V7 chord-progression in "3 Legs",


which is also an example of the twelvebar blues.

Be they in major key or minor key, such I-IV-V chordprogressions are extended over twelve bars in popular musicespecially in jazz, blues, and rock
music.[35][36] For example, a twelve-bar blues progression of chords in the key of E has three sets
of four bars:
E-E-E-E7
A-A-E-E
B7-A-E-B7;
this progression is simplified by playing the sevenths as major chords.[35] The twelve-bar blues
structure is used by McCartney's "3 Legs",[32] which was noted earlier.
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Playing chords: Open strings, inversion, and note doubling

[edit]

See also: Open string (music), Inversion (music) and Voicing (music)
The implementation of musical chords on guitars depends on the tuning. Since standard tuning is
most commonly used, expositions of guitar chords emphasize the implementation of musical chords
on guitars with standard tuning. The implementation of chords using particular tunings is a defining
part of the literature on guitar chords, which is omitted in the abstract musical-theory of chords for
all instruments.
For example, in the guitar (like other stringed instruments but unlike the piano), open-string notes
are not fretted and so require less hand-motion. Thus chords that contain open notes are more
easily played and hence more frequently played in popular music, such as folk music. Many of the
most popular tuningsstandard tuning, open tunings, and new standard tuningare rich in the
open notes used by popular chords. Open tunings allow major triads to be played by barring one
fret with only one finger, using the finger like a capo. On guitars without a zeroth fret (after the
nut), the intonation of an open note may differ from then note when fretted on other strings;
consequently, on some guitars, the sound of an open note may be inferior to that of a fretted
note.[37]
Unlike the piano, the guitar has the same notes on different strings. Consequently, guitar players
often double notes in chord, so increasing the volume of sound. Doubled notes also changes the
chordal timbre: Having different "string widths, tensions and tunings, the doubled notes reinforce
each other, like the doubled strings of a twelve-string guitar add chorusing and depth".[38] Notes
can be doubled at identical pitches or in different octaves. For triadic chords, doubling the third
interval, which is either a major third or a minor third, clarifies whether the chord is major or
minor.[39]
Unlike a piano or the voices of a choir, the guitar (in standard tuning) has difficulty playing the
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chords as stacks of thirds, which would require the left hand to span too many frets,[40] particularly
for dominant seventh chords, as explained below. If in a particular tuning chords cannot be played
in closed position, then they often can be played in open position; similarly, if in a particular tuning
chords cannot be played in root position, they can often be played in inverted positions. A chord is
inverted when the bass note is not the root note. Additional chords can be generated with drop-2
(or drop-3) voicing, which are discussed for standard tuning's implementation of dominant seventh
chords (below).
When providing harmony in accompanying a melody,
guitarists may play chords all-at-once or as arpeggios.
Arpeggiation was the traditional method of playing chords
for guitarists for example in the time of Mozart.
Contemporary guitarists using arpeggios include Johnny
Marr of The Smiths.

Fundamental chords

Johnny Marr is known for providing


harmony by playing arpeggiated
chords.

[edit]

Standard tuning [edit]


A six-string guitar
has five musicalintervals between
its consecutive
strings. In standard
tuning, the
intervals are four
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In the standard guitar-tuning, one


major-third interval is interjected amid

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perfect-fourths and
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major-third interval is interjected amid


four perfect-fourth intervals.

one major-third,
the comparatively
irregular interval

for the (G,B) pair. Consequently, standard tuning requires


four chord-shapes for the major chords. There are
separate chord-forms for chords having their root note on
the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth strings.[41] Of course, a
beginner learns guitar by learning notes and chords,[42]
and irregularities make learning the guitar difficult[43]
even more difficult than learning the formation of plural
nouns in German, according to Gary Marcus.[44]
Nonetheless, most beginners use standard tuning.[45]
Another feature of standard tuning is that the ordering of
notes often differs from root position. Notes are often
inverted or otherwise permuted, particularly with seventh
chords in standard tuning,[46] as discussed below.
Power chords: Fingerings [edit]
As previously discussed, each power chord has only one
interval, a perfect fifth between the root note and the
fifth.[7] In standard tuning, the following fingerings are
conventional:

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In standard tuning, the C-major


chord has three shapes because of the
irregular major-third between the Gand B-strings.

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E5

G5

G5

Triads [edit]
Triads are usually played with doubled notes,[47] as the
following examples illustrate.
Major [edit]
Commonly used major-chords are convenient to play in
standard tuning, in which fundamental chords are available
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in open position, that is, the first three frets and additional
open strings.
For the C major chord (C,E,G,), the conventional left-hand
fingering doubles the C and E notes in the next octave; this

A barre chord ("E Major shape"),


with the index finger used to bar the
strings.

fingering uses two open-notes, E and G:

C major chord in open


position

E on the first string


C on the second string
G on the third string
E on the fourth string
C on the fifth string
Sixth string is not played.[48]
For the other commonly used chords, the conventional fingerings also double notes and feature
open-string notes:

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A Major Chord

D Major Chord

E Major Chord

G Major Chord

Besides doubling the fifth note, the conventional E-major chord features a tripled bass-note.[47]
The B major and F major chords are commonly played as barre chords, with the first finger
depressing fivesix strings.

