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TARBELA 4TH EXTENSION

HYDROPOWER PROJECT

Prepared by Independent Consultants
ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL ASSESSMENT
August 2011

Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority
(WAPDA)

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project
Environmental and Social Assessment

Contents
List of Acronyms .......................................................................................................... xi
1

2

3

Introduction ........................................................................................................ 1-1
1.1

Background ................................................................................................ 1-1

1.2

The Proposed Project .................................................................................. 1-1

1.3

The Environmental and Social Assessment ................................................. 1-3

1.4

Composition of Study Team ....................................................................... 1-5

Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework................................................... 2-1
2.1

General ....................................................................................................... 2-1

2.2

Pakistan ...................................................................................................... 2-1

2.3

2.2.1 Overview ........................................................................................ 2-1
2.2.2 Environmental Legislation .............................................................. 2-1
2.2.3 National Environmental Guidelines and Policies ............................. 2-6
2.2.4 National Environmental Quality Standards ...................................... 2-7
2.2.5 Environment Regulatory Authorities ............................................... 2-8
International Treaties and Conventions ....................................................... 2-9

2.4

World Bank .............................................................................................. 2-10

2.4.1 Overview ...................................................................................... 2-10
2.4.2 World Bank Environmental and Social Guidelines ........................ 2-10
2.4.3 Operational Policies (OPs) of the World Bank .............................. 2-10
2.4.4 Applicable World Bank Policies ................................................... 2-12
2.4.5 Compliance Status with Pakistani and World Bank Policies .......... 2-13
Project Description ............................................................................................. 3-1
3.1

Tarbela Dam Project Overview ................................................................... 3-1

3.2

Objectives of 4th Extension Project ............................................................ 3-1

3.3

Salient Features .......................................................................................... 3-1

3.4

Project Components.................................................................................... 3-1

3.5

3.4.1 Intake Arrangement......................................................................... 3-4
3.4.2 Penstock Connection to Tunnel 4 .................................................... 3-6
3.4.3 Proposed Powerhouse ..................................................................... 3-8
3.4.4 Mechanical and Electrical Plant ...................................................... 3-8
3.4.5 Switchyard .................................................................................... 3-10
3.4.6 Transmission Lines ....................................................................... 3-11
3.4.7 Tailrace ......................................................................................... 3-11
Other Components .................................................................................... 3-11
3.5.1 Labor Camps................................................................................. 3-11
3.5.2 Construction Materials .................................................................. 3-12

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Environmental and Social Assessment

4

5

6

3.6

3.5.3 Waste Generation and Disposal ..................................................... 3-13
Program for Development......................................................................... 3-14

3.7

3.6.1 Construction Method of Tunnel 4 Raised Intake ............................ 3-14
Summary of Project Cost .......................................................................... 3-18

Need for Project and Analysis of Alternatives................................................... 4-1
4.1

Need for Project ......................................................................................... 4-1

4.2

4.1.1 Overview ........................................................................................ 4-1
4.1.2 Regional Context ............................................................................ 4-1
4.1.3 National Context ............................................................................. 4-2
4.1.4 Demand Trends ............................................................................... 4-3
Assessment of Alternatives ......................................................................... 4-9

4.2.1 Overview ........................................................................................ 4-9
4.2.2 Without Project Option ................................................................... 4-9
4.2.3 Site Alternatives.............................................................................. 4-9
4.2.4 Alternatives for the Powerhouse ...................................................... 4-9
4.2.5 Alternatives for the Intake ............................................................. 4-15
4.2.6 Coffer Dam Option ....................................................................... 4-17
4.2.7 Alternatives for the Switchyard ..................................................... 4-17
4.2.8 Alternatives for the Type of Cement.............................................. 4-18
4.2.9 Method of Excavation and Drilling ............................................... 4-18
Stakeholder Consultations ................................................................................. 5-1
5.1

Introduction ................................................................................................ 5-1

5.2

Objectives .................................................................................................. 5-1

5.3

Identification of Stakeholders ..................................................................... 5-1

5.4

5.3.1 Primary Stakeholders ...................................................................... 5-2
5.3.2 Secondary Stakeholders .................................................................. 5-2
Consultation Process................................................................................... 5-2

5.5

5.4.1 Stakeholder Consultation during the Scoping Phase ........................ 5-3
5.4.2 Stakeholder Consultation during Detailed Assessment .................... 5-3
5.4.3 Consultation with Institutional Stakeholders.................................... 5-4
5.4.4 Consultation with Community Representatives ............................... 5-4
5.4.5 Grass Roots Consultation ................................................................ 5-5
5.4.6 Consultation Workshops ................................................................. 5-5
Gender Consultations ................................................................................. 5-6

5.6

Consultations during Project Execution ...................................................... 5-8

5.7

Information Disclosure ............................................................................... 5-8

Environmental and Social Baseline.................................................................... 6-1
6.1

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Overview .................................................................................................... 6-1

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6.2

Physical Environment ................................................................................. 6-1

6.3

6.2.1 Physiography .................................................................................. 6-1
6.2.2 Land Use......................................................................................... 6-3
6.2.3 Climate ........................................................................................... 6-3
6.2.4 Temperature .................................................................................... 6-3
6.2.5 Rainfall ........................................................................................... 6-4
6.2.6 Humidity......................................................................................... 6-4
6.2.7 Evaporation..................................................................................... 6-5
6.2.8 Geology .......................................................................................... 6-5
6.2.9 Seismology ..................................................................................... 6-6
6.2.10 Soil ................................................................................................. 6-7
6.2.11 Soil Analysis ................................................................................... 6-8
6.2.12 Rock Stability and Landslides ....................................................... 6-10
6.2.13 Sedimentation ............................................................................... 6-10
6.2.14 Hydrology ..................................................................................... 6-10
6.2.15 Flooding ....................................................................................... 6-14
6.2.16 Surface Water Quality ................................................................... 6-14
6.2.17 Ground Water Quality ................................................................... 6-15
6.2.18 Air Quality .................................................................................... 6-16
6.2.19 Noise ............................................................................................ 6-16
6.2.20 Traffic and Transport .................................................................... 6-17
Biological Environment ............................................................................ 6-20

6.4

6.3.1 Wetlands and biodiversity ............................................................. 6-20
6.3.2 Significance of Tarbela Reservoir for Bird Migration .................... 6-20
6.3.3 Significance of Ghazi-Barotha Lake .............................................. 6-20
6.3.4 Protected Areas/ Game Reserves ................................................... 6-21
6.3.5 Hunting and Other Threats ............................................................ 6-21
6.3.6 Nature Conservation ..................................................................... 6-21
6.3.7 Terrestrial Flora ............................................................................ 6-21
6.3.8 Terrestrial Fauna ........................................................................... 6-23
6.3.9 Fish and Fisheries ......................................................................... 6-26
Social-economic Baseline ......................................................................... 6-27
6.4.1
6.4.2
6.4.3
6.4.4
6.4.5
6.4.6
6.4.7
6.4.8

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August 2011

Overview ...................................................................................... 6-27
Administrative Setup..................................................................... 6-28
Demography and Population ......................................................... 6-28
Economic Conditions .................................................................... 6-29
Social Infrastructure and Services ................................................. 6-31
Grazing ......................................................................................... 6-39
Cultural Heritage........................................................................... 6-39
Tourism and Recreation ................................................................ 6-40

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8

6.4.9 Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Social
Organizations ................................................................................ 6-40
6.4.10 Poverty Status ............................................................................... 6-40
6.4.11 Gender Issues in the Project Area .................................................. 6-40
6.4.12 Tarbela Legacy ............................................................................. 6-44
Other Relevant Non-project Related Issues ...................................................... 7-1
7.1

Risk of Earthquakes .................................................................................... 7-1

7.2

Risk of Flooding ......................................................................................... 7-1

7.3

Climate Change .......................................................................................... 7-2

Significant Environmental Impacts of the Project and their Mitigations ........ 8-1
8.1

General ....................................................................................................... 8-1

8.2

Assessment of Effects and Significance ...................................................... 8-1

8.3

8.2.1 Magnitude ....................................................................................... 8-1
8.2.2 Sensitivity ....................................................................................... 8-2
8.2.3 Assigning Significance.................................................................... 8-3
8.2.4 Mitigation and Enhancement Measures ........................................... 8-3
8.2.5 Uncertainty ..................................................................................... 8-3
Summary of Assessed Impacts.................................................................... 8-4

8.4

Impacts during Pre-construction Stage ...................................................... 8-10

8.5

8.4.1 Land Use Change .......................................................................... 8-10
8.4.2 Preparation of Facilities for Contractor(s) and Labor Force ........... 8-10
8.4.3 Hindrance and Damages during Mobilization and Transport of
Materials ....................................................................................... 8-12
Impacts during Construction Stage ........................................................... 8-12
8.5.1 Changed Topography/Land Form .................................................. 8-12
8.5.2 Reduced Irrigation Releases due to closure of Tunnel 4
and Tunnel 3 ................................................................................. 8-13
8.5.3 Reduced Power Generation ........................................................... 8-14
8.5.4 Impacts on Surface Water Quality ................................................. 8-14
8.5.5 Impact of Noise on Workers and Residential Areas ....................... 8-15
8.5.6 Risk of Landslides and Collapse of Slope during Construction ...... 8-16
8.5.7 Hindrance and Road Damage by Transport of Materials
over Land ...................................................................................... 8-17
8.5.8 Disturbance of Fauna and Quality of Habitat by Increased
Human Activities .......................................................................... 8-18
8.5.9 Soil and Water Pollution by Solid and Hazardous Wastes
and Waste Effluents from Labor Camps and
Construction Yards ....................................................................... 8-18
8.5.10 Impacts of Emissions of Gasses and Dust on Air Quality .............. 8-19
8.5.11 Removal of Natural Vegetation ..................................................... 8-19

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8.6

Impacts during Operation and Maintenance .............................................. 8-20
8.6.1
8.6.2
8.6.3
8.6.4
8.6.5
8.6.6

9

Potential Impacts on Irrigation Water Releases ............................. 8-20
Risks of Landslides during Extreme Weather Conditions .............. 8-20
Operational Noise from New Power Station .................................. 8-20
Bird Collision with Transmission Cables....................................... 8-20
Increased Maintenance Activities .................................................. 8-20
Reduced Power Generation during Closure of Low Level
Intake Tunnel 3 and 4.................................................................... 8-21
Potential Social Impacts and their Mitigations ................................................. 9-1
9.1

General ....................................................................................................... 9-1

9.2

Summary of Assessed Impacts.................................................................... 9-1

9.3

Impacts during Pre-Construction Stage ....................................................... 9-4

9.4

9.3.1 Land Impacts .................................................................................. 9-4
Impacts and Opportunities during Construction Stage ................................. 9-4

9.5

9.4.1 Employment Opportunities during Construction.............................. 9-4
9.4.2 Construction Workers’ Rights ......................................................... 9-5
9.4.3 Prevention of Social Conflicts and Environmental Degradation:
Development of Workers’ Code of Conduct .................................... 9-6
9.4.4 Increased Health and Safety Risks................................................... 9-7
9.4.5 Construction Disturbances and Possible Conflicts with Local
Population ....................................................................................... 9-8
Social Assistance Program .......................................................................... 9-9

9.5.1 Community Development Assistance .............................................. 9-9
9.5.2 Addressing the Social Legacy of Previous Projects ....................... 9-10
10 Cumulative and Induced Impacts .................................................................... 10-1
10.1 Cumulative Impact of Investments in the Indus Basin Water System ........ 10-1
10.2 Plans for Storage Reservoirs ..................................................................... 10-1
10.3 Impact Downstream and on Delta and Coastal Zone ................................. 10-2
10.4 Preparation of a Master Plan for the Left Bank of Indus,
Delta and Coastal Zone ............................................................................. 10-2
10.5 Sediment Management Plan for the Basin and Tarbela ............................. 10-3
10.6 Improving Irrigation Efficiencies .............................................................. 10-3
10.7 Role of Project in Cumulative Impacts...................................................... 10-3
10.8 Possible Induced Impact ........................................................................... 10-4
11 Environmental and Social Management Plan ................................................. 11-1
11.1 Introduction .............................................................................................. 11-1
11.2 Objectives of ESMP ................................................................................. 11-1
11.3 Institutional Arrangements........................................................................ 11-1
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11.3.1 Inclusion of ESMP in Contract Documents ................................... 11-1
11.3.2 Implementation Responsibility ...................................................... 11-2
11.3.3 Construction: Establishment of Environmental and Social
Management Unit ......................................................................... 11-2
11.3.4 Operation: The WAPDA Environment Cell .................................. 11-3
11.3.5 Consultant’s Environment and Social Monitor .............................. 11-4
11.3.6 Contractor’s Environment and Social Supervisor(s) ...................... 11-4
11.4 Capacity Building and Institutional Strengthening .................................... 11-4
11.4.1 Training and Awareness ................................................................ 11-4
11.4.2 Strengthening of WEC .................................................................. 11-5
11.4.3 Additional Capacity Building ........................................................ 11-6
11.5 Panel of Experts ....................................................................................... 11-6
11.6 Communication ........................................................................................ 11-6
11.7 Management and Monitoring Activities .................................................... 11-7
11.7.1 Structure of the Mitigation Plans ................................................... 11-7
11.7.2 Compliance Monitoring .............................................................. 11-23
11.7.3 Monitoring Predicted Effects....................................................... 11-23
11.7.4 Internal Audits ............................................................................ 11-27
11.7.5 External Audits (Third Party Validation) ..................................... 11-27
11.7.6 Management Reviews ................................................................. 11-27
11.8 Record Keeping ...................................................................................... 11-27
11.8.1 Monitoring Records .................................................................... 11-27
11.8.2 Complaints Records .................................................................... 11-28
11.8.3 Information Sources .................................................................... 11-28
11.8.4 Non-Compliance Report ............................................................. 11-29
11.8.5 Monthly Internal Reports ............................................................ 11-29
11.9 Grievance Mechanism ............................................................................ 11-29
11.9.1 Grievance Logging...................................................................... 11-30
11.10 Adequacy of Environmental and Social Management ............................. 11-31
11.11 Cost Estimates for Environmental Management and Monitoring............. 11-35

Annexes
Annex A:

Consultation Details

Annex B:

List of Flora and Fauna

Annex C:

Environmental Code of Practice

Annex D:

IFC/WBG EHS Guidelines

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. 2-13 Table 3........... 6-25 Table 6.........Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment List of Table Table 2.............19: Educational Facilities in the Swabi and Haripur Districts...21: Source of Drinking Water by Locality (%) ...................... 6-34 Table 6..................... 6-36 Table 6..........2: Compliance of Project with GoP Legislation and WB Safeguard Policies . 6-17 Table 6....... 6-28 Table 6........4: Criteria of the Alternative Site Locations ................ 6-5 Table 6........ 6-22 Table 6...................3: Mean Monthly Flow Releases from Tarbela Reservoir (Mm3) ... 6-12 Table 6........................................3: Current Generating Capacity and Shortfall in Pakistan .................... 4-6 Table 4.....9: Baseline Noise Monitoring Results ....................................... 2-12 Table 2..........1: Salient Features of the Project ................................................................................ 6-13 Table 6.........1: Predicted Growth in Electrical Demand (DISCO-WISE Load Forecast (MW)) .............................................................. 6-26 Table 6........ 6-19 Table 6..................... 5-2 Table 5.......................... 3-19 Table 4................................ 6-34 Table 6...........................................20: Education Facilities available in the Project Area ......13: Faunal Species at the Various Project Areas Surveyed .... 6-21 Table 6.............. 3-3 Table 3....................14: Tarbela Dam Reservoir Characteristics ..............5: Historical Irrigation Releases from Tunnel 5 (Mm3) ........ 6-37 WAPDA August 2011 viii ....2: Soil Analysis of Project Area ............................................ 4-4 Table 4.10: Average Daily Traffic in the Project Area ............................................2: Estimated Cost of the Project ......... 6-15 Table 6.....15: Estimated Numbers of Households and Population in Project Area ............................................................. 6-30 Table 6............. 6-9 Table 6................1: Average Monthly Relative Humidity (%) ....... 6-15 Table 6.......... 4-12 Table 5...................................................................................................6: Surface Water Quality of Project Area ............... 6-11 Table 6..............................4: Historical Irrigation Releases from Tunnel 4 (Mm3) ................................. 5-7 Table 6............... 6-35 Table 6.................16: Livestock in the Swabi and Haripur district ...2: Existing Installed Capacity of PEPCO System as of 30 June 2010 ....................................11: Game Reserves in Haripur district ........................7: Standards Adopted by WAPDA...2: Summary of Stakeholders’ Concerns/Recommendations ................................................................................................17: Health Facilities in the Swabi and Haripur Districts ..............1: Triggering the World Bank Policies ......8: Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Results ............ 4-9 Table 4........................................12: Ghazi Area Forest Statement ......................................... 6-16 Table 6........................18: Availability of Health Facilities in the Project Area...1: Main Activities during Consultation Process ............

....................... 8-2 Table 8... 11-25 Table 11....................................................4: Significance of Environmental Impacts .....7: Cost Estimates for Management and Monitoring Activities ............ 11-35 List of Figures Figure 1...5: Grievance Classification Criteria ... 3-6 Figure 3. 3-4 Figure 3.................................. 11-8 Table 11......... 6-44 Table 8.3: Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan – Operation....1: Parameters for Determining Magnitude...........................26: Pressing Needs of Women .................................. 6-43 Table 6...................... 1-2 Figure 1....... 2-3 Figure 3.................7: Transversal Section View of Powerhouse through Unit Axis ................. 11-31 Table 11..................1: Satellite View of Tarbela Dam ... 6-43 Table 6....................................................5: Penstock Connection and Powerhouse Location ........24: Health Facilities Availed by Women in Last Year ........3: Assessment of Impact Significance................... 8-3 Table 8..........27: Women’s Preference for Skill Development ........23: Occupational Status of Women Respondents .......................................................Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Table 6........1: Pakistan EIA Process...1: Significance of Social Impacts ............................................. 3-8 Figure 3.............. 3-2 Figure 3.2: Criteria for Determining Sensitivity .......................................... 3-15 Figure 3...................................6: Stakeholders’ Concerns/Recommendations and their Redressal ....... 6-42 Table 6...................................1: Tarbela Location Map .................................................. 9-2 Table 11.. 8-5 Table 9....2: Environmental Mitigation and Monitoring Plan – Construction (and Decommissioning) ...... 6-42 Table 6. 11-22 Table 11..................................4: Monitoring of Predicted Effects ....................................................................................25: Most Common Diseases Prevailing in the Project Area ..............................8: Longitudinal Section View of Powerhouse with Three 450 MW Units ....................................................................................... 3-7 Figure 3.......................................... 8-2 Table 8....................................... 11-30 Table 11.................................................. 3-9 Figure 3.............................. 3-5 Figure 3.............................................................................2: Hydro Scheme Schematic .........22: Level of Formal Education of Literate Female Respondents ...6: Alternate Powerhouse Locations......................10: Construction Program of Intake Option 2........2: Project Area and Location of Main Project Components ..............4: Geologic Section along Centre-line of Tunnel 4............. 1-4 Figure 2........................................................9: Excavation Sequence for Tunnel 4 Raised Intake ................................. 6-41 Table 6........1: Environmental and Social Trainings ...................3: Option 2 Section (a) . 11-5 Table 11.................... 3-9 Figure 3............. 3-16 WAPDA August 2011 ix ...........................................

................. 6-18 Figure 6..........................................6: Plan View of Intake Excavation Area for Tunnel 4 and Possible Location for Tunnel 3 Intake . 6-12 Figure 6....................2: 5 Year Average Monthly Temperatures (oC) in the Project Area (2006-10)....................9: Social Infrastructure of the Project Area ................... 4-10 Figure 4........................... 6-4 Figure 6...................11: Tentative Construction Program (Downstream Area)............................ 6-32 Figure 6............................. 4-7 Figure 4............... 6-11 Figure 6.....1: The Project Area and Sampling / Survey Locations .Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Figure 3.........5: Mean Monthly Flow Releases (2006-2010) from Tarbela Reservoir (Mm3) ............. 6-33 Figure 8...............7: Location Map of Traffic Count Stations .........3: Predicted Increase in System demand and Generating Capability ..................................4: Mean Monthly Evaporation in the Project Area (cm) ................................8: Social Survey Villages ............ 4-17 Figure 6......... 6-5 Figure 6...........5: Powerhouse Locations Considered ................................ 6-4 Figure 6........................................................................................................................1: Project Construction Facilities .............. 4-11 Figure 4........7: Coffer Dam Plan .........4: Powerhouse Locations Considered ...........................2: Pakistan Energy Consumption per Capita .... 4-2 Figure 4.............................1: Breakdown of Hydropower Projects Within the Indus River Basin ........... 3-17 Figure 4...................... 6-2 Figure 6.. 4-1 Figure 4....3: Mean Monthly Rainfall (2006-2010) in the Project Area ............................ 4-16 Figure 4..................................................................................................................... 8-11 WAPDA August 2011 x ....................6: Releases from Tarbela Reservoir (Mm3) .....

Health. and Safety EIA Environmental Impact Assessment EMP Environmental Management Plan EPA Environment Protection Agency EPD Environmental Protection Department ERP Emergency Response Plan ES Environment Specialist ESA Environmental and Social Assessment ESM Environment and Social Monitor ESMP Environmental and Social Management Plan ESMU Environmental and Social Management Unit ESS Environment and Social Supervisor FESCO Faisalabad Electric Supply Company WAPDA August 2011 xi .Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment List of Acronyms AC Alternating Current AIS Air Insulated Substation asl Above sea level ASR Alkali Silica Reaction BCM Billion cubic meters BOD Biological Oxygen Demand BP Bank Procedures (World Bank) CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species CLO Community Liaison Officer cm Centimeter DC Direct Current DCO District Coordination Officer DISCOs Distribution companies EA Environmental Assessment ECA Employment of Child Act ECP Environmental Code of Practice EHS Environment.

Science and Technology GIS Gas Insulated Substation GoP Government of Pakistan GT Road Grand Trunk Road Ha Hectare HESCO Hyderabad Electric Supply Company HLSZ Hazara Lower Seismic Zone HSE Health Safety and Environment HSES Health Safety. Environment and Social IEE Initial Environmental Examination IESCO Islamabad Electric Supply Company IFC International Finance Corporation IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature KESC Karachi Electric Supply Company Km Kilometer KPI Key Performance Indicator KP Khyber Pakhtunkhwa LESCO Lahore Electric Supply Company LOS Law of Seas (UN Convention) m Meter MAF Million acre feet MCT Main Central Thrust MEA Multilateral Environmental Agreements MEPCO Multan Electric Power Company mm millimeter WAPDA August 2011 xii .Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment FOS Factor of Safety GBHPP Ghazi Barotha HydroPower Project GBTI Ghazi Barotha Taraqiati Idara GENCOs Thermal power generation companies GEPCO Gujranwala Electric Power Company GIKIEST Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering.

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Mm3 Million cubic meters MMP Mott MacDonald Pakistan MSDS Material Safety Data Sheet MW Megawatt NCS National Conservation Strategy NEQS National Environmental Quality Standards NGO Non-Governmental Organization NTDC National Transmission and Dispatch Company OPs (World Bank) Operational Policies OPC Ordinary Portland Cement Pak-EPA Pakistan Environment Protection Agency PAPs Project Affected Persons PEPA Pakistan Environmental Protection Act PEPC Pakistan Environmental Protection Council PEPCO Pakistan Electric Power Company PEPO Pakistan Environmental Protection Ordinance PKR Pakistan Rupees POPs Persistent Organic Pollutants PPE Personal protective equipment PPIB Private Power and Infrastructure Board ppm parts per million QESCO Quetta Electric Supply Company RAP Resettlement Action Plan RBC Reinforced Brick Concrete RCC Reinforced Cement Concrete Rpm Rotations per minute RSA Rapid Social Appraisal SA Social Assessment SCARP Salinity Control and Reclamation Project SIMF Social Impact Management Framework WAPDA August 2011 xiii .

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment SMO Soil Monitoring Section SS Social Scientist TDP Tarbela Dam Project TESCO Tribal Electric Supply Company TJV Tarbela Joint Venture TMP Traffic Management Plan T4CJV Tarbela 4th Extension Joint Venture T4HP Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change VCC Village Conservation Committees WAPDA Water and Power Development Authority WB World Bank WBG World Bank Group WEC WAPDA Environmental Cell WHO World Health Organization WWF World Wildlife Fund for Nature WAPDA August 2011 xiv .

143 m high above the river bed and has two spillways cutting through the left bank and discharging into a side valley.478 mega watts (MW) generating capacity on respectively Tunnel 1 (four turbines). the diverted water is returned to the Indus.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment 1 Introduction 1. starting in the mid-eighties power generation capacity was added in three subsequent hydro-electrical project extensions. The construction started in 1995 and the project was completed in 2003. but this has been reduced due to siltation during 35 years of operation to 6. Tunnel 5 used for irrigation releases is situated at the left bank. With the construction of GHBP the water level in the Indus below the Tarbela dam has been raised and hence areas along the river have been flooded. In three of the four tunnels on the right bank the water can be used for both irrigation and for power generation. Tunnel 4 is exclusively designed for irrigation supply.450 MW of electricity.347 MW in summer. Near Ghazi town. which is situated seven kilometers downstream of Tarbela. For the project 120 villages along the Indus were submerged and a total of 96.311 MW in winter and 3. WAPDA August 2011 1-1 . The Tarbela Dam Project (TDP) was developed during the seventies of the last century in the framework of the Indus Basin Water Master Plan. installing a total of 3. Tunnel 2 (six turbines) and Tunnel 3 (four turbines). 1.770 ha of land were acquired for the construction of this project. which is exclusively used for irrigation.9 billion m³. The live storage capacity of the reservoir was initially 11.2 The Proposed Project The Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project (T4HP) has been proposed to add generating capacity on Tunnel 4. After passing through the powerhouse. The dam is situated on the Indus River in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) at a distance of about 70 kilometers (km) NW of Islamabad and about 50 km upstream of the city of Attock (see Figure 1. each of about 900 m length as bypass for irrigation releases and/or power generation.410 MW additional generating capacity would enable maximum utilization of the available power potential and make an important contribution to the overall power supply in the country.1). The reservoir behind the dam is almost 100 km long and measures 260 km² when completely filled. So far there is no allowance for power generation on Tunnel 4. Currently there is an estimated shortfall of 7. A total of 4. The demand for power in the country is rapidly increasing with eight percent per year and there are frequent periods with load shedding all over the country.8 billion m³. At the right bank there are four tunnels. The construction of a new hydropower plant at Tarbela with 1.200 hectares (ha) of land acquired. The Tarbela Dam is 2. water is diverted through a 52 km long canal to Barotha village (near Attock) where the power complex is located with a generating capacity of 1. Then. The Ghazi Barotha HydroPower Project (GBHPP) is a run-of-river project situated downstream and not far from Tarbela on the Indus.743 m long.000 persons had to be resettled and 33. Initially the main purpose of TDP was to supply irrigation water to the densely populated agricultural areas in Punjab and Sindh.1 Background The Tarbela Dam is one of the largest earth-fill dam constructions in the world.

1: WAPDA August 2011 Tarbela Location Map 1-2 .Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Figure 1.

during operation the environmental and economic benefits will be very substantial through the production of clean and cheap low-carbon hydro power. The project will be implemented on the right bank of the Indus River in a limited area concentrated around the inlet and outlet of tunnel 4 of the Tarbela Dam. 1. gas fired). Negative impacts during operation and maintenance of the project will be very limited. labor camps and residential accommodation are largely available and only have to be renovated and possibly expanded against modest cost. and will mostly be temporary and reversible in nature. Possible mitigating measures to offset. Cumulative and induced impacts of the project are not expected since the water regime of the Indus downstream of Tarbela will not change. The direct adverse social impacts of the project are also expected to be relatively minor. which are often major causes of delay in hydroelectric projects. In a number of cases the compensation and resettlement of affected families has not been solved for a variety of reasons. For safety reasons an area of 5 km upstream and 10 km downstream of the dam has been studied during the ESA (see Figure 1. reduce or compensate these impacts are included in the Environmental and Social Management Plan.2 for the Project Area and location of various Project components). Basic infrastructure and other facilities like offices. WAPDA August 2011 1-3 .3 The Environmental and Social Assessment Potential adverse effects of the T4HP project are described in the present Environmental and Social Assessment (ESA) report. This is so attractive because the dam.high reward” operation aimed at providing over 3. Environmental and social issues are relatively minor. Another important advantage in development of T4HP is that it will be free of resettlement and litigation problems. Most negative environmental and social impacts of the project will be experienced during the period of construction. This is especially true when compared with alternative means of generating electricity through thermal power stations (coal.871 GWh annually of least-cost low-carbon renewable energy. Most of these impacts will occur during construction and are associated with the contractors operations and the interaction of the work force with the local communities. Generally. The previous Tarbela project (1968-1976) and the Ghazi Barotha project (1995-2003) involved huge land acquisition and resettlement operations. since most of the infrastructure is already in place. storage reservoir and tunnel are already constructed and water supply is assured. The Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) has indicated that the current project offers an opportunity to address the so-called resettlement legacy from the previous projects. oil. The installation of additional generating capacity will not influence the irrigation release capacity of the dam.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment The project is considered to be very attractive and a “low risk. Direct and indirect impacts of the project will mainly occur in the immediate surrounding (few km) with the exception of some borrow areas and quarries for construction materials situated at larger distance.

