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Anglais traduction

correction
Farewell address : discours d'adieu
Google US ruling on Google 'will not sway European inquiry'
Google : la justice amricaine ne va pas influencer l'enqute europenne
Rivals welcome news that European commission will pursue investigation despite
findings of America's FTC
Les concurrents de Google saluent la dcision de la Commission Europenne de poursuivre son
enqute en dpit des conclusions de la FTC aux tats-Unis.
After the US regulator this week dismissed allegations that Google gives unfair
prominence to its own services in search results, the European commission has denied
that the decision will affects its own investigation into the claims.
la suite de la dcision prise cette semaine prise par l'autorit de rgulation amricaine de rejeter
les accusations selon lesquelles Google privilgierait ses propres services dans la prsentation des
rsultats de son moteur de recherche, la Commission europenne a dmenti les rumeurs selon
lesquelles cette dcision affecterait/influencerait ses propres recherches/ sa propre recherche/
enqute dans le cadre des plaintes dposes.
The US federal Trade Commission (FTC) ruled after a two-year investigation that
"Google's primary purpose was to improve the user experience". The decision
drew immediate condemnation from Microsoft. EC spokesman Michael Jennings said
on Friday: "We have taken note of the FTC decision, but we don't see that it has any
direct implications for our investigation, for our discussions with Google, which are
ongoing."
Aprs deux ans d'enqute, la FTC (Federal Trade Commission) a jug/considr que l'objectif
premier de Google tait d'amliorer le service l'utilisateur/ le niveau de satisfaction de
l'utilisateur . Cette dcision a provoqu une condamnation immdiate de la part de Microsoft /
cette dcision a t immdiatement condamne par Microsoft. Michael Jennings, porte-parole de la
Commission Europenne, a dclar vendredi : Nous avons pris bonne note de la dcision de la
FTC, toutefois nous considrons qu'elle n'a pas de lien direct avec notre enqute, ni avec nos
discussions/ngociations en cours avec Google.
But Microsoft, one of the companies that raised Google's dominance with the FTC,
has complained publicly that the agency had not met its own standard procedures,
which would require any measures planned against Google to be shown to
complainants. "The FTC's overall resolution of this matter is weak and frankly
unusual," said Dave Heiner, Microsoft's chief lawyer. "We are concerned that the
FTC may not have obtained adequate relief even on the few subjects that Google
has agreed to address."
Mais Microsoft, l'une des socits qui a invoqu/dnonc l'abus de position dominante de Google
auprs de la FTC, s'est plaint publiquement que l'autorit n'ait pas respect/ appliqu les procdures
requises, selon lesquelles toute mesure l'encontre de Google devrait tre prsente aux plaignants/
demandeurs // les procdures requises : les plaignants n'ont pas eu connaissance des mesures
l'encontre de Google. De manire gnrale, la faon dont la FTC a rgl cette affaire manque de
fermet/rigueur et est franchement inhabituelle a dclar Dave Heiner, avocat principal de
Microsoft. Nous sommes proccups par le fait que / nous sommes proccups, en effet, la FTC
n'ait peut-tre pas obtenu d'engagements adquats/ de garanties appropries, y compris sur les
quelques sujets Google a accept de traiter.

