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FLUID

DYNAMICS

CONTRIBUTION
EJECTOR
WITH

23

TO THE THEORY
OF THE HIGH
CYLINDRICAL
MIXING
CHAMBER

COMPRESSION

RATIO

GAS

G. L . G r o d z o v s k i i
Izv. AN SSSR. M e k h a n i k a Z h i d k o s t i i G a z a , V o l . 3, No. 3, pp. 3 5 - 4 4 ,
Ways of improving the operation of a gas ejector with a high compression ratio are investigated. The conditions for obtaining the
maximal compression ratio at the critical operating regime of the gas
ejector are studied theoretically and experimentally with account for
mixing of the supersonic injecting and subsonic ejected streams ahead
of the choking section. The principles for the rational utilization of
the effect of stream mixing in the ejector ahead of the choking section
are indicated; the use of these principles permits a several-fold increase of the compression ratio of the supersonic ejector. A theory is
given for the critical regime of the gas ejector with uniformly perforated nozzle, and the hydraulic parameters of the required wall perforations are determined. It is shown that perforation as a hydraulic
factor can improve significantly the parameters of the sonic ejector in
the critical regime.
The foundations of modern gas ejector theory were developed by
Kbxistianovich [1, 2]. In these studies he established the relationship
between the parameters of the flow at the end of the mixing chamber
(section 3, p~' is the total pressure, k" is the reduced velocity) and the
parameters of the: ejecting (section 1, p~,k') and the ejected (p01,kr)
flows with account for compressibility for the ejector with a cylindrical
mixing chamber (Fig. la). The ejector theory [1, 2] (see also [3, 4]) is
given in the hydraulic approximation: the flow at the end of the mixing chamber is assumed uniform, flow friction on the mixing chamber
walls is neglected. The use of the gasdynamic functions [5-9] made
it possible to obtain computational equations for the ejector in a convenient form and to extend them to the case of mixing of gases with
different thermophysieal properties. We note that for subsonic velocities of the ejecting and ejected flows the system of ejector equations
[1, 2] is supplemented by the condition of equality of the static pressures p' = p~ at the stream contact section 1.
The results of extensive experimental studies of subsonic ejectors are
in good agreement with the results of this theory.
For sonic or supersonic velocity of the ejecting gas (X' _> 1) the
condition p' = p~ is not satisfied in the general case. Fundamental for
the development of ejector theory was the establishment by Millionshchikov and Ryabinkov in 1948 of the existence of a critical operating
regime of the supersonic ejector [7,10]. They showed that the limiting
operating regimes of the gas ejector for high pressure differentials o =
= P~/P01 are determined by the conditions for the choking of the ejected
jet by the expanding supersonic ejecting flow. With the occurrence of
the critical regime the velocity of the ejected jet at the choking section (section 2, Fig, la) reaches the speed of sound (X = 1); this limits
the further increase of the pressure ratio o and the ejector compression
ratio e = Pg/Pd for a given ejection coefficient k (k is the ratio of the
ejected and ejecting gas flow rates). The relationships between these
flow parameters at sections 2 and 1 supplement the system of ejector
equations and permit determining its critical characteristics.
Millionshchikov and Ryabinkov showed that for moderate values of
the pressure ratio o good a~eement of the theoretical and experimental ejector characteristics are given by the assumption of constant static press~e P2 = const at section 2 (Fig. la).

The limit of the appiicability of the theory based on the condition P2 =


= const, o ~ 4 was studied experimentally by Lyzhin [1O].
The theory of the critical regime of the gas ejector was developed
in 1988 in studies of Nikol'skii, Shustov, Vasfl'ev, Taganov, and
Mezhirov [1O, 11]. Nikol'skii showed that the condition of constant
static pressure at the choking section is not in agreement with the momentum equation.