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Figure 1.2: Project Area and Location of Main Project Components WAPDA August 2011 1-4 .

Afia Hussain (environment). Chaudhry and supported by Ms. Muhammad Aleem Chaudhry (wildlife). Zafar Iqbal (economist). Abdul Hafiz (sociology). Mr. Dr. Mr. ecology) supported by Ms. Yasmeen Taher (gender). and to compile the main ESA report as well as the present Summary ESA report. Ms. M. Omer Rasheed. Mr. Zafar Iqbal. Muhammad Ajaib (flora). Zaheer-ud-Din Khan (flora). Mr. Mr. stakeholder consultations. Dr. Mr. Ujala Saleem (environment). Ms. Mr. Dr. Rana Mohammad Saleem (sociology). Marielle Rowan.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment 1. Marina Maxwell (environment). to prepare the environmental and social management plan. Mr. Reitse Koopmans and Mr. Mohammad Sharif Mughal (fisheries). Tahir Omer (fisheries). Mr. Ashraf Bodla. WAPDA August 2011 1-5 . Waseem Ahmed Khan (wildlife). Dr. Mohammad Dawood Khan (environment).Mr. Ashraf Bodla (environment. Rana Mohammad Saleem. and Mr. The resettlement legacy has been studied by a team composed of Mr. Ms. Azmat Beg (environment) and Dr. project description compilation. Asif Iqbal. and initial impact assessment was carried out by a team from the Design Consultants.4 Composition of Study Team WAPDA engaged a team of two independent consultants . and Mr. The baseline data collection. Mr. Omer Rasheed (environment). Mohammad Omar Khalid – to assess the environmental as well as social impacts of the project. led by Mr.

 National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS). In accordance with the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act (PEPA) 1997 and the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (Pak-EPA) IEE/EIA Regulations 2000.  Environmental Legislation. conservation of renewable resources. Penalties have been prescribed for those who contravene the Act.1 Overview The enactment of comprehensive legislation on the environment. 1997 PEPA 1997 is the basic legislative tool empowering the government to frame regulations for the protection of the environment. as well as to the social and socioeconomic aspects.2 Environmental Legislation Environmental Protection Act. 2. and Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) and EIA approval. The Act provides the framework for: protection and conservation of species. Health and Safety Guidelines. establishment of Environmental Tribunals.1 General This Chapter provides an overview of the legislative structure and environmental assessment process in Pakistan as well as a list of key environmental legislation applicable to hydro power projects. and handling of hazardous wastes. The key features of the Act have a direct bearing on the proposed project requirement for an IEE and EIA for development projects. The legislation contains many laws in the form of Acts and Ordinances which have a direct or indirect relevance in the layout. The PakEPA has delegated the power of review and approval of environmental assessments to the WAPDA August 2011 2-1 . water and land. The Project will generate 1. establishment of standards for the quality of the ambient air. The basic policy and legislative framework for the protection of the environment and overall biodiversity in the country is now in place. wildlife habitats and biodiversity.2.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment 2 Policy. appointment of Environmental Magistrates. construction and operation of the Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project. Legal and Administrative Framework 2. This summary of relevant Pakistan legislation is structured as follows:  Environmental Regulatory Authorities. water. It also provides an overview of World Bank and other relevant international requirements including identification of applicable World Bank Operational Policies and applicable World Bank Group Environmental.350 MW.2. soil and noise pollution. an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is required for hydroelectric power projects exceeding a generation capacity of 50 MW and with transmission lines with a capacity of more than 11 kV. design. 2. and  National Environmental Guidelines and Policies.2 Pakistan 2. therefore an EIA for this project is mandatory. The Act is applicable to almost all environmental parameters pertaining to air. covering multiple areas of concern is an ongoing phenomenon in Pakistan.

or allow the discharge or emission of. handle. manager. 13. no person shall generate. Subject to provision of this clause of the Act and the rules and regulations made there under. Whoever contravenes or fails to comply with the provisions of section 11. The Federal Agency shall review the EIA report and accord its approval subject to such conditions as it may deem fit to impose. treat.” Enforcement of this clause requires the EPA to issue regulations regarding licensing procedures and to define ‘hazardous substance. Where any contravention of this Act has been committed by a body corporate. WAPDA August 2011 2-2 . or (b) in accordance with the provisions of any other law for the time being in force.  Section 18 (Offences by Bodies Corporate). concentration or level which is in excess of the NEQS”. such contravention shall be punishable under sub-section (2) only. The following are the key features of the Act that have a direct bearing on the Project area:  Section 11 (Prohibition of Certain Discharges or Emissions) states that “Subject to the provisions of this Act and the rules and regulations made there under. or of any international treaty.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment provincial EPAs. convention. any effluent or waste or air pollutant or noise in an amount. dispose off. shall be deemed guilty of such contravention along with the body corporate and shall be punished accordingly. 12. an EIA. where the project is likely to cause an adverse environmental effect. concentration or level which is in excess of the NEQS.  Section 17 (Penalties). transport. collect. manager. code. secretary or other officer of the body corporate.’  Section 15 (Regulation of Motor Vehicles). standard. store. partner. with an additional fine which may extend to one hundred thousand rupees for every day during which such contravention or failure continues: Provided that if contravention of the provisions of section 11 also constitutes contravention of the provisions of section 15. or require that the EIA be re-submitted after such modifications as may be stipulated or rejected. or import any hazardous substance except (a) under a license issued by the Federal Agency and in such manner as may be prescribed. secretary or other officer of the body corporate. partner. no person shall discharge or emit. no person shall operate a motor vehicle from which air pollutants or noise are being emitted in an amount. consign. such director.”  Section 12-2b (Review of IEE and EIA).  Section 14 (Handling of Hazardous Substances) requires that “Subject to the provisions of this Act. or other Instrument to which Pakistan is a party. and in the case of a continuing contravention or failure. the project as being contrary to environmental objectives. or section 16 or any order issued there under shall be punishable with fine which may extend to one million rupees. or where the applicable standards established under clause (g) of subsection (1) of Section-6 of the Act. agreement. and has obtained from the Federal Agency approval in respect thereof. protocol. and it is proved that such offence has been committed with the consent or connivance or is attributed to any negligence on the part of any director.  Section 12-I (IEE and EIA) requires that “No proponent of a project shall commence construction or operation unless he has filed with the Federal Agency an IEE or.

Figure 2. Projects are classified on the basis of the expected degree and magnitude of environmental impacts.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment PAK-EPA.1 below provides an outline of the EIA process in Pakistan. 2000 The EPA prepared the regulations during 2000 for “Review of IEE and EIA” under the powers conferred upon it by the PEPA. Figure 2.8 (2Xa) Schedule IV Application Form with receipt 30.000Rs) 10 Days PEPA confirms acceptability of EIA PEPA publicises EIA in national press EIA displayed in Public Place Day 1 PEPA requests revision of EIA Listing further studies and discussion required PEPA requests specified additional information Proponent submits revised EIA or additional information Where to view EIA Day 10 EIA circulated in Government Public Hearing Location & time (min 30 days hence) DG’s Expert Committee Sector Advisory Committee Site Inspection Committee >Day 40 PEPA Review of EIA PEPA collate tabulate & consider all comments PEPA Decision on EIA (Schedule VI) <Day 100 Proponent acceptance Of decision conditions Approval with further conditions Approval as per EIA Rejected (Schedule VI) 30 months No objection certificate Construction (under EIA conditions) Prepare EMMP and request Compliance Certificate PEPA inspection and CC Operation (under EIA Conditions and EMMP) Source: David Green & Sayeeds Bushra Wahid Sept’06 WAPDA August 2011 2-3 . The projects listed in Schedule-I include those where the range of environmental issues is comparatively narrow and the issues can be understood and managed through less extensive analysis in the form of an IEE.1: Pakistan EIA Process The EIA with PEPA (Reg. whereas the projects listed in Schedule-II are those which are likely to cause significant adverse impacts and hence require extensive analysis in the form of an EIA. IEE and EIA Regulations. These Regulations categorize development projects for IEE and EIA into two schedules: Schedules I and II.

For the Schedule II projects.e. in addition to hydroelectric power generation projects over 50 MW.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Schedule-I projects require an IEE to be conducted. It classifies wildlife by degree of protection. the Penal Code empowers local authorities to control noise. animals that may be hunted on a permit or special license. removal of any forest produce. Wildlife Sanctuaries. safety and welfare of workers. V of 1975) This law was enacted to protect the province’s wildlife resources directly and other natural resources indirectly.e. For the T4HP. KP Wildlife Protection. Pakistan Explosives Act. compensation. surveys. The Act specifies restrictions on hunting and trade in animals. no activities will be carried out inside any protected areas defined under the Act. acquisition. National Parks. Conservation and Management Act. penalties and exemptions. transportation and use of explosives during quarrying. appointment awards. Land Acquisition Act. rather than a full-fledged EIA. Factories Act. In the context of the environment. and damage to private and public WAPDA August 2011 2-4 . and Game Reserve. i. hence no land acquisition is likely to take place. 1894 This Act is the primary law for acquisition of land and built-up properties for public interest in Pakistan and also sets out the procedure and rules for acquisition and compensating the land owners. provided that the project is not located in an environmentally sensitive area. The construction of the new power house may require blasting at rocky areas making these regulations applicable for this project. The Act comprises 55 sections dealing with area notifications. The project activities will have to be carried out in accordance with this Act. ownership of the land required for project execution belongs to the client (WAPDA). The projects listed in Schedule-II are generally major projects and have the potential to affect a large number of people in addition to significant adverse environmental impacts. or causing any damage to the forest by cutting trees or clearing areas for cultivation or any other purpose. however it lacks the mechanism to address the complex issues of resettlement. blasting and other purposes. or meat. The Act prohibits any person from: setting fires in the forest. crops and trees by a project. Forest Act. 1934 The clauses relevant to the project are those which concern health. and species that are protected and cannot be hunted under any circumstances. 1927 This Act authorizes provincial forest department to establish forest reserves and protected forests. Dams and reservoirs with a maximum storage volume greater than 50 million m3 (Mm3) or a surface area greater than 8 km2. toxic emissions and disposal of effluents. including for any damage caused to their properties. quarrying stone. Pakistan Penal Code. trophies. 1860 The Pakistan Penal Code deals with offences where public or private property and/or human lives are affected due to the intentional or accidental misconduct of an individual or body of people. Preservation. conducting an EIA is necessary. fall under Schedule-II of the IEE-EIA Regulations. i. 2000.. The Act also defines various categories of wildlife protected areas.. 1884 This Act provides regulations for the handling. disputes resolution. disposal of solid wastes and effluents. In particular. 1975 (NWFP Act No.

sites of anthropological or cultural interest and national monuments etc”. Under this Act. without permission of the Forest Department. the principal labor rights are provided by the constitution of Pakistan. At the same time. licensing requirements. negligence. to erect traffic signs. vehicle use. It also prescribes powers to police officers to check and penalize traffic offenders. This Act authorizes WAPDA to develop water and power resources in the country through construction and operation of water storages and power houses and erecting electrical transmission lines. historical sites. Government of Pakistan. The Factories Act also provides regulations for handling and disposal of toxic and hazardous materials. and  Report any archaeological discovery made during the course of the project to the Department of Archaeology. 1958 The Act provides for the unified and coordinated development of the water and power resources of Pakistan. 1965 The Ordinance deals with the powers of the Motor Vehicle Licensing Authorities and empowers other related agencies to regulate traffic rules. Motor Vehicle Ordinance. the Ordinance empowers the regional transport authority to operate as a quasi-judicial body at district level to monitor road transport. 1975 The Antiquity Act of 1975 ensures the protection of cultural resources in Pakistan.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment property. However. The law prohibits new construction in the proximity of a protected antiquity and empowers the government of Pakistan to prohibit excavation in any area that may contain articles of archaeological significance. vehicle speed and weight limits. WAPDA August 2011 2-5 . Antiquities have been defined in this Act as “Ancient products of human activity. as well as the degree of liability of WAPDA for damages sustained to landowners or others. minimum working age and conditions of employment. these regulations will be applicable to the project construction contractors. and to prescribe special duties for drivers in the case of accidents. and compensations for deaths or injuries to passengers on public carriers. This Act is designed to protect antiquities from destruction. Labor Laws Labor laws in Pakistan are governed by several legislative tools. 1949 This Act prohibits cutting or lopping of trees along roads and canals planted by the Forest Department. the proponents are obligated to:  Ensure that no activity is under taken in the proximity of a protected antiquity. Antiquity Act. trade and export. Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority Act. theft. WAPDA also has the powers and obligations of a licensee under the Telegraphy Act of 1910. Acts and Ordinances have been enforced for limiting working hours. unlawful excavation. As construction activity is classified as ‘industry’. Protection of Trees Act. In addition to constitutional rights. This Act also establishes policy for land acquisition and compensation. The laws will be applicable to the project construction contractors.

 Increasing energy efficiency. Local Government Ordinance. Section 93 of this Ordinance pertains to environmental pollution. In accordance with this Article. and the establishment of a police force for motorways and national highways to regulate and control the traffic as well as keep the highways clear of encroachments. textile. the Employment of Child Act (ECA) 1991 disallows the child labor in the country.  Developing and deploying material and energy renewable. The NCS works on a ten-year planning and implementation cycle. water or land. penalties and procedures. 1977 Article 11(3) of the Constitution of Pakistan prohibits employment of children below the age of 14 years in any factory.  Protecting watersheds. as follows:  Maintaining soils in cropland. traffic control offences. including some provisions for environmental protection. water. air. and public health and safety. and ports) or in any workshop wherein any of the processes defined in the Act is carried out. The ECA defines a child to mean a person who has not completed his/her fourteenth years of age. under which the local councils are authorized to restrict causing pollution to air. which was developed and approved by the Government of Pakistan on 1 March 1992. conservation of natural vegetation. maintenance of road vehicles. biri (kind of a cigarette) making. This Ordinance will have an impact on the road network leading to the Project area during the construction phase of the project.  Protecting water bodies and sustaining fisheries.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Employment of Child Act. disposal of solid waste and wastewater effluents. 2. and land pollution.  Preventing and abating pollution. Highway Safety Ordinance. cement manufacturing. construction.  Managing urban wastes.  Restoring rangelands and improving livestock. The processes defined in the Act include carpet weaving.  Supporting forestry and plantations.  Increasing irrigation efficiency.  Conserving biodiversity.2. railways. 2001 This Act empowers the Government of Pakistan and provincial governments to enforce laws for land use. 2000 This Ordinance includes provisions for licensing and registration of vehicles and construction equipment.3 National Environmental Guidelines and Policies National Conservation Strategy (NCS) 1992 The Pakistan NCS is the principal policy document for environmental issues in the country. WAPDA August 2011 2-6 . mines or any other hazardous employment. The ECA states that no child shall be employed or permitted to work in any of the occupation set forth in the ECA (such as transport sector. construction and others). It deals with fourteen core areas.

the honoring of international obligations. sustainable management of resources and economic growth.2. 2000 These policies and procedures define the policy context and the administrative procedures that govern the environmental assessment process.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment  Supporting institutions for common resources.  Need to incorporate suitable mitigation measures into every stage of project implementation. and wildlife sanctuaries and preserves. Guidelines for the Preparation and Review of Environmental Reports. 1997 The guidelines identify officially notified protected areas in Pakistan. and specify the:  Nature of the information to be included in environmental reports. and transport.  Minimum qualifications of the EIA consultant.  Need to specify monitoring procedures. Guidelines for Sensitive and Critical Areas. air and waste management. 1997 The guidelines deal with approaches to public consultation and techniques for designing an effective program of consultation that reaches out to all major stakeholders and ensures the incorporation of their concerns in impact assessment. specify the following standards:  Maximum allowable concentration of pollutants in gaseous emissions from industrial sources. and present checklists for environmental assessment procedures to be carried out within or near to such sites. etc. It gives directions for addressing sectoral issues and provides means for promoting conservation and environmental protection in water. 1997 These guidelines on the preparation of environmental reports address project proponents. Guidelines for Public Consultation. forestry. 2. National Environment Policy This policy was implemented in 2005 to provide an overarching framework for addressing the environmental issues facing Pakistan. The reports must contain baseline data on the Project area.  Integrating population and environmental programs. Policy and Procedures for Filing. Review and Approval of Environmental Assessments. Environmentally sensitive areas include. archaeological sites.4 National Environmental Quality Standards The NEQS promulgated under the PEPA 1997. archaeological sites. and  Preserving the cultural heritage. a detailed assessment thereof. WAPDA August 2011 2-7 . biosphere reserves and natural parks. including critical ecosystems. and the Terms of reference for the reports are to be prepared by the project proponents themselves.. none of which are relevant to the Project area. The policy aims to promote protection of the environment. and mitigation measures. among others. from the project prefeasibility stage to the approval of the environmental report.

 Drinking water standards. These include preparation and co-ordination of national environmental policy for approval by PEPC. The PAK-EPA has issued regulations 1 These NEQS are available at the Pak-EPA website (http://www.  Approval of the NEQS.environment.5 Environment Regulatory Authorities The development of statutory and other instruments for environmental protection has steadily gained priority in Pakistan since the late 1970’s.  Enforcing PEPA 1997.gov. sewage treatment and sea (three separate set of numbers). revision or establishment of NEQS. Pakistan Environmental Protection Council The PEPC is the highest inter-ministerial statutory body in the country headed by the Chief Executive and is responsible for:  Formulating national environmental policy. • Waste Effluents. 2. administering and implementing PEPA 1997 and preparation. WAPDA August 2011 2-8 . The promulgation of this Ordinance was followed in 1984 by the creation of Pakistan Environmental Protection Council (PEPC). and • Drinking Water Quality Standards. and  Noise standards.  Maximum allowable emissions from motor vehicles.htm).pk/info.  Ambient air quality standards.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment  Maximum allowable concentration of pollutants in municipal and liquid industrial effluents discharged to inland waters. The following NEQS will be relevant to the environmental aspects of the Tarbela 4th Extension Project1: • Industrial and Municipal Effluents. and  Provision of guidelines for the protection and conservation of biodiversity in general as well as conservation of renewable and non-renewable resources.  Incorporation of environmental considerations into national development plans and policies. • Motor Vehicle Exhaust and Noise. The Pakistan Environmental Protection Ordinance (PEPO) 1983 was the first legislation in Pakistan designed specifically for the protection of the environment. • Noise.2. Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (PAK-EPA) The PAK-EPA is headed by a Director General and has wide ranging functions as set out in PEPA 1997. • Ambient Air.

The provincial/regional EPAs are formed by the respective provincial/regional governments headed by a Director General who exercises powers delegated to him by the concerned provincial government.  Military projects. the implementation mechanism for most of these MEAs is weak in Pakistan and institutional setup mostly nonexistent. and two regions . in order to meet the objectives of these agreements.3 International Treaties and Conventions Pakistan is a signatory to a number of Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs).  Involving trans-country impacts.  Kyoto Protocol. Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar).Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment regarding the environmental assessment procedures known as Review of Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) and EIA Regulations.  Convention on Biological Diversity. The jurisdiction of the EPA is applicable to the following projects:  On federal land.  Convention concerning the Protection of World Culture and Natural Heritage (World Heritage Convention). 2000.  UN Convention to Combat Desertification. For the proposed Project. where relevant these will be discussed in further detail within relevant chapters:  Basel Convention. The following are the relevant international treaties and conventions that have been ratified by Pakistan. WAPDA August 2011 2-9 .have their own Environmental Protection Department (EPD) and/or EPAs which are the provincial/regional level counterparts of the PAK-EPA. 2. 1951. 1972. these provide a firm legal status to the IEEs and EIAs. The IEE and EIA reports pertaining to projects falling within the different provincial/regional boundaries are submitted to the relevant provincial/regional EPA for approval. and GilgitBaltistan . These MEAs impose requirements and restrictions of varying degrees upon the member countries. and  International Plant Protection Convention. KP-EPA is the relevant agency for the approval of the EIA.  UN Convention on the Law of Seas (LOS).Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK).  Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). and  Bearing trans-province impacts.  Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). However. Provincial/Regional Environment Protection Agencies The four provinces.  UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).  Montreal Protocol.

4.  Environmental Assessment Sourcebook.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment 2. For category A and B projects the policy requires public consultation and disclosure to be undertaken as part of the Environmental Assessment process. and scale of the project.1 Overview The World Bank (WB) categorizes development projects according to the type.4. as well as the nature and magnitude of its potential adverse social and environmental impacts. If indigenous people are found to be affected.2 World Bank Environmental and Social Guidelines The principal World Bank publications that contain environmental and social guidelines are listed below. in addition to consultation it is necessary to prepare a plan to avoid or mitigate adverse impacts on such groups and ensure that they have access to project benefits to the extent that they wish to. mitigation measures. which will be addressed under the present project. (b) consult groups at least twice (before terms of reference for the assessment are finalized and once a draft assessment report is prepared).3 Operational Policies (OPs) of the World Bank Developers seeking financing from the World Bank are required to comply with the applicable environmental and social safeguards. OP 4. the resettlement issues were assessed and a Resettlement program developed to resolve the resettlement and compensation of the Project Affected Persons. Finally the policy sets out requirement to comply and report on implementation of any environmental management plans (i.  Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook 1998: Towards Cleaner Production. monitoring program etc.4. For category ‘A’ projects borrowers must consult with project-affected groups and local non-governmental organizations about the project’s environmental aspects and take their views into account.e. The environmental impacts of the original Tarbela dam were not separately assessed at the time of preparation of that project (1965-1970). sensitivity. and (c) consult affected groups throughout project implementation as necessary to address related issues.04 (Natural Habitats): outlines the World Bank policy on biodiversity conservation taking into account ecosystem services and natural resource management WAPDA August 2011 2-10 . Borrowers must (a) initiate consultations as early as possible. However. The Project has been categorized as “Category A” requiring a detailed environmental and social assessment (ESA) and development and implementation of an environmental and social management plan (ESMP) and a Social Impact Management Framework (SIMF). There remain some resettlement issues of the project pending in the courts. A summary of the key objectives of the relevant safeguards policies considered for the Project is provided below: OP 4.4 World Bank 2. and  Social Analysis Sourcebook. Volume I: Policies. 2. and CrossSectoral Issues. location. OPs and Bank Procedures (BPs). 2. Procedures.01 (Environmental Assessment): provides the framework for World Bank environmental safeguard policies and describes project screening and categorization to determine the level of environmental assessment required.

OP 4. to undertake specific consultation activities and to avoid or mitigate impacts on this potentially vulnerable group. if so. A borrower must notify other riparian of planned projects that could affect water quality or quantity. OP 7. and stands ready to assist in this regard. notwithstanding the objection. but only as an element of an Integrated Pest Management Plan that emphasizes environmental and biological controls. and between the claimants to the disputed area. where appropriate. There are no cultural or archaeological resources in the vicinity of the Project. the borrower must engage an independent Dam Safety Panel. Therefore. the Bank attaches great importance to the riparian making appropriate agreements or arrangements for the entire waterway. The document also identifies the need for a Resettlement Plan. hence this OP will not trigger. and regulatory frameworks for dam safety programs in those countries. It recommends. OP 4. an abbreviated Resettlement Plan or otherwise. WAPDA August 2011 2-11 . The policy requires projects to identify whether indigenous peoples are affected by the project and. OP 4. Where necessary or acquisition of land or other assets is necessary.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment and use by project affected people.37 (Safety on Dams): this policy requires that experienced and competent professionals design and supervise construction. or parts thereof.10 (Indigenous Peoples): recognizes that indigenous peoples may be exposed to different types of risks and impacts from development projects.12 (Involuntary Resettlement): the World Bank aims to avoid involuntary resettlement where possible.09 (Pest Management): rural development and health sector projects have to avoid using harmful pesticides. and between riparian states. and that the borrower adopts and implements dam safety measures through the project cycle. the Bank will only finance projects in disputed areas when either there is no objection from the other claimant to the disputed area. and expects the borrower to see that incomes and standards of living of affected persons are improved or at least restored to what they were prior to displacement. The policy encourages the use of Integrated Pest Management in the whole of the sectors concerned. Therefore. legislative. sufficiently far in advance to allow them to review the plans and raise any concerns or objections. Projects must assess potential impacts on biodiversity and the policy strictly limits circumstances under which conversion or degradation of natural habitats can occur as well as prohibiting projects which are likely to result in significant loss of critical natural habitats. mandates compensation for assets at replacement cost. Other pesticides can be used. OP 7. or when the special circumstances of the case support Bank financing. that Bank staff discuss with the borrowers any measures necessary to strengthen the institutional. such projects may affect the relations between the Bank and its borrowers.11 (Physical Cultural Resources): sets out the World Bank requirement to avoid or mitigate adverse impacts resulting from project developments on cultural resources. For large dams. OP 4. the policy sets out requirements for participation in resettlement planning.60 (Projects in Disputed Areas): similarly.36 (Forests): this policy recognizes the need to reduce deforestation and promote sustainable forest conservation and management in reducing poverty.50 (Projects on International Waterways): Projects on International Waterways may affect the relations between the World Bank and its borrowers. OP 4. OP 4.

It is the basis of this ESA The dam safety policy is triggered since the construction works are implemented on a large dam including associated infrastructure situated upstream of a densely populated area. However. Regular inspections and assessments of the Tarbela Dam show that the Dam and its associated structures are safe.10  Not triggered as no Indigenous People or ethnic minorities will be affected by the Project. to prepare for the very unlikely situations where off-site activities may result in land acquisition or lease.01 Natural Habitats OP/BP 4. Dam instrumentation and monitoring system is in remarkably good conditions compared to similar dams of the same age. The project includes a component that would 2-12 . Physical Cultural Resources OP 4.50 (Public Disclosure of Information): This BP deals with the World Bank policy on disclosure of information. Pest Management OP 4. a Social Impact Management Framework is developed in line with relevant Pakistani laws and World Bank OP 4.36  There will be no disruption to forests associated with the Project works.04  Not triggered as the Project will not adversely impact natural habitats or protected areas. Safety of Dams OP/BP 4. 2. is the nearest protected area.12 to guide the planning and implementation of necessary compensatory measures. Forests OP/BP 4. particularly the safety and early warning systems. a full assessment has to be carried out. an independent panel of experts reviews the design and the operational and maintenance aspects of the project. In biannual meetings. Indigenous Peoples OP 4.37 WAPDA August 2011  As the Project falls into Category A. located 20-25 km from Tarbela.09  Not triggered as the Project will not use or promote the use of pesticides.1: Directive Triggering the World Bank Policies Policy Triggered Not Comments Triggered  Environmental Assessment OP/BP/GP 4.12  No involuntary resettlement will take place because of the Project development. Totalai Game Reserve. Procedures will be in place to deal appropriately with any chance finds. Involuntary Resettlement OP/BP 4.4 Applicable World Bank Policies The status of the environmental and social safeguard policies of the World Bank are provided below in Table 2. All project components and temporary facilities will be located on land already owned by WAPDA.11  No known areas of cultural heritage will be impacted by the Project. It is a mandatory procedure to be followed by the borrower and Bank and supports public access to information on environmental and social aspects of projects.4.20/OP 4. Table 2.1.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment BP 17.

  The Project is not located in or near any disputed area. Topi. 1997 WAPDA submitted application for ESA along with ESA report to KP-EPA.2: Compliance of Project with GoP Legislation and WB Safeguard Policies Legislation / Policy Actions Taken to Comply Government Pakistan of Pakistan Environmental (GoP) Protection Act. and would be available on WAPDA website. and associated early warning system.2. Formal Public Hearing held.4. 2. Islamabad and Peshawar Integrate environmental Natural environment. the project essentially involves the extension of power generating facilities on an existing dam and it does not involve works and activities that would exceed the original purpose of the scheme. or interfere with international water distribution treaty between the riparian states. KP EPA accorded its formal approval of the ESA on 22 July 2011.50  The Project is located on an international waterway. Table 2. the monitoring of the movement of sediment delta in the reservoir.5 Compliance Status with Pakistani and World Bank Policies The present compliance status of the project with Pakistani legislation and World Bank safeguard policies is indicated in Table 2. social aspects. physical cultural resources are integrated in planning World Bank WAPDA August 2011 Disclosure of ESA to general public and public hearing organized 2-13 . However. ESA and its Summary would be sent to WB InfoShop.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Directive Policy Triggered Not Comments Triggered upgrade the monitoring system of the Dam. change its nature.60 Public Disclosure of Information BP 17. Early screening and Scoping Scoping sessions held Participatory approach Workshops. ESA and its Urdu Summary would be made available to public. Red List and protection of vulnerable habitats Disclosure of projects Information to general public and notice for public hearing. Projects in International Waterways OP/BP/GP 7. human health. consultation meetings and focus group discussions held in Ghazi. EIA guidelines for Power Projects Provide safety measures and information on emergency preparedness International treaties Verification of protected sites.50 Projects in Disputed Areas OP/BP/GP 7.

