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Faculty of Science and Engineering

Department of Chemical & Environmental Sciences

End of Semester Assessment
Module Code:


Module Title:



Dr. Witold Kwapinski

External Examiners:

Prof. Peter Heggs


Spring 2013

Duration of Exam:

2.5 h

Grading Scheme: 50% for Part 2

Part 1 is for those who get the mark F or for those would like to improve
mark from the mid-term assessment. In this case Student should solve
every Problems from Part 1 and only three from the Part 2 to get
maximum possible note which in case of the students who get F, D2 or
D1 from the first test is B2; and in other cases A2.

Instructions to Candidates:
1. Any non-programmable calculator may be used provided it has been cleaned of any
information that would subvert the purpose of the examination
2. Calculations must be shown in sufficient detail to illustrate your understanding of the
3. Please write clearly and readably.
4. The corresponding marks allocated to each answer are shown in the text below.
5. Marks will be deducted for the inclusion of irrelevant material in these answers, down
to a minimum of 40% of the marks available for the question.


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Part 1
20 marks

Problem 1.1.

Define all parameters in the equation (names, dimensions)

0.83 0.33
NSh 0.023NRe
20 marks

Problem 1.2.

Explain terms: scrubbing, isostere, gas constant, voidage, adsorbate.

30 marks

Problem 1.3.

A waste stream of alcohol vapour in air from a process was adsorbed by zeolites particles in a
packed bed having a diameter of 5 cm and length of 20 cm containing 200 g of zeolite. The
inlet gas stream having a concentration of 900 ppm and density of 0.001 g/cm 3 entered the
bed at a flow rate of 500 cm3/s. Data in Table give the concentration of the breakthrough
curve. The break-point concentration is set at c/c 0 = 0.1. Determine the break-point time, the
fraction of total capacity used up to the break point, and the length of the unused bed, and the
saturation loading capacity of the zeolite.
Problem 1.4.

30 marks

Absorption of carbon dioxide from a carbon dioxideair mixture in a solution containing 100
kg/m3 of caustic soda, using a 250 mm diameter tower packed to a height of 2 m with 19 mm
Raschig rings. The results obtained at atmospheric pressure 1013hPa, and gas rate is 0.4
kg/m2s, and liquid rate is 5.0 kg/m2s. The carbon dioxide in the inlet gas was 850 parts per
million and the carbon dioxide in the exit gas was 65 parts per million. The equilibrium can
be described by the relation y1e =1.6x1.
What is the value of the overall gas transfer coefficient KGa in kmol/m3skPa? Calculate
height and number of transfer units.

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Part 2
Problem 2.1.

30 marks

A slurry is filtered in a plate and frame press containing 18 frames, each 0.35 m square and
25 mm thick. During the first 280 s the pressure difference for filtration is slowly raised to the
final value of 400 kN/m2 and, during this period, the rate of filtration is maintained constant.
After the initial period, filtration is carried out at constant pressure and the cakes are
completely formed in a further 1200 s. What is the volume of filtrate collected per cycle?
A sample of the slurry had previously been tested with a leaf filter of 0.07 m2 filtering surface
using a vacuum giving a pressure difference of 60 kN/m2. The volume of filtrate collected in
the first 500 s, was 350 cm3 and, after a further 400 s, an additional 225 cm 3 was collected. It
may be assumed that the cake is incompressible and that the cloth resistance is the same in
the leaf as in the filter press.
Problem 2.2.

20 marks

In case of membrane filtration (answer shortly)

a) What is called pervaporation?
b) What is called reverse osmosis?
c) What is called permeate?
d) What is called fouling?
e) How do you scale-up a membrane unit?

Problem 2.3.

25 marks

The mass-transfer coefficient from a free water surface to an adjacent moving air stream has
been found to be 0.02 kg m-2 s-1. Estimate the rate of evaporation from a surface of 1 m2 at a
temperature of 30C into an air stream with a dry-bulb temperature of 50C and relative
humidity of 30% and the consequent necessary rate of supply of heat energy to effect this
Problem 2.4.