1968

For a more rigorous theoretical determination of the critical ejector regime he proposed joining between sections 1 and 2 (Fig. la) the
caleu_tation of the ejecting jet using the method of characteristics and
the hydraulic calculation of the ejected jet; example calculations
were made by Nikol'skii and Shustov. Taganov and Mezhirov suggested a method for calculating the ejector critical regime using a
linear distribution of the pressure in the supersonic ejecting jet (at the
choking section 2).
A simple and successful method for calculating the ejector critical regime was given by Vasil'ev, who used the hydraulic representation of the ejecting and ejected flows in the choking section; both
flows are assumed uniform at section 2, the static pressures in these
flows in the general case are different and are determined by the momentum equation. A simLlar theory for the ejector critical regime
was developed independently in [t2, 18], and the theory with account
for the supersonic ejecting flow (ahead of the choking section) was
developed using the method of characteristics in [14].
It should be noted that the results of the calculations of the critical characteristics of the ejectors using all three of these methods were
practically indentical and in good agreement with experiment for
large and moderate values of the ejection coefficients. We emphasize
that in the theories of the ejector critical regime the flow mixing between sections 1 and 2 is neglected.
The critical regime theory hnposes significant ]imitations on the
possible characteristics of the gas ejector, first of all. on the achievable compression ratio s = p~/p~. Thus, from the data of [10], even
for a pressure ratio o = 1000 the maximal theoretical v a h e of the
compression ratio for the supersonic ejector does not exceed e ~ 40
(see in Fig. 2 the limiting ejector characteristics based on the critical
regime theory); for the sonic air ejector (k' = 1) the theoretical value
of s -< 3.5 (see Fig. 9b on p. 26). Therefore it is important to analyze
the methods for influencing the esitical regime parameters in order to
determine ways to improve the operation of the gas ejector with a
high compression ratio.
w O p t i m i z a t i o n of g a s ejector parameters w i t h
a c c o u n t f o r m i x i n g o f the supersonic e j e c t i n g a n d s u b s o n i c ejected flows ahead of the choking section. In
1953 w e s h o w e d t h a t f o r h i g h c o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o s e
a n d c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y f o r s m a l l e j e c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s k,
m i x i n g of the f l o w s in t h e e j e c t o r a h e a d of t h e c h o k i n g
s e c t i o n h a s a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on e j e c t o r p a r a m e t e r s .
M i x i n g o f t h e f l o w s a h e a d of t h e c h o k i n g s e c t i o n i n c r e a s e s t h e t o t a l p r e s s u r e i n t h e e j e c t e d g a s j e t (in
s e c t i o n 2, F i g . 1) a n d i m p r o v e s t h e e j e c t o r c h a r a c teristics correspondingly. To amplify this effect we
must strive for a greater relative flow mixing surf a c e i n t h e e j e c t o r a h e a d of t h e c h o k i n g s e c t i o n . I n
particular, for axisymmetric ejector s the central loc a t i o n of the e j e c t i n g n o z z l e is m o r e f a v o r a b l e in c o m parison with the peripheral (annular) location.
T h i s p r e d i c t i o n w a s c o n f i r m e d by t e s t s m a d e with
a s e r i e s of s o n i c e j e c t o r s ( F i g . 3 a n d F i g . 9a b e l o w ) .
F i g u r e 3 s h o w s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an a x i s y m m e t r i c s o n i c e j e c t o r ~ = 1, a -- F 1 / F ' = 7~. T h e d a s h e d
curves are from the critical regime theory: 1 is from
experiment with a peripheral

ejecting jet (Taganov,

24

IVIEKHANIKA

M e z h i r o v , K h a r i t o n o v ) , 2 i s for e x p e r i m e n t with a
c e n t r a l e j e c t i n g j e t ( G r o d z o v s k i i , Ravdin), 3 is ema x
f r o m c r i t i c a l r e g i m e t h e o r y , 4 is e m a x f r o m the

