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INDIAN SCHOOL OF MINES DHANABD

PROJECT TITLE:- Ultimate Pit Design of ore body by using of exploration bore-hole
data of a mine by application of SURPAC.
MENTORED BY:KASHINATH PAL
ASST. PROFFESOR,
DEPARTMENT OF MINING ENGINEERING,
INDIAN SCHOOL OF MINES,DHANBAD
(Signature with date)
PREPARED BY:BISHAL
Admn. No: - 2010JE0501
9TH SEMESTER, DUAL DEGREE (MINING ENGINEERING)

CONTENT

Acknowledgement
Objective
Scope of work
Literature Review
Methodology
Work to be done
References

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I wish to record my indebtedness and gratitude to my mentor K.Pal, Assistant


Professor,Department of Mining Engineering, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad for their
constant guidance untiring encouragement and suggestion in conducting out this project
work. It is indeed a great pleasure to work under them.
I am especially thankful to ISM library, department lab and for extending their help in my
project work.

DATE:-25/11/2014

BISHAL

INTRODUCTION
OBJECTIVE:Ultimate Pit Design of ore body by using of exploration bore-hole data of a mine
by application of SURPAC.

SCOPE OF WORK: Calculation of correct volume of material removed from an area between certain
periods as required.
Reserve estimation with a view to optimize and conserve mineral resource
Multi elemental grade calculation, grade control and prediction
LITERATURE REVIEW
Introduction to SURPAC:Surpac is the worlds most popular geology and mine planning software,
supporting open pit and underground operations and exploration projects in more than 110
countries. The software delivers efficiency and accuracy through ease-of-use, powerful 3D
graphics and workflow automation that can be aligned to company-specific processes and
data flows. Surpac addresses all the requirements of geologists, surveyors, and mining
engineers in the resource sector and is flexible enough to be suitable for every commodity,
ore body and mining method. Its multilingual capabilities allow global companies to support
a common solution across their operations.
SURPAC BENEFITS: Comprehensive tools include: drill hole data management, geological modelling,
block modelling, geostatistics, mine design, mine planning, resource estimation, and
more.
Increased efficiencies within teams result from better sharing of data, skills and
project knowledge.
All tasks in Surpac can be automated and aligned to company-specific processes and
data flows.
Software ease-of-use ensures staff develops an understanding of the system and of
project data quickly.
Surpac is modular and easily customised.
Surpac reduces data duplication by connecting to relational databases and interfacing
with common file formats from GIS, CAD and other systems.
Integrated production scheduling with Gemcom MineSched.
Integrated production scheduling with Gemcom MineSched.

REQUIREMENTS TO RUN SURPAC:-

SURPAC FUNCIONALITY:GEOLOGICAL DATABASE


CREATING A GEOLOGICAL DATABASE
DISPLAYING DRILLHOLES
ADDING STYLES TO GEOLOGICAL PATTERNS
CREATION OF DRILLHOLE LAYOUT
CREATING SURFACE DTM
COMPOSITING
CREATING SECTIONS
DIGITISING SECTIONS
SOLID MODELLING
TRIANGULATION
VALIDATION
MAKING SOLID
BLOCK MODEL
CREATING A BLOCK MODEL
DISPLAYING A BLOCK MODEL
ADDING CONSTRAINT TO BLOCK MODEL
ADDING ATTRIBUTES TO BLOCK MODEL
BLOCK MODEL REPORT

ULTIMATE PIT DESIGNING


DIVIDE THE BLOCK MODEL IN DIFFERENT LEVELS
BOTTOM LAYER PAN IS CREATED
BENCH IS CREATED
EXPAND THE BENCH VERTICALLY AND LATERALLY

Basic procedures:- Surpac GUI


String Concept
DTM Concept&Application-Conturing
Survey Database
Geological Database&its application
Solid Model
Block Model&Slice Plan
Pit Desin

SURPAC GUI:-

TITLE BAR: - Shows version of surpac in use, working directory and path of working
directory

MENU BAR: - Encapsulates options and their sub-options for functions like File,
Display and View etc.

TOOL BAR: - Includes the shortcut options for all the functions and sub-functions
present in the MENU bar.

GRAPHICAL PANE: The on-going work/process/display is displayed on this black


3-D workspace. On scrolling in over the pane the (X, Y, Z) co-ordinates of the point
directly below the pointer is displayed in the STATUS BAR

NAVIGATOR: - All the folders and files can be browsed and selected via this
window. "WORKING DIRECTORY is set by choosing the same option via this
navigator window.