Heiner claimed the weakness of the FTC's strictures showed itself in Google's
reaction: "The litmus test of any antitrust outcome is the set of statements made by
a company on the day the outcome is announced Google seems to be walking
with a new spring in its step.''
si structures : Selon Dave Heiner, la raction de Google illustre les faiblesses structurelles de la
FTC/ Dave Heiner prtend que les faiblesses structurelles de la FTC sont visibles/ se refltent dans
la raction de Google.
Si stictures : Dave Heiner, a prtendu que la faiblesse des critiques/ des sanctions de la FTC s'est
reflte sans la raction de Google.
Le test dcisif de tout accord anti-trust/ de tout accord destin combattre les monopoles, c'est
l'ensemble des dclarations faites par une socit le jour o les rsultats sont annoncs / le jour de
l'annonce des rsultats Google semble avoir des ailes/ avoir un avenir radieux devant lui / avoir
le vent en poupe.
Google is still being investigated by the EC over allegations that it favours its own
products in searches, and downgrades those of potential rivals in search and other
areas such as shopping. Heiner greeted the EC's announcement as "good news",
claiming that antitrust chief Joaquin Almunia "has made clear that he will close his
investigation of Google only with a formal binding order that addresses search bias
and other issues".
Google fait toujours l'objet d'une enqute/ d'investigations de la part de/ l'initiative de / diligentes
par la Commission europenne sur des accusations des favoritisme dont bnficieraient ses propres
produits dans le rsultat des recherches faites sur son moteur. Dans ses recherches ainsi que dans
d'autres domaines tels que les achats en ligne, Google rtrograderait / dclasserait les rsultats de
ses concurrents potentiels. Dave Heiner a salu l'annonce de la Commission et l'a qualifie de
bonne nouvelle , dclarant que Joaquin Almunia, Commissaire en charge de la concurrence,
avait clairement indiqu qu'il nachverait son enqute sur Google que sur une dcision (pas
ordonnance) excutoire portant entre autres sur la subjectivit des recherches.
Fin de la correction
The FTC decided that any bias shown by Google in search results was done to
benefit the consumer, and so did not constitute an abuse of its power. But it
required Google not to penalise the search ranking of companies that withdraw their
data from some of its products, such as Shopping or Local, and to allow advertisers
to move data between multiple platforms.

Microsoft was critical of the lack of consultation there: "We would have explained
that Google's promise on ad campaign portability falls short of the mark in various
ways. For example, Google inexplicably has not promised to allow all advertisers to
port their campaign data to other ad platforms only those with a primary billing
address in the United States." Many firms advertising there have non-US addresses,
Heiner pointed out.

Under the terms of the consent with the FTC, Google also has to license essential
patents owned by itself or Motorola to any willing licensee in theory putting an

end to lawsuits where its Motorola subsidiary has sought US sales and import bans
against the iPhone, iPad and Microsoft's Xbox 360.

But Microsoft was critical of that too, saying that it did not amount to a complete
commitment never to seek sales bans over essential patents which it said itself,
Apple and Bosch have previously pledged to do.

Traduction 2
tough:svre/rigoureuse
to spark : dclencher
taxpayer:contribuable
to lose (1 seul o!!!)
adjectif de nationalit=>majuscule : French, Birtish
price : prix (cot) prize : prix (mdaille, troph ...)
to support : soutenir/encourager (pas supporter)
exiting : tre enthousiaste (pas excit)
row : dispute
personal gain : avoir, accumulation de richesse

Grard Depardieu's tax move to Belgium divides France

Correction :
L'exil fiscal de Grard Depardieu en Belgique divise la France
Wealthy taxpayers' desire to flee tough fiscal policy has sparked a debate about
patriotism and personal gain
La volont des contribuables fortuns/aiss de fuir devant/face une politique fiscale
rigoureuse/svre/impitoyable a provoqu/lanc/suscit un dbat sur le patriotisme et les
avoirs/l'accumulation de richesse.
France is discovering that, when it comes to wealthy taxpayers, you win some and
you lose some.
La France dcouvre cette occasion qu'en matire de contribuables fortuns, il y a ceux qu'on
gagne et ceux qu'on perd // il y a ceux qui partent et ceux qui restent // on en gagne autant qu'on en a
perd.
As the country's celebrities have lined up to defend or denigrate actor Grard
Depardieu following his self-imposed fiscal exile in neighbouring Belgium, the French