t ~'g

:' l;'~,

F i g . 1. Flow p a t t e r n in t h e e j e c t o r .
K o r s t t h e o r y . We s e e t h a t f o r the c a s e of an a r e a r a tio a = F1/F T= 7.0 of the l o w - v e l o c i t y and h i g h - v e l o c ity flows at the e n t r a n c e to the e j e c t o r ( F i g . 3) the e x p e r i m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the a x i s y m m e t r i c e j e c t o r with a n n u l a r p e r i p h e r a l e j e c t i n g n o z z l e p r a c t i c a l l y
c o i n c i d e d with the c a l c u l a t i o n b a s e d on the c r i t i c a l
r e g i m e t h e o r y . Change to the s c h e m e with the c e n t r a l
e j e c t i n g n o z z l e s i g n i f i c a n t l y i m p r o v e d the e j e c t o r
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s in the r e g i o n of high c o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o s for d i s c h a r g e c o e f f i c i e n t s l e s s than K _< 0.20.
Thus, f o r ~ = 19.2 ( l i m i t i n g f o r the p e r i p h e r a l s c h e m e ,
w h e r e k = 0) the e j e c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i n c r e a s e d by Ak
0.09; the e j e c t o r m a x i m a l c o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o (for
k = 0) i n c r e a s e d by 1.7 t i m e s and r e a c h e d e m a x
5.45.

ZHIDKOSTI

I GAZA

a r e e x p e r i m e n t a l [14]. The d a t a of F i g . 4 show good


a g r e e m e n t of e x p e r i m e n t and c a l c u l a t i o n b a s e d on the
K o r s t t h e o r y [14].
The K o r s t t h e o r y [ 1 5 - 2 3 ] , u s i n g the flow m i x i n g
c o n d i t i o n , p e r m i t s d e t e r m i n i n g the m a g n i t u d e of the
b a s e p r e s s u r e f o r s u p e r s o n i c flow p a s t d o w n s t r e a m
f a c i n g s t e p s of v a r i o u s g e o m e t r y . One of the f o r m s of
s u c h aft f a c i n g s t e p s is the m i x i n g c h a m b e r of a s u p e r s o n i c e j e c t o r w i t h low e j e c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (Fig.
l b ) . The K o r s t t h e o r y d e t e r m i n e s the v a r i a t i o n of the
r e l a t i v e b a s e p r e s s u r e p ~ = P l / P ' ( r e f e r r e d to the s t a t i c
p r e s s u r e p ' in the o u t e r flow a p p r o a c h i n g the step) a s
a function of the o u t e r flow p a r a m e t e r s , the s t e p and
c h a n n e l g e o m e t r y (for i n t e r n a l flows), and on the d i s c h a r g e r a t e Q of the s e c o n d a r y flow, a d d e d to the
m i x i n g zone behind the s t e p
p~

p,=i(~/,Cq)

P__!

~ Q rRTo] I/2)
(Cq "--- - pO'Fi
L~--

(1.1)

w h e r e Cq i s the d i s c h a r g e c o e f f i c i e n t , R is the g a s
c o n s t a n t , and n is the s p e c i f i c h e a t r a t i o .

I /

on~:ouz

Zg

30

3g

F i g . 3. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a x i s y m m e t r i c s o n i c
e j e c t o r , 7~, = 1, a = 7.

/,~

zs

-----'-T ~

'.o0~O

290

<,oo

~oo

soo

,ooo

F i g . 2. L i m i t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the a i r
e j e c t o r c a l c u l a t e d with t h e c r i t i c a l r e g i m e
theory.
The f a v o r a b l e r o l e of flow m i x i n g in the e j e c t o r
a h e a d of the choking s e c t i o n w a s a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d in
[14], w h e r e on the b a s i s of the K o r s t t h e o r y ( s e e
[15-23]), a method was developed for calculating eject o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t a k i n g t h i s e f f e c t into account. The
t h e o r e t i c a l and e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d in [14]
in the r e g i o n of low e j e c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s showed f o r
t h e a x i s y m m e t r i c s u p e r s o n i c e j e c t o r s (with c e n t r a l
e j e c t i n g jet) a m a r k e d i m p r o v e m e n t of the p a r a m e t e r s
in c o m p a r i s o n with the r e s u l t s of the c r i t i c a l r e g i m e
t h e o r y . Thus, f o r the e j e c t o r X' = 1.633, a = 2.06
( F i g . 4) with ~ = 21 ( l i m i t i n g f r o m the c r i t i c a l r e g i m e
t h e o r y , w h e r e k = 0) the e j e c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i n c r e a s e d
by A k ~ 0.045. In Fig. 4 the d a s h e d c u r v e is f r o m
c r i t i c a l r e g i m e t h e o r y , the s o l i d c u r v e i s the c a l c u l a t i o n b a s e d on K o r s t t h e o r y with a c c o u n t f o r
flow m i x i n g a h e a d of the choking s e c t i o n , the p o i n t s

