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Advanced CFB Technology for Large Scale

Biomass Firing Power Plants


11.3.2013, IDA Energy: Biomass Combustion Challenges in Fluid Bed and Grate-firing
Teemu Nevalainen

Presentation Outline

Fluidized Bed Technology and Biomass Fuels


Advanced Boiler Design Features for Biomass Firing
Key References for Large Scale Biomass Firing
Cofiring Peat and Biomass Fuels
Clean Biomass Fuels
Challenging Biomass Fuels

Foster Wheeler AG

Established in 1884, known as


Foster Wheeler since 1927.
Foster Wheeler is a global
engineering and construction
contractor and powerequipment
supplier, with a reputation for
delivering technically-advanced,
reliable facilities and equipment with
world-class quality and safety.

Key figures, 2011


Employees

Approx. 12,000

Order backlog

USD 3.6 billion

New orders booked

USD 4.3 billion

Operating revenues

USD 4.5 billion

Consolidated EBITDA

USD 283 million

Traded on NASDAQ National Market


in New York.

Foster Wheeler AG, Business Groups

The Global Engineering & Construction (E&C) Group


Designs and constructs leading-edge processing facilities for the
upstream oil & gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG), gas-to-liquids,
refining, chemicals and petrochemicals, power, environmental,
pharmaceutical, biotechnology and healthcare industries.

The Global Power Group


Has world-leading expertise in combustion technology, and
designs, manufactures, supplies and erects steam generating,
flue gas cleaning and auxiliary equipment for power stations and
industrial markets worldwide. The group also provides a range of
environmental products and aftermarket parts and services.

Foster Wheeler Global Power Group


Products & Service

Steam generators

Environmental products

Aftermarket services

Auxiliary equipment

Circulating fluid bed

Engineered and replacement


pressure parts

Condensers

Pulverized coal

Circulating fluid bed


scrubbers

Oil & gas

Fabric filters

Biomass gasifiers

Bubbling fluid bed

SCR and SNCR systems

Weld overlay and refractory


upgrades

Grate and MSW

Low NOx combustion


systems

Replacement parts
Cyclone burner retrofits

Plant operation

Coal/air control system


upgrades

Coal mill service and


upgrade

Start-up

Biomass combustion retrofits

Boiler and HRSG


maintenence

Operation and
maintenence services

Package
HRSG
Metallurgical waste heat
Solar

Feedwater heaters

World Leader in Fluidized Bed Combustion


(CFB) Technology
First BFB boilers delivered in the 1970s, and worlds first CFB supplied in 1979.
Worlds first once-through supercritical CFB started operation in 2009 in
Lagisza, Poland.
Flexi-Burn - air/oxy flexible CFB commercially available by the of end 2012.
CFB fuel flexibility and multifuel capability provide for efficient utilization of
fossile and renewable fuels.
Meets tough emission regulations without additional flue gas cleaning systems.
402 - Circulating fluid bed (CFB) boilers

136 - Bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) boilers

11 - Atmospheric fluidized bed gasifires

347 delivered
55 under construction
Biggest unit in operation 460 MWe

135 delivered
1 under construction

11 delivered

PKE Lagisza, Poland

nevoima Oy, Finland

Lahti Energia, Finland

World Leader in Circulating Fluid Bed Scrubbing


(CFB) Technology

CFB technology was established under Graf-Wulff GmbH since 1989.


High experience in Bag House and ESP technology.
Low in operating and investment costs.
Operated in coal-, oil- and solid waste-fired plants.
Nearly unlimited in removal efficiencies (98-99%) for most multi-pollutants.
Presently designed for flue gas flow from 10,000 to 4,000,000 m/h.
Operating range from 50 100% (down to 30% on special request).