WAPDA August 2011 2-14 . Disclosure of ESA summary in Urdu and English Chance find procedure included in contract documents Stakeholder consultation meetings. focus discussions and formal public consultations held. Regional and Strategic cumulative impacts determined Alternatives Without project alternative studied 5 different sites of powerhouse studied 4 different alternatives for tunnel design studied 2 alternatives for inlet structures studied Pollution Baseline survey of environmental quality carried out Stricter Environmental standards applied and Environmental Code of Practices (ECPs) included in contract documents Physical and Cultural Resources Verification implemented with Department of Archaeology Gender Gender consultations carried out during ESA. Climate Change and floods Impact of increased snow-melt and climate change and effect on Indus floods studied. Public Health Public Health aspects addressed in mitigation measures. health and safety risks determined Environmental Code of Practices (occupational health. labor) in tender documents contractor Emergency Response Plan will be prepared by contractor before commencing the construction activities. group Formal Public Hearing held. ESA would be sent to WB InfoShop.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Legislation / Policy Actions Taken to Comply assessment (EA) and social assessment (SA) documents Risk assessment Labor. Consultation and Information Disclosure Early consultations and participation of local communities.

The main objectives of the Tarbela Dam Project were to provide: regulated water supply for irrigation. 3. (iii) Powerhouse. The three generating units presently have total installed capacity of 3. The fourth tunnel was to serve as a permanent irrigation outlet.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment 3 Project Description 3. The subsequent sections present an overview of the key project elements. The construction of the dam was completed in 1976.1 Tarbela Dam Project Overview The Tarbela Dam is located on the Indus River in the KP Province of Pakistan at a distance of about 70 km from the capital Islamabad. A main requirement of the Project is that the new scheme does not affect the ability of the Tarbela Dam Project to provide water for irrigation or other purposes. and (vii) Tailrace. The project description concludes with the project program.200 ha of land was acquired for its construction.478 MW comprising 10 turbines of 175 MW each and four turbines of 432 MW each.2 a simple schematic of a hydro scheme is given to demonstrate how each of the Project components fit together. followed by a description of the key project components and their associated activities.700 Mm3 of water and provide 11. Tunnel 5 was excavated between the left abutment and the auxiliary dam as a further irrigation tunnel.4 Project Components In the following sub sections an overview is provided of the key components of the Project including: (i) Intake Arrangements. Four tunnels. with capacities sufficient to handle double the largest flood volume on record. The 124 m high and approximately 2. (iv) Mechanical and Electrical Plant.4 km long dam was designed to impound 13. WAPDA August 2011 3-1 . 3.1. Releases from the Tarbela Reservoir are made primarily in response to irrigation demand with power generation being a secondary benefit. each to serve a separate generating unit. (ii) Penstock Connection. substantial supplies of hydroelectric power. (v) Switchyard.73 m in diameter at the upstream end. 3. were excavated in the right abutment to divert the flow of the river. Figure 3. Two spillways were provided at the left abutment.1 shows a satellite photograph from the Dam and the Project area.2 Objectives of 4th Extension Project The main objective of the Project is to utilize the existing irrigation Tunnel 4 of the Tarbela Dam Project to supply water to a new power station to augment the power supply to the country. and a measure of flood control by storing snowmelt and monsoon flows of the Indus River. It has a reservoir area of approximately 260 km2 and approximately 33. each 13.3 Salient Features The salient features of the Project are as detailed below in Table 3. Three of these tunnels were intended to serve as power intakes. (vi) Transmission Lines.500 Mm3 of live storage. In Figure 3.

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Figure 3.1: Source: WAPDA August 2011 Satellite View of Tarbela Dam Google Earth 3-2 .

1: Salient Features of the Project Parameter Detail Tunnel 4 Location Tunnel 4 runs from the intake and through the right abutment of the dam for approximately 900 m. Purpose Type Irrigation releases when reservoir’s level falls below the spillway level Concrete/Steel Lined Cross Section Length Circular 13.6 m 3. The downstream control structure is connected to the tunnel at the portal in the rock face.871 GWh Tailrace Channel Not applicable as water flows directly from turbines to Ghazi Barotha Length head pond Type Not applicable Tailrace Water Level Between EL 344.1 m and 335.7 m – 11 m 914 m Outlet Type Flip Bucket Intake Level To be confirmed Design Flow A maximum of 2000 cubic meters per second (m3/s) Proposed Powerhouse Location Location C has been chosen as the site for the powerhouse Type of Turbine Vertical Francis Turbine Number of Units Three Unit Generator Rating Total Generating Capacity 470 MW 1. The control structure is located between the foot of a steep slope to the west and the Tunnel 3 control structure to the east.410 MW Type of Generator Vertical Shaft Generating Voltage 18 kV or 20 kV Turbine Centre Line Level Annual Energy 327. probably concrete encased and buried T4CJV WAPDA August 2011 3-3 .3 m Penstock Connection to Tunnel 4 Type of Penstock Source: Steel.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Table 3.

Intake Option 2 Intake Option 2 consists of a raised intake situated on the hillside over Tunnel 4 with a shaft connection into the upstream part of the tunnel. France. The proposed level for the intake to be constructed is 415 m.3.2: Source: Hydro Scheme Schematic Mott MacDonald Limited 3. The Intake Options Report was issued in January 2011 and it presents a convincing case for a raised shaft intake (Option 2) to be taken forward. this may include possible modifications and/or recommendation at upstream structures or any other arrangement from the existing intake of Tunnel 4 and installation of trash racks. 2 A joint venture of Mott MacDonald. the future sediment level at the intake area will be significantly higher than at present and the potential for tunnel blockage will therefore increase. WAPDA August 2011 3-4 . At the historical rate of increase. Part of the requirements for Tarbela 4th Extension Consultant Joint Venture2 (T4CJV) is to:  Examine the possibility of providing a raised level of water entry for the intake at Tunnel 4.4. UK and Coyne et Bellier.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Figure 3.1 Intake Arrangement A regular build up of sediments is currently experienced at the Tarbela Dam and this is expected to continue until the reservoir is completely full. and  Review and examine appropriate intake arrangements for Tunnel 4. Thorough analysis led to the conclusions that it would provide more operational flexibility and better performance in terms of head loss while being the most cost effective and having the shortest construction period of all the options. as shown in Figure 3.

3: Option 2 Section (a) Excavation Volume 865.928 m3 Raised Intake Existing Intake WAPDA August 2011 3-5 .Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Figure 3.

Geologic Sections. will dictate the level at which the intake can be constructed.5 m below the current lowest water level and a cofferdam (formed by delaying excavation) can be used to control water inflow into the shaft area during construction. The proposed arrangement places the intake 5. The success of the proposed design is dependent upon the rock conditions and a significant investigation is underway to ensure that the shaft will not fall within the poor quality limestone that exists close to the proposed location.4 shows the geological information along the centerline of Tunnel 4 and the proposed raised intake would be located into the hillside and directly above Tunnel 4 so the shaft can be formed within an area where tunneling conditions are expected to be good. Figure 3.4. Figure 3. Tunnel 3 and 4 Centerline 3. Further Work Further study is being carried out to finalize the elevation of the intake in order to minimize the excavation and match the expected future sediment and operation levels. as well as the geology of the rock.4: Source: Geologic Section along Centre-line of Tunnel 4 WAPDA. The flow of water in the tunnel can be controlled by WAPDA August 2011 3-6 . Intake Area. When the lower intake is no longer viable a profiled concrete plug will be constructed in the tunnel to isolate the original intake. Tarbela Dam Project Drawing Number 52PK1663 R1.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment The low level intake would be retained and operated until such time as it is blocked with sediment or until the minimum reservoir level has increased such that there is sufficient submergence for operation of the raised intake. The depth of excavation and dewatering required during construction.2 Penstock Connection to Tunnel 4 Tunnel 4 was originally designed to pass water from the reservoir to the Indus River for downstream irrigation water uses.

When the radial gates are closed it has been normal practice to also close the upstream bulkhead gate. The radial gates are used to regulate the flow of irrigation water from the reservoir although they are only operated either fully open or closed. Figure 3. This new arrangement will be designed so that the irrigation capacity of Tunnel 4 will be unaffected. In order to minimize interference with the control structure the new branch arrangement would need to be located upstream of the existing bifurcation.7 km. but this would need to be limited to avoid significant excavation that may affect slope stability. the bulkhead gate (and its upstream stoplog) in the tunnel and the radial gates in the Outlet Control Structure. The control structure is located between the foot of a steep slope to the west and the Tunnel 3 control structure to the east. the available space is limited by the slopes to the north and west. The tunnel portal could potentially be cut back onto the slope. The downstream control structure is connected to the tunnel at the portal in the rock face.5: Penstock Connection and Powerhouse Location Source: T4CJV WAPDA August 2011 3-7 . Tunnel 4 runs from the intake through the right abutment of the dam for approximately 2. Several options were considered in the analysis. There is limited space to locate a new branch near this structure to connect it to the power house. Designs have been developed to minimize interference with the existing control structure and where possible to minimize cutting back the slopes. The Project will require water to be diverted from the existing irrigation tunnel to the new powerhouse.5 shows the selected arrangement of penstock connection and the powerhouse location. they are discussed in Chapter 4. However.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment two separate arrangements. Figure 3.

This rating is also similar to turbines at the 3rd Extension.9 rpm at the 3rd Extension. The higher speed for the Project means that smaller components can be used for the turbine and the overall dimensions of the powerhouse kept to a minimum. The alternative sites considered and the assessment process that led to the decision on final location are outlined in Section 4.450 m3/s. Location C has finally been selected for the powerhouse. the proposed turbine type is the vertical Francis.4 and shown in Figure 3. The short timescale of this project means there were significant restrictions to the amount work that could be done to find an optimum location for the powerhouse. Following optimization of the unit rating by cost analysis.2 m with a flow of 1. which is the most commonly used type of turbine and has high head and flow operational ranges.6: Alternate Powerhouse Locations Source: T4CJV 3.4.6. with the notable difference being the rotational speed. From these requirements. However with the increase in speed the submergence of the turbine will be greater to ensure that there is no cavitation damage.4 Mechanical and Electrical Plant Turbine Selection and Rating The head level at Tarbela is 104. The speed selected for the Project is 107. Figure 3.4. Currently the speed selected is a compromise between the excavation depth and the powerhouse WAPDA August 2011 3-8 . it was decided that three 470 MW turbines will offer the highest rate of return.14 rotations per minute (rpm) which is higher than the 90.3 Proposed Powerhouse Requirements of the Proposed Powerhouse The primary requirements of the proposed powerhouse are that it has to be downstream of the dam and connected to Tunnel 4 and to be out of the spray of water when the outlet radial gates are in operation.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment 3.2. the powerhouse would be constrained to either upstream of the chutes from the outlet gates or far enough downstream to be unaffected by spray during its operation.

Figure 3.7: Transversal Section View of Powerhouse through Unit Axis Figure 3.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment dimensions.7 m.8 provide drawings of the transversal and longitudinal section views respectively. The diameter of this will be the same as the inlet diameter of the turbine at around 7 m. Figures 3.6 m to provide a submergence of 7. The WAPDA August 2011 3-9 .7 and 3.8: Longitudinal Section View of Powerhouse with Three 450 MW Units Powerhouse Loading Bay Existing Slope Outlet Control Source: T4CJV Turbine Components and Erosion Resistance The largest component to be transported to site would be the turbine runner. The centerline of the turbine will be at an elevation of 327.

It was thought that a ring gate would have limited application in respect of the aspects of maintenance and inspection as well as other disadvantages such as:  Larger spiral casing and potentially increase the size of the powerhouse. erosion is likely to be more significant for these units due to the higher speed of the turbine and the increase of sediment passing through the reservoir from the build-up. These valves will open to allow the rate of flow reduction in the penstock to be minimized when load is thrown off.4. However due to the layout of the switchyard the area will have to be extended by three bay widths in order to bring three connections in from the new powerhouse. Inlet and Relief Valves The installation of the main inlet valves will minimize water leakage when the turbines are shut down and also facilitate for the dewatering of a single unit for maintenance without effects on the operation of other generating units connected to the penstock. To date. it is proposed that hard coatings will be considered for the turbine parts that are more susceptible to damage. The spiral casing is expected to be manufactured on site from rolled plate components. WAPDA August 2011 3-10 .5 Switchyard The existing 500 kV switchyard is in breaker and a half formation which means that for three generators two bays of switchgear are required. A shaft seal will be installed between the turbine/runner coupling and the turbine bearing and held in place by springs or compressed air. For the proposed turbines the two types of valve have been considered: a ring gate and a butterfly valve. Howell Bunger relief valves will be installed on each turbine with an extra one on a common branch and independent of the turbines to allow one relief valve to act as a back up to another. 20 and 21.5 m diameter valve will be transported in parts and reassembled on site. In order to limit pressure rise in the penstock in the event of load reduction or unit/station trips. 3. It is however estimated that the length of the extension will be approximately 75 m. one bay with three circuit breakers and the other with two. However. The guide vanes will be supported on a bearing from the head cover and seals will be fitted to prevent the ingress of water and solid materials into the bearings. This will mean that the switchyard perimeter wall will have to be moved but at this stage a survey of the existing available ground is required before it can be determined whether further reclamation is required or not. The guide vanes will be used in conjunction with a hydraulically governed regulating ring mounted on the head cover of the turbine with tilting type guide bearing.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment runner and guide vanes will be fabricated using martensitic stainless steel. and  Separate relief valve isolation would be required. The switchyard will therefore be extended by bays 19. the existing turbines at Tarbela have not been significantly affected by effects of erosion from the passage of aggressive sediments. To mitigate for this. These valves would have a double lattice structure and be operated by twin servomotors. It is likely that the 7. The main inlet valves will be located outside the powerhouse structure to minimize the crane span and powerhouse size. Valve closing will be accomplished either via counterweights or double acting servomotors. It was for these reasons the butterfly valves were chosen.

There are however sufficient numbers of barracks available that could be used following appropriate refurbishment. assessment into the feasibility of this alternative is discussed in Section 4.5. The houses would require renovation and the surplus could be used as residences for the consultant’s staff. 3. It is expected that a cofferdam will be constructed such that the excavation for the powerhouse and the tailrace can be undertaken. As a result. hopefully within a single season. windows and roofs in need of replacement. The condition of these barracks is similar to those on the Left Bank.2. on the Right Bank and possibly extra intermediate towers in the river between the powerhouse and existing switchyard.1 Labor Camps Two options have been considered for labor camps. 3.500. Option 1 – Left Bank About 100 barracks are available for labor camp on the Left Bank but all of these need major repair. intermediate towers or gantries will be required downstream. However the location of the new powerhouse does not allow direct single span access to the existing switchyard. Option 2 – Right Bank About twenty barracks are also available on the Right Bank Colony which were used as labor camp during the construction of Ghazi Barotha Barrage.5. one on the Left Bank and the other on the Right Bank. 3. WAPDA August 2011 3-11 .Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Constructing a new switchyard on the Right Bank was also considered. It is estimated that during peak construction the number of construction workers may go up to 2. In addition there are around 15 houses adjacent to these barracks. Therefore. In addition.5 Other Components 3. sewerage and electricity would need to be installed and the area around the barracks cleared from the overgrowth and shrubbery. the occupants of these houses would have to be moved to 26 vacant houses available in Right Bank Colony.4. These barracks were previously used during the original construction of the Tarbela Dam project and are very derelict with doors. which are presently residences of WAPDA employees. the switchyard extension will only need to cater for three incoming generator connections and this can be achieved as discussed above.4. water supply lines.7 Tailrace It will be necessary to excavate the existing plunge pool to provide a smooth discharge path for the water leaving the turbines.6 Transmission Lines Preliminary system studies have indicated that no additional 500 kV transmission lines will be needed to evacuate the power from the Project development and currently system studies are being carried out to confirm this. In order to use these barracks.

can be procured from the Gandaf area in the west/northwest of Tarbela Dam. and  Fine Aggregate – sand can be obtained from the Left Bank quarry near the Sobra Colony. and New areas in the vicinity of the project could be identified for material.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Labor Camp Inputs and Outputs There would be inputs of different types including food stuff. Machinery and Vehicles The following list outlines the major machinery and vehicles that are envisaged to be required for the project construction works: Machinery and vehicles needed for construction Hydraulic excavators Refueling car Welding machine 30 kW Dump trucks Water tanker Vibratory roller Concrete batching plant Water pump Submersible pump Motor grader Tower crane Fork lifter Bulldozer Mobile crane Low bed trailer Wheel loader Air compressor Diving Equipment Self loading crane Tractor Work boat Transit mixer Generator 365 kW. 100kW Dredger and 150 kW Concrete pump car 3. Spoil dumps are also visible on the terrace and along the river bank cut face.2 Construction Materials There are two potential sources for construction material in the project: Material quarries used by contractors for previous projects could potentially be a suitable source and yield sufficient quantities. with the construction of Ghazi Barotha. The Gandaf area is about 15 to 20 km from Tarbela and a tunnel across the ridge was built for the easy and quick transportation of WAPDA August 2011 3-12 . However. utility items and personal belongings and outputs would include the solid and liquid wastes produced from the camps. The sources of aggregate for the concrete during construction are as follows:  Coarse Aggregate – procured from the river bed through dredging. the water level in the river valley has been elevated therefore making excavation of coarse aggregate from the river bed more difficult. It is anticipated that both of these sources can provide the required materials in sufficient quantities. If required core material in particular silt and clay. Reuse of Major Quarries / Sites The remnants of the main concrete mixing plant from the construction of Tarbela Dam are still evident today.5. the quantities required are still being calculated by the Design Team.

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project
Environmental and Social Assessment

the core material. Presently the Gandaf area has been developed into an industrial area;
however, the available terraces can be explored for this type of core material.
The rip rap/stone pitching material was previously obtained mainly through the required
excavations from tunnels and spillways. Limestone from spillways was used as rip rap in
the upstream slope, while the carbonaceous schist material of metamorphic nature was
used in the downstream side of the embankment.
Currently, it appears that these sources will not provide any material, however the nearby
areas can be studied for this purpose.
Potential Material Sources

As well as the major quarry areas discussed above, the following areas have been
identified as alternative sources for the aggregates for the concrete:
Coarse Aggregate – potential suitable areas for sandy gravel material include the deltaic
and island areas that presently exist. The water bay area downstream of the Right Bank
has also been proposed and the quartzite rock crops along the road extending to the river
is deemed to be sound and durable in nature for use;
Fine Aggregate – the sand from Qibla-Bandi and Lawrancepur, nearly 30 to 40 km
respectively from the Right Bank, can provide good sources that are well established,
recognized and well studied and have been used previously in the Ghazi Barotha
Hydropower Project;
Core Material – some potential terraces for silt and clay are likely to be identified in the
Gandaf area industrial zone. The ultimate decision on the source will be determined by
the potential environmental and social impacts;
Rip Rap / Slope Protection and Pitching Material – the required excavation for the
powerhouse and penstock construction will provide quartzite to be used as rip rap for the
upstream slope and the graphitic schist in the near vicinity can provide pitching stone on
the downstream side.
Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR) Potential

From the existing concrete structures, the coarse aggregate from the Indus River and the
fine aggregate (Lawrancepur sand) have proven to be as potentially reactive to Ordinary
Portland Cement (OPC). However, studies and testing can be done to determine the ratio
of OPC to slag cement to control the reactive nature of the aggregates.
Alternatively, the nearby cement factories can provide low alkali cement on demand,
while pozzolon sources have not been established thus far in Pakistan.

3.5.3 Waste Generation and Disposal
Areas identified for excavated material disposal are approximately 2 km from the
proposed new powerhouse site along the road leading to the Right Bank WAPDA
Colony. The proposed area is on the same river terrace adjacent to the site where old
TJV contractor had established their main concrete mixing plant.
It is estimated that 2.5 Mm3 of excavated material will be generated by the Project. In
addition, it is estimated that up to 1 ton of solid waste, may be generated per day at the
workers camps during the peak construction period as well as up to 1,000 liters per day of
sewage waste.

WAPDA
August 2011

3-13

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project
Environmental and Social Assessment

3.6

Program for Development

The original program for the project assumed a construction period of four years
(48 months). This was for the 960 MW scheme proposed in the 1992 Inception Report
and possibly assumed that the project would be awarded as a variation to the 3rd
Extension project that was ongoing at the time the report was written. The project has
now been reviewed and the installed capacity will be larger with three instead of two
turbines.
Furthermore, it will be necessary to enter into a new set of contracts and complete a new
set of plant designs and this is likely to lead to some increase in construction time. The
preliminary construction schedules indicate the first turbine generator could be completed
within just over four years. The power station will now be completed between four and a
half to five years after.

3.6.1 Construction Method of Tunnel 4 Raised Intake
After the final location of the intake has been determined, initial excavation for Option 2
would be carried out to establish a level platform around the proposed location at an
elevation of 460 m on which the shaft construction can be carried out. It is envisaged
that at this elevation the need for forming a cofferdam, that would extend the construction
period for the shaft, would be minimized or avoided but grouting will be required.
Construction of the shaft would be by drill and blast methods. Cut slopes in the vicinity
of Tunnel 4 will be need to be undertaken using controlled blasting..
The excavation volume of the intake area is estimated as approximately 900,000 m3 and
it is expected that this excavation will be undertaken by dozing and ripping in the softer
materials and by blasting in the stronger diabase. Work has been phased over a period of
three years in periods of eight months when the water level is below 460 m, in order to
minimize excavation and protect slopes.
The sequence for the Tunnel 4 raised intake excavations and associated construction
program for intake option 2 have been provided in Figure 3.9 and Figure 3.10
respectively.
Tentative Construction Program for Mechanical and Electrical Plant

For the Project it is likely that the overall construction program (see Figure 3.11) will be
controlled by the mechanical and electrical works. An outline for construction periods
has been obtained from Alstom for a two unit station and they consider that the following
periods would be appropriate:
• Supply Unit 1: 40 months;
• Supply Unit 2: 43 months;
• Install/Commission Unit 1: 13 months; and
• Install/Commission Unit 2: 13 months.

This gives total time for operation of the first machine of 53 months and the second
machine of 56 months.
A third machine could be expected three months later i.e. 59 months following award of
contract. This implies that first generation will be some five months later than had
previously been envisaged with the last machine coming on line nearly five years
following the notice to proceed.

WAPDA
August 2011

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Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project
Environmental and Social Assessment
Figure 3.9:

Source:

Excavation Sequence for Tunnel 4 Raised Intake

T4CJV

WAPDA
August 2011

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Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project
Environmental and Social Assessment
Figure 3.10:

Source:

Construction Program of Intake Option 2

T4CJV

WAPDA
August 2011

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Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project
Environmental and Social Assessment

Figure 3.11: Tentative Construction Program (Downstream Area)

Source:

T4CJV

WAPDA
August 2011

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Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project
Environmental and Social Assessment

Powerhouse Civil Works

The civil work program has been developed independently from the above and it is
estimated that the Power Station will be sufficiently advanced to start turbine erection
some 26 months after the issuing of the Notice to Proceed. This will tie in well with the
probable start of delivery of the first turbine components.
Once the first turbine draft tube is complete, it will be embedded and the concrete will
form a base for spiral casing erection. Once the spiral casing has been completed and
pressure tested the concrete works will continue upwards to form the generator
foundations and the area will then be returned to the Mechanical and Electrical
Contractors to allow them to erect the turbine internals and the generators. Each unit will
proceed at roughly 3 month intervals.
The program envisaged is similar to that followed in many other large hydroelectric
power stations and it is not expected to present any major difficulties. It might be
possible to save some time but it is almost certain that it will be necessary to perform a
full turbine model test and based upon previous experience it is considered that the
indicative program put forward by Alstom is not unreasonable.
Switchyard and 500 kV Connections Civil Works

Assuming the studies confirm that the best solution is to simply extend the existing
facilities it will be necessary to extend the 500 kV switchyard to accommodate the new
switchgear bays and the associated incoming lines from the power station. It is proposed
to use material from the powerhouse/intake excavation to extend the switchyard as this
will reduce the quantity of material that has to be disposed of elsewhere.
It is expected that the connection between the new powerhouse and the extended
switchyard will be by 500 kV transmission lines although alternative methods are being
considered. It will be necessary to construct transmission towers within the tailrace but it
is understood that the facilities exist in Pakistan for tower construction in rivers and
similar areas. Therefore no problem is expected with this work. The time available to
complete the switchyard civil works and the equipment installation is more than adequate
and these works are not expected to be on the critical path for the project.
Penstock and Associated Civil Works

Before the erection of the penstock can begin it will be necessary to excavate a very
significant trench to accommodate the pipeline. It will also be necessary to cut back the
rock face behind the existing portal and also to the west of the existing outlet control
structure. Significant slope support works are also expected to be required. It is proposed
that the civil contractor will complete the majority of these works in advance of penstock
construction. Construction of the penstock will proceed in sections leaving the
connection to the exit from Tunnel 4 as late as possible to allow it to remain in service to
release irrigation flows for the maximum period possible.

3.7

Summary of Project Cost

The total project cost is about US$ 909 million. The cost estimates include physical
contingencies, price contingencies based on international inflation, taxes and duties on
civil works on imported machines, turbines and generators, and Interest During
Construction (IDC) of US$83.5 million assuming IBRD and IDA terms for the loan.The
Project cost by component is provided in the Table 3-2.
WAPDA
August 2011

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Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project
Environmental and Social Assessment

Table 3.2: Estimated Cost of the Project
Total Cos t Incl.
Continge ncie s
A. Powe r Hous e and Tunne l Works
A1 Power House
A2 Penstock
A3 Modification to intake
Sub-total A
B . Turbine s , ge ne rators and auxiliarie s
B1 Turbines generators and related equitment
B2 Transformers, switchyard electrical. connection
Sub-total B
C. Imple me ntaton of SAP and EMP, Dam Monitoring
C1. Social Action Plan (SAP) for legacy issues
C2. Environmental Management Plan (EMP)
C3. Dam saftey and montoring program
C4. Galcial Monitoring Program
Sub-Total C
D. Cons ultancie s for Supe rvis ion
D1 Construction Supervision consulting services
D2 M&E, supervision of EMP and SAP, Project
Sub-total D
E. Proje ct Manage me nt, TA, Training
E1 PMU support and audits, etc.
E2 Capacity building TA, POE, training
E3 Strategic studies and future project preparation
Sub-total E
B as e Cos t
Physical Contingencies
Price Contingencies
Fees and IDC
Total Proje ct Cos t
Tax contents 11%

WAPDA
August 2011

Bas e Cos t and
Continge ncie s

156.2
63.5
89.9
309.6

133.6
54.3
76.9
264.8

377.6
53.9
431.5

323.9
46.3
370.2

15.0
2.0
6.0
5.0
28.0

15.0
2.0
6.0
5.0
28.0

24.0
2.4
26.4

21.0
2.4
23.4

13.0
2.0
15.0
30.0
825.5
0.0
0.0
83.5
909.0
90.8

13.0
2.0
15.0
30.0
716.4
60.6
48.5
83.5
909.0

3-19

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project
Environmental and Social Assessment

4 Need for Project and Analysis of
Alternatives
4.1

Need for Project

4.1.1 Overview
The waters of the Indus basin begin in the Himalayan Mountains and run a course
through the State of Jammu and Kashmir. The river enters Pakistan in the Karakorum
mountains in Gilgit-Baltistan (a self governed region of Pakistan) and after flowing in a
westerly direction turns southward through the entire length of the country, converging
and emptying into the Arabian Sea to the southeast of Karachi. Following the partition of
Pakistan and India, development over the last century has seen a series of barrages and
link canals built to transfer water from the Indus and Jhelum to supply the water to the
southern parts of the country. These barrages include Tarbela and Mangla Dams. This
system currently provides water for more than 26 million acres of land, representing the
largest irrigated area of any one river system in the world.