have just welcomed back prize-winning author Michel Houellebecq after more than a
decade living abroad.
Alors que les clbrits nationales se sont mis en ordre de bataille/se succdent tour tour pour
dfendre ou dnigrer l'acteur Grard Depardieu suite son exil fiscal volontaire chez le voisin
belge, les franais viennent/la France vient de saluer le retour de l'auteur Michel Houellebecq,
laurat de nombreux prix // le retour de Michel Houellebecq, auteur prim aprs plus d'une dizaine
d'annes passes l'tranger.
The tax row sparked by Depardieu's departure has divided France and not simply
along traditional left-right, north-south or rich-poor lines. Fans and critics have
spent the last week fretting over the morality of his decision and whether concepts
of patriotism and solidarity outweigh those of personal gain and perceived greed.
La querelle fiscale dclenche par le dpart de Depardieu a divis la France et pas seulement
selon le traditionnel clivage gauche-droite, nord-sud ou riches-pauvres. Les fans/admirateurs et les
critiques/dtracteurs ont pass la semaine dernire se proccuper de la moralit de sa dcision et
de savoir si les concepts de patriotisme et de solidarit l'emportent sur/psent davantage que ceux de
patrimoine/ de la richesse de gain personnel et d'apparente cupidit.
Correction
spiral : module en accs libre => ctrl f => traduction journalistique => change de documents =>
textes
The Prime Minister : le Premier ministre (attention au majuscule : que au Premier pas au ministre
en franais)
Even after weeks of speculation, the announcement a fortnight ago that Depardieu,
63, was moving to Belgium to take refuge from Socialist president Franois Hollande's
planned "temporary supertax" on earnings of more than 1m (815,000) came as a
shock to fans.
Mme aprs des semaines de spculation, l'annonce il y a quinzaine de jours/deux semaines qu' 63
ans, Depardieu, dmnageait//allait dmnager/s'installer en Belgique pour chapper la mesure
temporaire de super-taxe /surtaxation prvue par le prsident socialiste Franois Hollande pour
tous les revenus suprieurs un million d'euros, a t un choc pour les fans/admirateurs.
The Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, described the move as "shabby", provoking
a furious response from Depardieu ("who are you calling shabby?"), and from
Philippe Torreton, a leftwing, Csar-winning actor who lambasted his colleague in
the pages of Libration. In the article, published last week, Torreton, 47, wrote: "You
no longer want to be French? You are leaving the French boat in the middle of a
storm? Did you think we would approve? What did you expect? A medal? An
honorary Csar from the finance ministry?
Le Premier ministre Jean-Marc Ayrault a qualifi cette (et non la) dcision de minable . Furieux,
Grard Depardieu lui a rpondu : Minable, vous avez dit minable? . Philippe Torreton, Csar du
meilleur acteur et sympathisant socialiste a pour sa part fustig/clou au pilori son collgue dans les
pages de Libration. Dans cet article, publi la semaine dernire, Philippe Torreton, g de 47 ans,
crit: Tu ne veux plus tre Franais? Tu quittes le navire franais en pleine tempte? Tu pensais
qu'on allait approuver?/ qu'on allait applaudir des deux mains ? Tu t'attendais quoi? Une mdaille?
Un Csar d'honorifique remis par Bercy?
"The prime minister considers your behaviour shabby, but you, you consider it
what? Heroic? Civic? Altruistic? Tell us. We would like to know."
Le Premier ministre juge ton comportement minable, mais toi, tu le juges comment? Hroque?
Civique? Altruiste? Dis-nous. On est impatient de/aimerait savoir.