68 number of world wide installed systems

Combination of FGS and dedusting

Distributing / application areas

68 delivered
2 under commissioning
Biggest unit in operation 3,100,000 m/h

approx. 70 % with CFB-scrubber and


Bag House
approx. 30 % with CFB-scrubber and ESP

approx. 50 % coal fired boilers


approx. 40 % garbage and waste fired boilers
approx. 10 % biomass and RDF,
fuel oil and fuel oil residue fired boilers

Basin Electric, USA

Refinery, Germany

EVN, Austria
6

Fluidized Bed Technology and Biomass Fuels

Key Advantages of CFB

Fuel flexibility is a special advantage


Wide range for design coals
Broad range for biomass, waste, etc
Hard-to-Burn fuels (petcoke etc)

Excellent emission performance


No DeSOx / DeNOx plants required

High availability & competitive price

Biomass as Energy Source

Biomass has an important role in reducing the environmental


effects of energy production
Biomass fuel market has changed to global and makes
possible large scale power generation of biomass alone
In addition to the traditional clean and recycled biomasses, the
trend today shows increasing interest to applying agricultural
biomass & waste
For the boiler supplier is important to understand bio fuel origin
and treatment processes as well as the actual ranges of fuel
and ash properties
CFB is IDEAL TECHNOLOGY for large scale power
generation for broad range of biomass alone or co-firing in
larger fossil fired power plants!

Biomass Fuels
HI E RARCHY OF T HE WOOD-DE RI V E D F UE L S DE F I NI T I ONS
FORESTRY
Dire c two o d fu e ls

INDUSTRY
In d ire c two o d fu e ls

T imb e or rp u lp wo o d fo rfo re s tin d u s try

F ORE S T IN DUS T RY

RAW
MAT ERIA L

Me c h a n ic a lwo o d
in d u s try

T imb e r
Pu lp wo o d

S OL ID IN DUS T RIA L
WOOD RE S ID UE S /
B Y -P RODUCT S
u n tre a te d wo o d

F OREST CHIP S

WOOD F UEL S
Un me r c h a n ta b le
wo o d

Gre e n c h ip s

B ro wn c h ip s
Re g e n e ra tio n
s ta n d s (lo g g in g Wh o le tre e
re s id u e s )

Ch ip s

Yo u n g
s ta n d s
De limb e d tre e s
T h in n in g s
(w h o le tre e s )
S tu mp s

B ile ts
Ch ip s

Oth e r
S a w- Cu te r
Grin d in g
in d u s tria l d u s t s h a v in g s p o wd e r
wo o d
re s id u e s

P u lp
c h ip s P ro d u c tio n o fre fin e d
wo o d fu e ls

Ch ip s c ru s h e d
F IE L DS
S HORT

SOCIETY
Re c o v e r e d wo o d fu e ls

Ch ip s

F o rp a p e r
in d u s try

P e le ts B riq u e te s

P u lp a n d p a p e r
in d u s try

+ AGRO
Biomass
CONS UME RS OF WOOD
A ND P A P E R P RODUCT S
Wo o d a n d
p a p e rp ro d u c ts
s o rtin g

All fuels have they


Us e d p a p e r
Re c o v e
Un tre a te d wo o d
a n d b o a rd
Ch e miCharacteristics:
c a ly
p a p e rfo
own
B u ild in g o f
n e w h o u s e stre a te d wo o d

re c y c lin

Chemical characteristics
T RUCT
Na,K
CONS
ION
NOT
WOODCl, P re c y c la b le

"o ld wo o d "o r
B io b a s e dCh pi s
paper

Ash
content
u
s
e
d
wo
o
d
s lu d g e s
p ro d u c ts
B la c k liq u o r
Etc..
B a rk
mix e d
Physical characteristics
with b a rk
Cru s h e d o rc h ip p e d
Cru s h e d

Combustion
De wa te rin g
re c o v e re d wo o d
paper
Sizing
Etc. R a w m a te ria lu se
L IQUID
IN DUS T RIA L
WOOD F UE L S

M e c h a n ic a hl a n d lin
(ch ip p ni g ,cru s h in g ,
p e le tizn g ,b riq u e tin g )
Ch
in fo
Pa
ha

e
er
in
n

m ic a ltre a tm e n t
tins d u stry
tin g e tc .
d lin 10
g o fw o o d

Biomass Properties
Timber
pellets

Moisture %
Lower Heating Value
MJ/kg
Bulk Density kg/m3
Energy density
MWh/m3
Ash
% ds
S
% ds
Cl
% ds
Alkali
% ds
P
% ds