4.1.2 Regional Context
The northern highlands of Pakistan include fifty peaks that reach above 6,500 m with
more than a half of the summits over 4,500 m. The topography of the area makes it
attractive for hydro generation. Tarbela is situated in the southern part of the highlands
and close to the Indus plain on the Indus River, the longest river in Pakistan with a total
length of 3,180 km and vital to the economy and society.
In terms of hydropower potential, the Indus basin represents 77.2% of the 56,773 MW of
overall hydropower potential in Pakistan. A number of potential hydropower schemes
are currently under development to extract this vast power generation potential. Of these
57% are at the design and construction stage, as with the Project. The remainder
represents projects that have been identified as potential and those for which feasibility is
complete as demonstrated by Figure 4.1.
Figure 4.1:

Breakdown of Hydropower Projects Within the Indus River Basin

13%

17%

13%

Identified
Feasibility Study Completed
Design and Construction Stage
In Operation

57%

Source:

T4CJV

WAPDA
August 2011

4-1

Extensive load shedding is felt by all communities in the country which results in a slower rate of increase in consumption than most developed or developing countries. there is a strong incentive to construct large storage reservoirs in the less populated northern region to sustain Pakistan’s growing energy needs. The Kalabagh Dam to be constructed on the Indus River in western Punjab could provide the much needed additional storage to ensure the continuation of a constant water supply. allowing for more effective operation of the dam. However. The capacity of Tarbela Reservoir is decreasing as a result of continued sedimentation although at a much lower rate than originally predicted. The proposed Diamer Basha Dam 315 km upstream of Tarbela would significantly reduce the amount of sediment inflow as well as allowing Tarbela to maintain a high reservoir level for longer periods of time. so far this project has not been pursued despite the completion of designs.2. WAPDA was established to develop and operate the majority of the hydropower in Pakistan while private hydro developments have been possible under the auspices of the Private Power and Infrastructure Board (PPIB) since 1994.2: Source: Pakistan Energy Consumption per Capita World Bank. World Development Indicators 4. Agriculture is one of the main sectors of the country and the backbone of the economy and therefore a secure supply of water for irrigation purposes is crucial. It is clear that sediment management is an important issue to maintain the storage capacity of the existing reservoirs in future.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment With the population of Pakistan continuing to increase. Development Policy In 1958. WAPDA however remains the main body developing Pakistan’s hydropower resources.1. WAPDA August 2011 4-2 . This allows for two irrigated crops to be harvested annually a winter/early spring crop (rabi season) and a summer crop (kharif or wet season). the economy of Pakistan is the 27th largest in the world. With increased urbanization and industrialization the shortage of power in the country is growing. Snowmelt in the summer from the Himalayan and Karakorum glaciers provides a high flow of water in the Indus and a small portion of this is stored in Tarbela and Mangla for the winter release. Figure 4. As is demonstrated by Figure 4. since 1972 the energy consumption per capita has increased by around 500% from under 100 kWh to 474 kWh in per capita in 2007.3 National Context Overview With a population in excess of 169 million as of 2009.

729 MW. any earlier would put a huge strain on the local infrastructure and resources.804 MW in the summer and 12. These are based upon an approximate 8% per annum increase in demand by the distribution companies (DISCOS). it can be anticipated that if the Diamer Basha project moves ahead.111 MW. Although the need for additional power has been clearly demonstrated. when hydro capability is reduced.347 MW in the summer. No seasonal variations in the data are accounted for in Table 4. Demand Forecast Assumptions Table 4. These results indicate that during the winter season there will be insufficient generation to fulfill demand through the period considered. It should of course be borne in mind that generation capability rarely meets the installed capacity as plant will be out of service due to planned and forced outages and that the development of some of the plants included in the planting program are behind schedule. However.840 MW in the winter. then it is likely that the next major scheme will follow within five to 10 years. it is also clear that the development of these schemes is unlikely to proceed as quickly as the population may prefer. There are currently 28 projects ongoing to either extend or construct schemes to increase power generation capacity.151 MW.1 contains the predicted increase in demand for electrical power up until 2030. With large hydropower projects costing in the region of USD 1-2 billion per MW installed. Schemes that are either under study.3 the National Transmission and Dispatch Company (NTDC) data has been adjusted to take account of the seasonal changes in generation capacity. These projects span until 2030 and would offer a combined total of 36.1. during the summer season generating capacity should exceed demand in the period 2014-15. the 28 projects would require USD 36-72 billion.1 and Table 4. This data would indicate a current shortfall of 7. In Figure 4.500 MW under construction. and its implementation goes smoothly.311 MW in the winter and 3.3 it is evident that that the current generating capability is 16. In Figure 4. including 700 MW exported to the Karachi Electric Supply Company (KESC) is 20. 4.1 and it is clear that there are significant variations in demand caused by the need for space heating and air conditioning.500 MW with a further 1. WAPDA August 2011 4-3 . The Gross Domestic Product of Pakistan amounts to USD 162 billion as of 2009 with USD 70.4 Demand Trends Current Status of Generation in Pakistan The need for additional generating capacity in Pakistan is clearly demonstrated by the data provided in Table 4.8 billion allocated as funds for all development programs in the country. ready for construction or identified as future projects represent a combined potential power generation of 41.2. Table 4. However.1 shows that the current Pakistan Electric Power Company (PEPCO) demand.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment The current total hydropower generation capacity in Pakistan is around 6.

1: Predicted Growth in Electrical Demand (DISCO-WISE Load Forecast (MW)) Name 2009- 2010- 2011- 2012- 2013- 2014- 2015- 2016- 2017- 2018- 2019- 2020- 2021- 2022- 2023- 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 3970 4271 4609 4982 5466 5820 6224 6521 7006 7605 8253 8940 9668 10448 11268 1840 1985 2137 2300 2473 2654 2844 2980 3201 3475 3771 4085 4417 4774 5149 2608 2832 3061 3305 3603 3938 4296 4501 4836 5249 5696 6170 6673 7212 7778 2084 2290 2507 2719 2936 3153 3385 3547 3810 4136 4488 4862 5258 5683 6128 2622 2858 3116 3398 3706 4044 4412 4623 4966 5391 5850 6337 6853 7407 7988 PESCO 2372 2587 2832 3104 3406 3635 3881 4066 4368 4742 5146 5574 6028 6515 7026 Hyderabad Electric Supply 1855 1988 2131 2288 2461 2650 2959 2996 3218 3494 3791 4106 4441 4800 5176 1107 1173 1244 1319 1399 1483 1573 1648 1771 1922 2086 2259 2443 2641 2848 752 809 869 934 1004 1079 1160 1215 1306 1417 1538 1666 1802 1947 2100 19210 20793 22506 24349 26454 28456 30634 32098 34482 37433 40618 44000 47583 51426 55461 1.06 1.06 1.06 18105 19598 21214 22950 24935 26820 28875 30255 32502 35284 38286 41474 44851 48474 52276 665 720 779 843 916 985 1061 1112 1194 1296 1407 1524 1648 1781 1921 18770 20318 21993 23793 25851 27805 29936 31367 33696 36580 39693 42997 46498 50254 54197 Lahore Electric Supply Company (LESCO ) Gujranwala Electric Power Company (GEPCO) Faisalabad Electric Supply Company (FESCO) Islamabad Electric Supply Company (IESCO) Multan Electric Power Company (MEPCO) Company (HESCO) Quetta Electric Supply Company (QESCO) Tribal Electric Supply Company (TESCO) DISCOs Demand (undiversified) Diversity Factor DISCOs Demand (diversified) T&T Losses (500 & 220kV) NTDC Demand WAPDA August 2011 4-4 .06 1.06 1.06 1.06 1.06 1.06 1.06 1.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Table 4.06 1.06 1.06 1.06 1.06 1.

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Name Auxiliary Consumption PEPCO Demand w/o Export to 2009- 2010- 2011- 2012- 2013- 2014- 2015- 2016- 2017- 2018- 2019- 2020- 2021- 2022- 2023- 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 681 737 798 863 938 1008 1086 1138 1222 1327 1440 1559 1686 1823 1966 19451 21055 22791 24656 26788 28813 31022 32504 34918 37907 41132 44557 48185 52077 56163 700 700 700 700 700 700 700 700 700 700 700 700 700 700 700 20151 21755 23491 25356 27488 29513 31722 33204 35618 38607 41832 45257 48885 52777 56863 Karachi Electricity Supply Company (KESC) Export to KESC Peshawar Electric Power Company (PEPCO) Demand Source: Provided by NTDC on 4 August 2010 WAPDA August 2011 4-5 .

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Table 4. Fuel Summer Winter 3478 3521 1101 2 Mangla 1000 1014 409 3 Ghazi Barotha 1450 1405 580 4 Warsak 243 171 145 5 Chashma Low Head 184 91 48 6 Small Hydro 69 64 20 6444 Gas/FO 850 700 8 GTPS Kotri #1-7 Gas 174 140 1024 840 9 TPS Guddu Steam #1-4 FO 640 270 10 TPS Guddu C C #5-13 Gas 1015 885 11 TPS Quetta Gas 35 Thermal (GENCOs) Sub Total GENCO-II 1180 TPS Muzaffargarh #1-6 Gas/FO 1350 1130 13 NGPS Multan #1&2 Gas/FO 195 60 14 GTPS Faisalabad #1-9 Gas/HSD 244 210 15 SPS Faisalabad #1&2 FO 132 100 Shandra GT Gas 17 Nuc 25 1690 12 Sub Total GENCO-III Hydel 2303 TPS Jamshoro #1-4 16 18 FBC Lakhra Coal 44 30 1965 1530 150 30 Sub Total GENCO-IV 150 30 Sub Total GENCOs 4829 3580 Sub Total (WAPDA+GENCOs) 11273 Nuclear Plants 325 9846 5883 300 Chashma Nuclear (PAEC) Total Capacity (Public) 11598 19 Jagran Hydro 30 30 20 Malakand-III Hydro 81 81 Sub Total (Hydel IPPs) Thermal 6266 7 Sub Total GENCO4 Public Sector Capability (MW) (MW) Sub Total (WAPDA Hydro) Private Sector Installed Capacity) Tarbela 1 Hydro Name of Power Station 10146 6183 111 111 21 KAPCO Gas/FO 1638 1386 22 Hub Power Project (HUBCO) FO 1292 1200 23 Kohinoor Energy Ltd (KEL) FO 131 124 24 AES Laipir Ltd FO 362 350 25 Aes Pak Gen (Pvt) Ltd FO 365 350 26 Southern Electric Power Co Ltd FO 135 119 27 Habibullah Energy Ltd (HCPC) Gas 140 129 28 Uch Power Project Gas 586 551 (SEPCOL) 29 Rouch (Pak) Power Ltd FO 450 395 30 Fauji Kabrwala (FKPCL) Gas 157 151 31 Saba Power Company FO 134 125 32 Japan Power Generation Ltd FO 135 120 WAPDA August 2011 4-6 .2: Existing Installed Capacity of PEPCO System as of 30 June 2010 Sr. No.

supported WAPDA August 2011 4-7 .P Gujranwala Punj No. climate change is defined as a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods.3: Predicted Increase in System demand and Generating Capability Climate Change According to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Sr. Installed Capability (MW) Name of Power Station Fuel 33 Liberty Power Project Gas 34 Altern Energy Ltd (AEL) Gas 31 31 35 Attock Generation PP FO 163 156 36 ATLAS Power Gas 219 219 37 Engro PP Daharki Sindh Gas 227 217 38 Saif PP Sahiwai Punjab RFO/Gas 225 225 39 Orient PP Balloki Punjab RFO/Gas 225 225 40 Nishat PP Near Lahore Punjab RFO 200 200 7050 6484 41 Gulf Rental P. The scientific consensus. Capacity) (MW) Sub-Total (Thermal IPPs) RFO Summer 235 Winter 211 62 62 Sub Total (Rental) 62 Total Thermal (IPPs) 7112 6546 62 Total Capacity (Private) 7223 6657 Total Hydel (Public and Private) 6555 Total Thermal (Public and 12226 6377 2414 10426 Private) Total (PEPCO System) Source: 18821 16803 12840 Provided by NTDC on 4 August 2010 Figure 4. climate change is related to global warming. In this context.

Technologies associated with hydropower are well established and can be very reliable. Needs Case and the Project Objectives Presently in Pakistan only 65 – 70% of the population has access to electricity and the Government is committed to provide electricity access to all households in the minimum possible time.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment by a strong credible body of evidence. The power shortfall situation is being tackled through load management by shedding and supplying power to various areas and sectors on a rotation basis. The concentrations in the atmosphere increased from approximately 280 parts per million (ppm) in pre-industrial times to 382 ppm in 2006. total installed power capacity in Pakistan was 19. of which 65% originates from fossil fuels.505 MW. coupled with consistent growth in demand (7-8% per annum).4. which could boost commercial and economic activities WAPDA August 2011 4-8 . To meet the increased demand for electricity as highlighted in Section 4. Hence industries. ecological and social / political effects are well understood. construction costs will be comparatively very low and hence the rate of return very high particularly given the long life expectancy that is typical for hydro schemes. is that the climate is changing and that it is largely down to human actions. The country is currently facing extensive power shortages. Production of electricity from fossil fuels is considered to be a major source of CO2 emissions. representing a 36% increase. The current discussions are focused on stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. the potential of hydropower and its inherent benefits cannot be neglected. Advantages of Hydropower Hydropower is already a major contributor for world electricity. It may also support the establishment of new enterprises. The power generated from the Project will be supplied to the national grid for further transmission to various load centers to augment existing supplies. Of the capital costs for a hydro scheme. 2% from nuclear and the remaining 33% from hydro. For a scheme like Tarbela where the dam is already in existence.1. 80% is typically attributed to civil works. As of 2007. The input of power can match the annual variations in demand because water can be stored for a length of time. hydro schemes offer some very desirable characteristics for a power plant. Hydro schemes can supply electricity without unpredictable network input variations and offer the potential for rapid response to changing energy demands because the water can be released at short notice. The present electricity demand-supply gap. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is considered to be the most important of the greenhouse gasses and accounts for the around 60% of the enhanced greenhouse effect. A modern plant like Tarbela is capable of converting the available energy in water to electricity with efficiency in excess of 90%. clearly indicates the critical need for enhancing the country’s current power generation capability. Provided the environmental. services and businesses are directly affected with some being shut down or running at far less than optimum for periods of time. The additional generation will help to meet the existing demand for electricity.

Locations of all the above ground sites are shown in Figures 4. 4.5. As a result more load shedding (in some areas up to 12 hours in a day in summer) and power cuts will be experienced with considerable social and economic impacts such as impeded economic growth. Table 4. 4.4 Alternatives for the Powerhouse Powerhouse Location The Tarbela Hydropower 4th Extension Project Inception Report (1992) proposed location for the powerhouse was downstream from the outlet gates on an area of waste ground that had previously supported a concrete batching plant during construction of the main project. Moreover no other non-hydro alternatives exist which can provide electricity so low in cost.6 aim to describe the various alternatives considered.2 Without Project Option The without-project scenario is not acceptable since this will seriously deteriorate the shortage in power production in the country.3 Site Alternatives There is limited flexibility as to the siting of the Project as it is an extension to an existing scheme and therefore significantly restricted by the existing infrastructure such as the reinforced slopes.2.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment and enhance job opportunities in the country. Another advantage is that the project can be completed within five years. On the total generating capacity of electricity there is currently a considerable shortfall as can be seen from the Table 4. 4. Sections 4. In the coming years this shortfall will further increase since demand for electricity is growing with an estimated eight percent per year. clean and from renewable resources. including building the powerhouse underground.1 Overview This chapter discusses the alternative considerations that have been studied for the Project.410 MW the T4HP project will substantially contribute in closing the gap between demand and supply of power in the country.3: Current Generating Capacity and Shortfall in Pakistan Generating Capacity (MW) Shortfall (MW) Summer 16. The small degree of flexibility that can be afforded relate to a few specific components such as the powerhouse.2.2. During present studies further locations are considered as alternate sites for powerhouse construction.410 MW of additional generation to the existing 3. The analysis of alternatives compares feasible options to various sources and designs that would have a similar outcome. 4.4 and 4. The analysis includes consideration of the ‘no project option’ followed by a discussion on design alternatives. Tunnel 4 and the Outlet Control Structure. 4.478 MW capacity at Tarbela. The Project proposes to add 1.2. and poverty.347 Winter 12. switchyard location and the intake.3 below.4.311 With the production of an additional 1.5 and 4.840 7. since most of the infrastructure is already in place.2.2.804 3. WAPDA August 2011 4-9 .2 Assessment of Alternatives 4.2. increased unemployment.

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Figure 4.4: Powerhouse Locations Considered Source: T4CJV WAPDA August 2011 4-10 .

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Figure 4.5: Powerhouse Locations Considered Location A1 Location A2 Location B1/B2 Location C Final Location Source: T4CJV WAPDA August 2011 4-11 .

reduced relocate existing road. construction complexity and risk associated with slope cutting. penstock. Right the discharge from the outlet gates and therefore subject to excessive spray Location B1 Is located further away from the length of the penstock Extensive slope cutting outlet gates in comparison to between the Tunnel 4 and excavation the other locations outlet and the powerhouse is significantly shorter than other locations Location B2 Is located further away from the length of the penstock Extensive excavation in outlet gates in comparison to between the Tunnel 4 sedimentary rock the other locations outlet and the Would have required the powerhouse is penstock to be run in a Tunnel significantly shorter than through sedimentary rocks that other locations had previously suffered from instability Location C Is located where the tunnel Minimizes length of the No slope cutting or outlet structure currently exists.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Location C has been selected as the powerhouse location and a brief description of the other potential powerhouse sites and the reasons for their non-selection is provided in the following sub-sections. Table 4. economical and environmental criteria for each of the alternative site locations. no need to Provides direct connection to capital cost.4 below provides a summary of the technical. implications Program of site investigations needed to determine foundation requirements Location A2 The powerhouse would be A shorter penstock founded on rock would be required than Penstock may be too close to that for A1. Tunnel 4. additional energy potential due to lower head losses in new penstock. connection of the transmission be required with cost line to the proposed switchyard and head-loss extension. Reduced excavation. Table 4.4: Site Location A1 Criteria of the Alternative Site Locations Technical Criteria Economical Criteria Environmental Criteria Provides a clear route out for A long penstock would Minimal excavation would likely be needed. Source: MML WAPDA August 2011 4-12 .

Location A2 Location A2 was considered to have two key advantages over location A1. There are some concerns however that it would be too close to the discharge from the outlet gates and therefore subject to excessive spray. There will be overall cost saving (in the order of US$ 50 million) if the existing outlet structure is demolished and a new set of gates constructed as part of the new powerhouse complex. the location requires a long penstock with cost and headloss implications. However.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Location A1 This location is downstream of the outlet gates of Tunnel 4 and provides a relatively clear route out for the transmission line connection to the proposed extension of the existing 500 kV switchyard. It is likely that much of the powerhouse foundations would be located on loose fill (from previous work of an old concrete batching plant and tunnel spoil) located on alluvium generally below the water table. Although there should be little difficulty in constructing the powerhouse in this location. Underground Powerhouse An underground powerhouse would potentially have been feasible with the cavern upstream of locations B1 and B2. This location would significantly shorten the length of the penstock between the Tunnel 4 outlet and the powerhouse. involving a significant amount of dewatering. The emergency drawdown facility can be provided by Tunnel 5 that was not included in the original design. However. The benefits of this arrangement are: (a) reduced capital costs due to savings in WAPDA August 2011 4-13 . It was for this reason that location B2 was discarded. At this location ensuring the excavation remains dry and stable would be significantly more difficult than for excavations at the other locations where the foundations are rock. following earlier stability issues. It has therefore been concluded that the only remaining need for Tunnel 4 outlet gates is to provide a flushing facility if the tunnel intakes should become blocked. Although such arrangements would have minimized the impact upon the road it was not pursued further as there were no clear advantages and it was considered that. is the best option. as the 3rd Extension location had enjoyed similar foundation conditions. and is selected for the Project. Location B2 Locations B2 is relatively further away from the outlet gates. T4CJV considered that a location closer to the Tunnel 4 outlet would be economically more feasible. the penstock would be founded over existing concrete structures which would require considerable excavation into the slope. Location B2 would have required the penstock to be run in a Tunnel through sedimentary rocks that had previously suffered from instability. the powerhouse would be founded on rock and the penstock would be shorter than for A1. Location C Location C provides direct connection to the Tunnel 4. Location B1 would require the shorter penstock compared to the locations mentioned above. it was likely that the rock quality was not adequate for such a large excavation. Recent operational information has shown that Tunnel 4 is no longer used to release significant water flows and this has been confirmed by flow routing studies that have looked at future operation for nearly fifty years.

geology and minimizing excavation of rock outcrop and stabilization measures. Designs have been developed to minimize interference with the existing control structure and where possible to minimize cutting back the slopes. but this would need to be limited to avoid significant excavation that may affect slope stability. head losses for various arrangements and constructability the straight connection to the powerhouse (option v above) is selected is the most suitable for the project. (b) reduced construction risks as no need to modify existing slopes. In these studies priority has been given to meet water demand for irrigation according to the requirement of the country and preferred peaking regime has also been followed. (iii) tunneled asymmetric Wye branch into the rock. It is this improved hydraulic performance that facilitated the increase of generation capacity from 950 MW to 1. The tunnel portal could potentially be cut back onto the slope. The control structure is located between the foot of a steep slope to the west and the Tunnel 3 control structure to the east. This is least cost and provides about 4 percent more energy than S-bend arrangements and much more than other options. Considering the location. In order to minimize interference with the control structure the new branch arrangement would need to be located upstream of the existing bifurcation. and (v) straight connection to the power house and reconstructing the outlet and flip bucket on the right side of the power house with capacity to discharge water at the current capacity of the tunnel. (iv) S-bend and branch arrangements. However. The only potential drawback is that it will be necessary to construct the powerhouse on an area where the underlying poor quality rock had suffered damage during the period when the power station was being commissioned. (d) no need to relocate the existing road. There is limited space to locate a new branch near this structure to connect it to the power house. (ii) asymmetric Wye branch located downstream of tunnel portal. (e) it will be possible to incorporate isolating gates within the new release facility. Several options were considered in the analysis.7 km. the available space is limited by the slopes to the north and west. including: (i) 90o T-off from the downstream control structure. However.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment excavation for penstock and powerhouse. reservoir operation studies have been carried out using flows over the period of 1962-2009 and considering developments upstream and downstream. The downstream control structure is connected to the tunnel at the portal in the rock face. it is considered that is it unlikely that the foundation will be unviable and the contract will include for all necessary provisions to address issues that might be found. To determine the optimal size of the plant. Power House Configuration The proposed type of turbine is the vertical Francis. This allows flow to pass from the lower level outlet without operating the powerhouse for clearing the intake area of the tunnels in case there is sudden inflow of sediment for any reason. (c) additional energy potential due to lower head losses in new penstock.410 MW. WAPDA August 2011 4-14 . The selected design exhibits a much lower head loss value than the design proposed in the 1992 Inception Report because the length of the penstock would be significantly shorter as a result of the powerhouse location and the hydraulic performance of the straight connection is better than the T-off. which is the most commonly used type of turbine and has high head and flow operational ranges. Connection of Tunnel 4 to Powerhouse Tunnel 4 runs from the intake through the right abutment of the dam for approximately 2.

but has not advanced during the last 15 years. had clearly demonstrated the need for the raised intake. Option 1: Do Nothing Option 1 was “do nothing” and this is not discussed further as it was considered that the advancing sediment delta.2. sedimentation in the reservoir and the advance of the sediment delta is lower than originally expected when Tarbela was commissioned and this has prolonged the life of Tarbela considerably. earthquake.  Option 1 – existing intake (i.e. In addition. Hydrostatic. and sediment flow loadings were considered to be critical issues for Option 3 as these provide the design requirements for the foundation conditions and stability analysis. it was decided that three 470 MW turbines will offer the highest rate of return. This means that in 20 years the level near the intake will be raised with 20 m and that regular blockage of the inlet gates might be expected. do nothing to modify the intake in parallel with building the Project)  Option 2 – raised intake on the slope above Tunnel 4 with shaft connection into upstream part of the tunnel. but this amount will certainly increase in future. However. which would be prefabricated and installed at depth. Option 2: Raised Intake on Slope The raising of the Tunnel 4 intake on the slope above Tunnel 4 is as previously described in Section 3.4. prefabricated and installed at depth. At present some eight million ton of silt and clay annually pass through the intakes.1. Option 3: Raised Intake in Front of Existing Intake Option 3 proposes to construct a raised intake in front of existing intake. as presented in the Sedimentation Study performed by HR Wallingford.5 Alternatives for the Intake On average about 200 million ton of sediment are entering the Tarbela reservoir every year. A first incident with blockage happened in 1997 when Tunnel 3 was operated at a very low reservoir level and apparently a large concentration of sediment caused blockage of the tunnel for a number of days. The construction of this option would require an underwater drill to accurately determine the foundation conditions around the existing intake and onto which the prefabricated intake structures WAPDA August 2011 4-15 . and  Option 3 – raised intake in front of the existing intake.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Following optimization of the unit rating by cost analysis. This rating is also similar to turbines at the 3rd Extension. 4. The design of a raised intake to mitigate for the potential effects of sediment build up initially began with seven options of which three were taken forward for more detailed analysis. The pivot point of the sediment delta is now some 10 km from the dam. These situations should be prevented and therefore the question was raised by WAPDA whether it is feasible to modify and raise the intake or even to prepare a new intake for Tunnel 4 at a higher level in order to prolong the life of Tarbela considerably. consideration was given to the raising of the Tunnel 3 intake during construction of the raised intake for Tunnel 4. with the notable difference being the rotational speed. On average the sediment level (near the dam) raises with 1 m per year.

and will cost approximately double the expected price for Option 2.6 with the possible location of Tunnel 3 hatched in red. This added complexity contributed to a high construction cost estimated at USD 64 million. Secondly. Construction of a raised intake at Tunnel 3 after completion of Tunnel 4 raised intake would be much more difficult because of the steep slope that would be present directly above Tunnel 3. Figure 4. depending on whether the plug that forms the lower bend is installed. formation of a cofferdam by delayed excavation would not be possible because the elevation of the desired location would already be at a level that would be submerged for long periods of time during the year. program and risk were also considered for the two options and the main conclusions were that Option 3 would require five years construction time compared to four years for Option 2. The combination of these two factors contributed to the decision to extend the scope of work to include the raising of Tunnel 3 intake concurrently with the construction of the raised intake for Tunnel 4. Cost. Tunnel 3 Raised Intake The excavation area for the Tunnel 4 raised intake is illustrated in Figure 4. the excavation area would extend towards the left of the abutment. Comparison of Options 2 and 3 Calculations indicate that Option 3 will have total head losses that are around three to five times greater than that of Option 2.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment would be floated and sunk onto. The principles of construction will essentially be the same if Tunnel 3 is included.6: Plan View of Intake Excavation Area for Tunnel 4 and Possible Location for Tunnel 3 Intake Source: T4CJV WAPDA August 2011 4-16 . The volume of excavation would therefore increase compared to the construction of the Tunnel 4 raised intake alone but this would present better value than if the raised intakes for the two tunnels were constructed separately. In summary. excluding the drilling platform cost. However. Option 2 is favored over the other Options 1 and 3.

7 is a drawing of the coffer dam. construction of a new switchyard downstream on the Right Bank was also considered. If such a procedure is followed then. Figure 4.2. probably by working from one end.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment 4. The process of driving the sheet piles into the river bed will cause a limited amount of disturbance and clouding of the water but as the process will be completed in stages over a period of time this is not expected to be significant. the disturbance to the surrounding water will be limited. A series of these rings will be constructed and filled each ring will then be filled with rock and earth to provide the necessary water tightness and stability.2. When the coffer dam is dismantled then care will be required to ensure that the disturbance to the water is kept within the required limits. and this is not yet certain.4.7: Source: Coffer Dam Plan T4CJV 4. The extension was chosen over both the new air insulated substation (AIS) and gas insulated substation (GIS) because it would be less complex and more cost effective. as long as it is carried out carefully there should be minimal disturbance to the surrounding water.7 Alternatives for the Switchyard In addition to the extension of the existing switchyard as described in Section 3. then it will be of the cellular formed from rings of sheet piles. WAPDA August 2011 4-17 .6 Coffer Dam Option If a coffer dam is required. Figure 4. When the fill is in place.5. as for the filling. If necessary the fill can be removed by excavators and then the sheet piles pulled out one by one.

switchboards and transformers for alternating current (AC) power supplies.8 Alternatives for the Type of Cement From the existing concrete structures.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment New AIS on the Right Bank The establishment of a new AIS switchyard was considered to be a major undertaking as this will not only require a new switchyard outdoor area but also a new switchyard building to house relay. A transmission line gantry would be mounted on the roof to provide direct connections to the existing switchyard. batteries and charges for direct current (DC) power supplies. while pozzolon sources have not been established thus far in Pakistan. WAPDA August 2011 4-18 .2.9 Method of Excavation and Drilling Excavation will be carried out by dozing and ripping in the softer materials whilst blasting will be carried out in the stronger diabase. the nearby cement factories can provide low alkali cement on demand.2. However. 4. Alternatively. 4. the coarse aggregate from the Indus River and the fine aggregate (Lawrancepur sand) have been proved as potentially reactive to Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). studies and testing can be done to determine the ratio of OPC to slag cement to control the reactive nature of the aggregates. The GIS bus duct connections between the high voltage side of the transformers to the switchgear above would need three bays of GIS for the three generator incomers and two outgoing overhead lines to the existing switchyard. New GIS above Transformers The GIS option would provide a very compact arrangement and the new switchgear would have the advantage of being able to use the powerhouse AC and DC auxiliary power supplies. However. the switchgear would have to be located on a mezzanine floor above the main transformers. metering and control panels.

