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Degree in Mechanical Engineering

Machine Mechanics

2013 2014
Mechanical Engineering Department
Teacher: MOHAMED AHMED RAMADAN
Lab Session 1: The Atwood Machine
Pablo Fresneda
Raquel Esteban
Jose Miguel Jurado
Pablo Sainz

INTRODUCTION:
In this practice we are going to find out the gravity acceleration, to do so
we are going to use the Atwood Machine. It is composed by two different
masses m2 y m1 , connected by, in this case, a paper (as inellastic
connection). When m2=m1 If the machine will be in neutral equilibrium
despite of the position of the masses. When m2 y >m1 both masses will

experience an uniform acceleration

We will obtain an equation for the gravity acceleration using force


analysis. As we are dealing with an inellastic connection with neigectable
mass and an ideal pulley, the only forces that we must take into account
are;
The tension (T) and the weight of the 2 masses (mg). In order to find
we must take into account the forces that affect each mass
separately

Forces that affect

m1

T 1 m1 g

Forces that affect

m2

m2 gT 2

Using the Newtons 2nd law and roation dynamics we obtain an


equation for the gravity acceleration;

g=

m1 +m2 +

I
2
R

m2m1

dealing with an ideal pulley.

But as we are not dealing with an ideal situation, we must take


into account the friction forces that affect the measures so;

g=

m1 +m 2 +m eq
r
a+
m2m1
R (m 2m 1)

Well add aditional masses in order to provoque a notequilibrium situation


Aim:
The aim of this report is to find out the value of the gravity acceleration
using the atwood machine, using the Newtons Second Law, despite of
the fact that we are not dealing with an ideal situation, so well try to fin
dan experimental value similar to the theoretical one, but its almost
imposible to reach similar values using this device.

Results:
First Measure
x (cm)
4.50.05
5.70.05
6.40.05
7.30.05
8.50.05
9.60.05
10.30.05
11.30.05
12.50.05
13.40.05
Mean

First Measure
2x (cm)
1.20.1
0.70.1
0.90.1
1.20.1
1.10.1
0.70.1
10.1
1.20.1
0.90.1

Second Measure
x (cm)
7.30.05
9.80.05
11.50.05
140.05
160.05
17.80.05
210.05

Second Measure
2x (cm)
2.50.1
1.70.1
2.50.1
20.1
1.80.1
3.20.1

0.980.1

Mean

2.280.1

2 x=a t 2
'

a=

2 x 0.98 102
2
=
=0.144 m/s
2
2
t ( 2 0.146 )

a = {{} ^ {2} x} over { {t} ^ {2}} = {2.29 {10} ^ {-2}} over {{left (20.146 right )} ^ {2}} =0.267 m

| |

a=

da
1
1
2 x= 2 2 x=
0.1 102=0.0117
2
2
d x
t
( 2 0.146 )

a=0.140.01 m/s2

a=0.270.01 m/s2

r
2 m+meq
=
R m - m '} (m ' a m a ')+ {{m} ^ {'} m (a - a ')} over {m m '
r 2 0.3246+0.09
0.011 0.0208 ( 0.2670.114 )
=
( 0.011 0.2670.0208 0.114 ) +
=
R 0.02080.011
0.02080.011
0.04709 N

We consider the masses to have not accurancy erros in measure


da } right rline a

d r
R

d r

R
r=
a' +
R da'

| |

1 - a ')} over {m m '


'
mm
m ' - m a')+
m - m '}
2 m+m eq
' 2m +m eq

a +

m- m '} (m ' a m )+ {{m} ^ {'} m (a -1)} over {m m '

0.00156
r
=0.047 0.002 N
R

g=

m 1+ m 2+m eq
r
a+
m2m 1
R(m 2m 1 )

g '=

2 0.3246+ 0.011+0.09
0.04709
0.114+
=12.05 m/ s 2
0.011
0.011

g = {20.3246+0.0208+0.09} over {0.0208} 0.268+ {0.04709} over {0.0208} =12.05 m/ {s} ^ {2}

| |

|dgda| a+ ddg

g=

r
R

g=

m1+ m2 +meq
r
m +m +m

1
+
a+ 1 2 eq a+
r
m2m1
m2m1
m2m1
R
R ( m2m1)

g' =0.925 g =0.942

g=12 0.9 m/ s2

Conclusion:

) (

The value weve achieved is very different to the theoretical one. This is
because we have neglect several variables that take part in the system
such as the friction forc of the brush, the slide movement of the paper in
the pulley and the friction of the pulley with the axis. Additionally we
must take into account that the supposed value of the oscilation period of
the bar which holds the brush is not accurate.