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B Major Chord

F Major Chord

B major chord has the same shape as the A major chord but it is located two frets further up the
fretboard. The F major chord is the same shape as E major but it is located one fret further up the
fretboard.
Minor [edit]
Minor chords (commonly notated as C-, Cm, Cmi or Cmin) are the same as major chords except
that they have a minor third instead of a major third. This is a difference of one semitone.
To create F minor from the F major chord (in E major shape), the second finger should be lifted so
that the third string plays onto the barre. Compare the F major to F minor:

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F Major Chord

F Minor Chord

The other shapes can be modified as well:


Chord
name

Fret numbers

E minor

[0 2 2 0 0 0]

A minor

[X 0 2 2 1 0]

D minor

[X X 0 2 3 1]

Dominant sevenths: Drop two [edit]


As previously stated, a dominant seventh is a four-note
chord combining a major chord and a minor seventh. For
example, the C7 dominant seventh chord adds B to the
C-major chord (C,E,G). The naive chord (C,E,G,B)
spans six frets from fret 3 to fret 8;[49] such seventh chords
"contain some pretty serious stretches in the left hand".[46]
An illustration shows a naive C7 chord, which would be
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extremely difficult to play,[49] besides the open-position C7


chord that is conventional in standard tuning.[49][50] The
standard-tuning implementation of a C7 chord is a secondinversion C7 drop 2 chord, in which the second-highest
note in a second inversion of the C7 chord is lowered by
an octave.[49][51][52] Drop-two chords are used for sevenths
chords besides the major-minor seventh with dominant
function,[53] which are discussed in the section on

In standard tuning, the C7 chord has


notes on frets 3-8. Covering six frets is
difficult, and so C7 is rarely played.
Instead, an "alternative voicing" is
substituted.

intermediate chords, below. Drop-two chords are used


particularly in jazz guitar.[54] Drop-two second-inversions are
examples of openly voiced chords, which are typical of
standard tuning and other popular guitar-tunings.[55]
"Alternatively voiced" seventh chords are commonly played
with standard tuning. A list of fret-number configurations for
some common chords follows:
E7:[020100]
G7:[320001]

Dominant seventh chord on C,


played on guitar in open position
Play (helpinfo) and as a barre
chord Play (helpinfo).

A7:[X02020]
B7:[X21202] (This B7 requires no barre, unlike the B major.)
D7:[XX0212]
Other chord inversions [edit]
Already in basic guitar-playing, inversion is important for sevenths chords in standard tuning. It is
also important for playing major chords.
In standard tuning, chord inversion depends on the bass note's string, and so there are three
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different forms for the inversion of each major chord, depending on the position of the irregular
major-thirds interval between the G and D strings.
For example, if the note E (the open sixth string) is played over the A minor chord, then the chord
would be [0 0 2 2 1 0]. This has the note E as its lowest tone instead of A. It is often written as
Am/E, where the letter following the slash indicates the new bass note. However, in popular music
it is usual to play inverted chords on the guitar when they are not part of the harmony, since the
bass guitar can play the root pitch.

Alternate tunings [edit]


Main article: Guitar tunings Alternative
There are many alternate tunings. These change the way
chords are played, making some chords easier to play and
others harder.
Open tunings each allow a chord to be played by
strumming the strings when "open", or while fretting no
strings.[57][58] Open tunings are common in blues and
folk music,[59] and they are used in the playing of slide
guitar.[60][61]
Drop tunings are common in hard rock and heavy metal
music. In drop-D tuning, the standard tuning's E-string
is tuned down to a D note. With drop-D tuning, the
bottom three strings are tuned to a root-fifth-octave (DA-D) tuning, which simplifies the playing of power
chords.[62][63]
Regular tunings allow chord note-forms to be shifted all
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Chords have consistent shapes


everywhere on the fretboard for each

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Regular tunings allow chord note-forms to be shifted all


around the fretboard, on all six strings (unlike standard

regular tuning, for example, majorthirds (M3) tuning.

or other non-regular tunings). Knowing a few notepatternsfor example of the C major, C minor, and C7
chordsenables a guitarist to play all
such chords.[64]
Open tunings [edit]
Main article: Open tuning
An open tuning allows a chord to be played by
strumming the strings when "open", or while
fretting no strings. The base chord consists of
at least three notes and may include all the
strings or a subset. The tuning is named for
the base chord when played open, typically a
major triad, and each major-triad can be
played by barring exactly one fret.[60] Open
tunings are common in blues and folk
music,[59] and they are used in the playing of
slide and lap-slide ("Hawaiian") guitars.[60][61]
Ry Cooder uses open tunings when he plays
slide guitar.[59]
Open tunings improve the intonation of major
chords by reducing the error of third intervals
in equal temperaments. For example, in the
open-G overtones tuning G-G-D-G-B-D, the
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Chords can be shifted diagonally in regular


tunings.

