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# ELECTRICAL PRINCIPLES

## TITLE: T even ns Theorem Experiment

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1.0. Abstract:
The experiment that follows is carried out to determine the Thevenins theorem experimentally.
Thevenins theorem is an equivalence principle in circuit theory.This theorem is widely used for
circuit analysis simplification and to study circuit's initial-condition and steady-state response. In
the experiment, the load resistance was removed. The Vth and Rth were found and the resultant
current measured. After the experiment was carried out, it was verified that using the Thevenins
theorem procedure, the current in a particular load (potentiometer) in this case has the same
current flowing through it if it is solved using any other equivalence principle.

2.0. Objective:
The objective is this experiment is to verify the Thevenins theorem.

3.0. Theory:
In circuit analysis, Thevenins theorem for linear electrical networks states that any combination
of voltage sources, current sources, and resistors with two terminals is electrically equivalent to a
single voltage source V in series with a single series resistor R.To calculate the results for a n
equivalent circuit, one needs a resistance and some voltage - two unknowns. Thus two equations
are needed. These two equations are usually obtained by using the following steps:

1. Calculate the output voltage, VAB, when in open circuit condition (no load resistor - meaning
infinite resistance). This is VT h .
2. RT h is found by having the voltage source short circuited and the current source opened. The load
resistance (RL) is kept zero.
3. After both RT h and VTh are obtained, both are placed in series with the RL and the resultant
current is found.

4.0. Apparatus:

S.no
1

Components
Variable power source

Resistor

3
4

## Variable resistance (pot)

Multimeter

5
6

Connecting wires

Ratings
0-20V
4.35k
35.1k
7.30k
9.00k
200-2M
1A dc
-

Quantity
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
few

5.0. Procedure:
1. An calibrated ohmmeter is used to measure and record the value of the resistor R1 , R2 , R3
and RL in table 1.
2. The circuit is constructed as shown in the figure below.

R1 1k

R2 1k
+

R4 1k

V1 5

R3 1k

AM1

VM1

3. The voltage (VL) across the resistor (RL) and the current (IL) through the load
aremeasured and recorded in table1 using a voltmeter and an ammeter respectively.
4. The power supply is switchedoff and the load of 9K removed.
5. The supply is switch ON and a voltmeter is connected across the terminals A and B to
measure the Theveninsvoltage (VT H) as shown in the figure below. The reading is
recorded in table 1.

R1 1k

R2 1k

R3 1k

V1 5

VM1

6. The power supply is switched OFF. The voltage source is removed and connected in the
circuit as shown in the figure below.Using an ohmmeter, the resistance is found between
A and B which is the Thevenins resistance, RT H. This value is then tabulated in table 1.

R1 1k

R2 1k

R3 1k

ZM1 1k

7. The circuit is reconnected as shown in the figure below with the voltage source, the
variable pot, ammeter in series with the load 9k. A voltmeter is connected across the
used to measure the current. This current value is then put in the table 1.

R1 1k
+

A
AM1
V1 5

R2 1k

VM1

6.0. Results:
IL (original)
(A)

VL (original)
(V)

Valu
e
0.44
mA

Cal.
value

value

0.44
mA

4.01
V

Cal.
value

RTH ()

VTH (V)

value

Cal.
value

IL
(Thevenin's
method)
Equi
Cal
value value

VL
(Thevenin's
method)
Equi
Cal.
value value

Mea
Cal.
d
value
value
3.96
8.98
8.91 11.2 11.17 0.431 0.44m 3.56V 3.97
V
V
V
3K
k
mA
A
V
Mead=Measured value, Cal.=Calculated value, Equi= Equivalent circuit
TABLE 1

## 6.1. Stimulated results:

Computer generated results using the software TINA are presented below to verify the
6.1.1. VL and IL (without Thevenins method):

6.1.2. Vth :

6.1.3. Rth :

## 6.2. Theoretical results:

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7.0. Discussion:
The experiment was carried out to verify the Thevenins theorem. In the experiment, the
individual resistance of fixed resistors and variable resistance (potentiometer) were measured
using a calibrated ohmmeter. It is to be noted that the resistance of the resistors is determined
with the resistor disconnected from the circuit and not connected to the power supply, as this
would give us a false reading. The voltage and the current were recorded using a calibrated
multimeter. The multimeter acting as an ammeter was connected in series with the load while the
voltmeter was connected across the load to get the voltage across the required load. In the
experiment, the variable resistors resistance was kept to a consta nt resistance (9k in this case)
throughout the experiment. This yielded appreciable results for our experiment. In the
experiment, the load across which the current was to be determined was removed and Rth found
out using a ohmmeter. The Vth was found with the load resistance kept disconnected for the
circuit. It was measured with a voltmeter. After both Vth and Rth were found, they both were
placed in series with the RL (the removed load). Then the current in RL was found using a n
ammeter. The experimental value of the current was cross checked using computer generated
results and as well as theoretical results. Both these results were very close to the experimental
results indicating that both the human and the apparatus errors were kept to the minimum. The
results from the experiment hold a significant importance in electronic and electrical principles.
Thevenin's Theorem is useful in analyzing power systems and other circuits where one particular
resistor in the circuit (called the load resistor) is subject to change, and re-calculation of the
circuit is necessary with each trial value of load resistance, to determine voltage across it and
current through it. Thevenins theorem is also greatly applied in source modeling and resistance
measurement using the Wheatstone bridge.

8.0. Conclusion:
From the experiment carried out, it was verified that the current flowing through a load
resistance under Thevenins theorem analysis is same as the current flowing through it under
normal condition.

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9.0. References:

## John Becker. (2013). Thevenin's Theorem. Available: http://wwwcecs.evansville.edu/mr56/ecce170/Lab4.pdf.

Boylestad L. Robert, 2007, Principles of Electric circuits: Conventional current
Version, 9th version, Pearson international edition. Prentice hall.

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