We s h a l l a p p l y t h e K o r s t t h e o r y f o r d e t e r m i n i n g
the c o n d i t i o n s f o r a c h i e v i n g the m a x i m a l c o m p r e s s i o n
r a t i o in a g a s e j e c t o r .
F o r s i m p l i c i t y of p r e s e n t a t i o n , h e r e and in the
following we c o n s i d e r an e j e c t o r with the s a m e s t a g n a t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e s and t h e r m o p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of
the e j e c t i n g and e j e c t e d g a s (T 0' = T01, 4 ' = hi); the
g e n e r a l i z a t i o n to the c a s e of d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s of T o
and ~r m a y b e m a d e u s i n g the m e t h o d d e v e l o p e d by

0.~

~Z

L
zg

4Lg

F i g . 4. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a x i s y m m e t r i c
s u p e r s o n i c e j e c t o r , A' = 1. 633, a = 2.06.
Kukanov and M e z h i r o v . The e q u a t i o n s of m e c h a n i c s
with a p p l i c a t i o n to the m i x i n g c h a m b e r of an e j e c t o r

FLUID DYNAMICS

25

( F i g . 1) w i t h a c c o u n t f o r ( 1 . i ) m a y b e w r i t t e n i n t h e
form

pO(U,a,k) --~ p 2 ~ (
~p(~:)

F,)

-kv ,

aq(~) ( ~ = P~
= ~q (V-----~
p0~-'

q-

(1.4)

(~ = -P~
7' )
\

o'q(~') O. + z~)
(t + a)q(~"-7

(1.2)

(1.3)

z ( U ' ) = .kz(Li) z(M).


t+k
'

8=

ante with [1.2)-(1.5) the maximal compression ratio of the ejector is


naturally reached for k = 0. The effect of the flow geometry on the
base pressure p~ is illustrated by the data of Fig. 6, where the dashed

(1.5)

Here p(/), q(l), and z(/) are known gasdynamic functions of the p r e s s u r e , flow r a t e , and m o m e n t u m [5-7]~

a
F i g . 7. E f f e c t of a n n u l a r

0.~

step expansion ratio a =


= F J F ' on t h e v a l u e of
the relative base press u r e f o r X' = 1.

O.Ot

O.OZ

(r

Fig, 5. Effect of relative flow


r a t e of s e c o n d a r y flow on the
magnitude of the base press u r e p* = P l / P ' f o r s u p e r sonic flow past a two-dimensional step.

curve is the base pressure on the end of a cylinder in an infinite supersonic stream, the solid curve is the same behind a two-dimensional step in a supersonic stream, and the dash-dot curve is the base
pressure behind an annular step in a channel with expansion ratio a =
= 1.56. We see that transition from the flat-end cylindrical step to a
two-dimensional step, and further to the peripheral armular step, reduces the base pressure sequentially and increases the compression ratio in the ejector correspondingly. Therefore, other conditions being
equal, the axisymmetric ejector with a cen~al ejecting jet gives a
larger compression ratio s than the ejector with an atmular peripheral
jet (Fig. 3). The base pressure behind the annular step decreases
monotonically with increase of the channel expansion ratio a = F1/F'
(Fig. 7).

fl/

The characteristic curves for the relative base pressure p~ are


shown in Figs. 5-7 [16, 23], Figure 5 shows the effect of the relative
flow rate of the secondary stream on the magnitude of the base pressure
t7o . . . . .