Timber
chips

Saw
dust

Bagasse Straw
briquette pellets

Peat

Recycled RDF
wood
fluff

5-10

20-50

45-60

12

50

25

25

17
650

7,5-13,9
130-280

6-10
300-350

16
650

14,7
650

9,3
340

14
300-400

13
100

3
0,9
<0,1
<0,03
0,1-0,3
<0,05

0,55
0,4-5,3
<0,1
<0,05
0,1-0,3
<0,05

0,45-0,7
0,4-0,5
<0,05
<0,03
0,1-0,3
<0,04

2,9
6
<0,05
<0,03
0,4-0,7
<0,05

1,4
5
0,1
0,1
0,1-0,5
<0,3

0,4
10-20
0,1-0,5
0,3-1,2
0,4-1
<0,5

2,7
0,9
7
5,1
0,01-0,03
0,22
0,1-0,8 0,02-0,06
0,3-1,7
0,1
0,05-0,8
<0,35

High concentrations of alkalis and chlorine increase risk for agglomeration, fouling and
corrosion

Advanced Boiler Design Features for


Biomass Firing

12

Factors Effecting for Boiler Design

Fuel Characterization
Physical & Chemical characteristics
Fouling characteristics
Corrosion characteristics

Plant Requirements

Electricity / Industrial
Steam data
Emissions
Legistlation

Investment Factors

Investment cost
Operation cost
Fuel flexibility
Availability
13

Key Design Features of Foster Wheeler Advanced Bio CFB


Features to control Fouling & Corrosion

Integrated Water/Steam Cooled


Solid Separator and Return Leg

- Correct flue gas temperature


- Correct design for convective heat
transfer surfaces

Features to control
Agglomeration & Fouling

Effective temperature control

Conservative flue gas velocity


During Operation:
- Fuel quality management
- FW SmartBoiler datalog &
Diagnostic tools

Possibility to use Additives


with worst quality agros

Active Bed Material

Step Grid

Final SH & RH as INTREX

14

Key References for Large Scale Biomass


Firing

15

Large Scale CFB for Cofiring Peat and Clean Biomass


Jyvskyl, Finland
458 MWth, 160/143 kg/s, 164/40.5 bar(a), 560/560C
Fuel

Peat

Wood Chips

Moisture

[%]ar

50.0

50.0

Ash

[%]dry

5.0

2.0

Nitrogen

[%]dry

1.2

0.3

Sulfur

[%]dry

0.3

0.0

Chlorine

[ppm]dry

< 500

< 200

LHV

[MJ/kg]ar

8.3

7.3

Performance

Peat

Flue gas Texit

[C]

90

Boiler efficiency

[%]

94.1

NOx

[mg/m3n]

150

SO2

[mg/m3n]

200

CO

[mg/m3n]

200

Dust

[mg/m3n]

30

16

Large Scale CFB for Clean Biomass (CHP)


Kaukas, Finland
385 MWth, 125 MWe-net, 110 MWDH, 149 kg/s, 115 bar(a), 550 C
Fuel

Biomass

Peat

Moisture

[%]ar

48

50

Ash

[%]dry

2.5

Nitrogen

[%]dry

0.6

1.9

Sulfur

[%]dry

0.05

0.2

LHV

[MJ/kg]ar

9.2

8.5

Performance

Biomass

Flue gas Texit

[C]

149

Boiler efficiency

[%]

91

NOx

[mg/m3n]

150

SO2

[mg/m3n]

200

CO

[mg/m3n]

200

Dust

[mg/m3n]

20

17

Large Scale and High Efficiency Advanced Bio CFB Concept


for 20-30%-w Agro with Clean Biomass up to scale 400MWe
568/566C, 179-190/43.6 bar(a),
Natural Circulation available up
to 400MWe (~179bar)
Limiting factor for scale in EU is
drum manufacturing capability
(up to scale ~350MWe)

Once Through Benson available


up to 400MWe (~179-190bar)
Lower Investment cost in scale
~350-400MWe
Limiting factor for steam
pressure is corrosion resistance
of evaporator panel wall