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(G,B) interval is a major third, and of course

In major-thirds tuning, chords are inverted by raising


notes by three strings on the same frets. The
inversions of a C major chord are shown.[56]

Chords vertically shift.


Major-thirds tuning repeats its notes after three strings.

each successive pair of notes on the G- and B-strings is also a major third; similarly, the openstring minor-third (B,D) induces minor thirds among all the frets of the B-D strings. The thirds of
equal temperament have audible deviations from the thirds of just intonation: Equal temperaments
is used in modern music because it facilitates music in all keys, while (on a piano and other
instruments) just intonation provided better-sounding major-third intervals for only a subset of
keys.[65] "Sonny Landreth, Keith Richards and other open-G masters often lower the second string
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slightly so the major third is in tune with the overtone series. This adjustment dials out the
dissonance, and makes those big one-finger major-chords come alive."[66]
Repetitive open-tunings are used for two non-Spanish classical-guitars. For the English guitar the
open chord is C major (C-E-G-C-E-G);[67] for the Russian guitar which has seven strings, G major
(G-B-D-G-B-D-G).[68] Mixing a perfect fourth and a minor third along with a major third, these
tunings are on-average major-thirds regular-tunings. While on-average major-thirds tunings are
conventional open tunings, properly major-thirds tunings are unconventional open-tunings,
because they have augmented triads as their open chords.[69]
Regular tunings [edit]
Main article: Regular tunings
See also: Repetitive tuning
Guitar chords are dramatically simplified by the class of alternative tunings called regular tunings.
In each regular tuning, the musical intervals are the same for each pair of consecutive strings.
Regular tunings include major-thirds (M3), all-fourths, augmented-fourths, and all-fifths tunings.
For each regular tuning, chord patterns may be diagonally shifted down the fretboard, a property
that simplifies beginners' learning of chords and that simplifies advanced players'
improvisation.[70][71][72] The diagonal shifting of a C major chord in M3 tuning appears in a diagram.
Further simplifications occur for the regular tunings that are repetitive, that is, which repeat their
strings. For example, the E-G-c-e-g-c' M3 tuning repeats its octave after every two strings. Such
repetition further simplifies the learning of chords and improvisation;[71] This repetition results in
two copies of the three open-strings' notes, each in a different octave. Similarly, the B-F-B-F-B-F
augmented-fourths tuning repeats itself after one string.[73]
A chord is inverted when the bass note is not the root note. Chord inversion is especially simple in
M3 tuning. Chords are inverted simply by raising one or two notes by three strings; each raised
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note is played with the same finger as the original note. Inverted major and minor chords can be
played on two frets in M3 tuning.[56][74] In standard tuning, the shape of inversions depends on the
involvement of the irregular major-third, and can involve four frets.[75]
It is a challenge to adapt conventional guitar-chords to new standard tuning, which is based on allfifths tuning.[76]

Intermediate chords

[edit]

After major and minor triads are learned, intermediate guitarists play seventh chords.

Tertian harmonization [edit]


Stacking of third intervals
The fundamental guitar-chordsmajor and
minor triads and dominant seventhsare
tertian chords, which concatenate third

Types of triads:

intervals, with each such third being either

i (helpinfo),

I (helpinfo),

i (helpinfo),

I (helpinfo)

major (M3) or minor (m3).


More triads: Diminished and augmented [edit]
As discussed above, major and minor triads are constructed by stacking thirds:
The major triad concatenates (M3,m3), supplementing M3 with a perfect-fifth (P5) interval, and
the minor triad concatenates (m3, M3), supplementing m3 with a P5 interval.
Similar tertian harmonization yields the remaining two triads:
the diminished triad concatenates (m3,m3), supplementing m3 with a diminished-fifth interval,
and
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the augmented triad concatenates (M3,M3), supplementing M3 with an augmented-fifth


interval.
More sevenths: Major, minor, and (half-)diminished [edit]
Stacking thirds also constructs the most used seventhchords. The most important seventh-chords concatenate a
major triad with a third interval, supplementing it with a
seventh interval:
1. The (dominant) major-minor seventh concatenates
a major triad with another minor third,
supplementing it with a minor-seventh interval.
2. The major seventh concatenates a major triad with
a major third, supplementing it with a major-seventh
interval.
3. The minor seventh concatenates a minor triad with
a minor third, supplementing it with a minor-seventh
interval.
4. The half-diminished seventh concatenates a
diminished triad with a major third, supplementing it
with a diminished-seventh interval.
5. The (fully) diminished seventh concatenates a
diminished triad with a minor third, supplementing it
with a diminished-seventh interval.[77]