X\

,,

2/I/I/

e;',"

"i

".

o,,'~ -

Fig. 8. The solid curve is from Korst


theory, the dashed curve is from critical regime theory; the points are an
e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d y o f a s e r i e s of s o n i c
ejectors with central ejecting jet
( G r o d z o v s k i i , R a v d i n , 1953).

i
\i

fl/(--

~r

Fig, 6. The d a s h e d c u r v e is b a s e p r e s s u r e
o n t h e e n d o f a c y l i n d e r in a n i n f i n i t e s u personic stream, the solid curve is the
same behind a two-dimensional step in a
supersonic stream, and the dash-dot curve
is the base pressure behind an annular
s t e p in a c h a n n e l with e x p a n s i o n r a t i o a =
= 1.56.
p~ = pffp' for supersonic flow about a two-dimensional step. We see
that the relative pressure p* decreases monotonically with reduction of
the ejection coefficient k (proportional to cq). Therefore, in accord-

The relations for p* presented from Korst theory together with the
system of equations (1.2)-(1.6) permit determining the limiting characteristics of ga~ ejectors. As an example, Fig. 8 present~ for sonic
ejectors (k' = 1) the theoretical and experimental curves for the limiting pressure ral2o across the ejector Omax as a function of the area
ratio a ~ F1/F' of the ejected and ejecting gases, where the solid
curve is from Korst theory, the dashed curve is from the critical regime theory, and the points are an experimental study of a series of
sonic ejectors with central ejecting jet (Grodzovskii, Ravdin, 1953).
We see that the Korst theory is in good agreement with the experimentally studied series of sonic ejectors; the critical regime theory
(without account for flow mixing ahead of the ejector choking section)
yields restfits which are lower by more than a factor of two with regard to Omax. Figure 9a presents the experimental grid of values of

26

MEKI-IANIKA Z H I D K O S T I I G A Z A

the compression ratio ~ for this same series of sonic ejectors; the calculated curve for emax using the theory presented above is in good
agreement with experiment. Figure 9b shows the calculated grid of
a

So

~0

~0

/o

20

30

~0

/o

zO

F i g . 9. a) E x p e r i m e n t a l g r i d : c o m p r e s s i o n
r a t i o f o r a s e r i e s of s o n i c e j e c t o r s ; b) c o m pression ratio for sonic ejectors from the
critical regime theory.
values of ~ from the critical regime theory. In comparing the theoretical and experimental values of the ejector compression ratio ~ here
and in the following, we must bear in mind that in the experiments
the total compression ratio was determined with account for the degree
of recovery of the total pressure )'9 = Pop"/P;' in the subsonic diffusor
(Fig. 1). (The quantity Y9 naturally includes also the flow friction
losses on the walls of the ejector mixing chamber, which are not taken
into account in the hydraulic theory.) The values 1'9 depend on the diffusor performance and Y9 ~ 0.90-0.85.

of the ejectors proposed by Arkadov with improved (in comparison with


the theory of [10]) characteristics are comidered in [26] ). The slotted
perforation (about 8 longitudinal slots with permeability coefficient
S-= 10-15%) provides a combination of the favorable properties of the
self-regulated supersonic nozzle [25] and the system with extended
mixing surface of the ejecting and ejected jets ahead of the choking
section. As a resuh, the ejector a = 0.5, X' = 1.925, studied in detail
in [24], with a slotted extention L/D = 1.89, S = 10%, with a quite
broad regulation characteristic in the region of low ejection coefficients k (Fig. 11) provided a h i g h compression ratio, close to &max
given by the theory of the present section. In Fig. 11 the dashed curve
is from the critical regime theory without perforation, 1) is the test of
the ejector without perforation, 2) is the test of the ejector with perforation, 3) is ~max from the critical regime theory.
For ejectors exhausting into the atmosphere, the variation of the
maximal compression ratio ~max with the high-velocity gas relative
pressure o/e = p~/p~' is of importance. The data of Fig. 12 show that
the ejector designed with account for flow mixing ahead of the choking section provides a considerable (several fold) increase of the compression ratio Sma x in comparison with the "limiting" values from the
critical regime theory [10] ; in Fig. 12 the solid curve is from the
theory with account for flow mixing ahead of the ejector choking section, while the dashed curve is from the critical regime theory [10].