 To identify environmental and social issues such as displacement. The process.  To have interaction for primary and secondary data collection with project affectees and other stakeholders. and  To receive feedback from primary stakeholders on mitigation and enhancement measures for environmental and social impacts.2 Objectives The following consultative objectives have served as the moving force for the design. employment. organizations. and propose meaningful mitigation measures. inclusion and participation of project affected persons (PAPs) has been able to build on the existence of the Tarbela Dam which is now a normal part of local communities’ lives.  To involve project stakeholders in an inclusive manner. 5. safety hazards.1 Introduction The Government of Pakistan (GoP) as well as international donors (e. and vulnerable persons. WAPDA August 2011 5-1 .3 Identification of Stakeholders Stakeholders include all those who affect and are being affected by policies.g. understand project affected person’s perceptions regarding impact significance. participation of stakeholders has been part of the Project ESA process. nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and concerned government departments/ organizations dealing particularly with related fields and to ensure that their views and concerns have been taken into account in the study. Stakeholders can be groups of people. decisions or actions within a particular system. starting from awareness campaign to the identification. (positive and negative) impacts. An attempt has been made to consult with a full range of stakeholders to obtain their views on project interventions. 5.  To begin establishing communication and an evolving mechanism for the resolution of social and environmental problems at local and project level. In order to gather local knowledge for baseline. implementation and fact findings for participation process:  To provide key project information and create awareness among various stakeholders about project intervention. The consultation process consists of initiating dialogues among all the stakeholders. Stakeholders can be divided into primary and secondary stakeholder categories.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment 5 Stakeholder Consultations 5. PAPs and stakeholders are generally able to understand the implications of the Project activities. institutions and sometimes even individuals. the World Bank) place great importance on involving primary and secondary stakeholders for determining the environmental and social impacts associated with project implementation. The present ESA has been prepared after consulting with local communities. The logic behind stakeholder consultation is that a project proponent has shared with all stakeholders’ relevant information on the project interventions including potential environmental and social.

1 Primary Stakeholders Primary stakeholder(s) is a person or group of persons directly impacted by a certain project intervention. The main activities are summarized in Table 5. whereas one-to-one meetings were held with the institutional stakeholders. fisheries. play a role in implementation at some stage. These discussions were held with project beneficiaries and other local communities at Tarbela. The consultation and scoping sessions were designed specifically to provide project information to the public. Topi.1: Main Activities during Consultation Process Activity Initial awareness campaign (Scoping Date Accomplishment 10 August 2010 Meeting with 25 stakeholder (female) in girls high school Right Bank WAPDA Colony stage) WAPDA August 2011 5-2 . The consultation process provided a meaningful understanding of local social issues for the social impact analyses and preparation of a SIMF for the Project area.2 Secondary Stakeholders This category of stakeholders pertains to those who may not be directly affected but have interests that could contribute to the study. 5. and head masters or teachers of local schools. and transport have also contributed useful data and opinions regarding mitigation. concerned government departments (federal/ provincial). Stakeholder and public consultations were completed in two stages which are described below. Ghazi. These sessions were informal to encourage a friendly social environment in which participants were comfortable in raising questions. a local social development NGO. Environmental NGOs such as WWF and IUCN have been consulted regarding environmental aspects. energy. was initially established and funded by WAPDA for a nearby downstream hydropower project and it is familiar with the area. The focus group discussions were instrumental in the process. namely five kilometers upstream of the existing dam.4 Consultation Process A series of comprehensive consultations were carried out with the project stakeholders at various locations during the preparation of the scoping document and ESA. Ghazi Barotha Taraqiati Idara. In this project NGOs. 5. expressing their opinions and concerns about the project besides seeking clarification regarding their concerns. and line agencies fall under this category. Project beneficiaries include WAPDA and the Government of Pakistan. In this case. Government organizations dealing with water.3.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment 5.1 below (details of the participants are provided in Annex A). community members and other local representatives including Imams. Table 5. Hattian and Haripur. local leaders. ten kilometers downstream and two kilometers on the right and Left Banks of the Indus River. people living within the geographical boundaries of defined Project area of influence.3. The participatory “consultative” approach was employed for data collection. Primary stakeholders identified and consulted include project affected communities. Sungi Development Foundation with a range of human development and governance programs is active in Haripur District. or affect decision making on Project aspects.

4. Meetings with 137 Stakeholders (male) at fourteen (14) 2011 different places in Project area February 17 to 27. 2011 Meetings with 96 Stakeholders (female) at ten (10) different February 18 to 22. During scoping. These brochures were distributed to different stakeholders as information disclosure instruments and to get feedback on environmental and social issues of the project.1 Stakeholder Consultation during the Scoping Phase At the beginning of the scoping phase. physicians and WAPDA officers participated in each of these workshops Gender consultation January 10 to 15. During the scoping stage. Left Bank Colony. 2011 Tarbela/Ghazi. local representatives government officials. 2011 and Peshawar. a Project office was established in the Right Bank Colony by the feasibility consulting team. A person responsible for community liaison was nominated. identification of positive and negative impacts. NGOs. four public consultation sessions were conducted in the Project area: one with male WAPDA employees working at the Tarbela Dam site second. Islamabad workshops February 26. stakeholder identification commenced. places in Project area 2011 5. and NGOs including GBTI. Sungi and community based local Institutions Scoping sessions during preparation of ESA organizations at village level January 10 to 15. 2011 Consultation February 24. Two brochures (English and Urdu) were prepared containing relevant preliminary information about the project. NGOs. government departments and line agencies to get their response on the project interventions. 2011 to Meeting with officials of 25 different government departments January 15. In addition to consultative workshops. in depth discussions / consultative meetings were held with WAPDA officials. teachers.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Activity Initial awareness Date Accomplishment 10 August 2010 Meeting with 29 Stakeholders (male) in the conference hall at campaign (Scoping Tarbela Power House stage) Consultation Meetings with January 10. 2011 Consultation workshops were held at Ghazi. Press.4.2 Stakeholder Consultation during Detailed Assessment The second stage of the consultation process included conducting social and environmental focused group discussions with local community members for establishing baseline situations. 5. 2011. 2011 About 40 to 50 persons including former affectees of March 30. The non-technical summary of the project scoping document prepared in local language was distributed among the stakeholders during consultation workshops. a third with the Community of Pehur Hamlet and fourth with community of Ghazi Hamlet. WAPDA August 2011 5-3 . a second with female teaching staff and family members of WAPDA Girls High School. Topi. March17. and needs assessment for social enhancement.

 Construction related issues like excavated material.  Darra Mohat.3 Consultation with Institutional Stakeholders Meetings with institutional stakeholders like government departments.  Kukar Chawa.  Pehur Hamlet. informal discussion and consultative workshops to collect relevant and reliable facts (empirically verifiable observations) on the subject of ESA study. especially students of girls and boys schools at WAPDA Right Bank Colony  Safe transportation of construction material  Health and safety measures for labor force  Rights of employment in Tarbela Project for local community  Settlements of pending issues of old affected persons of Tarbela project 5.4.  The project proponents should develop organizational structure for implementation of SIMF to handle the environmental and social issues during the project implementation.  Mohalla Zakoo (Topi). focused group discussion. In these meetings.  Possible damage to flora and fauna particularly at proposed site for power house should be addressed. and WAPDA August 2011 5-4 . 5.  Ghazi Hamlet.4. its location and activities. Institutional stakeholders showed their concerns and gave suggestions / recommendations for the implementation of the project. These are listed below:  WAPDA should fulfill the regulatory requirements of conducting ESA of proposed project.  Pontian. NGOs and line agencies were organized to discuss project interventions and their potential impacts on the local communities and environment.4 Consultation with Community Representatives Consultations at the following ten villages with members of the community and representatives of communities were carried out to establish a baseline conditions in the Project area. stakeholders were informed about the salient features of the project.  WAPDA will ensure free mobility of women and children.  Ghari Mera.  Qazi Pur.  Khabbal. soil erosion and hazards for local communities and labor force should be appropriately addressed during the construction activities.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment A variety of scientific techniques were administered including an interview guide.

educationists.  Social enhancement in Project area.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment  WAPDA Right and Left Bank Colonies. doctors and senior community representatives of Tarbela and Ghazi Barotha projects were organized at Ghazi.  Lack of health and education facilities in Ghazi and Pehur Hamlets.  Solid waste and sewerage disposal problems. The topics and issues discussed in these workshops and suggestions and recommendations are given below: Topics for Discussions  Expected impacts of project on natural environment.  Health and educational issues in the area. Communities’ main concerns were:  Pending issues of compensation on Tarbela and Ghazi Barotha HydroPower Project (GBHPP). The suggestions put forward by the participants of these workshops were instrumental for designing of ESA and SIMF. Participants were briefed about the salient features of the projects.4.  Unemployment in the area. Topi. four workshops involving local and international NGOs.  Expected impacts of project on social environment.4.  Polluted drinking water.5 Grass Roots Consultation Grass roots consultation with primary stakeholders and local communities was carried out at 14 different locations in study area. concerned government officials.  Lack of health and educational facilities in the area. especially in the villages where old affectees of Tarbela and Ghazi Barotha are residing.6 Consultation Workshops In addition to the above consultation. and  SIMF for this project.  Other social and economic issues in the area. Issues Highlighted by the Participants  Settlement of compensation issues of old affectees of Tarbela and Ghazi Barotha. 5. local leadership. The main objective of these workshops was to get feedback on the Project from a wider range of institutional stakeholders. Islamabad and Peshawar. representatives of media.  Recruitment in Tarbela and GBHPP projects from other parts of the country.  Seepage and high water table at Right Bank in Topi area. WAPDA August 2011 5-5 .  Restoration of the source of livelihood of fishermen.  Rights of employments in Tarbela project  Problems in sewage and solid waste collection system  Seepage problem due to Ghazi Barrage pond  Polluted drinking water in the hamlets 5.

5 Gender Consultations Besides the public consultation.  Fear of road accidents during construction phase of the project.  WAPDA may establish recreational parks at Ghazi and Topi for local peoples. gender consultation was also carried out at ten different locations in study area. lack of furniture.  WAPDA should help in the up gradation of educational and health facilities in the Ghazi and Topi area.) WAPDA August 2011 5-6 . 5.  Needs to introduce computer as a subject in the schools.  Establishment of a heavy machinery training centre at Topi.  Lack of health facilities. and  Tree management plan.  Civil department of WAPDA should work on proposal for the rehabilitation of drainage system at Right Bank and replacement of old water supply pipelines. lack of teaching staff in the Girls Middle School at Pehur Hamlet.  Lack of cold drinking water in summer in the school. and  WAPDA may engage a NGO like GBTI to work with local communities for the implementation of the project in environmentally and socially safe way. Women’s main concerns were:  Drinking water is contaminated with other particles and people have to use this contaminated water.  Inadequate building structure. The summary of comments and recommendations received during the consultation process is provided in Table 5.  Establishment of emergency unit with ambulance for local communities.  Problems of proper disposal of solid waste and sewage issues at Right Bank Colony. (The way these comments/recommendations have been addressed is discussed in Chapter 11. Suggestions and Recommendations  WAPDA should fix a quota in employment for local peoples in TDP and GBHPP.  Establishment of vocational training centre for women.  Provision of electricity at subsides rates in the Project area.  Seepage problems in Topi area due to Ghazi Barrage pond.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment  Shortage of water and low water table in the areas downstream Ghazi barrage.  WAPDA should arrange clean drinking water in Project area. During consultation sessions with women. they were briefed about the project and its main features. and  Needs of a vocational training centre for women in the area.2. especially for women in Civil Hospital Topi.  WAPDA may rehabilitate the old road near Ghazi and use during construction phase to avoid traffic hazards to local community.

Un employment in the area. Restoration of the source of livelihood of fishermen. Lack of health and educational facilities in the area. Rights of employment in Tarbela Project for local community 9. Establishment of a heavy machinery training centre at Topi. 21. 22. WAPDA will ensure free mobility of women and children. 19. Establishment of emergency unit with ambulance for local communities. Safe transportation of construction material 7. Settlements of pending issues of old affected persons of Tarbela project Suggestions from Grass-root Stakeholders 10. WAPDA may establish recreational parks at Ghazi and Topi for local peoples. 33. 31.2: Summary of Stakeholders’ Concerns/Recommendations Suggestions from Institutional Stakeholders 1. Polluted drinking water in the hamlets Issues highlighted by the Consultation Workshop Participants 16. 35. 25. 11. WAPDA August 2011 5-7 . Fear of road accidents during construction phase of the project 27. Pending issues of compensation on Tarbela and Ghazi Barotha HydroPower Project.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Table 5. Rights of employments in Tarbela project 13. provision of electricity at subsides rates in the Project area. Recruitment in Tarbela and GBHP projects from other parts of the country. Shortage of water and low water table in the areas downstream Ghazi barrage. WAPDA should fulfill the regulatory requirements of conducting ESA of proposed project. 34. Solid waste and sewerage disposal problems. Seepage and high water table at Right Bank in Topi area. 3. 32. 20. Construction related issues like excavated material. 18. especially students of girls and boys schools at WAPDA Right Bank Colony 6. 30. Establishment of vocational training centre for women. especially in the villages where old affectees of Tarbela and Ghazi Barotha are residing. Health and safety measures for labor force 8. Lack of health and education facilities in Ghazi and Pehur Hamlets. 4. 5. Problems in sewage and solid waste collection system 14. Suggestions and Recommendations forwarded by Workshop Participants 28. WAPDA should help in the up gradation of educational and health facilities in the Ghazi and Topi area. 2. 12. Settlement of compensation issues of old affectees of Tarbela and Ghazi Barotha. Seepage problem due to Ghazi Barrage pond 15. WAPDA should arrange clean drinking water in Project area. Possible damage to flora and fauna particularly at proposed site for power house should be addressed. WAPDA may rehabilitate the old road near Ghazi and use during construction phase to avoid traffic hazards to local community. WAPDA should fix a quota in employment for local peoples in TDP and GBHPP. The project proponents should develop organizational structure for implementation of SIMF to handle the environmental and social issues during the project implementation. Civil department of WAPDA should work on proposal for the rehabilitation of drainage system at Right Bank and replacement of old water supply pipelines. soil erosion and hazards for local communities and labor force should be appropriately addressed during the construction activities. 17. 24. Tree management plan. 29. Polluted drinking water. 23. 26. 36.

water supply schemes. During the Hearing. Organized by the KP-EPA. 44. Lack of cold drinking water in summer in the school. a Non-Technical Summary of the ESA will be translated into the Urdu language and made available to the local communities in the Project area. and sewage disposal and treatment systems. some of which were Tarbela and GBHPP affectees.6 Consultations during Project Execution The proposed Environmental and Social Management Unit (ESMU). vocational and technical training centers. Needs of a vocational training centre for women in the area. media. the ESA report will be made available to the stakeholders at sites designated by KP-EPA in accordance with PEPA-1997. will be responsible for developing a consultation framework to be implemented by WAPDA during Project implementation. 45. lack of furniture. the WAPDA officials presented the salient features of the project. Needs to introduce computer as a subject in the schools. 42. Drinking water is contaminated with other particles and people have to use this contaminated water. Inadequate building structure.1). Once finalized. Problems of proper disposal of solid waste and sewage issues at Right Bank Colony. mitigation measures and implementation mechanism. 40. 39. 41.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment 37. in accordance with the ESA review and approval process in the Country defined by the IEE/EIA Regulations (see Figure 2. the Hearing was attended by the WAPDA officials. WAPDA August 2011 5-8 . Lack of health facilities. 5. This summary will also be disclosed through the official websites of WAPDA and the World Bank. Seepage problems in Topi area due to Ghazi Barrage pond. WAPDA informed the participants that most of these development works were already included in the Social Assistance Activities detailed in the SIMF. lack of teaching staff in the Girls Middle School at Pehur Hamlet. local representatives. 43. In response. Consultation with Women 38. during which the participants raised queries and provided recommendations about the project. This will ensure that local communities are aware of project’s key impacts. The participants highly appreciated the project. and most importantly. 5. especially for women in Civil Hospital Topi. This was followed by a well-participated question-answer session. WAPDA may engage a NGO like GBTI to work with local communities for the implementation of the project in environmentally and socially safe way. local community members.7 Information Disclosure A Public Hearing was held for the ESA in Tarbela on 23 June 2011. while the ESA consultants presented the key aspects and findings of the ESA. Their expectations included construction/establishment of schools. as described in Chapter 10. however the community members expected WAPDA to allocate some of the project funds for infrastructure development within their settlements. In addition.

2 Physical Environment 6.8 km wide and filled with alluvial deposits. WAPDA August 2011 6-1 . the Naranji Hills are situated in the north-western corner of the district. The hill sides near the dam are generally steep and are rising to an altitude around 600 m asl. The northern part of the reservoir stretches about 100 km upstream and is situated between much higher mountains with elevations over 2400 m.2.543 km2 with mostly hilly terrain (78%) and the remaining part is flat.1 Physiography Tarbela Dam and storage reservoir are located near to the end of a relatively narrow valley of the Indus cutting through the Hazara hills.1 Overview The T4HP project activities cover a limited area located at the right bank of the Indus on both sides of the Tarbela dam (see Figures 1. which consists of rocks. The river valley near the dam is up to 1. north of the Kabul River. These hills form a part of the foot slopes of the Western Himalayan Mountains. From the foot of these hills the southern plain runs down. that belong to the Salkhala formation.2 and 6. The rock formations are characterized by intensive folding and faulting. at first rather steep sloped and then gently down towards the Kabul River. Direct and indirect impacts are expected not to extend more than 5 km upstream and 10 km downstream of the dam and 2 km inland on both sides of the river. Since no cumulative and induced impacts of the project are expected both upstream and downstream of the dam. whereas the left bank belongs to Haripur district. The total area of Swabi district is 1. The heights of the Naranji Hills in the north vary between 750 to 1. Swabi district lies between the Indus and Kabul Rivers. 6.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment 6 Environmental and Social Baseline 6. Although the project is entirely located in Swabi district. In the south.Barotha headpond is a small regulating reservoir immediately downstream of the dam and belonging to the Ghazi-Barotha barrage. Near the outlet the topography changes into a rugged plain situated at the foot of the slopes towards the former riverbed of the Indus. This barrage is situated at a distance of ten kilometers from Tarbela nearby the cities of Topi (right bank) and Ghazi (left bank). the study area of the ESA has been restricted to the above defined project sites and their surrounding areas. The Ghazi.400 m asl.1). From here the topography slopes more gently via a transitional zone and further down towards the agricultural plains of Punjab and those along the Kabul river. They are a continuation of the Mahaban Hills. The intake of the Tunnel 4 is located at the right abutment of the Dam. along the border of the Nowshera district there are hills forming part of the Khattak Hills. Other important hills. which are submerged by the reservoir. Some indirect impacts might be expected at larger distance in quarries and borrow areas situated at some 20 – 40 km from Tarbela. The lower southern half of the district slopes towards the Indus River. The majority of the hills are found in the Gadoon area in the north-east. The northern part is predominantly hilly and is sloping towards the agricultural plain in the south. The area between the intake and the outlet of the tunnel has a steep gradient. the project area stretches over two different administrative districts: The right bank is Swabi district.

1: Source: The Project Area and Sampling / Survey Locations T4CJV WAPDA August 2011 6-2 .Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Figure 6.

The major land use of the Haripur and Swabi districts includes cultivated and uncultivated land. the northern hilly areas and the southern plain.a well watered plain lying in the south eastern corner of the district. There is a rapid fall of temperature recorded from October onwards to the coldest month of January.3 Climate Two seasons prevail in the area: winter (October to March). minimum and mean temperature of the Project area for the last five years is presented in Figure 6. flat land located in an old bed of the Indus River. these mines were explored in Ghazi tehsil.west of Haripur city.4 Temperature December to February are the coldest months and the minimum temperatures vary between 2 and 11°C in these months. 6. The Indus River flows along the southern boundary of the Swabi district. The potential borrow areas identified are mostly found near to the project site: sand is found in the riverbed near Sobra City and at a commercial site in Qibla Band while clay is available at borrow sites in the Gandaf area. The remainder consists of wasteland. Sobra City is on hilly terrain with thick vegetation and the Quibla Bandi site is on bare.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment The area where the powerhouse and the tail race channel will be constructed is a flat part of the old riverbed.2 Land Use The Swabi district can be divided into two parts. August and September record quite high temperatures. partly submerged by the Ghazi Barotha lake. The total land use area for Swabi is 148. Swabi district has more extremes in climates. 6. A steep rise of temperature is observed from May to June and even July.consist of plains surrounded by the mountains of Tanawal. whereas the maximum temperature during March to July vary between 31 and 48°C. rangeland and forest 6. joining the Kalapani Stream in the Mardan district. limestone and dolomite. The maximum. The Haripur district has four different regions:  Maidan-e-Hazara. this entire tract is sub-merged under the Tarbela Reservoir. WAPDA August 2011 6-3 . and summer (April to September). The important stream is Narranji Khawar which flows from the Narranji Hills in a southwestern direction. with its summer season being very hot. On the embankment runs the existing road between the dam and the Right Bank Colony.689 ha and for Haripur is 75.which mainly consists of mountains. with very limited vegetation.  Khanpur Punjkhata .2. and  “Chhachh” .2. The plain area of the district is intersected by numerous streams and many smaller ravines. The notable minerals in the Haripur district are sandstone.2. The major part of these hills is the Gadoon area in the north-east.  Tanawal . the climate of the area is mildly hot in summer and cold in winter. The Gandaf area has large volumes of exposed clay which is already exploited by the local people.2.345 ha of which respectively 59% and 42% are cultivated. In general.

8 19.5 30.32 4.8 13.2 20. The mean monthly rainfall for the Project area is provided graphically in Figure 6.2.20 6.1 31.88 20 14.4 11.91 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 6.4 44.4 25.6 6 3.6 10 6.2 29.3 37.86 cm with most of the rainfall occurring in the months of July and August.2 26.8 25 25.30 3.3.73 5 2.5 13.2.97 15 10 6.6 Humidity Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air and indicates the likelihood of precipitation.8 20.06 0.2 16.7 18.2 36. WAPDA 6. dew or fog.00 6.3: Mean Monthly Rainfall (2006-2010) in the Project Area Mean Monthly Rainfall (cm) 25 21.5 15.4 17. Towards the end of the cold weather in January and February there are occasional thunder storms and hail storms.54 7.45 2.5 22.5 Rainfall The average monthly rainfall in the Project area is 78.8 5 year (2006-2010) average degrees centigrade 45 39.2 20 19.4 31.2: (2006-10) 5 Year Average Monthly Temperatures (oC) in the Project Area Maximum Temperature Minimum Temperature Mean Temperature 50 46.1 21.2 38.49 2. Figure 6.4 42. The relative humidity in the Project area is quite high throughout the year due to evaporation from the Tarbela Reservoir with maximum WAPDA August 2011 6-4 .4 40 33 35 33.8 8.4 5 0 Jan Source: Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Hydrology Directorate – Tarbela.1 15 25 10.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Figure 6.6 30 27.

with the highest evaporation in June. Total annual evaporation over the last five years has ranged between 84.91 14 12 10.4.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment humidity recorded in the month of August.1.13 2. ranging in age from Precambrian to Permian.52 10 9.93 4 2.84 8 7. This increase in humidity is attributed to the monsoon rains and consequent high evaporation rate.08 7.23 8.71 5. The present geologic structure is the result of extensive folding. Comparison of the yearly evaporation and rainfall data show that total evaporation exceeds rainfall by about 9%. Monthly data show that the maximum evaporation is recorded during summer (April to September).69 6 3. WAPDA 6.7 Evaporation The evaporation data (2006-2010) in the Project area are presented in Figure 6.2.97 10. Figure 6.8 Geology The Tarbela Dam and Reservoir is located in the Hazara Hills.95 2.1: Y/M Average Monthly Relative Humidity (%) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 81 79 72 65 57 66 81 86 78 72 80 84 monthly mean 20062010 Source: Hydrology Directorate – Tarbela. part of the mountain group known as the Lesser Himalayas.12 2 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 6.9 to 96. The Hazara Hills are composed of crystalline and metamorphic rocks with non-fossiliferous sedimentary deposits and gabbroic intrusions. Table 6. Average monthly humidity of the Project area is provided in Table 6.4: Mean Monthly Evaporation in the Project Area (cm) Mean Monthly Evaporation (cm) 16 14.1 cm. shearing and faulting associated with regional crustal deformation WAPDA August 2011 6-5 .2.6 cm with an overall average of 86.

the three faults posing the greatest earthquake hazard to the dam site are the Darband (Indus). the axis of which has been eroded by the Indus River. The Darband Fault is one of the steeply dipping faults in the Indus Valley System. and  the Kingriali Formation. Panjal (Tarnawai) and Regional Faults. The basement rocks of the northern margin of the Indian plate are moving relatively northward and pushed below the Tethyan slab of the Eurasian plate. Some of the strongest earthquakes that have occurred in historic times have been associated with movements along the Himalayan Thrust. 338 m). The Main Central Thrust (MCT) and the Main Boundary Fault (MBF) are branches of the detachment and the basement thrust respectively. the investigations undertaken by T4CJV and an assessment of the geotechnical parameters used in the design.forming the bedrock base of the Indus River. The Panjal Fault is at its closest point approximately 12 km from the Tarbela Reservoir. Above the flood plain the hillsides are generally steep with slopes often controlled by the dip of bedding or joint systems. The two seismogenic fault zones are the shallow and steep portions of the northward dipping Himalayan thrust.2. There are three distinct geological formations at the Tarbela site:  the Salkhala Formation . Plate convergence is accommodated by two major thrust faults which align with two approximately parallel belts of seismicity along the Himalayan Arc. 6. The general orientation of bedding indicates that the banks of the river are the limbs of an anticline. It passes below the Tarbela Dam on the right side of the valley and is believed to have caused 213 m near vertical buried rock escarpment in the dam foundation. Seismic Risk at the Project Site Based on the “Seismic Hazard Assessment” conducted by T4CJV where a review of the structural geology and the seismicity of the Project area was carried out. offsets basement rocks within the northern margin of the shield. The steep portion.9 Seismology The Tarbela Dam Project is located in a seismically active region associated with the convergence of the Indian and Eurasian crustal plates along the Himalayan mountain ranges. They are probably active fault zones. The geological mismatch between the right and Left Banks is considered to be the result of displacement along a near vertical fault that runs along the right side of the valley. The shallow portion referred to as the Detachment dips very gently and separates the early Precambrian basement of the Indian Shield from an overlying wedge-shaped mass of sediments and metasediments. but of secondary importance in the general tectonic regime of the Himalayan front. T4CJV carried out a Geological and Geotechnical Assessment following a review of the available literature on the existing scheme.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment arising from the northward subduction (under thrusting) of the Indian Sub Continental Plate below the Eurasian Plate. In the past the river flowed in a braided stream pattern on alluvial deposits at an elevation above sea level of approximately 338 m (El.forming the Right Bank. It extends for at least 980 km southwest from the Western Himalayan WAPDA August 2011 6-6 .8 km wide flood plain of the Indus River. forming the Left Bank. designated the Basement Thrust. The right and Left Banks are separated by the 1.  the Hazara Formation .