Sevenths chords are constructed by


stacking third intervals on the C-major
scale. Fretboard diagrams for majorthirds tuning are shown.
Sevenths via tertian harmonization of major s

Four of these five seventh-chordsall but the diminished


seventhare constructed via the tertian harmonization of
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a major scale.[78] As already stated,


the major-minor seventh has the dominant V7 function.
The major seventh plays the tonic (I7) and subdominant (IV7) roles;
the minor seventh plays the ii7, iii7, and vi7 roles.
the half-diminished seventh plays the vii7 role.
While absent from the tertian harmonization of the major scale,
the diminished seventh plays the viio7 role in the tertian harmonization of the harmonic minor
scale.[78]
Besides these five types there are many more seventh-chords, which are less used in the tonal
harmony of the common-practice period.[77]

An approximate "ranking by frequency of the seventh chords in


major".[79]
Play V7 (helpinfo) (Dominant),
(Half-diminished),
IM7 (helpinfo), or

ii7 (helpinfo) (Minor),

IVM7 (helpinfo) (Major),

vii7 (helpinfo)

vi7 (helpinfo),

iii7 (helpinfo).

When playing seventh chords, guitarists often play only subset of notes from the chord. The fifth is
often omitted. When a guitar is accompanied by a bass, the guitarist may omit the bass note from
a chord. As discussed earlier, the third of a triad is doubled to emphasize its major or minor quality;
similarly, the third of a seventh is doubled to emphasize its major or minor quality. The most
frequent seventh is the dominant seventh; the minor, half-diminished, and major sevenths are also
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popular.[79]
Chord progression: Circle of fifths [edit]
The previously discussed I-IV-V chord progressions of
major triads is a subsequence of the circle progression,
which ascends by perfect fourths and descends by perfect
fifths: Perfect fifths and perfect fourths are inverse
intervals, because one reaches the same pitch class by
either ascending by a perfect fourth (five semitones) or
descending by a perfect fifth (seven semitones). For
example, the jazz standard Autumn Leaves contains the
iv7-VII7-VIM7-ii7-i circle-of-fifths chord-progression;[80] its
sevenths occur in the tertian harmonization in sevenths of
the minor scale.[81] Other subsequences of the fifths-circle
chord-progression are used in music. In particular, the ii-VI progression is the most important chord progression in

Sevenths chords arising in the


tertian harmonization of the C-major
scale, arranged by the circle of perfect
fifths (perfect fourths). Fretboard
diagrams for major-thirds tuning are
shown. FifthsC.mid (helpinfo)

jazz music.

Specific tunings [edit]


Standard tuning: Minor and major sevenths [edit]
Besides the dominant seventh chords discussed above, other seventh chordsespecially minor
seventh chords and major seventh chordsare used in guitar music.
Minor seventh chords have the following fingerings in standard tuning:
Dm7: [XX0211]
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Em7: [020000]
Am7: [X02010]
Bm7: [X20202]
Fm7: [202220]or ([XX2222] Also an A/F Chord)
Major seventh chords have the following fingerings in standard tuning:
Cmaj7: [X32000]
Dmaj7: [XX0222]
Emaj7: [021100]
Fmaj7: [103210]
Gmaj7: [320002]
Amaj7: [X02120]
Major-thirds tuning [edit]
In major-thirds (M3) tuning, the chromatic scale is arranged on three consecutive strings in four
consecutive frets.[82][83] This four-fret arrangement facilitates the left-hand technique for classical
(Spanish) guitar:[83] For each hand position of four frets, the hand is stationary and the fingers
move, each finger being responsible for exactly one fret.[84] Consequently, three hand-positions
(covering frets 14, 58, and 912) partition the fingerboard of classical guitar,[85] which has
exactly 12 frets.[note 1]
Only two or three frets are needed for the guitar chordsmajor, minor, and dominant sevenths
which are emphasized in introductions to guitar-playing and to the fundamentals of music.[10][86]
Each major and minor chord can be played on exactly two successive frets on exactly three
successive strings, and therefore each needs only two fingers. Other chordsseconds, fourths,
sevenths, and ninthsare played on only three successive frets.[87]
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Advanced chords and harmony

[edit]

Sequences of thirds and seconds [edit]


The circle of fifths was discussed in the section on intermediate guitar-chords. Other progressions
are also based on sequences of third intervals;[88] progressions are occasionally based on
sequences of second intervals.[89]

Extended chords [edit]


As their categorical name suggests,
extended chords indeed extend seventh chords by
stacking one or more additional third-intervals,
successively constructing ninth, eleventh, and
finally thirteenth chords; thirteenth chords contain
all seven notes of the diatonic scale. In closed
position, extended chords contain dissonant
intervals or may sound supersaturated, particularly
thirteenth chords with their seven notes.
Consequently, extended chords are often played