Singer Michel Sardou, 67, declared himself on the side of the patriots and warned
Depardieu that he would be "as bored as a rat" in Belgium. "So there is some divine
justice," he joked, adding: "If I said, 'Guys, now you're in the shit. Excuse me but I'm
taking my dosh and getting out of here', I couldn't look myself in the face."
A 67 ans, le chanteur Michel Sardou s'est rang du ct des patriotes/ s'est auto-proclam
patriote/s'est fait le chantre du patriotisme et a mis en garde Grard Depardieu qu'il allait
s'emmerder comme un rat mort en Belgique. Il y a une justice divine a-t-il plaisant, ajoutant:
Si je disais, ' Maintenant, les mecs, vous tes dans la merde. Excusez-moi mais je prends mon
oseille et je me casse/tire', j'aurais des problmes me regarder dans la glace//je ne me regarderais
pas bien dans la glace.
However, the debate has moved beyond what some would call an act of betrayal by
the star of French films such as Cyrano de Bergerac and Danton. Film director
Claude Lelouch said Depardieu was lucky to pay high taxes because it showed he
was a success. "It means things are going well," he told BFMTV.
Cependant/Toutefois, le dbat a dpass ce que certain qualifierait de trahison commise par la
vedette de films franais tels que Cyrano de Bergerac et Danton. Claude Lelouche, ralisateur,
affirme que Grard Depardieu devrait se considrer heureux de payer beaucoup d'impts car cela
tait la preuve de son succs/qu'il avait du succs. Il a dclar /sur BFMTV que cela signifie que
les affaires marchent bien pour lui .
And after Depardieu pointed out that he was not the only French celebrity to want to
minimise his tax bill by moving abroad, the newspaper Le Parisien produced an
interactive map showing he was right. It revealed Switzerland as the country of
choice for fiscal refugees, including national treasures such as actor Alain Delon,
singer Johnny Hallyday and a colony of tennis players and sports stars.
Suite aux propos/affirmations de Grard Depardieu affirmant qu'il/selon lesquelles il n'tait pas le
seul personnage clbre franais vouloir rduire ses impts en s'exilant/dmnageant l'tranger,
le journal/quotidien Le Parisien a ralis/tabli une carte interactive montrant qu'il avait raison/lui
donnant raison. Celle-ci a rvl/mis en vidence que la Suisse tait la destination favorite/le pays le
plus souvent choisi par/ un pays de choix pour les exils fiscaux, y compris par des joyaux
d'envergure nationale/monuments nationaux tels que Alain Delon, Johnny Halliday et une cohorte
de joueurs de tennis et de vedettes du monde du sport.
Then came news that Alain Afflelou, the wealthy head of a chain of French opticians,
was moving to London, ostensibly to expand his business and "absolutely not for
tax reasons".
Ensuite, la nouvelle s'est propage selon laquelle Alaina Afflelou, le riche propritaire d'une chane
de magasins d'optique franaise, allait s'inatller Londres, soi-disant/prtendument pour tendre ses
activits et absolument pas pour des raisons fiscales
The backlash against the backlash sent a number of cinema greats, including
Brigitte Bardot and Catherine Deneuve, rushing to Depardieu's defence, appealing
for an end to "Depardieu bashing". And the reclusive Houellebecq, who might have
hoped that his return from a decade in Ireland would have gone largely unremarked,
has found himself at the centre of the storm. "It is true that money is important, but
it is not what is most important. The main reason is that I want to once again speak
my language in my daily life," he wrote.
Attaques et contre-attaques ont provoqu l'intervention de grands du cinma tels que Brigitte Bardot
et Catherine Deneuve, venues voler au secours de Grard Depardieu, en appelant la fin du
lynchage. Et Michel Houellebecq, alors discret et qui avait peut-tre espr que son retour aprs
dix ans passs en Irlande passerait inaperu, s'est retrouv au cur de la tempte. Disons que
l'argent est important, mais que ce n'est pas tout. La raison majeure est que j'ai envie de parler
nouveau le franais dans ma vie quotidienne, crit-il.

Un peu de vocabulaire
English Vocabulary

Story (histoire):

In a narrative film, all the events that we see and hear, plus all those that we infer or assume to
have occurred, arranged in their presumed causal relations, chronological order, duration, frequency,
and spatial locations. Opposed to plot, which is the film's actual presentation of certain events in the
narrative.

Plot (intrigue):

In a narrative film, all the events that are directly presented to us, including their causal relations,
chronological order, duration, frequency, and spatial locations. Opposed to story which is the
viewer's imaginary construction of all events in the narrative.

Narration (narration):

The process through which the plot conveys or withholds story information. The narration can be
more or less restricted to character knowledge and more or less deep in presenting characters'
mental perceptions and thoughts.

Diegesis (digse):

In a narrative film, the world of the film's story. The diegesis includes events that are presumed
to have occurred and actions and spaces not shown onscreen.

Nondiegetic insert:

A shot or a series of shots cut into a sequence, showing objects represented as being outside the
space of the narrative.

Diegetic sound:

Any voice, musical passage, or sound effect presented as originating from a source within the
film's world.