There is no irrigation but partly cropped (barani) and partly in use as grazing area. Loamy or clay loam soils have been developed in wind-blown deposits (loess and cover sand) found further down in the plains situated South and West of the city of Topi. highly pervious rounded boulder gravel. 1973. In general the network was established to improve the assessment of the seismic risk at the Project site. New York.6 on the Richter scale) occurred in Pakistan and caused widespread damage. gravelly sand. and loam approaching clay loam. They are in use as grazing land and covered with low scrubs. silty sand and silt layers. calcareous and low in organic matter with predominantly loamy textures. termed “openwork”.10 Soil Soils in the Project area are shallow and rocky on the hillsides. engineered slopes or any of the associated structures.64 m. Micro-seismic Network A micro-seismic network surrounding the Tarbela Reservoir site was put into operation in August. The system was designed and installed by the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University. Coarse sand and fine gravel sizes are almost entirely missing from this gap-graded material. There are three main types of alluvial deposits on the valley bottom of the Indus River (the lower terrace and riverbed):  Dense rounded to sub-rounded boulder gravel. powerhouse. East of Ghazi predominantly brown residual clay loam soils can be found developed on the hilly slopes of the hinterland and footslopes of the Hazara hills. They are mostly in use for agriculture and partly irrigated. Any one of these faults has the potential to generate a major earthquake which could cause severe shaking of the Project structures. However. brown colored. a broad range of crops are grown on these lands.32 m to 2. The arable soil of the Swabi district has developed either from river alluvium or loess sediments. and may continue for another 50 km in the same general direction to the Attock area.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Syntaxis. Texture of the river alluvium terraces ranges from sandy loam to loamy sand. The epicentre was approximately 100 km north east of Tarbela. USA. Near the river some alluvial soils can be found. one year before the first filling of the Reservoir. which predominates at the site. The Regional Fault is a name that refers to the parts of the detachment. voids between boulders are not filled or only partially filled with sand. Most of these soils are uncultivated with scattered bushes or trees. Sampling and WAPDA August 2011 6-7 . The largest sand layers were located in the central portion of the main embankment foundation where their thickness is as much as 1. 6.  Open voided. The ground acceleration experienced was in the range predicted by previous seismic analysis. having the same coarse component as the material described above. Hazara Lower Seismic Zone (HLSZ) and other possible basement thrusts passing below the dam site. found throughout the foundation. In October 2005 a large earthquake (7.2. The coarse components of the boulder gravel are in grain to grain contact while the voids are completely or almost completely filled with medium to fine sand. specific purposes for the monitoring array were to investigate the activity of the Darband Fault and whether earthquakes would be induced by the initial filling and subsequent annual fillings and drawdown of the Reservoir. Whilst the earthquake and aftershocks were felt at Tarbela there was no damage to the dam.  Sand.

with relative densities approaching 100%.2.behind Topi house. It is for these reasons that the areas have been selected for borrow materials in the project construction. indicating that they were subjected to a considerable preconsolidation load.2.11 Soil Analysis Samples of soil were sent to the Soil Monitoring Section (SMO) of WAPDA. WAPDA August 2011 6-8 . Ghazi. Swabi District. Consolidation testing established that alluvial silts are also very dense and relatively incompressible.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment testing proved that the sand is quite dense. As previously mentioned there is virtually no soil present in the area where the project structures are proposed.  Village Jammo. 6.near Swabi Gandaf crossing. Soil sampling was conducted at following locations:  Topi Area . Soils of the Sobra and Qibla Bandi areas are sandy in nature and the soil of the Gandaf area is typically clay dominant.  Topi Area . In the area of the proposed powerhouse there is no soil present as the area is generally existing concrete structures or a steep rock slope. Ghazi. Results of the soil analysis are provided in Table 6. and  Village Qazipur.

5 3. 28 8.68 0.50 0.10 9.4 (a) Soil Standard Limits: Electrical conductivity (EC) Less than 4 deci Siemens per meter ds/m. WAPDA August 2011 (b) Milliequivalent per Litre 6-9 . 36 8.9 0. Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) Less than 18.06 0.0 1.5 1.65 5.10 6.79 0.8 1.0 1.9 0. 30 7.90 0.80 6.30 - 5.8 2. 30 7.4 2.6 3.0 1.19 - 5.5 1.50 0.36 - 5.45 0.0 0.5 4.5 3.5 4.86 0.2: Project Area Soil Analysis of Project Area Saturation % Saturation pH EC(a) x 10 at o Location Soluble Cations Meq/L(b) Soluble Anions Meq/Litre(b) SAR(a) 3 25 C Ca+Mg Na K CO3 HCO3 Cl SO4 Organic Matter 1.25 0.0 1.0 1.32 0.04 1.2 1.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Table 6.27 - 4.00 0.

000 m3 of additional material fell from the slides and the top of the slide scarp.294 billion cubic meters (bcm) per year meaning that the dam would silt up to 90% capacity in 50 years and thereafter continue to provide only about 1. A number of sediment management measures were examined at the time but considered not to be feasible.2. i.2. 396 m to 536 m in the centre of the outlet slope. including power intakes. as with the prediction. during 1981 cracks were discovered on the gunited (spray concreted) surface of the outlet slope outlining a large mass of moving rock resulting in a failure involving approximately 76. and management measures to reduce the proportion of sediment deposited and its location. were adopted during the construction of the Tarbela Dam to avoid land-sliding. However the proportion of sediment inflow trapped in the reservoir (the trap efficiency) was slightly higher than predicted. which is now located 14 km from the dam. with an average rate of 0. It is WAPDA August 2011 6-10 . This was subsequently repaired.106 bcm. The mean monthly water releases from the dam for the last five years (20062010) are provided in Table 6. but at the cost of reducing live storage with the trade off of reducing water availability in the dry season.e. the operating rule of the reservoir has been changed to raise the minimum drawdown level from 396 m to 417 m and thereafter raise it gradually every year. In terms of management measures. The predicted rate of sediment inflow was 0. Measures are being investigated to reduce the risk of liquefaction damage and also to prolong the life of the reservoir. Despite these protective measures.2 bcm of live storage (World Commission on Dams.13 Sedimentation The Indus River is one of the largest sediment producing rivers in the world. This would have the effect of depositing sediment in the upper reaches and would reduce the advance of the sediment delta. 2000 Chapter on Tarbela). the sediment may liquefy and block all low-level outlets.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment 6. Reduction in sediment load entering the reservoir is not possible due to the altitude and nature of the catchment. is the advancement of the sediment delta. 6. and forming a large cone of talus at the base. These include physical measures such as provision of an underwater protection to the low level outlets. In practice.2. Approximately 27. 36% of the predicted rate. 6. the usable storage will gradually decline over this period. Moreover small scale landslides have been observed during the rainy season at different places in the Project area although there are easily managed. the actual sediment inflow rate has been significantly lower than predicted. The useful life of the dam is now considered to be 85 years although. shotcrete through the cut-slopes with additional grouted rock bolts to provide strengthen to the hills.14 Hydrology Tarbela Reservoir was designed to store water from Indus River for irrigation purposes and releases from the reservoir entirely depend upon irrigation indents from the Provinces.500 m3 of material. including power intakes and sluicing tunnels to remove sediment.3 and also depicted in Figure 6.6. An unexpected aspect of the sediment deposition however.12 Rock Stability and Landslides The rocks of the Project site hills are of poor stability in places and protective measures i.e. There are concerns that under earthquake loading. extending from El. The main source of sediment is from the glacial landscape and erosion from steep sided barren slopes.5 and Figure 6.

197 2.054 4.280 2. Figure 6.270 73.383 Mean 1.221 10. Additional demand is met by Tunnel 5 in the first instance and Tunnel 4 is then used to make up any difference.909 5.246 2.5 provides the irrigation releases of Tunnel 5. Mean Monthly Flow Releases from Tarbela Reservoir (Mm3) Table 6.724 2.194 2.032 2.433 2007 1.336 75.965 9.501 2.194 million cubic meters (Mm3) to 16.157 4.009 2.098 16.251 1.737 3.116 Source: Hydrology Directorate – Tarbela.022 12.398 2. It is evident from the discharge data for Tunnels 4 and 5 that there has consistently been a significantly higher discharge from Tunnel 5.737 4.053 9.314 4.273 12. WAPDA. Historically Tunnel 4 mainly releases water during the months of May.619 2.881 9.568 11.386 14. Presently the irrigation water demand downstream of Tarbela is met predominantly by releases from Tunnels 1.570 13.512 4.323 9.384 10.5: Mean Monthly Flow Releases (2006-2010) from Tarbela Reservoir (Mm3) Mean Monthly Flow (Mm3) 2336 Nov 4561 4512 Sep 9157 16881 Jul 12929 10273 May 6384 2333 Mar 2274 2280 Jan 1194 0 WAPDA August 2011 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 6-11 18000 .097 78.802 9.577 4.257 69.092 6.339 9.045 5. June and July.330 1.643 11.561 2. as demonstrated by the data in Table 6.263 3.668 10.441 4.362 11.897 4.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment evident that monthly releases vary from 1.487 5. Mean: 5 years monthly mean.543 2.274 2.495 2.910 13. Table 6.776 68.959 7.281 86.237 2009 933 2.108 2010 1.971 10.3: Y/M Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total 2006 1. 2 and 3.008 2.222 2.929 16.621 4. This results from Tunnel 5 being given priority for water releases to meet the additional water requirement.4.811 8.492 25.241 1.881 Mm3.535 4.631 18.171 3.333 6.930 2.507 9.423 2008 963 2.084 7.

660 1.473 1.118 173 102 639 93 124 945 1.533 4.053 3.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Figure 6.940 1.726 752 1.011 247 49 284 1.134 37 469 919 1.4: Year Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May 1974 1975 2010 342 687 Jun Jul Aug 1.477 4.776 64 1.052 666 1.206 1.740 699 4.427 1980 502 4.674 863 1.125 1979 68 2.173 Sep Oct 919 1.498 1.208 1976 1977 1978 12 1981 173 25 12 Nov Dec 342 222 74 382 1982 1983 1984 123 185 159 1985 1986 1987 542 1988 617 1989 999 7 123 542 617 1990 1991 1992 1993 WAPDA August 2011 6-12 .954 3.977 555 107 232 493 492 2.6: Releases from Tarbela Reservoir (Mm3) Annual Outflow (Mm3) 95000 86383 90000 85000 78433 80000 73423 75000 68237 69108 2008 2009 70000 65000 60000 55000 50000 2006 2007 Historical Irrigation Releases from Tunnel 4 (Mm3) Table 6.

042 750 422 977 531 92 1.967 218 184 81 1988 6 134 0 1989 1.504 1.514 2. Historical Irrigation Releases from Tunnel 5 (Mm3) Table 6.880 2.155 3.962 394 1995 1996 218 1.819 247 1.736 3.602 1985 745 1986 109 490 1.358 1998 1.946 3.341 4.692 1982 419 994 660 2.452 2.079 2.429 984 363 208 2.200 1.504 475 0 1990 1.505 4.263 4.829 31 1.126 2.554 4.800 1.883 3.314 1984 2.472 86 4.119 1981 248 85 0 1.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Year Month Jan Feb Mar 1994 Apr May Jun 23 1.934 Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Sep Oct Nov Dec 903 2.062 1.792 2.106 1999 530 3.828 1.893 543 189 1979 1980 1.898 895 3.348 640 16 2010 422 Source: WAPDA.213 1991 101 2.327 4.043 993 678 3.578 2.327 2000 10 90 242 1997 14 2001 4 2002 37 2003 257 2004 524 2008 1.233 790 2.463 Apr May Jun 703 5.5: Year Month Jan Feb Mar 1974 1975 1.206 1.434 2.190 1.177 3.545 1983 560 263 0 942 3.603 2.136 533 60 1.413 1987 WAPDA August 2011 97 129 205 312 6-13 .443 698 875 1.378 1976 Jul Aug 1977 2.348 3.775 933 1.561 1978 3.

126 0 2.828 1.043 993 3. It subsequently became apparent that the impact of the Tarbela Dam Project on attenuation of actual high flood peaks was significant during the filling period of June through to August.510 0 932 3.300 m3/sec) with a record discharge of the spillway of Tarbela.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Year Month Jan Feb May Jun Jul Aug 1992 20 3. Attenuation of peak Indus River flows is variable depending on the timing of the flood in relation to the reservoir level that is drawn down prior to the wet season.378 2003 Sep Oct 882 903 2.898 895 3. or 19% out of the kharif inflow of 64 bcm.736 3.743 4.15 Flooding Flood management was not considered at the design stage of the dam and therefore no predictions were made with regard to flood potential at that stage. WAPDA for analysis.2. During the flooding in Pakistan of August 2010 there was a 28% reduction of the peak flood (inflow reservoir 29.500 m3/sec and outflow 21.6 with the associated 3 World Commission on Large Dams case study report “Tarbela Dam and related aspects of the Indus River basin Pakistan” November.868 2.256 1.2.190 678 Dec 182 2004 2010 Nov Source: WAPDA.274 0 1998 134 2. 2000 WAPDA August 2011 6-14 .341 4.348 1. for impounding approximately 12 bcm.441 386 1994 0 835 4.16 Surface Water Quality Surface water samples were collected and sent to the water quality laboratory section Salinity Control and Reclamation Project (SCARP) Monitoring Organization (SMO). 26% and 43% respectively. July 1989 and August 1997 were reduced by 21%.154 3.155 3. However. whereas a peak flow of similar magnitude in September 1992 was attenuated by only 2% as the reservoir levels were already considerably higher in readiness for the forthcoming irrigation season3.561 2008 3.482 3. this did not result in any damage.690 303 1993 418 3.452 2. The results of which are provided in Table 6.062 1.276 1996 Mar Apr 5 2000 2001 2002 1. 6. 6.472 86 4.463 703 5.565 1999 208 2.233 790 552 2.087 1995 228 2. The peak flows in July 1988.484 1.053 1997 158 2.

19 2.7.  Ghazi Barrage Pond.4 0. As surface water is not used for drinking in the project. 1.5 2.0 >5.000 >3. These samples were collected from the following locations:  Right Bank (WAPDA) Colony.32 2. 1.0 SAR 10 10-18 >18 Chloride Meq/L <4 4-10 >10 < 1.33 2. vegetables and orchards.30 0.2 0 200 2. 6.2 0.3 0.6: Surface Water Quality of Project Area Parameters Analyzed Sample Total Point Res EC x Na2CO3 106 at Ca++ Mg++ Na+ K+ CO3-- HCO3- Cl- SO4-- Cations Anions SAR Meq/L 25oC 1.000 EC MicroSiemens/cm* By comparing surface water quality results with the standards set by WAPDA it is concluded that all parameters measured in these water samples fall within the required water quality standards defined for the Project.e.23 0.6 0.17 0 1. 1.500 1.1 0.500-3. Table 6. Ground Water samples were collected from various locations and sent to chemical and microbiological laboratories of SGS Pakistan (Pvt. and WAPDA August 2011 6-15 . and  Downstream of the Ghazi Barrage. This difference is due to high surface water levels in the Ghazi barrage pond and the Tarbela Dam reservoir which are the main source of seepage.5-5.5 0.  Tubewell.26 0.5 0.6 0. Pehur Hamlet.4 2.) Limited for analysis.2.10 0.26 0. These surface water samples were collected from the following locations:  Tarbela Reservoir.3 0 220 3.5 2.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment standards adopted by WAPDA shown in Table 6. it is shallow upstream of the Ghazi Barrage and deep downstream of the Ghazi Barrage.16 0 1.8 0.2 0.16 0 1.7: Standards Adopted by WAPDA Parameter Good Marginal Hazardous RSC Meq/L <2.3 0 220 Table 6. WAPDA has developed standards following detailed field investigation for surface and ground water to be used for irrigation of crops.5 0.4 2.3 0.17 Ground Water Quality Ground water is available in the entire project area although its depth varies i. the water samples were not tested for drinking purposes and the results are not comparable to the World Health Organisation (WHO) Guidelines.30 0.  Ghazi City TMA Office.

4 by Tarbela Powerhouse. During the monitoring priority pollutants i. 8.2.57 80 150 0.  The sample from Ghazi city TMA office shows a slightly raised Arsenic value (0.01 mg/L.35 250 50 3.e. Noise pollution in the project area is mainly attributable to traffic as there are no industries or other noise sources present in the area. 5.05.57 5 - 100.43 120 20 3. SO2 ug/m3 NEQS WHO(a) 24 hr Avg. (Total Colony Count was too numerous to count). The ambient air quality was monitored at each of these locations continuously for 24 hours.2. NEQS World Bank 1.8: Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Results NO2 mg/m3 Sample Point 24 hr Avg. At the site of the project there is no permanent monitoring station. The test results show that all samples are generally fit for drinking with two exceptions. However there is increased concentration of dust due to the poor condition of some roads and tracks. Table 6.46 5 - 85. Air emissions in the area are generated by vehicle movement and are not very since the project area lies in a remote area.42 80 150 0.15 80 150 0. nor in the wider project area.18 Air Quality As there is limited industry in the area air quality is generally good. The water samples collected were analyzed for their suitability for drinking purpose and all necessary physical. NEQS CO mg/m3 World 24 hr Bank Avg.00 5 - 47. carbon monoxide (CO).  Topi-By Pass.44 120 20 3. Excessive noise level damages the eardrum and very high noise levels damage human lungs. Continuous exposure to excessive noise causes depression and can damage the nervous system.67 120 20 4. NEQS PM10 ug/m3 World 24 hr Bank Avg. 6. In order to collect baseline information monitoring of ambient air quality was carried out at following locations:  Ghazi Market.78 250 50 (a) WHO guidelines for Europe (1987) 6. It is evident that concentrations of all ambient air quality parameters are within the limit of NEQS and within the World Bank and World Health Organization (WHO) standards.  Total Bacterial Colony Count were exceeding permissible limit in all samples.89 250 50 2. chemical and biological parameters.015 mg/L) against WHO standards of 0. This is however within the Pakistan NEQS of ≤ 0. Traffic from vehicles plying in the area is also very low.8. 4. sulfur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter (PM10) were monitored and the results are provided in Table 6. and  Outlet from Tunnel No. nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The sound levels were monitored at the same locations as the WAPDA August 2011 6-16 .Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment  Sobra City Tubewell #6 (WAPDA Left Bank Colony).19 Noise Noise levels exceeding 85 dB are harmful to human health.

A traffic count survey was conducted in the Project area at the locations shown in Figure 6. The maximum noise level monitored was generated by vehicular traffic at the Ghazi market.9 below.9: Sample Baseline Noise Monitoring Results NEQS (dB) World Bank Standard (dB) Residential(a) Residential Noise Monitoring Results (dB) Point Day Day Day Night Day (Avg) Night (Avg) 1 65 55 55 45 61 51 2 65 55 55 45 57 51 3 65 55 55 45 62 52 Source: SGS Noise Monitoring Report (a) Effective from 1 July 2010 up to 30 June 2012.7 along with the various access roads. Topi. The results of the survey concluded that:  Roads leading to Swabi. The daily average monitoring results are provided Table 6. WAPDA August 2011 6-17 . the upper reading being above the NEQS limits. The readings measured at relatively busy locations are exceeding World Bank Standards.66.00 hrs. including daily averages is shown in Table 6.10.00 and 08. thereafter the NEQS will align with the World Bank Standards 6. A considerable increase in vehicular movement is expected during the Project.00 and 10.00 hrs is extremely low.2.20 Traffic and Transport The Project is located in a remote area where traffic density is low. and the WAPDA Right Bank Colony are the busiest. and  Traffic on the roads between 22.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment ambient air quality was monitored using a portable. The noise levels measured at different locations ranged from 45.  The Peak hours of traffic are between 08.5 dB.00 to 16.2. The associated traffic count. Table 6. digital sound meter.00 hrs and 13.

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Figure 6.7: WAPDA August 2011 Location Map of Traffic Count Stations 6-18 .

201 2.134 3.492 982 38 67 33 33 39 7 61 198 80 191 95 2 Axel 69 16 17 14 14 2 4 105 86 287 268 3 Axel 16 0 4 33 22 28 0 32 64 64 99 4 Axel 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 18 11 25 5 Axel 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 4 2 Tractor 60 2 3 11 5 16 0 96 127 81 123 122 0 6 11 14 15 1 116 147 168 195 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 28 25 40 48 Average Daily Traffic 6.054 1.872 2.813 3.10: Average Daily Traffic in the Project Area Roads(b) Mode of Transport A B(b) C D E F G(a) H I J K 119 7 19 204 589 722 20 395 330 283 383 Motorcycle / Rickshaw 1.431 4.110 1.464 6.627 649 9.429 1.625 6.766 1.492 7.372 1.553 11.167 1.085 922 12.389 2.967 631 1.943 7.322 3.577 Cars / Pickups / Taxis 3.004 5.832 2.387 932 1.947 Animal Drawn Minibuses / wagons Buses Trucks Trailers Tractors Tractor Trolley Others (b) Traffic on roads B and G are counted on Tuesday and Thursday respectively as this traffic is assumed to be almost constant (c) PCU = Passenger Car Units WAPDA August 2011 6-19 .Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Table 6.064 745 226 530 151 155 146 194 1.077 3.535 2.023 10.017 739 482 962 879 117 2.031 812 252 4.879 3.739 1.861 Total PCUs(c) 7.

These include the Tarbela Reservoir. Hindu Kush.3 Biological Environment 6. February is the peak time and by March they start to fly back home. The creeks and pools.3. although deep (average depth 64 m. houbara bustard and Siberian crane also travel on this route.3. cormorants. These periods may vary depending upon weather conditions in Siberia and or Pakistan. since dam. The famous route for these birds from Siberia to various destinations in Pakistan over Karakorum. the Chashma barrage pond and further downstream other water bodies and reedlands along the River Indus towards the Indus Delta. The birds start migration on this route in November. Their significance is attributable to the wide diversity of species that they support. 6.1 Wetlands and biodiversity Part of the project area consists of wetlands. Some extinguishing species like whiteheaded duck.7% or 7. twenty threatened bird species are supported by Pakistan's wetlands in addition to twelve reptiles and two endemic species of amphibians. mallards. including fifteen endemics and a total of 788 marine and estuarine fish species. Tarbela reservoir. Wetlands in the country are mainly found along the Indus River and some other rivers and in the floodplains. However its location between the rich Indus delta and the mountain and alpine eco-regions of Pakistan makes these wetlands a great attraction for migrating birds like ducks.800. gadwalls and pigeons. developed due to fluctuating water releases from Tarbela Reservoir. down-stream of the Ghazi Barrage to Attock Gorge also provide resting and feeding habitat to a variety of sedentary as well as migratory birds. provides a resting place for a variety of migratory fowls during their travel to Chashma and Taunsa (both Ramsar sites). In all.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment 6. cranes. egrets. bitterns. the Ghazi Barotha pond.200. teals.2 Significance of Tarbela Reservoir for Bird Migration Significance of the Tarbela and Ghazi-Barotha wetlands is not so much for its exceptional biodiversity. the Uchhali wetlands in the Salt Range and to other wetlands in Sindh and Balochistan. pelicans. Due to high water velocity the lake does not support enough nutrition to attract water birds. and Suleiman Ranges along Indus River down to the delta is known as International Migratory Bird Route Number 4. 6.000 birds arrive in Pakistan through Indus Flyway every year. eighteen threatened species of wetlands dependent mammals are found in the country.3 Significance of Ghazi-Barotha Lake The Ghazi Barrage pond downstream of the Tarbela Dam is a shallow water body. WAPDA August 2011 6-20 . it is known as the Indus Flyway and is one of the busiest routes in the world. Wetlands are characterized by a large biodiversity. flamingo.3. Human interference is another factor that detracts the avifauna from this water pond. reservoir and head pond downstream are man-made structures constructed in a period with little attention for environmental protection and ecology. Wetlands cover approximately 9.000 and 1. Pakistan's wetlands also support between 191-198 indigenous freshwater fish species. herons. According to estimates based on regular counts between 700. maximum depth 137 m) with comparative low diversity of primary producers. The Indus valley forms the main wetland artery in the country.000 ha of the total area of Pakistan.

 Perennial Grasses. particularly near the entry point of the Indus River i. a permit must be issued by the relevant authorities of the Haripur district. Table 6. boating and fishing.3.3.5 Hunting and Other Threats The Tarbela Reservoir up to 5 km upstream and the Ghazi Barrage Pond area is prohibited for any hunting activity.  Khalabat. located about 20-25 km from Tarbela.4 Protected Areas/ Game Reserves There are no protected areas designated in the Project site. The nearest protected area is the Totalai Game Reserve in Buner district. the rest of the reservoir area is unprotected and hunting is practiced during the migration season of water fowls. 6. The other threat to this wetland is from siltation. the plant cover comprises four growth forms:  Annual Herbs. Physiognomically. these are found in:  Nara.6 Nature Conservation Five Village Conservation Committees (VCC’s) have been established for the conservation of floral and faunal species found around the Tarbela Reservoir by the Wildlife Department of the Haripur District. as identified in Table 6. All of these are located between 30 and 40 km from the Project site.  Kag.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment 6.e. WAPDA August 2011 6-21 . The shallow wetlands downstream of the Ghazi Barrage are also un-protected and easily accessible and consequently are under hunting pressure during the winter season. and  Beer.7 Terrestrial Flora The study area forms a part of the Centro-Asiatic Territory within the Nubo-Sindhian geobotanical region. 6. there are however five game reserves in the Haripur district as shown in Table 6.3.11: Game Reserves in Haripur district Name Declared by Raqs-e-Sardaran Chief Minister Mang Chief Minister Bagra Chief Conservator Wildlife Village Hasham Khan Chief Conservator Wildlife Kalinjer Chief Conservator Wildlife Source: Forestry Department Haripur 6.  Perennial Shrubs. In order to hunt in these game reserves.3.11.  Dhenda. In addition. in the Khalabut area.11. and  Perennial Trees. However.

This land use pattern is representative of areas surrounding the project. and Cenchrus ciliaris are palatable. WAPDA August 2011 6-22 . The vegetation pattern of the Project area is closely related to the topographic features of the area.991. This is derived from the fact that both vegetation and soil overtime have largely been influenced by the nature of the sediments.37 16. and Cannabis sativa.05 Source: Sub-division Forestry Department. Perennial Shrubs Perennial shrubs generally form the cover of hill slopes. Lantana camara. Due to varied geographical features.12 which reveals that terrestrial flora is mainly composed of grasses (range land) and scrub (shrubs and scattered tress). Most of them are non-palatable to livestock.15 Shrubs and Bushes 18. Table 6. Perennial Grasses Perennial grasses grow in monsoon season. Acacia modesta.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Annual Herbs Herbs including short grasses and short leaved forbs appear in the spring after the rains.938. a vegetation survey was carried out during February to March 2011. They include Zizyphus nummularia. Justicia adhatoda. and Zizyphus mauritiana.11 114.25 River beds Water bodies Total 3.591. Perennial Trees The important perennial trees are Acacia nilotica. Both the grasses and herbs grow in abundance in the spring season. In addition to gathering the secondary data. These have high ecological amplitude and grow on a variety of ecologically different sites. only few including Cynodon dactylon. The shrubs of Zizyphus nummularia provide browse for the goats in all seasons. Ghazi Vegetation Sampling Depending on the species composition and habitat characteristics. game reserves and other environmentally sensitive places. Their growth activity is restricted to the brief moist period which lasts for about 48 weeks during which they complete their life cycle and set seeds before the dry period starts. drainage characteristics as well as the prevailing climatic conditions of the region. while others are nonpalatable.405. collected with reference to Swabi and Haripur Districts and GBHHP. Quadrat or Belt Transect Methods were used for vegetation sampling in addition to species assessment on a visual basis.45 Range Land 42.12: Ghazi Area Forest Statement Description Forest Area (acres) 3. the Project area is rich in variety of flora but has no orchard.163. The land use pattern of the Ghazi Forest Sub-division is provided in Table 6. The former is used for timber whereas the latter two species provide browse and fuel wood.

Dodonaea viscose(Sanatha) . and  Vegetation of agriculture lands villages and road sides.  Borrow area (Dara).  Upstream: Main Tarbela spill way (harbor area).8 Terrestrial Fauna Previous field surveys The wildlife areas in the Project comprise of the riverine and dry sub-tropical. Vegetation Analysis The survey recorded 133 plant species among which 31 are trees. rare or vulnerable plant species. 6. including the islands and open river water starting from Ghazi and downstream up to the confluence of Indus with River Kabul near the Attock Bridge. Grewia villosa (Dhaman). In Annex B lists some of the plant species recommended for planting in the Project area locations. Erioscirpus comosus (babya). During the two field surveys conducted for GBHPP during 1990 and 1991. The vegetation patterns observed at different localities is outlined in Annex B. found in the Project area. Justicia adhatoda (Bakar). During the monthly surveys of the riverine forests (belas) on the islands and along the river banks 63 birds (including resident and migratory) were recorded while the presence of 12 mammals and a few reptiles were confirmed by analysis of their different WAPDA August 2011 6-23 . Buddleja asiatica (Banna). The aesthetic value of the Project area can be further enhanced by cultivation of a variety of shade. 6 climbers. 25 shrubs.3. Lantana camara (Punchphulai). Terrestrial fauna of the area have also been studied previously during execution of the GBHPP.  Downstream near WAPDA rest house.  Downstream end point (Topi). Acacia modesta (Phulai). as per IUCN Red-List. There were no endangered.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment The sampling was carried out in the following locations:  Powerhouse (slopes). Leucaena leucocephala (Velati Kikar). the site of the power station close to the Barotha village. The third study (November 2002 to May 2003) was confined to the floodplains only. semievergreen scrub forests. Themeda anathera(Bahari ghass).  Vegetation at upstream end point.  Labor area downstream. 63 herbs and 8 grasses. An overall species list is provided in Annex B.  Borrow area (Gandaf). excluding the Attock Gorge. The most dominant plants growing in the study area are: Dalbergia sissoo (Shesham). The plants and their medicinal uses are presented in Annex B. 63 species of birds and three species of mammals were recorded inhabiting the Project area from Ghazi downstream up to the Haro River. The Project area is well known for production of natural medicinal plants. ornamental and fragrant plant species. in addition to the planted species found in the Project area. The study areas for the Project and the GBHPP are quite different. The area of influence for the Project is much smaller in extent than the study areas for the GBHPP.