Commonly voiced with only four notes in open


position, ninth and eleventh chords often play a
dominant (V) role. Play 9th (left) (helpinfo)
Play 11th (helpinfo)

with the omission of one or more tones, especially


the fifth and often the third,[90][91] as already noted
for seventh chords; similarly, eleventh chords often omit the ninth, and thirteenth chords the ninth
or eleventh. Often, the third is raised an octave, mimicking its position in the root's sequence of
harmonics.[90]
Dominant ninth chords were used by Beethoven, and eleventh chords appeared in Impressionist
music. Thirteenth chords appeared in the twentieth century.[92] Extended chords appear in many
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musical genres, including jazz, funk, rhythm and blues, and progressive rock.[91]

Alternative harmonies [edit]


Scales and modes [edit]
Conventional music uses diatonic harmony, the major and minor keys and major and minor scales,
as sketched above. Jazz guitarists must be fluent with jazz chords and also with many scales and
modes; "of all the forms of music, jazz ... demands the highest level of musicianshipin terms of
both theory and technique".[93]
Whole-tone scales were used by King Crimson for the title track on its Red album of 1974;[94][95]
whole-tone scales were also used by King Crimson guitarist Robert Fripp on "Fractured".[94]
Beyond tertian harmony [edit]
In popular music, chords are often extended also with
added tones, especially added sixths.[96]
Quartal and quintal harmony [edit]
Chords are also systematically constructed by stacking not
only thirds but also fourths and fifths, supplementing
tertian majorminor harmony with quartal and quintal
harmonies. Quartal and quintal harmonies are used by
guitarists who play jazz, folk, and rock music.
Quartal harmony has been used in jazz by guitarists such

Disliking the sound of thirds (in


equal-temperament tuning), Robert
Fripp builds chords with perfect
intervals in his new standard tuning.

as Jim Hall (especially on Sonny Rollins's The Bridge),


George Benson ("Skydive"), Kenny Burrell ("So What"),
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and Wes Montgomery ("Little Sunflower").[97]


Harmonies based on fourths and fifths also appear in folk guitar. On her 1968 debut album Song
to a Seagull, Joni Mitchell used both quartal and quintal harmony in "Dawntreader", and she used
quintal harmony in "Seagull".[98]
Quartal and quintal harmonies also appear in alternate tunings. It is easier to finger the chords
that are based on perfect fifths in new standard tuning than in standard tuning. New standard
tuning was invented by Robert Fripp, a guitarist for King Crimson. Preferring to base chords on
perfect intervalsespecially octaves, fifths, and fourthsFripp often avoids minor thirds and
especially major thirds,[99] which are sharp in equal temperament tuning (in comparison to thirds in
just intonation).
Alternative harmonies can also be generated by stacking second intervals (major or minor).[100]

See also

[edit]

Mel Bay's Deluxe Encyclopedia of Guitar Chords


Voice leading

References

[edit]

Footnotes [edit]
1. ^ Classical guitars have 12 frets, while steel-string acoustics have 14 or more (Denyer 1992, p. 45).
Electrical guitars have more frets, for example 20 (Denyer 1992, p. 77).

Citations [edit]
1. ^ An octave is the interval between one musical pitch and another with double (or half) its frequency.
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2. ^ Persichetti (1961, p. 14)


3. ^ Denyer (1992, Playing the guitar: The harmonic guitarist; Intervals: Interval chart, pp. 118-119)
4. ^ Persichetti (1961, pp. 2324)
5. ^ This sequence of fifths features the diminished fifth (b,f), which replaces the perfect fifth (b,f)
containing the chromatic note f, which is not a member of the C-major key. The note f (of the Cmajor scale) is replaced by the note f in the Lydian chromatic scale (Russell, "The fundamental
harmonic structure of the Lydian scale", Example 1:7, "The C Lydian scale", p. 5).
Russell, George (2001) [1953]. "Chapter 1 The Lydian scale: The seminal source of the principal
of tonal gravity". George Russell's Lydian chromatic concept of tonal organization. Volume One:
The art and science of tonal gravity (Fourth (Second printing, corrected, 2008) ed.). Brookline,
Massachusetts: Concept Publishing Company. pp. 19. ISBN 0-9703739-0-2.

Sorry, your browser either has JavaScript disabled


or does not have any supported player.
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play the clip in your browser.
6. ^ Perfect fifths have been emphasized since the chants and hymns of medieval Christendom,
according to the medieval musical-theory called the organum.
Duarter, John (2008). Melody and harmony for guitarists. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-7866-7688-0.
7. ^ a

bc de

Denyer (1992, "The advanced guitarist; Power chords and fret tapping: Power chords", p.