Nondiegetic sound:

Sound, such as mood music or narrator's commentary, represented as coming from a source
outside the space of the narrative.
1. from the all-Movie guide Film glossary

Diegesis:

The narrative elements of a film that are shown or immediately inferred from the content of a
film. Though implication is not the primary focus, diegesis is a methodological analysis for
discerning the exact nature of the film including all of the action and dialogue.
{"Diegetic" -- refers to things which exist within the "world" of the film's narrative. Nondiegetic or extra-diegetic elements of a film do not "exist" or "take place" in the same plane of
reality that the characters inhabit. For example, presumably the characters within an action
film do not "hear" the rousing theme music that accompanies their exploits. That music is
extra-diegetic, but still part of the film.}

Narrative:

A term denoting a story in any form of human expression where no single individual is telling
the story.

Narrative Film:

Narrative films can include a large corpus of fiction and nonfiction films including
documentaries and dramas though the genre is predominantly fictitious. Narrative films primarily
concentrate on story lines and can include character development but the drama and usual fiction
are emphasized.

Plot:

The events in an individual narrative and how they are arranged. Arguably the plot and the story
are not the same.
{Narrative includes everything that is supposed to have happened in the "story"; plot is more
concretely the scenes that are presented in the film, in the precise order in which they are
presented. -- Hank}

Story:

The specific unfolding of a sequence of events in a film. It includes character involvement,


settings, and an order that superimposed in an arbitrary manner by the screen writer or by a parallel
historical sequence through which the themes are developed. The story is general whereas the plot
is specific and includes both internal and external relations to the work.
2. "Basic Elements of a Film"

Frame:

Frames in essence are still images that are collected in quick succession, developed, and
projected giving the illusion of motion. Each individual, or still, image on motion picture film is
referred to as a frame.

Shot:

In the process of photographing a scene a shot refers to one constant take by the camera. It is
most often filmed at one time with a solo camera.

Sequence:

Segments of a film narrative that are edited together and unified by a common setting, time,
event or story-line.

Sound Track:

That portion of the sound film medium to which are recorded the dialogue, music, narration and
sound effects. The sound head and film gate on a film projector are physically separated from one
another. This gap is covered during the recording of a sound-film by keeping the soundtrack
recording a few frames head of the photographic image. The sound passes over the projector head at
the same time the photographic image passes before the projector's light aperture/lens (the film
gate).
3. "Basic Manipulations and Assembling of the Basic Elements"

Cutting :

The process of changing from one shot to another accomplished through the camera or by the
splicing of shots together by the cutter (editor). This is also referred to as editing, the preferred term,
and includes the decisions, controls, sensibilities, vision and integrative capabilities of the
individual editing (cutting) artist.

Invisible Cutting:

Editing procedures that are so well-formed that the viewer is not aware that a splice has taken place.
This is particularly important in action sequences because the audience is psychologically intent on
the moving images that a cut in the film -- an unobtrusive cut -- is not noticed. This can easily be
contrasted with Eisenstein's technique of quick cuts and jump cuts from one scene to the next
without transition so as to unnerve the audience and evoke emotional responses in them.
{From the Complete Film Dictionary: Shot/Reverse Shot Technique: A technique of cutting
developed by the Hollywood studios in which the camera switches between two conversant or
interacting individuals. ... See invisible cutting.}

Montage:

In the production and editing of film this term has come to refer to a seemingly unrelated series
of frames combined so that one scene quickly dissolves into the next, shifting categories, effects
and settings in such a manner as to convey a quick passage of time or an abstract unity through
thematic devices such as meter, rhythm, tonality, and intellectuality (viz Eisenstein). Continuity, if it
exists, is not captured in a frame by frame juxtaposition but rather through an abstraction. (Also see
"mise-en-scene".)

Synchronization:

Correctly aligning the photographic and audio portions of a film so that the image and sound is
heard and seen simultaneously.

Framing:

Properly surrounding the subject of a shot by the edges of the actual boundaries of the film. All
that is seen in the viewfinder of a camera does not always translate directly into the proper centring
of the subject. Framing is a technical nuance learned in the process of photography.
{Involves camera angle, distance, and arrangement of objects and people in front of the
camera (the "mise-en-scene". Important in framing is the way that the edges of the screen
make a sharp distinction between what is seen and what is not seen, what is included and
what is excluded, in a particular frame.}
4. "Basic Elements of the Camera Setup"

Camera Angle:

This term refers to the point of view held by the focal point of the camera when it is positioned
for shooting. Included in the angle is the perspective given by the camera to the depth of focus,
height and width of the particular object and action being photographed. The angle also refers to
whether the shot is taken from behind, in front, from the side or from the top or bottom of the
particular view. Terms appropriated for these various angles include eye-level angle, high-angle,
low-angle, side view angle and the "Dutch" angle.