18

Advanced Bio CFB Concept for 20%-w Agro


Polaniec CFB, Poland
447 MWth, 190MWe, 535/535C, 127/20 bar(a)
80% Wood Chips
&
20% AGRO (Straw, Sunflower etc)

Fuel
Moisture

[%]ar

35.9

Ash

[%]dry

2.8

Nitrogen

[%]dry

0.25

Sulfur

[%]dry

0.05

LHV

[MJ/kg]ar

10.5

Emissions
NOx

[mg/m3n]

150

SO2

[mg/m3n]

150

CO

[mg/m3n]

50

Dust

[mg/m3n]

20

19

Individual Biomass Fuels

Unit

Wood
chips

Straw

Sun
flower

Dry Fruits

Palm
Kernel

Form

Chips

Pellet

Pellet

Crushed

LHV as received
Total moisture

MJ/kg
%

10.1
42.4

Pellet /
Briquettes
14.8
13.0

18.6
7.9

16.8
10.0

17.9
9.7

Content in dry fuel


Ash
Sulphur (S)
Chlorine (Cl)
Alkalis (Na+K)
Phosphor (P)

%
%
mg/kg
mg/kg
mg/kg

0.5
0.04
< 200
<1 500
< 400

6.9
0.15
<2000
<27 000
<2 000

3.1
0.14
< 700
<20 000
<3 000

3.3
0.09
< 300
<5 000
<2 100

2.2
0.04
< 300
<2 200
< 400

20

Fuel Feeding

Day silos
Holding capacity total 1.5 h

Eight feeding points


~60 MW per feeding point

2 drag chain conveyors


(RW/FW)
Four robbing screws per line

Feeding chutes
4 pcs at FW
4 pcs at RW

21

Multifuel CFB for Waste and Clean Biomass (CHP)


Igelsta (Sderenergi AB, Sdertlje, Sweden)
240 MWth, 73 MWe-net, 209 MWDH, 92 kg/s, 90 bar, 540C
Fuel

Mix 1

Mix 2

Mix 3

Biomass

[%]LHV

75

30

100

Rec.wood

[%]LHV

70

REF pellets

[%]LHV

25

Moisture

[%]ar

44.3

35.6

50.0

Ash

[%]dry

6.5

4.7

4.0

Nitrogen

[%]dry

0.6

0.8

0.5

Sulfur

[%]dry

0.09

0.08

0.06

Chlorine

[ppm]dry

1200

800

200

LHV

[MJ/kg]ar

9.7

11.0

8.3

Total plant efficiency ~110%LHV 90%HHV

Emissions

6%O2, dry

NOx

[mg/MJ]

35*

SO2

[mg/m3n]

75

CO

[mg/m3n]

50*

Dust

[mg/m3n]

10

NH3

ppm

10

TOC

[mg/m3n]

10

HCl / HF

[mg/m3n]

10 / 1

Cd+Tl / Hg / HMs

[mg/m3n]

0.05 / 0.05 / 0.5

PCDD+F

[ng/m3n]

0.1

*) only at 100% load with Mix 1, 2, and 3

22

Co-Combustion of 50% Biomass with Coal


600MWe Scale with Supercritical Steam Parameters

Despite of focus in bioenergy, other renewables and


nuclear, coal will remain important global fuel

Co-firing biomass in larger fossil steam plants


enables high efficiency bioenergy production

Co-firing provides flexibility to robust use biomass


depending on its seasonal availability

Boiler Scale up to 800MWe is technically feasible


with a 20% share of Clean biomass with Clean coal

Boiler Scale up to 600MWe is technically feasible


with a 50% share of Clean biomass with Clean coal

23

Foster Wheeler CFB Technology & Summary

FW has Extensive knowledge of Biomass


firing (195 FB units sold) and has modern
CFB Design with High fuel flexibility
meeting the most stringent emission
requirements
Some biomass is easy, other is more
challenging. Biggest challenges are related
for agglomeration, fouling, and corrosion.
Correct Fuel Characterization is the Key
issue in boiler Design.
CFB Boiler Technology available for broad
variety of biomass/waste fuels with high
efficiency

24

www.fwc.com