156)
8. ^ Kolb (2005, "Chapter 7: Chord construction; Suspended chords, power chords, and 'add' chords",
p. 42)
9. ^ Denyer (1992, "The Guitar Innovators: Pete Townshend", pp. 22-23)
10. ^ a
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Mead (2002, pp. 28 and 81; compare p. 40)

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11. ^ Denyer (1992) and Schmid & Kolb (2002) each list the same fifteen chords for beginners: Am, A,
A7; B7; C, C7; Dm, D, D7; Em, E, E7; F; G, G7.
Denyer (1992, The beginner, Open chords, The beginner's chord dictionary, pp. 74-75) and Schmid &
Kolb (2002, Chord chart, p. 47).
12. ^ Denyer (1992, pp. 123125)
Kolb (2005, Chapter 6: Harmonizing the major scale, pp. 35-38; Chapter 7: Chord construction, pp.
40-48; and Chapter 8: Harmonizing the minor scale, pp. 49-51)
13. ^ Duckworth (2007, Chapter "11 Triads" and "12 Triads in a musical context")
14. ^ Kolb (2005, Chapter 5: Triads, Major and minor triads, pp. 30-31)
15. ^ a

bc de f

This chord does not appear among the fifteen basic-chords listed independently by

Denyer and by Schmid and Kolb: Am, A, A7; B7; C, C7; Dm, D, D7; Em, E, E7; F; G, G7.
Denyer (1992, The beginner, Open chords, The beginner's chord dictionary, pp. 74-75) and Schmid &
Kolb (2002, Chord chart, p. 47).
16. ^ Griewank (2010, p. 5)
17. ^ a

bc

Roman numeral analysis: Denyer (1992, "The beginner: The three-chord theory, Chords built

on the major scale in five common keys", p. 76)


18. ^ a

bc d

Denyer (1992, "The Beginner, The three-chord theory, Chord progressions based on the

three-chord theory", p. 77)


19. ^ Kolb (2005, Chapter 6: Harmonizing the major scale, Diatonic triads, Figure3, Harmonized major
scales (triads), p. 38)
20. ^ Everett (2008, p. 35 )
21. ^ Kolb (2005, Chapter 6: Harmonizing the major scale: Diatonic triads, pp. 35-36)
22. ^ Duckworth (2007, p. 239)
23. ^ Kolb (2005, Chapter 8: Harmonizing the major scale, Figure 4, Harmonized minor scales (triads),
p. 50)
24. ^ Denyer (1992, pp. 7778)
25. ^ Duckworth (2007, p. 156)
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26. ^ Kolb (2005, Chapter 8: Harmonizing the minor scale, Minor scale triads, pp. 49-50)
27. ^ Kostka, Payne & Almn (2013, Chapter three: Introduction to triads and seventh chords, Seventh
chords, pp. 4041, and Chapter thirteen: The V7 chord, p. 198)
28. ^ Duckworth (2007, p. 245)
29. ^ Kostka, Payne & Almn (2013, Chapter three: Introduction to triads and seventh chords, Seventh
chords, p. 4041, Chapter thirteen: The V7 chord, p. 198, and Chapter 14, The II7 and VII7 chords, p.
217)
30. ^ Kolb (2005, Chapter 6: Harmonizing the major scale, Diatonic seventh chords, pp. 37-38; Chapter
7: Chord construction, Seventh chords, Diminished seventh, dominant seventh SUS4, and
minor(maj7) chords, pp. 44-45; Chapter 8: Harmonizing the minor scale: Minor scale seventh chords,
p. 51)
31. ^ Kolb (2005, Chapter 6: Figure 5, Harmonized major scales (seventh chords), p. 38)
32. ^ a

Benitez (2010, p. 29 )

Benitez, Vincent Perez (2010). "The remaking of a Beatle: Paul McCartney as solo artist, 1970-71".
The Words and Music of Paul McCartney: The Solo Years

. Praeger. pp. 1935. ISBN 978-0-313-

34969-0.
33. ^ Kolb (2005, Chapter 6: Harmonizing the major scale, Diatonic seventh chords, pp. 37-38)
34. ^ The harmony of major chords has dominated music since the Baroque era (17th and 18th
centuries). (Benward & Saker 2003, p. 100) The Baroque period also introduced the dominant
seventh. (Benward & Saker 2003, p. 201)
Benward; Saker (2003). Music: In theory and practice I (Seventh ed.). ISBN 978-0-07-294262-0.
35. ^ a

Denyer (1992, "Playing the guitar: The beginner, The three-chord theory: Blues chord

progressions, p. 77)
36. ^ Kolb (2005, Chapter 10: Blues harmony and pentatonic scales, The 12-bar blues progression", pp.
61-62)
37. ^ LeVan, John (December 2007). "Go Nuts!"

. Acoustic Guitar (String Letter Publishing).