Indian Baya. burrows/dens and also by interviewing the locals. Black Kite. Hoopoe. Neither the smooth-coated Otter (Lutrogaleperspicillata) or Common Otter (Lutralutra ) were reported for the area. The preference of birds in these different habitats is because of their life style and food habits. White Cheeked Bulbul. The other species of such belas are Spotted Little Owlet. are the habitat for Warblers. Red Vented Bulbul. The Wild Boar and Asiatic Jackal were the most common among the mammals. seasonal marshes. Indian Tailor Bird. White Breasted Kingfisher and Pied Kingfisher are the species of such habitats. which have enough tree cover. The wildlife and wildlife habitat studies conducted for the Project were undertaken in the following areas: WAPDA August 2011 6-24 . Results of present field surveys During the present study in the Project area 12 mammal. None of the species recorded during the surveys are included in the IUCN Red Data Book. Grebes. Rose-ringed Parakeet. Study from Literature In addition to the birds recorded from the Project area (floodplains only). Similarly. Black Drongo. Similarly. Pied Bush Chat. Little Brown Dove. The oxbow lakes. Red Turtle Dove and Common Starling. Indian Silver Bill. but reportedly use the same Indus Flyway Route for migration. These species are associated with the belas. the belas occupied with the Saccharumgrass. the presence of snakes was also reported but none was observed or recorded.1 & 2. 52 bird and 12 herp species were recorded as compared to the 12 mammal species. Among the reptiles. Common Cuckoo. Grey and Black Partridges. Indian Monitor Lizards were recorded twice although these would usually be more prevalent. Black Redstart. Collard Dove. Gulls. Only three mammals were recorded during 1990 and 1991 whilst 12 species were identified during 2002-2003. Indian Tree-pie and Jungle Babbler. Terns. This species was not however reported in any of the surveys conducted for the project. The common birds include the House Crow. although this species was not observed in the surveys. Herons. House Sparrow. and many species of waders. only one species i. at a few places the presence of freshwater turtles was evident although they were only observed once. being widely distributed in the belas where enough cover was available to provide shelter. These include different species of Anatidae. Bee-eaters.e. From all the birds on this list. 121 bird species expected and only a small number of herp species reported from the areas surveyed for the GBHPP in the years 1990-1991 and 2002-2003. Egrets. 1992) which can be expected in this area or they use the Indus River for passage migration. a number of species are reported from the literature (TJ Roberts. Cormorants. Common Myna and Bank Myna. faecal material. Birds of Pakistan.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment signs including footprints. White-eyed Pochard (Aythyanyroca) is listed on the IUCN Red List in the Lower Risk category. Black Winged Kite.1991. Vol. river channels and stony belas with less vegetative cover are the main habitat for the migratory waterfowl which spend winter in this habitat or are the passage migrants in such areas. A complete listing of the species recorded during these previous studies and other expected species is contained in Annex B. near threatened (LR/nt). The Ferruginous duck (near threatened) was however reported to pass through the Indus River corridor during surveys for the GBHPP.

Downstream of the dam • Small mammals: house rat. Indian gerbil. grey mongoose. Reservoir • Large mammals: jungle cat. jungle cat and wild boar. spotted barn gecko. spotted barn gecko. and • Herps: Agrore Valley agama. • Large mammals: grey mongoose and wild boar. and  Herps (Reptiles and Amphibians). and site • Herps: Indus Valley toad. Upstream slopes • Small mammals: Indian gerbil. There were no endangered. common tree Lizard.  Birds. Bengal monitor lizard. rugose spectacled lacerta. house mouse. house mouse. common house gecko.  Up to five km upstream of Tarbela Dam structure. Agrore Valley agama. Borrow areas • Small mammals: desert hare and northern palm squirrel. and • Herps: fat-tailed gecko. black rock agama. Agrore Valley agama. wild boar. Table 6. common tree lizard. house mouse. Bengal monitor lizard. fat-tailed gecko. Table 6. house rat. northern palm squirrel. crested porcupine. Bird species identified are also included in Annex B. Powerhouse area • Small mammals: long-eared hedgehog. grey mongoose and wild boar. The areas of impact are almost identical and provide all type of nesting and feeding areas for the birds recorded in the area that are considered to have migrated to the area. rugose spectacled lacerta. house bat. spotted barn gecko. WAPDA August 2011 6-25 .  Up to two km on the left and right side along the Indus River. No endangered. common red fox. rugose spectacled lacerta. black rock agama. Mallards and dabbling duck.  Large and small mammals. Bird Nesting Habitat While surveying the area it was evident that there was no shortage of nesting habitat available. common tree lizard. A full listing of the faunal species found in the Project area is provided in Annex B.  Up to 10 km downstream of Tarbela Dam structure.13 describes the faunal species identified at different Project areas during the survey. • Large mammals: jungle cat and grey mongoose.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment  Proposed powerhouse site. found in Project area.13: Faunal Species at the Various Project Areas Surveyed Location Faunal Species • Large mammals: Asiatic jackal. as per IUCN Red List. threatened or vulnerable faunal species. common house gecko. rare or vulnerable bird species were observed in the Project area. house rat. and  Borrow areas near Gandaf Wildlife data was collected on the basis of:  Wildlife areas stated above and ecosystem functions. and • Herps: Indus Valley toad. house rat. house mouse.

larvae of mayfly. Mori and Thela breed in months of April to July. A list of common fish species found in the reservoir is given in Annex B.14: Tarbela Dam Reservoir Characteristics Parameter Description Water area at maximum reservoir level 25. Trout does not breed in the Tarbela Reservoir as it is only present due to flooding from snowy peaks and is found rarely.  Rodent burrows. dragon fly. These species live in flowing water but now the water is stagnant due to construction of dam. fissures or hollows in boulders and the foot of steeper cliffs.  Rock edges.g paramecium) benthic insects.9 Fish and Fisheries Aquatic Life: The prominent aquatic life of Indus at Tarbela includes fish.g cuckoos. rock clefts or cavities.  Barren stony slopes. Mallah and Masher are decreasing day by day due to their feeding habits. caddis fly mosquito larvae.  Crevices in the ground.some birds. phytoplankton’s (e.900 ha Reservoir level Storage at maximum (Mm3) 3 Storage at minimum (Mm ) Maximum Depth (m) Drawdown (m) Type of Reservoir Type of water WAPDA August 2011 10. soul and snake head are all carnivore species of the Indus River. stone fly and water mite.  Logs and eroded roots of trees.g spirogyra) and zooplanktons (e. and  Brood parasites . Cat fish like singhara.00 V-Shaped Melted snow 6-26 . Silver carp. the dominant specie is Cepanous Corpio.770 137. Fish According to the Fisheries department of KP. 6.00 76. It breeds three times a year and has many newborn which survive easily. e.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment The bird nesting areas in the Project area include:  Trees and shrubs. Grass carp. are known as brood parasites and infiltrate the nests of crows and other birds to lay their eggs. Table 6.3. Raho. malhi. The crows hatch the cuckoo’s eggs and feed the babies until they fledge from the nests. Some important characteristics of Tarbela Reservoir are provided in Table 6. boulders.762 4. this is a self breeding fish and a multi breeder.14.  Ground scrapes in the lee of a bush or grass clumps.

Presently fishing rights for the Tarbela Reservoir lie with the KP Province and revenue generated from the fisheries sector is about PKR 0. there are some legacy issues around resettlement that are attributable to the original Tarbela Project and this has therefore been included in the social baseline.0-9.4 Social-economic Baseline 6. The fisheries are now managed by the fisheries department of the KP.1 Overview The social baseline describes the existing situation in the Project area and the potential population that will be affected by the Project. In July 1997 the WAPDA Fisheries Department introduced Chinese Carp into the Tarbela Reservoir for the following reasons:  Its reproduction rate is high (almost throughout the year). Sole and Toffee was to utilize the resources of the Tarbela Reservoir and also because most of the endemic species are small and of no commercial importance.  It has a wide ranging diet (such as detritus. and zooplanktons). The principle of reservoir fishery management at Tarbela was to stock fish seed hatcheries in order to rear fish up to a marketable size. There have also been cases of Chinese Carp escaping into the Sirhin River from the Ponds in Sirhin valley.5 Conductivity (MicroSiemens /cm) Habitual type 180-280 Oligotrophic Fisheries No fisheries activity in the private sector was found within or in the nearby vicinity of the Project area. However. phytoplankton’s.4. As this is an extension of the original Tarbela Project. apart from the Mahasher.5 million per year. ending up in Tarbela Reservoir. However WAPDA developed fish cultivation in the Tarbela Reservoir to produce fish protein to meet the increasing demands of the growing population of Pakistan. The annual production of fish during 2009-2010 was 67 metric tons. Any fishing is prohibited from 5 km upstream to 3 km downstream of the dam as there are security issues. there will not be resettlement and social issues directly associated with the Project.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Parameter Water temperature (°C) pH Description 11-28 7. The indirect WAPDA August 2011 6-27 . Around 13. and  The existing natural fish species in the reservoir are minor and of less commercial value although they do represent a good ecosystem. The introduction of Chinese Carp. In Annex B. more detail of the endemic and exotic species of the Tarbela and Ghazi Barrage Reservoirs is given. 6. Furthermore there are hundreds of fishermen being employed by fishing contractors in the fishery business. July and August are the close season for catching fish.000 anglers visit these reservoirs for recreation per annum. The direct Project area is already owned by WAPDA.

forest. police.000 Mohallah Zakoo.2 Administrative Setup The administrative setup of the Swabi and Haripur districts is similar to the other districts of the province.15: Estimated Numbers of Households and Population in Project Area Settlements Households (No.08 respectively. 6. 6.200 Darra Mohat 160 1000 Kukar Chawa 35 250 Ghari Meera 456 4000 Sobra City 150 1050 Ghazi Hamlet.91 million respectively representing an annual average growth rate of 2. education. Main construction activities for the Project will remain confined to the Right Bank of the Indus River.000 170 1.15 presents basic characteristics of the population in Project area.2 respectively.250 Right Bank Burj (Khabbal) Pehur Hamlet .47 million and 0.027 million while. health.8 and 2. This shows that the estimated total population of the Project area is 36.387 households hence the average household size is 8.3 Demography and Population Population The District Population Census Reports. District administration is headed by the District Coordination Officer (DCO) who is assisted by District heads of other departments in his / her pursuits. telecommunication. The head of each District department is responsible for the performance of his department and is generally designated as the Deputy Director or District Officer. Ghazi 600 3500 Qazi pur 550 5000 4.387 36. irrigation. is 1.4. Table 6. primary and secondary data was collected on the prevailing socio-economic conditions including social and physical infrastructure in Project area. 1998 stated that population of the Swabi District was 1. Topi 300 2.Topi Pontian Left Bank Totals Source: ESA survey 2011 WAPDA August 2011 6-28 . agriculture. To establish a socio economic baseline.) Estimated Population (No. The main District departments include: administration. judiciary.96 and 2.100 1.250 with 4. Table 6. The estimated present population of the Swabi and Haripur districts.) 16 150 WAPDA Right Bank Colony 750 5.26. and livestock and fisheries.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Project area falls between the districts of Haripur and Swabi of the KP Province of Pakistan.692 million with average annual growth rate of 2. communication and works. that of Haripur district was 0.200 13.4.

and Hari Pur. All people belong to the Muslim “Sunni “school of thought. a few educated people are engaged in Government or private service. Gadoon. and some working classes (artisans). about 97% of the population of the Swabi and Haripur districts is Muslim. Resident in the District Razars are: Rajars. In addition in the Hazara region there are three main districts: Mansehra. Religion According to the Population Census of 1998. Gakhar. the tribes and castes of the districts are a multitude of various races from the north. Punjabi. basic health and education facilities. Utman. Jdoon. 6. Hindus and other scheduled castes. in Haripur district agriculture remains the main occupation of its inhabitants. The mother tongue spoken in the Haripur district is predominately “Hindko” with the other languages spoken being similar to the Swabi district.4. electricity and roads are the major issues for the people of the district.4 Economic Conditions Occupation / Livelihood The main occupation of the inhabitants of the Swabi district is agriculture and people are mostly landless tenants. The livelihood of the local population of the district mainly depends on agriculture and livestock rearing. minor languages spoken. Abbotabad. Mughal.Tarkheli. baradaries or castes in the Project area being: Awan. Tanoli. while the remaining 3% of the population consist of minorities such as “Ahmadis”. Gujar. in the Right Bank Colony people also speak Urdu and “Saraiki”.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Ethnicity and Tribes of the Districts Being on the route of the conquerors of Central India. There are also a large number of people serving in the Armed Forces. Sayyed. Generally the residents of these districts are called “Hazrawal”. Unemployment. Similarly. There are many religious institutions in Swabi where students from all over the province are seeking religious education. lack of potable water. Dilazak. WAPDA August 2011 6-29 . Jadoon. 1957. Yousaf Zai. In the Haripur district the Punjabis and Kashmiris are in the majority as compared to Pathans. The key tribes and castes include: Tareen. Mishwani. Christians. Awan. The people of the district live a simple life including the standard of their clothing and their diet. Syed. Within the Project area. Language Pushto is the dominant language spoken in the Swabi district by 96% of the population. Bafanda. the majority of the people speak “Pashto” and ”Hindko” however. Pathan. The proportion of people serving in the Government sector is higher due to the existence of the Pakistan Telecommunication Industry in Haripur as well as the Hazara Fertilizer Factory. However. Mashwani. Sraiki and Urdu are the other. The livestock serves as an income source which they sell to meet their needs. and Turks. The majority of the people in the Project area are Pakhtun with the other key tribes. an off-shoot of Pathans. Scheduled castes are the depressed and low rank classes as declared by the Scheduled Castes (Declaration) Ordinance. The key tribe in the Swabi district is Yousaf zai. and Khatak.

there are more buffalo and goats than in the Swabi district. In the Haripur district. tanneries and flour mills. Agricultural Census Organization. This implies that the majority of people in the Project area live below poverty line although residents of the Right Bank Colony have a better living standard as many are WAPDA employees.083 53.16: Livestock in the Swabi and Haripur district District Item Swabi Haripur Total Cattle 170. the income of an average household is very low. (3.799 16.658 1. As there is no agricultural land available within the hamlets of the Right Bank Colony.660 10. besides providing milk.291 Mule Donkey Poultry Source: Livestock Census. Among load carrying animals.928) and mules (485) with load carrying animals higher in number in the Swabi district when compared to the Haripur district.388 266. Income Under the prevailing socio-economic conditions in the districts.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Most of the people in the Project area are dependant upon labor.118 93. Karachi and abroad. among dairy animals. Information relating to livestock in the Swabi and Haripur districts is presented in Table 6. the majority of the people in the Project area belong to the low income group.820 596.982 243. Livestock Livestock is a prestigious symbol and an additional source of income for the farming community. There are no industries of major importance within the Project area.410. donkeys are the highest in number (53. a small number of the people had larger incomes.491 Sheep 15.895 Buffalo 71. 1998. Gadoon industrial estate. The average monthly income ranged between PKR 5.471 1.000. However.754 19. followed by horses.837 813.837).302 149. WAPDA August 2011 6-30 . ghee and meat.270 3. The main industries remaining are cement.000 to PKR 7. Table 6. cigarette. According to the social impact assessment survey. a large number of industries have been abandoned. However. They work in nearby cities. cattle and sheep are more prevalent in the Swabi district.507 96. with the withdrawal of incentives available to the industrial estate. shop keeping and private or government service are the other occupations of the people in the Project area. small businesses. NWFP Industry An industrial estate established in 1988 is situated at Gadoon in the Swabi district.16 below and indicates that.244 Horse 2.284 Camel 821 423 1.987 Goat 93.928 265 221 485 34.327 25.

1998. telephone Industries of Pakistan and brick plants which are functioning now in the district.5 Social Infrastructure and Services Overview The baseline data provided in the following sections mainly represent data collated from the District Census Report of Swabi and Haripur. cotton. funerals.4. There are two major source of credit. fiber. The availability of institutional credit is very limited in the Project area mainly due to a lack of knowledge and also the high rate of interest charged on loans. health and education. positive changes in the socio-economic conditions of the district. The villages for which social survey work was undertaken are shown below in Figure 6. The main users of non institutional credit are shop keepers and relatives of well-off families in the settlements. WAPDA August 2011 6-31 . Any other data for the Project area has been collected during field survey work. institutional and non institutional. These loans are mainly used for domestic and social needs such as marriages. including the establishment of a large number of chemical industries. birth ceremonies. Credit Availability Credit plays important role in the lives of the poor and lower middle class families in Project area. Banking Banking services are available in the Tarbela colonies on the Left Bank for WAPDA employees. 6.8 whilst the social infrastructure of the Project Area is depicted in Figure 6.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment In the Haripur district. Industrialization has mostly brought structural. Hattian Industrial Estate was established in 1985. textiles.9. The residents of the surrounding areas have to go to Topi and Ghazi for banking services although it is considered that sufficient banking facilities are available at these places.

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Figure 6.8: WAPDA August 2011 Social Survey Villages 6-32 .

9: WAPDA August 2011 Social Infrastructure of the Project Area 6-33 .Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Figure 6.

Table 6. hepatitis and skin diseases. Pehur Hamlet . Swabi district has a greater number of basic health centers whilst Haripur district has a greater number of dispensaries and rural health centers. the most common diseases prevalent in the area are malaria.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Health Facilities The health facilities available within the jurisdiction of the Districts Swabi and Haripur are shown in Table 6. Lack of medical staff.17 below. 1998 The above table shows that health facilities available in both Districts are more or less similar with minor variation depending on the distance to the source of service.18: Availability of Health Facilities in the Project Area Village Facility Status Right Bank Burj (Khabbal) Nil Nil WAPDA Right Bank Colony Hospital Lack of x-Ray and Laboratory facilities. diarrhea. there are many diseases. Topi Civil Hospital Lack of x-Ray and Laboratory facilities. It is evident from the above information that hospitalization. rural health centers and mother/child centers are rare in both the Districts. particularly in Project areas where there are unhygienic living conditions and lack of potable water. Due to the poor living conditions of the population.17: Health Facilities in the Swabi and Haripur Districts District Health Facility Swabi Hospitals Haripur 3 3 41 39 Dispensaries 8 12 Rural Health Centers 2 5 Mother and Child Health Centers 3 2 Basic Health Unit Source: District Census Report of Swabi and Haripur.18. Table 6.Topi Dispensary Lack of medical staff and Medicines. Lack of medical staff and Medicines. Pontian Nil Nil Darra Mohat Nil Nil Kukar Chawa Nil Nil Ghari Meera Nil Nil Sobra City Hospital Adequate Left Bank WAPDA August 2011 facilities are 6-34 . Mohallah Zakoo. The health facilities for the Project area are provided below in Table 6.

Table 6. the details of those attending these educational facilities who are inhabitants of the districts are provided in Table 6. All of these facilities are mainly for males. Science and Technology (GIKIEST) situated at Topi. 1998. Education Facilities The Swabi district is blessed with a higher standard institution named the Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering. there is also a Polytechnique Institute and a Commerce College in the district. a Poly Technique Institute and a Commerce College. there are therefore some gaps in the table.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Village Facility Status available in the hospital Ghazi Hamlet Lack of medical staff and Dispensary Medicines. The overall picture of educational facilities in Project area is provided in Table 6. Qazipur Lack of medical staff and Dispensary Medicines. Apart from this institute.20 and it can be concluded that better education facilities are available at the WAPDA August 2011 6-35 . This data has been taken from the 1998 census data and not all data was available for both districts.19. education facilities in the Project area are not considered satisfactory. Like health facilities. Source: ESA survey 2011. In the Haripur district there is a Post Graduate College.19: Educational Facilities in the Swabi and Haripur Districts Institute Swabi District Haripur District Male Female Total Male Female Total Degree College 2 1 3 1 1 2 Inter College 1 - 1 1 - 2 Elementary College 1 - 1 1 - 1 Higher Secondary - - - 4 3 7 High School 65 21 86 63 15 78 Middle School 51 25 76 56 27 83 Primary School 496 388 864 656 251 907 20 - 20 - - - Mosque School 76 - - - - Community and - 14 - - - School Elementary Primary School Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) Model School Source: Dis1rict Census Report of Swabi and Haripur.

science and computer laboratories.Topi Left Bank Kukar Chawa Ghari Meera Ghazi Hamlet Nil Furniture and computers Qazipur Primary school Boys and Girls Lack of computer facilities High school Source: ESA survey 2011. Right Bank Burj (Khabbal) Teachers often remained absent WAPDA Right Bank Colony High school Boys Lack of computer facilities High school Girls Lack of computer facilities Mohallah Zakoo. High school Girls building. The literacy ratio is measured as the number of literate people compared to the population of the age of 10 years and above. Pehur Hamlet .20: Education Facilities available in the Project Area Village Facility Gender Remarks Primary school Boys Lack of Teachers staff. The literacy rate in the Project area is therefore lower than the national level of 57%. in the Swabi district 36% of the population are literate whereas in the Haripur district a much higher percentage of the population is literate at 53. furniture and computers Pontian Primary school Boys Lack of computer facilities Darra Mohat Primary school Boys and Girls Upgrade of school to Middle Primary school Boys and Girls Upgrade of school to Middle High school Boys and Girls Lack of Science Teachers staff. Primary school Boys Lack of computer facilities Topi Primary school Girls High school Boys Lack of Science Teachers staff. there is a shortage of proper staff. According to the population Census of1998.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Right Bank Colony. Approximately 10% of all houses use WAPDA August 2011 6-36 . Housing It is evident from the 1998 Census that in the Swabi district around two thirds (65. is considered as literate. Buildings are old and are insufficient for the existing number of students. in any language prevalent in Pakistan. There are high schools for girls and boys with qualified staff and a proper building. Although a high school for boys and girls exists at both the hamlets and in the Topi area. furniture. Science and computer laboratories are also available in the schools.6% use reinforced cement.4%) of the households use wood as the construction material in the roofs of their buildings. while 22.7%. Literacy A person who can read and write statements with an understanding. A degree level education facility is available in both the Ghazi and Topi areas. concrete or bricks. Table 6.

A significantly higher proportion of households in the Haripur district have access to tap water is in both urban and rural localities (91.0 10.6 7. Table 6.3 6.4% of households had access to a drinking water facility within the house with the remaining 20.5 10. the trend is similar to that of the Swabi district.6 49. The proportion of households fetching water was higher in rural areas as compared to urban localities (22. Semi Pacca (brick walls but corrugated galvanized iron roofing) and Kacha (grass-thatched/mud covered) houses in the Project area apart from the Right Bank Colony where all the houses were Pacca.8 44.3 0.7% using other materials.7 63. A nominal proportion of urban households and all households in rural areas were getting drinking water from village ponds in both districts which is the most dangerous quality of water. In total there were 80% of Pacca houses in Project area with the remaining 20% falling into the Kacha and Semi Pacca category.4% with cement and bricks used in 11. On an overall basis.3% of all housing units. bathrooms and latrines are available in 58. Residents of the districts of Swabi and Haripur have access to two types of drinking water.1 17. It was observed that all the people were living in self owned houses except on the Right Bank Colony.1% and 41.9 44. bathrooms and latrines are available for households with 48.2%) of the Haripur district had access to water within their houses as compared to outwith the house (44.4 92.0 %).0 20.3 Well 48.21: Source of Drinking Water by Locality (%) Swabi Source Haripur Rural Urban All Rural Urban All Inside 77.3% of households rely on wells for drinking water and this percentage was higher (70.2 55.7% and the remaining 3.3% and 44.6% having to fetch water from outwith the house.8%).Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment cement or iron sheets in the roofs. There is a mixture of Pacca (permanent structure with concrete roofing).8 87. Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) / Reinforced Brick Concrete (RBC) was the main (45. More detail on the above information is provided below in Table 6.1 13.3 Outwith 22.4%.3%).0% respectively in the Haripur district. The remaining 12% of households use other materials.21.2 13. Wood and bamboo were utilized in 39.5 5.3 %) roofing material of the households.4 50. 79.2% versus 13.3% of households in the Swabi district had access to piped water which is considered relatively safe quality. Separate kitchens. Only 15.1% respectively) when compared to the households of the Swabi district. Separate kitchens.8 WAPDA August 2011 6-37 . 46. A higher proportion of resident (55.0 0.0 79.2 0. It is important to note that 61.2 Pipe (Nul) 11. which is property of WAPDA.4 0.7%) in urban settlements when compared to rural areas (59.4 51. within the house and outwith house.3 49. 1998.6 Hand Pump 18.1 91. In the Haripur district the situation was different. Sources of Drinking Water The following data has been collated from the District Census Reports of Swabi and Haripur. However.

8 Pond 0. The ground water is contaminated by sewage. In the WAPDA Colonies drinking water is sourced by ground water pumped through deep tubewells.) Limited at the WAPDA showed a Total Bacterial Colony Count that exceeded permissible limits.2 14. In the Haripur district there are 18 telephone exchanges in operation while and one Head Post Office. In the hamlets and the Topi area.8 Others 4.4 16.6 2.9 12. A tapped water supply is considered to be the most hygienic source of drinking water.1 - 1.9 2. 1998. Tele Communication The District Census Reports of Swabi and Haripur.6 7. As described earlier.3 15. The comparative analysis of the situation reveals that telecommunication facilities in both districts have a nominal variation.6 1. which is available only in the WAPDA colonies and to a limited number of people in Project area.6 0.8 - 0.4 0. Sanitation The sanitation conditions of the Haripur district are relatively better than those in the Swabi district.3 0. especially in the Topi area.6 Well 10.0 14. At the Right Bank Topi area.0 Source: District Census Reports of Swabi and Haripur.9 5. both in urban and rural areas. 1998. WAPDA August 2011 6-38 . an open drainage system is available but there are no arrangement for the disposal of domestic solid waste and sewage.6 2.4%) are equipped with the electricity as the source of lighting. People drain out used water in open places.1 4.3 15. A water supply system is partially available in the hamlets but was dysfunctional at the time of ESA survey. similarly the open dumping of solid waste is normal practice in the Project area. The Project area is connected with a nearby national grid system however. 27 Sub Post Offices and 65 Branch Post Offices. Electricity According to the District Census Reports of Swabi and Haripur..4 0. 26 Sub Post Offices and 74 Branch Post Offices functioning in the district. the drinking water is polluted due to severe seepage problems and most of the people in the Project area use untreated water. the drinking water quality sampling and analysis by SGS Pakistan (Pvt. the majority of houses (83. Urban settlements have drainage facilities and in the WAPDA Colonies there is an improperly functioning sanitation system which limited its proper and environmentally safe use.6 Hand Pump 1.8 1. 1998 disclose that there are 22 telephone exchanges functioning in the Swabi district as well as one Head Post Office. especially in the rural areas. shortage of electricity and load shedding is normal practice in the area as with other parts of the country.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Swabi Source Haripur Rural Urban All Rural Urban All Pipe (Nul) 4.8 4.3 10.3 0.