PROPERTIES AND VIEW PANE: - It displays the properties of file/folder selected


via the navigator window. View pane shows the specifications of the particular
property of the file/folder

LAYERS PANE: - It shows all the layers being put to use along with the current
active/working layer. Layers can be hide/deleted/activated and vice-versa using the
functions given in the layers pane.

MESSAGE WINDOW: - It shows all the steps being taken and errors/success of the
function/process being done.

COMMAND CHOOSER: - It allows user to input shortcut commands for fast


working.

STATUS BAR : - It Shows :1) Co-ordinates of the pointer


2) Current string file
3) Angle

SURPAC DATATYPES:-

DATA TYPE

EXTENSION

String file

.str

DTM file

.dtm

Geological database

.ddb

Survey database

.sdb

Block Model

.mdl

Plot file

.dwf

Macros file

.tcl

Plug inns file

.dxf(Auto CAD)

Style

.SSI

Methodology
Introductry work flow:-

STRING CONCEPT:-

The most common file format used for storing information in Surpac is a String file. A
string file contains coordinate information for one or more points, as well as optional
descriptive information for each point.

A string file can store up to 100 descriptions for a single point and can take 626 letters
for each description

STRING HIERARCHY :-

Points > Segments > String


All points in a string file are grouped into segments, which are further grouped into strings.

A string file is a sequence of three dimensional coordinates delineating some physical


feature

IMPORTING OF FILE TO SURPAC :Surpac does not accept excel/word (raw data) files so the raw data should be converted to the
formats acceptable. Ex: .csv
Go to :- 1) save as
2) In save as type option select CSV (comma delimited)
There are 2 ways of importing a .csv file namely:
1) Data from one file: All points are connected or stored in one string
number/file. So one cant differentiate between different land features like pit and boundary
will appear same.
2) Data from many file: points are already specified a particular string
number, hence different features are connected via different string.

CREATING A FILE
There are two ways to create a file in surpac:
1) With information: If co-ordinates of points, angle with some reference line
etc. is correctly known, and is used to create file.
2) Without information: when points, lines are created randomly by cursor
selection.

1) CREATING FILE WITH INFORMATION


Go to : CREAT in the menu bar

Points

Select the corresponding option of information available regarding the point/line.

Entre the information available regarding the point/line

Apply and get the point/line.

2) CREATING FILE WITHOUT INFORMATION


Go to * CREAT >> Digitise >> New point
Now click on the desired position to get a point, press Esc to deactivate the command.
There are more options in digitize and create >> point Tab that can be used to create file
(point, line...Etc) demonstrated as follows:-

TO DISPLAY STRING/SEGMENT/POINT NUMBERS:-

TO CREATE A NEW STRING WITHIN A LAYER


Go to :- create >> Digitise >> properties >> window pops up.
Change the string number to get a new string, now work is stored in the specified string
observable from the change in string color.
If any previous string/segment is needed to be REACTIVATED
Go to create >> Digitise >> Reactivate segment/string >> click on the concerned
segment/string.
Now work will be saved in this string/segment
To MERGE two files :Select both the files using Ctrl >> holding the Ctrl drag and drop both files in the graphical
pane.
Both files will be merged in a same/common layer.
Want to display a particular set of strings/segment :Go to Display >> Hide strings/segments >> in a layer >> Use the range concept.
TO INQUIRE POINT/SEGMENT/STRING PROPERTIES:(Co-ordinates, bearing, angle, distance etc)
Go to Inquire >> point/segment/string properties
TO CHANGE/MODIFY PROPERTIES OF POINTS/SEGMENTS/STRING

Go to Edit >> segment/point >> maths >> click on segment to apply


Using point/segment/string maths one can transform between points/segments/strings/coordinate.

TO SMOOTHEN A TRACE/STRING:-

Go to Edit >> string >> smooth >> window pops up


Now entre the desired strings/segments to be smoothened using Range concept, further entre
the number of intermediate points to be used to smoothen the curve, by this entry Surpac will
put intermediate points between two consecutive points and then join thus smoothening the
curve/trace/string

CREATING A CIRCLE:-

Create >> circle by drag >>click on the desired point and drag to digitise the circle >> entre
the radius, arc distance(lesser the arc distance more smoother the circle will be).