(subscription required) . Retrieved 24 May 2013.

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38. ^ Sethares (2001, pp. 54)


39. ^ Denyer (1992, "The harmonic guitarist: Interval inversions, Triad doubling", p. 123)
40. ^ Clendinning & Marvin (2005, p. 181)
41. ^ Denyer (1992, p. 119)
42. ^ Marcus (2012, p. 46)
43. ^ Marcus (2012, pp. 4043)
44. ^ Marcus (2012, pp. 3940)
45. ^ Marcus (2012, p. 181)
46. ^ a

Kolb (2005, Chapter 6: Harmonizing the major scale: Diatonic seventh chords, p. 37)

47. ^ a

Roche (2004, p. 104)

48. ^ Denyer (1992, p. 75)


49. ^ a

bc d

Smith (1980, pp. 9293 ): Smith, Johnny (1980). "XVII: Upper structure inversions of the

dominant seventh chords". Mel Bay's complete Johnny Smith approach to guitar. Complete.
Mel Bay Publications. pp. 9297. ISBN 1-5622-2239-2. UPC 796279002707 .
50. ^ The alternative voicing of the C7 chord follows the first seventh-chord diagram of Denyer (1992,
"The harmonic guitarist: Seventh chords: The dominant seventh chords", p. 127)
51. ^ Chapman (2000, p. 6 ): Chapman, Charles (2000). Drop-2 concept for guitar. Mel Bay
Publications, Inc. ISBN 0786644834.
52. ^ Fisher (2002, 'Drop voicing' and '7th chords in drop 2 and drop 3 voicings', pp. 30-33 ) : Fisher,
Jody (2002). "Chapter Five: Expanding your 7 chord vocabulary". Jazz guitar harmony: Take the
mystery out of jazz harmony. Alfred Music Publishing. pp. 2633. ISBN 073902468X.
UPC 038081196275 .
53. ^ Willmott (1994, Chapter 1: Drop 2 type voicings, pp. 813): Willmott, Bret (1994). Mel Bay's
complete book of harmony, theory and voicing. Mel Bay Publications. ISBN 156222994X.
54. ^ Vincent, Randy (2011). "Chapter II: Tweaking drop 2". The drop 2 book. Jazz guitar voicings I.
Sher Music Company. pp. 27. ISBN 1457101378.

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55. ^ Closed voicings, which are typical of minor-thirds tuning, are typical also of a keyboard or piano.
Sethares (2001, "The minor third tuning", p. 54).
56. ^ a

Kirkeby (2012, "Fretmaps, major chords: Major Triads"

57. ^ Roche (2004, "Open tunings", pp. 156159)


58. ^ Roche (2004, "Cross-note tunings", p. 166)
59. ^ a

bc

Denyer (1992, p. 158)

60. ^ a

bc

Sethares (2009, p. 16)

61. ^ a

Denyer (1992, p. 160)

62. ^ Roche (2004, pp. 153156)


63. ^ Denyer (1992, pp. 158159)
64. ^ "Learn a handful of chord forms in a regular tuning, and you'll know hundreds of chords!", wrote
William Sethares.
Sethares (2009, p. 2)
65. ^ Gold, Jude (1 December 1 2005). "Just desserts: Steve Kimock shares the sweet sounds of
justly tuned thirds and sevenths"

. Guitar Player. Master class. Check date values in: |date=

(help) (subscription required)


66. ^ Gold, Jude (June 2007). "Fender VG Stratocaster"

. Guitar Player. Gear: Bench Test

(Product/service evaluation).
67. ^ Hannu Annala, Heiki Mtlik (2007). "Composers for other plucked instruments: Rudolf Straube
(1717-1785)". Handbook of Guitar and Lute Composers (Translated by Katarina Backman ed.). Mel
Bay. p. 30. ISBN 0786658444; ISBN 9780786658442.

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68. ^
Ophee, Matanya (ed.). 19th Century etudes for the Russian 7-string guitar in G Op . The
Russian Collection 9. Editions Orphee. PR.494028230.
Ophee, Matanya (ed.). Selected Concert Works for the Russian 7-String Guitar in G open
tuning . The Russian Collection. 10 ("X"). Editions Orphee. PR.494028240.
Timofeyev, Oleg V. (1999). The golden age of the Russian guitar: Repertoire, performance
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70. ^ Griewank (2010, p. 3)


71. ^ a

Kirkeby, Ole (1 March 2012). "Major thirds tuning"

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72. ^ Sethares (2001, p. 52)
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82. ^ Peterson (2002, pp. 3637)


83. ^ a

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84. ^ Denyer (1992, p. 72)