/i

to,

1 " - - - - ~ 0z

t0o

20o

300

~oo

F i g . 11. T h e d a s h e d c u r v e i s f r o m e r i t i c a l r e g i m e t h e o r y w i t h o u t p e r f o r a t i o n . 1) t e s t s o f
e j e c t o r w i t h o u t p e r f o r a t i o n ; 2) t e s t s of e j e c t o r

200

z,~Og

F i g . 10. T h e s o l i d c u r v e i s
from Korst theory, the
d a s h e d c u r v e is f r o m c r i t i c a l r e g i m e t h e o r y [10],
dash-dot curve represents
the optimal values X'opt;
experimental data are from

1 [19], 2 [14], 3 [24].


The system of equations (!.2)-(i.~) permits solving the important
extremal problem of the maximal achievable ejector compression ratio amax for a given pressuxe ratio across the ejector o = P6/P0p Analysis shows that in this formulation area x is reached for zero ejection
coefficient k = 0 and an infinitesimal ejected flow a --~ 0. Figure 10
gives the variation of Smax as a function of o and indicates the optimal values of the ejecting flow reduced velocity Mopt. The solid
curve is from Korst theory, the dashed curve is from the critical
regime theory [10], the dash-dot curves are the optimal values k'opt,
the experimental data on Smax are from 1129], 2114], 3[24]. Comparison of the measured values of emax with the data of the critical
regime theory (see Fig. 2) shows the possibility of obtaining compression ratios in the ejectors which exceed by several fold the theoretical
values, which do not take into account the flow mixing ahead of the
ejector choking section.
For illustration Fig. 10 also shows experimental values of emax
for several of the tested ejectors. Of particular interest are the results
of an experimental study of Arkadov [24] of his proposed ejectors with
a slotted (perforated) nozzle mounted in the mixing chamber at the
exit from the supersonic ejecting nozzle (several other modifications

w i t h p e r f o r a t i o n s ; 3) a r e a x f r o m t h e c r i t i c a l
regime theory.
w
T h e o r y of the c r i t i c a l r e g i m e of a g a s e j e c t o r
with uniformly perforated nozzle extension. Rational
u t i l i z a t i o n of s t r e a m m i x i n g i n t h e e j e c t o r a h e a d o f
the choking section improves the ejector characteri s t i c s f o r l o w e j e c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e o r d e r of k <
< 0.1. W e s h a l l s h o w t h a t i n m a n y c a s e s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the e j e c t o r c r i t i c a l r e g i m e m a y be i m p r o v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y by u s i n g a u n i f o r m l y p e r f o r a t e d
n o z z l e e x t e n s i o n ( s e e d i a g r a m o f F i g . 13).
~max

108

/
so

F i g . 12. T h e s o l i d c u r v e i s
from theory with account
f o r flow m i x i n g a h e a d of
the ejector choking section,
dashed curve is from the
c r i t i c a l r e g i m e t h e o r y [10].
The general properties

o f s u p e r s o n i c g a s f l o w s in

p e r f o r a t e d b o u n d a r i e s w e r e s t u d i e d i n [25], w h e r e

