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Annotated Bibliography

The on-going debate in regards to microblogging is one that cannot be ignored.

Its interesting that the major news broadcasters such as CNN, NBC, NPR, and the list
continues, consistently bring public awareness to the adverse in regards to social media
yet have simultaneously become increasingly engaged in the digital social sector as well.
This form of social interaction has become almost unavoidable and therefore the
exigency is to understand how social networking can be utilized responsibly to create
innovation. My goal is to establish credibility by developing my original ideas based on
the research for this proposal. I will examine specifically local businesses interaction with
social networking and the creative approaches they are taking at establishing branding
and marketing strategies. Furthermore, how the absence of social networking can break
the credibility of business as well as customer integrity.
Baird, Carolyn Heller, and Gautam Parasnis. "From Social Media to Social Customer
Relationship Management." Strategy & Leadership 39.5 (2011): 30-37. Google
Scholar. Web. 06 Apr. 2015.
Carolyn Heller Baird is Global CRM Research Leader with the IBM Institute for
Business Value, IBM Global Services. Gautam Parasnis is Partner and Vice President for
IBM Global Business Services and the Global CRM Leader. Social CRM (Customer
Relationship Management) is a concept discussed by IBM consultants in depicting the
way social networking plays a significant role in modern society. Social platforms such
as Instagram, Twitter, and Facebook have the potential to make or break the success of a
business and must be utilized wisely. Social media must be a collaborative experience
between the business and customer. Baird and Parasnis discuss how Social CRM is an
innovative approach at identifying the customers needs.
According to IBM research, there is a large perception gap between what the
customers seek via social media and what companies offer. Consumers are far
more interested in obtaining tangible value, suggesting businesses may be
confusing their own desire for customer intimacy with consumers' motivations for
engaging (Baird and Parasnis, 34).
Hanna, Richard, Andrew Rohm, and Victoria L. Crittenden. "Were All Connected:
The Power of the Social Media Ecosystem." Business Horizons 54.3 (2011):
265-73. Google Scholar. Web. 7 Apr. 2015.
"Were All Connected: The Power of the Social Media Ecosystem" analyzes the way
customers are becoming more and more involved with the branding and marketing of
certain business, specifically small business. This is achieved through social media
interaction and continual conversation based on the expectations of consumers and the
quality of the product. The article examines how Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram are
not individual sectors of social media but should be thought as an integrated ecosystem
that works together to achieve one goal that is defined by the both the business and the

Bottom-up marketing occurs because billions of people create trillions of

connections through social media each day (Hansen et al., 2011, p. 3). These
connections build relationships that result in a vast social network, tapping into a
consumer marketplace where marketers would never be allowed to tread (267).
A critical step in the development of a social media strategy involves the concept
of the social media ecosystem. The ecosystem needs to be visualized in terms of
the three types of media: owned, paid, and earned. This allows marketers to
develop a clear idea as to what extent each media platform (e.g., website,
Facebook, Twitter, television) interacts with the others. At the same time,
knowing that the sphere of influence will be equally dominated by five types of
social influencesCreators, Critics, Collectors, Joiners, and Spectatorshelps
companies determine the type of messages that need to be central within the
ecosystem (271-72).
Richard Hanna, College of Business Administration, Northeastern University. Andrew
Rohm, College of Business Administration, Northeastern University. Corresponding
author, Victoria Crittenden, Carroll School of Management, Boston College.
Harris, Lisa, and Alan Rae. "Social Networks: The Future of Marketing for Small
Business." Journal of Business Strategy 30.5 (2009): 24-31. Google Scholar.
Web. 08 Apr. 2015.
Lisa Harris is Senior Lecturer in Marketing at the University of Southampton School of
Management. Contributing author, Alan Rae, is Managing Partner of AI Consultants. As
social media continues to develop and grow entrepreneurs are becoming more engaged
with social networks in order to learn more about their customers. Investing in digital
branding is arguably a requirement in order to excel in business. It is not enough to have
digital presence but businesses must engage with their community in order to establish
customer trust and value. When a business neglects social media they are often
overlooked and a competitor with a strong social media presence will gain their business
as a result.
But consumers will increasingly expect companies to communicate with them
through these tools. The concept of the superfan is much debated in marketing
circles at the moment. This is considered by many to be the holy grail of
online marketing creating a network of customers who are so positive about a
brand that they do much of its marketing and sales themselves and for free
(Harris and Rae, 31).
This is part of the phenomenon of microblogging. The notion that marketing would be
more effective digitally and for free was out of question not even ten years ago. There are
several reasons for this but primarily because the technology to support simultaneous
sharing (texts, images, videos, etc.) was not nearly as effective.

Millman, Debbie, and Rob Walker. Brand Thinking and Other Noble Pursuits. New
York: Allworth, 2011. Print.
Debbie Millman is the president of design at Sterling Brands and hosts an Internet radio
program Design Matters. She engages in conversation with other visual creatives by
asking, Why is branding necessary and why do we buy into specific brands?
Furthermore, why is it important to establish branding that is recognizable on a global
level? Branding is an imperative concept, especially when it makes its presence digitally.
My view is that branding is the process of attaching an idea to some object, or to
a service or organization Rob Walker
Brands exist in the minds of people who interact with them. Brian Collins
The thought-provoking conversations that Millman has throughout Brand Thinking
leaves the reader questioning his/her own thoughts about branding and why certain
brands appeal to them more than others. What makes them work? What makes them
effective throughout time and how do they remain relevant? For a local business to
succeed, it depends on multiple systematic steps. Local businesses must engage in social
networking. In order to establish credibility they must have an identifiable brand and
once established the brand must maintain integrity.
Sareen, Himanshu. "An Economy of Trust: How Transparency Is Changing the
Tech Industry | WIRED." Wired.com. Conde Nast Digital, 23 Mar. 2015. Web. 07
Apr. 2015.
Sareen Himanshu is the founder of IT consulting firm, Icreon, providing software and
web development. Himanshu discusses how trust is a high value currency in the current
tech landscape and as are social interaction becomes increasingly digital, it is important
that technology has the ability to uphold an economy of trust. Too many times,
businesses lose the trust of their customers based on breaches in technology. This article
makes an engaging argument in how economic trust and the tech industry go hand-inhand.
While you might think that audiences would trust non-profit organizations more
than other businesses, non-profits are actually held to a higher standard of
transparency. When people are donating their money, after all, they want to make
sure that a majority of it will go directly to the cause.
This is why storytelling is so important to non-profits.
This works with my research because I highlight the connection local businesses are
making with non-profits such as Socality in Oklahoma, a creative movement utilizing
social media, specifically Instagram, and donating a portion of their revenue to larger