Distance:

Distance refers to the amount of relational space between the audience and the character on the
screen. Though the characters are two-dimensional and the audience is distinctly separate from the
screen by dead space (virtual reality in the theatre has not

yet been developed) the camera's perspective, in effect, attempts to provide the amount of space
desired subject to the director's discretion. This space often results in the interaction and
psychological connection between the characters and the audience. The connection is achieved
through the dynamics and varying degrees between long shots, medium shots and close-ups.

Establishing Shot :

At the beginning of a film, episode or scene within a film, a wide-angle or "full-shot" is


photographed for the purpose of identifying the location or setting. Thus the audience has
established, or been given the opportunity to surmise an orientation. It also helps to establish the
distinctions between the general locale and the specific details -- from subsequent shots -- within
the general context.
{The Establishing shot is a wide-angle shot and/or a long shot. -- Hank}

Perspective:

Spatial relationships. In film (painting, photography, theatrical performances, et cetera)


perspective refers to the accurate depiction of three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional
surface. (In experimental forms of film, of course, the accurate depiction is redefined.) Height and
breadth come naturally to the surface but the added dimension of depth must be constructed through
cameras, lenses, sets, and designs during composition. (See "anamorphic lens" and "composition".)
5. "Basic Camera Movements"

Camera Movement:

Conventional uses of the camera to obtain camera angles and various perspectives while filming
include panning, tilting, tracking or zooming of the camera. These camera ploys are also known as
camera movement and rarely does the camera remain static. When a movement does occur,
however, the camera comes to a rest providing a smooth transition to the scene. Movements are
coordinated with the action in a scene so that the camera does not go in the opposite direction of the
action (i.e. action left-to-right.) Of course, many alternative and experimental methods are used in
the film industry and camera movement is no exception.

Dolly:

Cameras and other equipment, such as microphones and lights, are often carried around the set
on movable platforms. These are dollys and are independently moved by the dolly grip so that the
technician, be s/he cameraman, audio or lighting technician, can keep their concerns focused.
Dollys are often run on tracks for special dolly pans, chinese dollys, or for mere structurally
smoothness. Most of the time, dollys are used for camera work and can include booms for the
cameras which allows for the lowering, raising and pivoting of the camera. All of these shots can be
achieved simultaneously with an horizontal movement of the camera upon the dolly track.

Dolly Shot:

A camera perspective, on a moving or stationary subject, obtained while the camera is in motion
on either a dolly or a camera truck. When the camera is so mounted and moves toward a closer
proximity of the subject it is called "dolly-in"; likewise, when the camera is so mounted and moves
away from the subject it is referred to as "dolly-out".

Crane:

A large camera dolly that can raise the camera as much as twenty feet above the ground. The
crane has the capacity to move forward and backward and is usually operated by electronic controls.
Motions are generally silent and the crane allows shots
to be made over a wide ranging area providing great access to cover shots.

Pan:

From the Greek "pan" meaning "all" this movement of the camera is achieved by moving the
camera while turning it on a horizontal access. At least four functions are served by this technique
including an all encompassing view of the scene, a device for leading the audience to a particular
person or place, following a person or vehicle across a distant scene, or giving the audience the
visual images and perspective as seen by a character when turning her/his head.
{A turn of the camera up or down on the vertical axis is called a "tilt." -- Hank}
Vocabulaire Version
A downgrade : une sous notation / abaissement de note
To rem home : toucher son but avec force / faire comprendre qq chose clairement.
To take small steps : avancer par tapes
Cuts: rduction des dpenses publiques.
To bail out : tirer quelqu'un d'affaire/ sortir qqn de prison en payant la caution
To weaken: affaiblir
Debt rating : pourcentage de la dette
Under preasure : augmentation de la dette
Best case: les scenarios les plus optimistes
To Warp : fausser, dformer, pervertir , gauchir
To be the back bone of : etre l'me d'un groupe , le pillier
It's beyond my means : au dessus de mes moyens
As far as london and beyond : jusqu'au loners et au dela
To live in / at the back of beyond
To soften up : ad
oucir, ammolir
A shabby shower: douche glace
Blase : tre en flammes
To stand back : reculer , ne pas bouger ,
To have ones way : faire ce qu'on veut
To take ones life / to blow it out : se suicider
To mash : craser
To post : diter, sortir
Booty : butin
Mayhem : la pagaille
Robbery : un vol
A sens of worth : un sens de l'honneur
Underwrite : sous estimer Understatement : litote
Conference call : tlconfrence
Counsil : conseil
Pledge : engagement, promesse , voeu
Government bonds : obligations d'Etat .
Credit rating : la notation
To adresse : s'occuper de ( un problme )
To issue : deliverer, emmettre
Turbulence : agitation, perturbation
Creditor : crancier
Sole : Unique
Asset : atout, avantage .
To slash : trancher tailler , Rduire
Welfare : aide sociale
Bloated : gonfl
To take something in one's stride : Prendre qq chose avec srnit / Calme
Untold : norme ( indiscible )
To live within one's means : Vivre en fonction de ses moyens.
A means : un moyen

To fail : chouer
To pass an exam : russir un examen
A pass : un diploma, une autorisation , une habilitation
To demand : exiger
The law of supply and demand : la loi de l'offre et de la demande
To downgrade : d-grader , discrediter un pays
Profligacy : dbauche, dpense inconsidre.
Fiscal : fiscal , financire
A suit : un costume
To suit : convener
A proof : une preuve
A bloat : une boursouflure
Adverse : ngatif, dfavorable
To prove temporary :
Advanced economies : economies dveloppes.
Bond : obligations
Culminate : aboutir
Equity prices : valeurs financires.
Sovereign default : faillite
Bond market : march obligataire
Systemic : crise du systme
To view : concidrer comme
Yield : production , rendement , produire , produire des intrts
Borrowing rates : taux d'intrts
Taxpayers : contribuables
To be choked off : tre touff
Lockdown : quarantaine
Flare : signal lumineux
To sage : mener une bataille, faire la guerre
To loot : piller
To quelle : calmer
To riot : faire une meute
A wage agreement : un accord salarial
Wage policy : politique des salaires
A wage slip : feuille de paye
Running battles : courses pursuits
Mainland : territooire
To draft : tirer au sort / dtacher/transferer
To draft into : incorporeal
Barrack : casrne
Riot officers : officiers anti meutes
Adjoining : attenant
To chair : presider
Scale : chelle
Lead : mener, tre en tte
A led pipe : un tuyau de plomb
Plumb : le plomb
Pip : piou piou
To Pip smbdy to do smth : battre qqn de peu .
Stock market : la bourse
Turmoil : turbulences
To close in on : rattraper qqn
Turmoil : trouble, agitation , convulsion, moi, effervescence.
Shares : actions
To trade: vendre, changer, faire des affaires
Stellar quarter : excellent trimestre
Chief excutive : Directeur gnral
To secure : proteger/ Atteindre / Stabiliser
Valuable : de valeur/ prcieux

Milestone : tape importante .


Dramatic : spctaculaire / Dramatique
Mainstream : Grand-public/ Traditionnel.
Shareholders : actionnaires.
Market Capitalisation : Capitalisation boursire
To josstle : bousculer
A thrill : un frisson
A thriller :un objet d'imagination qui cause au spectateur un frisson de joie /peur/motion..
Way : chemin, route, itinraire . habiter en face : to live over the way
To scrap : Abandonner
Landowner : Propritaire
A blow : Un coup
A downturn : Rcession, Ralentissement conomique
Resignation : Dmission
To enveil : Exposer
Left leaning : De gauche
Pundits : Experts
Emulate : Imiter
Tariff : Taxe
Hitherto : Jusqu' prsent
Garb : Costume
Elation : Exaltation
To defeat : Vaincre, battre
Chairman : Prsident
To subside : Se calmer
Momentum : Vitesse, lan