FLUID DYNAMICS

27

c a s e s w e r e a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d of the u s e of a n e j e c t o r
(autosuction) to p r o v i d e in the c h a m b e r of an Eifel
wind tlmnei the r e q u i r e d flow through the p e r f o r a t e d
w a l l s of the w o r k i n g s e c t i o n .
Following [25] we s h a l l c o n s i d e r in the h y d r a u l i c
f o r m u l a t i o n the effect of a u n i l o r m l y p e r f o r a t e d n o z zle e x t e n s i o n on the c r i t i c a l o p e r a t i n g r e g i m e of a gas
e j e c t o r . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e r e will be t h r e e gas s t r e a m s
in the choking s e c t i o n 2 (Fig. 13).
1) s u p e r s o n i c flow of the e j e c t i n g gas of a r e a F '
with the r e d u c e d v e l o c i t y X~ and total p r e s s u r e p~;
2) the p o r t i o n of the e j e c t i n g gas flow which has
p a s s e d t h r o u g h the p e r f o r a t i o n with l o s s e s of t o t a l
p r e s s u r e ; the a r e a of this p o r t i o n of the flow i s F~,
the r e d u c e d v e l o c i t y is Xn , and the t o t a l p r e s s u r e is
vnP o' _< p0 ~ (1 - vn is the p e r f o r a t i o n l o s s coefficient);
3) the e j e c t e d gas flowing with sonic v e l o c i t y , with
flow s e c t i o n a r e a F , , r e d u c e d v e l o c i t y k = 1, total
p r e s s u r e P01 (without a c c o u n t for flow m i x i n g ahead of

F,,'-I- F . = FI,
p(k=') ~ p ( t ) / ( ~ ,

F~ l F ' = a,

p(~=~') ~ - - - p ( i ) / v n ( ~ .

(2.1)

Analogous e q u a t i o n s of m e c h a n i c s in d i s c h a r g e f o r m
w e r e w r i t t e n i n d e p e n d e n t l y by Yu. K. A r k a d o v in the

---f

- ~ ~_[Z

"

Y,f /
_

/.,l.r

20

"30

Fig. 15. C a l c u l a t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c g r i d of a s e r i e s of sonic


e j e c t o r s with u n i f o r m l y p e r forated nozzle extension.

ie iiiKl/,'llIlzl///I/,'Iz/

,i/lit/

Fig. 13. A r r a n g e m e n t of ejector


with uniformly perforated nozzle
e x t e n s i o n AB.
the choking section). (The h y d r a u l i c effect of the p e r f o r a t i o n which is s t u d i e d in this s e c t i o n and the effect
of flow m i x i n g ahead of the choking s e c t i o n which was
a n a l y z e d p r e v i o u s l y m u s t be s u m m e d in the r e a l e j e c tor). F o r a u n i f o r m l y p e r m e a b l e p e r f o r a t i o n of s u f f i c i e n t length the M i l l i o n s h c h i k o v - R y a b i n k o v c o n d i t i o n
P2 = c o n s t will be s a t i s f i e d at the choking s e c t i o n 2.

a n a l y s i s of an e j e c t o r [24]. The a b s e n c e in t h e s e e q u a t i o n s in e x p l i c i t f o r m of the total p r e s s u r e l o s s e s f o r


the p o r t i o n of the flow which p a s s e s t h r o u g h the p e r f o r a t i o n did not p e r m i t s c r e e n i n g out the u n r e a l i z a b l e
(within the f r a m e w o r k of the theory) flow r e g i m e s ,

~n

___,_

0.75
0.5#

a=15

/0

20

30

Fig. 16. R e q u i r e d h y d r a u l i c
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p e r f o r a t i o n for a s e r i e s of sonic
ejectors.

/0

gg

"38

F i g , 14. C a l c u l a t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
of the sonic e j e c t o r with a = 10.
In t h i s c a s e the e q u a t i o n s of m e c h a n i c s for the gas
flows b e t w e e n s e c t i o n s 1 and 2 (Fig~ 13) m a y b e w r i t t e n in the f o r m

q(k,)F~ -~ q(f)F.,

to d e t e r m i n e the r e q u i r e d p e r f o r a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
and e s t a b l i s h the r e g i o n of p r o f i t a b l e use of the u n i f o r m l y p e r m e a b l e p e r f o r a t i o n . It should be n o t e d that
s u c h t h e o r y is n o t a p p l i c a b l e at all for the e j e c t o r c o n s i d e r e d by A r k a d o v [24] s i n c e for X' = 1.925 and a =
= 0.5 t h i s t h e o r y y i e l d s vn > 1.
The s y s t e m of e q u a t i o n s (2.1) can be t r a n s f o r m e d
to the following f o r m , which is c o n v e n i e n t for c a l c u l a t i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an e j e c t o r with u n i f o r m l y
perforated nozzle extension.
Let a, a, k ' be given:
p(k2') = p(t) / a ,