85. ^ Peterson (2002, p. 37)
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Bibliography [edit]
Clendinning, Jane Piper; Marvin, Elizabeth West (2005). The musician's guide to theory and
analysis (First ed.). New York: W. W. Norton and Company. ISBN 0-393-97652-1.
Denyer, Ralph (1992). "Playing the guitar, pp. 65-160, and The chord dictionary, pp. 225-249".
The guitar handbook. Special contributors Isaac Guillory and Alastair M. Crawford (Fully
revised and updated ed.). London and Sydney: Pan Books. ISBN 0-330-32750-X.
Duckworth, William (2007). A creative approach to music fundamentals: Includes keyboard and
guitar insert (ninth ed.). 2005928009: Thomson Schirmer. pp. 1384. ISBN 0-495-09093-X.
Everett, Walter (2008). The foundations of rock: From "Blue Suede Shoes" to "Suite: Judy
Blue Eyes" . Oxford University Press. pp. 1442. ISBN 978-0-19-531024-5.
Griewank, Andreas (1 January 2010), Tuning guitars and reading music in major thirds ,
Matheon preprints 695, Rosestr. 3a, 12524 Berlin, Germany: DFG research center
"MATHEON, Mathematics for key technologies" Berlin, Postscript file

and Pdf file

Kolb, Tom (2005). Music theory. Hal Leonard Guitar Method. Hal Leonard Corporation. pp. 1
104. ISBN 0-634-06651-X.
Kostka, Stefan; Payne, Dorothy; Almn, Byron (2013). Tonal harmony with an introduction to
twentieth-century music (seventh ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-131828-0.
Macon, Edward L. (1997). Rocking the classics: English progressive rock and the
counterculture. Oxford and New York: Oxford University. ISBN 0-19-509887-0.
Marcus, Gary (2012). Guitar zero: The science of learning to be musical. Oneworld.
ISBN 9781851689323.
Mead, David (2002). Chords and scales for guitarists. London: Bobcat Books Limited: SMT.
ISBN 978-1860744327.
Persichetti, Vincent (1961). Twentieth-century harmony: Creative aspects and practice. New
York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-09539-8. OCLC 398434 .
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Peterson, Jonathon (2002). "Tuning in thirds: A new approach to playing leads to a new kind of
guitar" . American Lutherie: The Quarterly Journal of the Guild of American Luthiers (8222
South Park Avenue, Tacoma WA 98408: USA.: The Guild of American Luthiers) 72 (Winter):
3643. ISSN 1041-7176 . Retrieved 9 October 2012.
Roche, Eric (2004). "3 One-man band, 4 Exploring the fingerboard, 5 Thinking outside the
box". The acoustic guitar Bible. London: Bobcat Books Limited, SMT. pp. 74109, 110150,
and 151178. ISBN 186074432X.
Schmid, Will; Kolb, Tom (2002). "Chord chart". Guitar method: Book 1. Hal Leonard Guitar
Method (second ed.). Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 47. ISBN 0-7935-3392-9.
Sethares, Bill (2001). "Regular tunings". Alternate tuning guide

(pdf). Madison, Wisconsin:

University of Wisconsin; Department of Electrical Engineering. pp. 5267. Retrieved 19 May


2012.
Sethares, Bill (10 January 2009) [2001]. Alternate tuning guide

(pdf). Madison, Wisconsin:

University of Wisconsin; Department of Electrical Engineering. Retrieved 19 May 2012.


Sethares, William A. (18 May 2012). "Alternate tuning guide" . Madison, Wisconsin: University
of Wisconsin; Department of Electrical Engineering. Retrieved 8 December 2012.

Further reading

[edit]

Bay, William (2008). Deluxe guitar chord encyclopedia: Case-size edition. Mel Bay
Publications. ISBN 978-0-7866-7522-7.
Clendinning, Jane Piper; Marvin, Elizabeth West (2005). The musician's guide to theory and
analysis. Norton. ISBN 0-393-97652-1.
Patt, Ralph (1962). Guitar chord dictionary. H. Adler.

Berklee College of Music [edit]


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Professors at the Department of Guitar at the Berklee College of Music wrote the following books,
which like their colleagues' Chapman (2000) and Willmott (1994) are Berklee-course textbooks:
Goodrick, Mick (1987). The advancing guitarist: Applying guitar concepts and techniques. Hal
Leonard Corp. ISBN 0881885894.
Goodrick, Mick (2003). Mr. Goodchord's almanac of guitar voice-leading: Name that chord.
Mr. Goodchord's almanac of guitar voice-leading: For the year 2001 and beyond 1. Liquid
Harmony Books. ISBN 0971185808.
Goodrick, Mick; Miller, Tim (2012). Creative chordal harmony for guitar: Using generic modality
compression. Berklee Press. ISBN 0876391285.
Peckham, Rick (2007). Berklee jazz guitar dictionary. Berklee College of Music. Ha Leonard.
ISBN 0876390793.
Peckham, Rick (2009). Berklee rock guitar dictionary. Berklee College of Music. Hal Leonard.
ISBN 0876391064.

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