25 marks

A salt solution weighting 50 tonnes with 60wt% MgCl 2 is cooled to 290 K. The salt
crystallizes as the hexahydrate. What will be the yield of MgCl 2 6H2O crystals if the
solubility is 56 kg anhydrous /100 kg of total water? Assume that 10% of the total weight of
the solute is lost by evaporation of water in cooling. Molecular mass (M): M MgCl2 = 95.2
g/mol; M MgCl2 6H2O = 203.3 g/mol; M.

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Appendix 1.

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Appendix 2 selected equations

Selected equations sheet - available for students during the term and during the exam (for some of
the expressions no explanation is given).
Kinetic theory
Chapman-Enskog equation
Fuller, Schettler and Giddings method
other equation for diffusion coefficient in
a liquid mixture
Chapman-Enkog equation
Molecular Diffusion in Biological Solution and Gel
for solute of molar weight < 1000
for solute of molar weight > 1000
Molecular diffusion in solids
mean free path
Transient diffusion

Dimensionless JD factor relating kc

and other dimensionless numbers
Mass Transfer Coefficients for Various Geometries
Mass-transfer / liquid evaporation from a plate or a flat surface to a flowing fluid
Re < 15 000
15 000 < Re <300 000
600 < Re <50 000
Mass-transfer between a single sphere and a fluid passing it
for gases with Sc = 0.6 2.7 &
Re = 1 48000
for liquids with Re = 2 2000
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for liquids with Re = 2000

Mass-transfer of a fluid flowing thr. a solid bed (usually e = 0.3 0.5)
for gases 10 < Re < 10000
for liquids with Re = 0.0016
55 &
Sc = 165 70600
for liquids with Re = 55 1500
Sc = 165 70600
for gases and liquids in
fluidised beds of spheres with
Re = 10 4000
for liquids in fluidised beds of
spheres with Re = 1 10
Mass-transfer from a long cylinder to a fluid flowing perpendicular to it
Re = 50 50000 for gases &
Sc = 0.6 2.6;
for liquids Sc = 1000 3000
Mass-transfer from gas bubbles to a liquid or from a liquid to solid particles /
immiscible liquid drops of another component
Dp < 0.6mm

Dp > 2.5mm

Dp =0.6~2.5mm

using kL = Dp to extrapolate the approximate value

Langmuir isotherm
KA = K0/RT

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BET isotherm

Freundlich isotherm

Isotherms for Multiple


The transfer units

for dilute
Gm = moles of inert
gas/(unit time) (unit
cross-section of
Lm = moles of solutefree liquor/(unit time)
(unit cross-section of
NOG = overall gas
transfer units,
HOG = height of the
overall gas transfer
HOL = height of the
overall liquid transfer
CT = is the mean
molar density of the
Column capacity
HT is the total bed
HB is the length of
bed used up to the
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break point, and

tu/tt is the fraction of
the total bed capacity
or the time at which
the effluent
reaches its maximum
permissible level.
V is the volume of filtrate which
has passed in time t ,
A is the total cross-sectional area
of the filter cake,
uc is the superficial velocity of the
L is the cake thickness,
S is the specific surface of the
is the voidage,
is the viscosity of the filtrate,
P is the applied pressure
is the volume of cake deposited
by unite volume of filtrate

Membrane separation
J is the membrane flux, expressed
as volumetric rate per unit area,
|P| is the pressure difference
applied across the membrane, the
transmembrane pressure,
|| is the difference in osmotic
pressure across the membrane,
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Rm is the resistance of the

Rc is the resistance of layers
deposited on the membrane, the
filter cake and gel foulants.
r is the specific resistance of the
V the total volume filtered,
Vs the volume of particles
Cb the bulk concentration of
particles in the feed (particle
volume/feed volume),
Am the membrane area,
Rsd is the resistance that would be
caused by deposition of all filtered
Rsr is the resistance removed by
Carman relationship
e is the void volume of the cake
ds the mean particle diameter
C solute concentrations is
expressed as mass fractions,
Cp solute concentrations in the
permeate is expressed as mass
D the diffusion coefficient of the
y is the distance from the


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humid volume

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