IMPORTING DATA(ADVANCE/FULL PROCESS):-

Go to file >> select it and save it in .csv format to the working directory >> right click on the
working directory folder and refresh to get the .csv file.
Importing for making a string file
File >> import >> data from one file/data from many file >> window pops.

DIGITAL TERRAIN MODEL (DTM)


DTM CONCEPT: A DTM surface is a set of triangles which represent a surface
To create a DTM a relative string file is must
Even to view a DTM in Surpac window its string file must exist
Any editing in the string file after making DTM results loosing the DTM, the DTM is
to be created again

DTM DEPENDENCIES:-

DTM:-

WORKFLOW:-

Two methods: 1) GRAPHICS BASED METHOD


(You must display your string file on the graphics; DTM is displayed as soon as it is being
created)
2) FILE BASED METHOD
(String file need not to be displayed on the screen, DTM is formed and saved into a file; one
has the opportunity to declare Spot Heights, Break Lines)
1. GRAPHICS-BASED METHOD
1. Open string file in graphic pane
2. Surface > Create DTM from a layer

POP UP
APPLY

(If there are crossovers then zoom in, move points or break the segment to remove it,
then repeat the process from starting)
3. Save as
POP UP
Apply

2. File-Based Method
1. Reset graphics
2. Surfaces > DTM File functions > Create DTM from string file
POP UP
Browse the .str fiLE
Apply

Report popup:-

Open saved .dtm file.

APPLICATIONS OF DTM:-

5. Digitize a boundary inside dtm edge

1st dtm > initial


2nd dtm > final
Boundary string > saved layer
Click detailed report
Report by elevation > give range
Apply

We select the different sections and digitise the ore above cutoff grade

SOLID MODELLING
Creating solid by Triangulation : solids triangulate between segments select the adjacent segments

and they get triangulated

Block modelling

To visualize the possibility of a deposit & in order to get a detailed estimation on


the basis of smallest possible block
block model is prepared
By a rule of thumb minimum size of a block should not be less than average drill
hole interval , height of a

block is generally kept as the preferred bench height

Add constraint to the block model

PIT DESIGNING

Sections can be made along the constrained block at regular vertical spacings,
here 10 m. These sections

help in getting a better visualization of the variation of grade along the orebody

& pit can be designed

easily by extending the digitised ore in vertical direction .

block model sections create

select normal to z axis in section type give section range from block model
summary report apply

give a location where slices to be formed get saved check constrain model
define fe in model attribute

apply

select constraint in type select constraint of ore apply

Without Mine Ramps :


Digitise the bottom slice in a new layer delete the layer containing slice
Slice 531.027 m rl

give a bench height , 10 here direction of expansion apply

It is to be remembered that the segment will expand upwards forming a bench


only if the digitised

segment is clockwise in direction , even if we give up in direction but segment


drawn is anticlockwise in nature , the bench will be expanded upwards but with
inward slope wrt digitised segment .

Oncewhen the segment is heightened with bench height , it is expanded along


berms as ..

design expand segment by berm width

To get the pit from string file formed by digitized segments , surfaces dtm file
function from string
file select the saved file apply
The following dtm surface was formed .

Lab/field work carried out

We get data from Tata Noamundi iron ore opencast project

Assay value

Collar value

Geology

Survey data

In lab we use surpac to make the Ultimate pit design

-Analysis of investigation

>After arranging the raw data and making pit design we analyse it to get:

. Optimum place to start box cut to exploit the area

.get extend and design of benches and ramp needed to extract the ore

.extend of mining area to be leased

Conclusion

Thus we get the optimum pit design so that we can know the extend of lease hold
area and extent of ming.

We understand the proper location from where we have to start box cut.

We get the solid model of deposit to know about the type and grade of ore.

WORK TO BE DONE :
Using variogram modeling for reserve estimation
Determine the primary and secondary variogram to know about the direction of
maximum continuity
REFERENCES

Dowd, P. A , Onur A. H , Optimizing Open Pit Design and Sequencing, Proc. 23rd
International APCOM Symposium,1992, pp- 411-422, 1992.
Hustrulid, W., Kutcha, M., Open pit mine planning and design, volume 1, Chapter 6
Production planning, pp- 601-605, A.A. Balkema publications, Rotterdam,
Netherlands, 1995.

Lerchs H., Grossmann I. F., Optimum design of open pit mines, Canadian Institute of
Mining Trans., 68, pp. 17-24,1965.
Ronson,K.A,Computerized open pit planning and the development and application of
a software open pit planner, 2001.