(2.2)

q(U)F' --~ q(kz')F'-}- v~q (,'k2"' ~,',


q(k~)z(k,) F, + aq(U) z()J) F" : , q ( l ) z ( t ) F , q-

+ .v,oq (k~'~)z (k~'~)F,~' + ~q (~,Z)z ( k , ' ) F ,

~(k~-) = A q ( k t ) [z(~.,) - -

2] + B,

z~.[ t - q ( ~ ) ] = CT (Z~.).

(2.3)

28

MEKHANIKA ZHIDKOSTI I GAZA

The f o l l o w i n g n o ta ti o n s a r e i n t r o d u c e d in (2.2) and


(2.3):
a

A-aIq (;~')-- q ( ~ ' ) ] '

q(x~ ) z ( ~ ") ,

B = q(W)z()J)-'
q (;~') - - q (2~2")

C = {q(~;)-- q(Z2')] a
aT(1)

7"
,

p (~2")
,Vr t - -

z(kn )

----

aq ( ~ )
]s

p(Z2n) '

kz()~t) z()J)
i k

(2.4)

T(~.) = T o '

- - ~
crq(Z')

--

gq (k') ( i
(t

(2.5)

The v al u e of the r e d u c e d v e l o c i t y Xz' is d e t e r m i n e d


f r o m (2.2). The s o l u t i o n of the s y s t e m (2.3) d e t e r m i n e s the value of x2n and 2h(~). Then, f r o m (2.4) and
(2.5) we find the r e m a i n i n g e j e c t o r p a r a m e t e r s , i n cluding the p e r f o r a t i o n h y d r a u l i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c Pn.

q~

0s0

:0

Zr

30

Fig. 17. V a r i a t i o n of r e d u c e d
gas flow r a t e function q(Xi)
v e r s u s t h e p r e s s u r e r a t i o (r
f o r p e r f o r a t e d sonic e j e c t o r s .
Figures 14-17 show the results of the calculation of the characteristics of a series of sonic ejectors (k' = 1) with uniformly perforated
nozzle extension. In Fig, 14 the characteristics of the sonic ejector
with a = 10 with perforation (solid curves) are compared with the
theoretical characteristics of an ejector without performation (dashed
9curves, based on the critical regime theory) with the same nozzle
geometry. We see that the use of perforation in the sonic ejector increases significantly the performance of an ejector for moderatevalues
of the ejection coefficient of the order of k -< 1.0; for a given pressure
differential o across the ejector, the ejection eoefficignt increases by
about Lxk ~ 0.1. The calculated characteristic grid for a series of
sonic ejectors with uniformly perforated nozzle extension is shown in
Fig. 15. In the region of small values of the ejection coefficient of
the order of k -< 0.1 we can expect that the experimental characteristies will lie above the theoretical values because of the effect of
flow mixing ahead of the choking section, considered previously in
section 1. Figure 16 shows the required hydraulic characteristics of
the perforation for this series of sonic ejectors. Figure 17 shows the
calculated values of the reduced low-velocity gas flow rate q(kl) as
a function of the pressure differential o across the ejector. The data
of Fig. 17 i11nstrate the broad regulation characteristics of the sonic
ejectors with perforated nozzle extension.
As a whole the results of this study show the possibility of a significant improvement of the critical operating regime of the gas ejector by rational utilization of flow mixing ahead of the choking section
in the ejector chamber and the use of the hydraulically perforated
nozzle extension.

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29
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16 F e b r u a r y 1968

Moscow