A road from Haripur city leads to Ghazi and there is also a network of farms to market roads. According to the Census of 1998 the total length of roads in the district was 335 km whereas the Haripur district is linked with the famous Shahr-e-Resham (Karakoram Highway) through Hazro road. One can use Burhan and Swabi interchanges on the Motorway to reach Tarbela. The services of all the mobile providers are available in the Project area.7 Cultural Heritage A team from the Archaeology and Museums Department of the Government of KP. Not far from Tarbela. The Project area is linked by road directly with Islamabad and Peshawar via Motorway and Grand Trunk (GT) Roads. is divided into two parts in the months of July to October every year due to rise of water in the reservoir which submerges the connecting road and people cross the river by boat. located 1 km upstream of the dam site as shown in the various maps and figures contained in this report. However the families living in the Right Bank Colony use the Right Bank Colony barracks as animal sheds.4. A link road from the Grand Trunk (GT) Road leads to Tarbela. so these animals may be disturbed. The total length of the roads in the Haripur district is 260 km. opposite the village of Darband there is the site (Aornos or Pir Sar) where Alexander the Great and his army fought his last battle with an army of “barbarians” before returning downstream along the Indus to return to Greece.4. WAPDA August 2011 6-39 . They established that there are no known cultural and archaeological located in the Project area. Pakistan Telecommunication Company Ltd. Overall there is limited grazing pressure on the wild flora growing in the Project area therefore no disturbance is expected to the grazing activity of these animals. People living in other villages within the Project area of influence also have domestic animals but these villages are further away from the Project site. Farms are linked to markets by a roads network. Similarly. Somewhat later in time numerous Buddhist stupas were built along the Indus valley. Haripur is also linked with Taxila (Punjab) via Khanpur. 6.6 Grazing The Project site is restricted and fenced to prevent grazing animals from penetrating the area. on the Left Bank a limited number of animals are reared that graze on the open areas within the colonies. Road Network There is a chain of national. Peshawar has visited the Project site and surrounding areas.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment The telecommunication services are available in and around the Project area. some of them probably near Tarbela. is also providing land lines and wireless telephone services in the area. Completion of the M1 project (Motorway between Peshawar and Islamabad) has also improved links from and to the district with other cities. A certificate of non-existence of any known archaeology site or objects has been issued by the concerned department. These routes can be used for the transportation of construction material. 6. The Tarbela Dam is approximately 110 km away from Islamabad. However the area has a rich cultural and historical background. The village of Darra Mohat. district and rural roads available in the Swabi district. As these barracks are one of the options being considered for the new labor camps.

9 Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Social Organizations NGOs The NGO sector has made enormous contributions to the economic development in Pakistan. In case of serious matters. it would be safe to conclude that every second person in the Project area was living below the poverty line and earning less than $1. like other parts of the country. However. local influential politicians intervene to settle the dispute.10 Poverty Status Taking into consideration the nature and scope of the sources of income from barani (rain fed) agriculture.4. Police and the court of law is the last option. Pakistan and provincial KP Rural Support Programs are also working in the Haripur and Swabi districts. assessing and implementing such projects. they resolve their minor disputes through the heads of families while major disputes are resolved through the Jirga (a tribal assembly of elders that make decisions by consensus). ladies and gents club and a community centre in the Right Bank Colony. WAPDA August 2011 6-40 . as the majority of the people are religiously minded. people have various disputes and conflicts on different issues. Females are generally more vulnerable than male members of the society and the Project is no exception to this.11 Gender Issues in the Project Area Overview Gender issues are gaining importance in development projects because female members of the community are generally neglected while designing. Mechanism for resolving disputes According to the ESA Survey. livestock.4. sports gymnasium. The Ghazi Barotha Taraqiati Idara (GBTI) and Sungi Development Foundation are of note and are mentioned as they work actively in Tarbela Project area. There is no cinema or club in Project area. 6. 6. per person. WAPDA has provided recreation facilities to its employees in the residential colonies. in addition they are working with communities in the health and education sectors. tourist activities in the Project area are now very limited due to the high security requirements as the project is considered a potential terrorist target.4.50 per day. most importantly from the analysis data gathered from the focused groups and separate discussions with men and women of the Project area. employment status. These include play grounds. investment profit. remittances from main metropolitan cities of Pakistan as well as abroad.8 Tourism and Recreation The scenic beauty of the area including the Tarbela Dam and Reservoir has attracted a large number of both local and foreign tourists in the past and WAPDA developed viewpoints for visitors to the dam site. However. Play grounds and others sports facilities are very limited in the Ghazi and Topi areas and people are keen to see recreational facilities for the masses of these areas.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment 6. particularly for women and children. GBTI was the project NGO for Ghazi Barotha Hydro Power project.4. 6.

22 below shows that around 25. Table 6. About 18% of the women were contributing to the household income through both indoor and outdoor activities such as teaching. This shows an overall higher level of education achievement and propensity of gaining an education among the literate women of the Project area. and  Recreation activities. housekeeping. cleaning.6% held the degree of Fellow of Arts (FA) 12 years education) and the same applied to the Master of Arts (MA) 16 years of education). On average a married women had 3. whereas around 18.5% of literate women held a graduation degree (i. 46% were literate having received formal and/or informal education.7 children. Of the total women consulted.6 Middle 6 14.  Technical education.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment The following information was collected through Rapid Social Appraisal (RSA) and Focused Group Discussion (FGD) at village level. caring and rearing of children and taking care of old and sick members of the family. 17% unmarried and the remaining 4% were widowed.23 below shows that around 65.1 Matriculation 8 18. dress making and shop keeping.6 11 25. The RSA and FGDs were not undertaken with the male community however the overall demand chart is provided in the SIMF where the most expressed pressing needs of the male population was identified as:  Employment. Table 6.5 8 18. 77% were married. Literacy Status Of the participating women.) Percentage (%) Primary 2 4. Basic Sociological Characteristics of Women All women consulted fall within the age group of 20 to 60 years old with an average age of 40 years. 4 years of schooling). WAPDA August 2011 6-41 .6 46 100 Bachelor of Arts (BA) MA Total Source: ESA Consultation Occupational Status Table 6.6 FA 8 18.6% of the women consulted are housewives and remain engaged on a full time basis in household chores including food preparation.e. Women are also engaged in undocumented and informal rural economy such as the raring of animals.22: Level of Formal Education of Literate Female Respondents Education Level Respondents (No.

4 Dress Maker 3 3.2% were involved in the decision making process relating to important issues such as the sale and purchase of property and the schooling and marriages of their children.3 Hospital 70 49. including paramedical practitioners. the availability of professional. Health Status Table 6.6 Teacher 12 12.2%) had the right of ownership of the property. a vast majority of women (83.5 Dispensary 24 17 Private Doctor 34 24. There were 24% of the responses in favour of relying on private medical facilities.) Percentage (%) House Wife 63 65. However.0 Total Note: few women (2.) Percentage (%) 5 3. 51.1%) of the Right Bank Colony were members of the “women’s club”. However. the final decision power lies with the male head of the family.24: Health Facilities Availed by Women in Last Year Health Centre Respondents (No. semi-professional and occupational medical staff and the quality of related services remained an open question.24 below indicates that 49.5 Student 11 11. Role in Decision Making Off the total participating women.23: Occupational Status of Women Respondents Occupation Respondents (No. Darra Mohat and Kukar Chawa did not have any access to either medical practitioners or any basic health unit.g. Table 6.6 8 5. embroidery and stitching. A small number of respondents (5.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Table 6.1 Nothing 5 5. It is worth noting that the villages named as Khabbal. despite all the discussions around making a decision. Skills Some 41% of the participating women possessed different skills e.3%) were of the view that.6% of the responses received were for availing health facilities at the government health centers which include indoor hospitalization facilities.2 96 100.2 Shopkeeper 2 2. which provided a minor source of income generation.6 141 100 Basic Health Unit (BHU) Hakeem / Practitioner Total WAPDA August 2011 6-42 .

7 Chickenpox 6 2. Table 6.0 Total * There were multiple responses received Skill Development A majority of the women (72%) were interested in receiving training in different skill types. Measles (6. Some 16% of the literate women were interested in receiving computer training.0 220 100. Hepatitis (9. and Malaria (5%).4%).6 Hepatitis 20 9.2%).) Percentage (%) Diarrhea 72 32. Table 6. Women preference for development in their skills is given below. Table 6.3%). Such training could provide opportunities for income generation. electricity and drinking water) 44 24. According Table 6.3 Tuberculosis 9 4.1 Eye diseases 6 2. electricity and drinking water.4 180 100. WAPDA August 2011 6-43 .26: Pressing Needs of Women Needs Response* (No.0 Vocational Training Centers 46 25. as depicted in Table 6.25 below.7 11 5. access to health facilities (24.25: Most Common Diseases Prevailing in the Project Area Disease Response (No. improved educational facilities (19%).0 Pneumonia Malaria Total Pressing Needs of Women Data was collected from the women on their “pressing needs” to disseminate the benefits of the Project to the surrounding communities. and some felt their needs were comprised on basic necessities such as gas.4%).7%).Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Most Common Prevailing Diseases Women were asked about the most common diseases prevalent in the Project area.26.7 Measles 14 6.4 8 3.5%).2 Typhoid 60 27.7 Others (Gas.0 Skin Diseases 8 4. Typhoid (27. The most important needs felt by the women folk were: provision of vocational/ training facilities (25.4 Improvement in educational facilities 34 19.) Percentage (%) Improvement in health facilities 44 24. the common most diseases prevalent in the Project area were: Diarrhea (32.27 provides the source data. The skill development training required most by women is sewing (34%) followed by embroidery (29%) and handicrafts (21%).5 Lady Doctors / Maternity homes 12 6.

816. However.621. and  Three under trial at the Supreme Court/ Shariah Court in Islamabad. In the mid 1990s. before the existence of international guidance.218 was claimed by WAPDA in respect of recovery for over payment. Therefore this issue remains unsettled because of non-availability of the desired number of plots. donor safeguards or Pakistan’s 2002 draft resettlement policy. according to WAPDA there were 40 existing.  The refusal of the Sindh Government to provide the balance of the 7.  10 pending with the High Court Peshawar Circuit Bench at Abbotabad.800 ha out of 12. the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank made the settlement of the Tarbela Project’s outstanding social issues a pre-condition for the loan requested by the Government of Pakistan for the GBHPP.045 was claimed by PAPs for compensation package enhancement. outstanding claims related to the Tarbela Dam Reservoir Project. WAPDA deposited its share for potential compensation payments with the Government of Pakistan treasuries in various national investment schemes.000 project displaced affectees spread over a vast geographical area. Previously the Kala Dhaka PAPs had refused to accept agricultural land in Sindh.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Table 6. interest and compensation against land. Of the 40 cases.280 PAPs may be provided residential plots grouped in one hamlet/township.000 acres of land for construction and the large reservoir submerged 120 villages and created an unprecedented 96.4. Resettlement planning for the Tarbela Dam Project was based on the Pakistan Land Acquisition Act (1894 and its subsequent amendments).) Percentage (%) Sewing 55 34 Embroidery 47 29 Handicrafts 34 21 Computer Course 26 16 162 100 Total 6.27: Women’s Preference for Skill Development Skill / Training Response* (No. an amount of PKR 168. of this. PKR 13. 11 were filed by WAPDA and three related to land possession and were filed by PAP versus PAP. The 40 claims include:  27 with District Courts. Kala Dhaka affectees refused to accept allotment of these plots on the plea that all 1.263 as of June 2010. The World Commission on Dams 1999 case study on Tarbela identified three main factors as to why resettlement impacts and claims were not closed out for Tarbela as follows:  Abnormal delays in the announcement of decrees in judicial cases. As of mid July 2010. WAPDA August 2011 6-44 . The total disputed amount from the Tarbela resettlement claims and related issues was PKR 182. and  WAPDA also developed 311 residential and commercial plots for allotment to eligible PAPs of Kala Dhaka in the New Darbad Township Extension Scheme.000 ha which it had committed to provide to PAPs.437. 26 were submitted by PAPs.12 Tarbela Legacy The original Tarbela Dam Project acquired approximately 82. In 2003.

6 on the Richter scale. which is situated south of the project area. but this was considerably below the design discharge of 42.4. 7. shift in rainfall pattern and increased melting of glaciers in the upstream regions (see Section 6. In July and August 2010 heavy monsoon rainfall in the northwest of the country caused flash and heavy riverine floods. The conclusion is that although the risk of flooding in the Indus Basin might increase in the coming years due to rising air temperature. the influence of associated local tectonic fault breaks can continue until the project area as far as the Potwar (or Potohar) plateau. unless appropriate engineering measures are implemented to reduce these risks.3) the risk of flooding and related damage in the Tarbela area is very low. This makes the risk of failure of slopes and liquefaction of near-surface soil quite high. However.6 is exceptional (calculated frequency of once every 330 years). The zone of the main trust between the plates is located northeast of the project site at a distance 100.1 Risk of Earthquakes The Project area is located in a part of Pakistan where earthquakes frequently occur. The major earthquake was followed by a large number of aftershocks.650 m³/sec. The epicenter was located at a distance of about 100 km northeast from Tarbela. and ground liquefaction. However.000 people were killed through this earthquake and 450.400 m³/sec. During these floods the Tarbela reservoir experienced a historically high peak discharge of the Indus of 23.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment 7 Other Relevant Non-project Related Issues 7. ground acceleration. These mountain ranges were uplifted through the collision of the Indian and Eurasian tectonic plates.000 people made homeless. High incidence of seismic activity through tectonical movements of local faults can be responsible for rupture of ground surface. Most earthquakes in the area have a magnitude up to 6. there is no guarantee that a local fault does not break and causes an earthquake. 1992 and 1998 resulted in a large number of deaths and severe loss of property.200 km in Kohistan and Kashmir. Pakistan has faced eight severe floods. crops. The magnitude of 7. property. There is an active tectonic fault (the Darband fault) at the site which may displace by about 1. There was no damage at Tarbela or surrounding areas.2 m. WAPDA August 2011 7-1 . The largest recent earthquake in the area was the 2005 NWFP/Kashmir earthquake with a magnitude of 7. though usually these are not of an exceptional magnitude. Starting in the valleys of the Swat and Kabul rivers the flood peak after flooding large areas in KP province joined the Indus waters at Attock and travelled downstream through the densely populated irrigation areas in Punjab and Sindh and flooding large areas with around 8. failures of natural slopes. Through operation of the reservoir the peak outflow at Tarbela even could be reduced with some 28 percent.2 Risk of Flooding Since its creation. More than 73.000 deaths and nearly 20 million people being significantly affected through loss of housing. and income. The floods of 1950. Reservoir and dam could therefore relatively easily cope with these high floods. As long as the process of mountain uplifting continues in the northern areas the project should be spared from major earthquakes with magnitudes in excess of 7. Tarbela is situated in the foothills of the Himalaya and Karakorum mountains. while the July 2010 floods have been described as the worst in the last eighty years. 1988.

50 to 0. the water availability and on the occurrence of floods and droughts. As a result. areas along the western rivers of the country (Indus and Kabul) will be more vulnerable to flood episodes similar to the one experienced during 2010. but they can also occur after landslides and creation of river-dams and subsequent flood waves. During the last decade a lot of research is carried out to study the effects of long-term climate change on precipitation.90 m per year. and droughts. It is expected that there will be more frequent periods with extreme drought. Some of the main conclusions of these studies are the following:  between 1980 and 2005 the frequency of heat waves (T> 40º C) has been increased in north-western Pakistan.  the observed changes in the extent of the glaciers. Major issues to be investigated are amongst others:  the importance of the contribution of snow and glacial melt on the hydrology of the Indus.3 Climate Change Climate change is being considered as a critical factor behind changing rainfall patterns.  a shift has been observed in the rainfall pattern with monsoons starting 1-2 weeks earlier and winter rains confined towards February. but not on Tarbela. the visible increase in precipitation during monsoon seasons. From these studies it has been concluded that glaciers in the Himalaya and Karakorum are receding faster than happens in any other part of the world. air temperatures.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Floods in the northern areas of Pakistan. including the upper part of the Indus catchment are not only associated with extreme rainfall events.  Recent studies have been concentrated on the effects of glacial melt.  based on predictions of the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenario’s estimates have been made by the Pakistan Meteorological Service from the increase in maximum daily temperatures.2º C in the year 2080 for northern Pakistan. Also the influence of climate change on air temperature such as minimum and maximum averages and the frequency of heat waves is often mentioned. More than 13 percent of the Upper Indus Basin consists of glaciers and the melting of ice caps and retreat of glaciers is attributed to climate change. However these flooding events are usually restricted to tributary areas and may have impacts on the upper Indus valley. All these results have a considerable influence on the hydrology of the Indus Basin. which ranges from 2. From digital terrain models and satellite observations it might be concluded that the reduction of the thickness of ice in the Western Himalayan glaciers ranges between 0. WAPDA August 2011 7-2 . and more frequent extremely dry periods.  water availability might increase considerably (during kharif) but not when it is required for agriculture (rabi season). Some models calculate 25 percent more rainfall during monsoon. 7.  the effects of climate changes on the amount of melt-water.  more heavy rainfall events during monsoon season will occur over north-western Pakistan instead of the north-east of the country.8º C to 4.

This is because the high variability in data on climate and hydrology. This program includes extensive glacial studies. A recent study (Immerzeel et al. including satellite monitoring and studies into the effects of glacial outbursts. Moreover regional circumstances might vary considerably.4 percent. Ganges and Yellow River. especially in high mountain areas. In a likely scenario of global warming based on IPPC predictions the reduction of the share of melt-water in the Indus discharge has been estimated at 8. In the ESMP more details of such a study are presented and a cost estimate is given.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment although in some areas in the Karakorum an extension and increase of glaciers has also been reported. More studies and more reliable data should be collected in the coming years. This is a very high percentage as compared to other major rivers originating in the Himalayas. This often leads to conflicting data. 2010) suggests that 60 percent of the discharge in the Indus catchment is fed by melting of glaciers and snow. such as Brahmaputra. requiring long time series and proper monitoring. However this could be (over)compensated by an expected increase of the precipitation during monsoon in the area of 25 percent. In view of the importance of these data for developing reliable and accurate knowledge of the basin hydrology and on future water availability of the Indus River it is recommended that the current project contributes to these studies with a Glacial Monitoring Program (Component C4: US$ 6 million). WAPDA August 2011 7-3 . The relation between climate change and hydrology is extremely complex.

The criteria for determining significance are generally specific for each environmental and social aspect but generally the magnitude of each impact is defined along with the sensitivity of the receptor. impacts will be categorized as major. 8. The magnitude of impacts will generally be identified according to the categories outlined in Table 8.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment 8 Significant Environmental Impacts of the Project and their Mitigations 8. the number of people or size of the resource affected and their sensitivity to the change. humans. and is largely dependent on the extent and duration of change.2 Assessment of Effects and Significance The assessment of effects and identification of residual significance takes account of any incorporated mitigation measures adopted due to any impact of Project activities.1 Magnitude The assessment of magnitude will be undertaken in two steps. Also included are the borrow and disposal areas in the vicinity of the project and the access roads to the project. Impacts can be both adverse and beneficial and the methodology defined below has been applied to define both beneficial and adverse impacts of the project. and power generating facilities are already in place. Firstly the key issues associated with the Project are categorized as beneficial or adverse.  Spatial extent of the impact. Construction operations will be concentrated on a limited project area concentrated around the inlet gates of Tunnels 3 and 4. Secondly. and  Legal standards and established professional criteria.1 General Potential adverse effects of the T4HP project on ecosystems and their inhabitants. The area of influence of the project is larger and covers some 5 km upstream in the Reservoir including its embankments and 10 km downstream of the dam until the two cities of Ghazi and Topi at respectively the left and the right bank. animals and plants are described in this chapter. Adverse environmental impacts under the project are expected to be rather limited mainly because dam.  Likelihood. moderate. the site and steep slope above the new power house to be constructed and the existing switch yard which will be extended further downstream. the outlet of Tunnel 4. minor or negligible based on consideration of the parameters such as:  Duration of the impact. WAPDA August 2011 8-1 . reservoir. Generic criteria for defining magnitude and sensitivity are summarized below: 8.2.1. The impacts of the project on social structures and relations will be dealt with in Chapter 9.  Reversibility.

requiring considerable intervention to return to baseline Baseline requires a year or so with some interventions to return to baseline Baseline returns naturally or with limited intervention within a few months Baseline remains constant Legal standards and established professional Breaches national limits and or international guidelines Complies with limits given in national standards but breaches international lender guidelines in one or more parameters Meets minimum national standard limits or international guidelines Not applicable Occurs under typical operating or construction conditions Occurs under worst case (negative impact) or best case (positive impact) operating conditions Occurs under abnormal. Volume II.1: Parameters for Determining Magnitude Parameter Major Duration of impact Moderate Long term Medium Term (more than 35 years) Lifespan of the project Minor Negligible Less than project lifespan Temporary with no detectable impact (5 to 15 years) Spatial extent of the impact Widespread far beyond project component site boundaries Beyond immediate project components. exceptional or emergency conditions Unlikely to occur criteria Likelihood of impacts occurring Source: Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment. Blackwell Science Ltd. site boundaries or local area Within project components and site boundary Specific location within project component or site boundaries with no detectable impact Reversibility of impacts Impact is effectively permanent.2. WAPDA August 2011 8-2 .2: Criteria for Determining Sensitivity Sensitivity Determination Definition Very High Vulnerable receptor (human or terrestrial) with little or no capacity to absorb proposed changes or minimal opportunities for mitigation. Each assessment will define sensitivity in relation to their topic.2 below.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Table 8.2 Sensitivity The sensitivity of a receptor will be determined based on review of the population (including proximity / numbers / vulnerability) and presence of features on the site or the surrounding area. Judith Petts. Table 8. 1999. Criteria for determining sensitivity of receptors are outlined in Table 8. 8. High Vulnerable receptor (human or terrestrial) with little or no capacity to absorb proposed changes or limited opportunities for mitigation.

 Site / technology choice.5 Uncertainty An ESA involves prediction and thus uncertainty is an integral part. The main types of uncertainty and the ways in which they can be minimized are summarized as follows:  Uncertainty of prediction: this is important at the data collection stage and the final certainty will only be resolved once implementation commences. however some residual environmental impacts may be unavoidable. 8.4 Mitigation and Enhancement Measures Mitigation measures are identified to address negative impacts. Research can reduce the uncertainty. the quality and sensitivity of the receiving environment or potential receptor was determined and the significance of each potential impact was established using the impact significance matrix shown below in Table 8. Volume II.2. increase the reach of positive impacts or benefits. Table 8. or distribute them more equitably. The ESA has assessed whether residual impacts.3. remain after mitigation.3: Assessment of Impact Significance Sensitivity of Receptors Very High High Medium Low / Negligible Major Critical Major Moderate Negligible Moderate Major Major Moderate Negligible Minor Moderate Moderate Low Negligible Negligible Negligible Negligible Negligible Negligible Magnitude of Impact A great number of potential impacts can either be avoided or reduced through mitigation. either beneficial or adverse.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Sensitivity Determination Definition Medium Vulnerable receptor (human or terrestrial) with some capacity to absorb proposed changes or moderate opportunities for mitigation Low / Negligible Vulnerable receptor (human or terrestrial) with good capacity to absorb proposed changes or/and good opportunities for mitigation Source: Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment. WAPDA August 2011 8-3 . 1999. and  Application of best practice. Where appropriate.3 Assigning Significance Following the assessment of magnitude.2. The following hierarchy of mitigation measures will be applied:  Mitigation / elimination through design (embedded mitigation). 8. Blackwell Science ltd. enhancement measures are identified to create new positive impacts or benefits. 8. Judith Petts.2.

3 Summary of Assessed Impacts The project’s potential environmental impacts and their significance have been assessed using the methodology described in Section 8.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment  Uncertainty of values: this reflects the approach taken in the ESA process. Final certainty will be determined at the time decisions are made.  Uncertainty of related decision: this affects the decision making element of the ESA process and final certainty will be determined by post evaluation. Improved communications and extensive negotiations would reduce this uncertainty.2 above. Improved coordination will reduce uncertainty.4. A summary of these impacts and their significance is presented in Table 8. 8. WAPDA August 2011 8-4 .

construction facilities Contractor mobilization Pre-construction Medium Moderate Moderate Adverse • Contractor to prepare and implement a traffic management plan. Irrigation Releases and power generation: • construction – temporary closure of existing Tunnel 4 to join with the new tunnel and for constructing the raised intake will result in the interruption of irrigation releases through tunnel 4. Low Adverse • Method Statements and Risk Assessments with particular attention to blasting material and blasting techniques. preparation of • Construction camps and other construction facilities to be established on WAPDA owned land. Temporary by-pass routes. • the reservoir will continue to be operated to ensure meeting the irrigation water demand. and Negligible • Releases from tunnels 1-3 and 5 will be adjusted to meet the irrigation water demands and power generation. and Negligible • blasting and cutting for powerhouse. Decommissioning • blasting and cutting at borrow sites. Residual Significance Negligible • Re-plantation plan to be prepared and implemented. and • Emergency Preparedness Plan. and • operation – the Tunnel 4 capacity will be reduced by WAPDA August 2011 Construction: Medium Moderate Moderate Adverse • connection tunnels will be carried out during the annual canal closure and periods of low demand. Community awareness.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Table 8. • foundation design of the powerhouse to consider probability of earthquake at the earliest design stage. Geology and Seismology: All Phases High Major Major Adverse • risk of seismic activity. 8-5 . Low Adverse Topography: Construction and Medium Major Moderate Adverse • no excessive excavation. • use of alternative excavation methods wherever possible.4: Significance of Environmental Impacts Impacts Land Acquisition and Land Use Phase Pre-construction Receptor Impact Sensitivity Magnitude Low Minor Significance Prior to Mitigation and Mitigation and Enhancement Measure Enhancement Low Adverse Change. • dumping of excavation materials.

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Impacts Phase Receptor Impact Sensitivity Magnitude Significance Prior to Mitigation and Mitigation and Enhancement Measure Enhancement Residual Significance around 5%. Wastes: Construction and • large volume of spoil. • possible risk of erosion into the Indus River. and • Upon completion of decommissioning. • piling for foundations. • Install oil and water separators and settling ponds. Negligible • work within the requirements of the management plans contained within the EMMP. • reduce volume of material requiring disposal. • drainage system will be designed so that all spills will be drained and collected in a sump for further appropriate disposal. Ground Water Quality: Construction: Medium Moderate Moderate Adverse • Ground Water Monitoring Program. and De- • worker camp wastewater. disturbed areas will be contoured and revegetated to minimize the potential for soil erosion and water quality related impacts. • all sanitary effluent will be treated prior to discharge. Operation: High Moderate Major Adverse Negligible Surface Water Quality: Construction and Medium Moderate Moderate Adverse • many sources of discharge and effluents. De- • re-use where possible. Operation Low Minor Negligible • Waste Management Plans. Low adverse • Wastewater Treatment Plan. WAPDA August 2011 Medium Moderate Moderate Adverse Negligible • only remove equipment and machinery leaving 8-6 . • treatment plant will conform to international standards. commissioning: Medium Minor Low Adverse • staff training. • accidental spills and leakage. Negligible • Store and handle all hazardous substances in accordance with their MSDS. commissioning • pre-treated sewage prior to discharge. commissioning: • disposal of spoil at designated depressed area. and • Oil and chemical storage and vehicle wash and oil change facilities will be on an impermeable surface to avoid percolation. De- • Select access roads to avoid run off to river. • Surface Water Monitoring Program. • Oil and Chemical Spill Response Plan.

Negligible • washing of construction vehicles. Positive • road edge buffer replanting. Air Quality: Construction and • dust on site from site works and vehicle movements. • speed limits. and • turn off engines when idle. Residual Significance infrastructure in place for re-use for other purposes. • fish mortality from river turbidity • surface disturbance from machinery and demolition. and • include in Emergency Preparedness Plan. Low Adverse • extraction from top down. De- Medium Moderate Moderate Adverse • covering standing material and transported material to prevent dust blows. especially of slopes. De- • restricting / limiting timing of blasting activity.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Impacts • leakage. • Demolition material disposal plan • disposal of demolition material. and Low Minor Negligible • Excavated Material Disposal Plan. and • decommissioning would be followed by contouring and re-vegetation. Operation: • camp wastes Landslides: Mitigation and Enhancement Measure Construction: Medium Moderate Moderate Adverse • slope stabilization. Noise: Construction and • vehicle movement. of fast-growing indigenous species. and Phase Receptor Impact Sensitivity Magnitude Significance Prior to Mitigation and Enhancement • Waste Management Plans. commissioning • specific and agreed routes for traffic. • Risk of landslide resulting from excavation and blasting activities. De- Low Minor Negligible commissioning: • use cushion blasting in confined areas. • use of pre-designed support systems. • soil contamination from hazardous construction materials. commissioning • fitting applicable construction machinery with mufflers. Decommissioning • storage and use of hazardous materials. WAPDA August 2011 Medium Major Moderate Adverse Ambient noise: Low Adverse 8-7 . • operating machinery. Soil and Erosion: Construction: Medium Minor Low Adverse • loss of topsoil from land clearance. and Negligible/ • re-vegetation. spillage from other wastes (domestic and hazardous). • Method Statements and Risk Assessments with particular attention to blasting material and blasting techniques. Low Minor Negligible Beneficial • Tree Plantation Plan.

e. Positive Beneficial commissioning − new buildings. Traffic and Transport: • delivery of construction materials.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Impacts Phase Receptor Impact Sensitivity Magnitude Significance Prior to Mitigation and Mitigation and Enhancement Measure Enhancement Residual Significance • maintaining and powering down all plant items when not in use. • instruction in the proper use of equipment. • blasting • avoid unnecessary revving of vehicle engines. • frequent breaks. 10 minutes per hour. • transport of construction labor. • Traffic Management Plan Negligible/low De- • Provision of by pass routes adverse commissioning • Minimizing the duration of right bank road closure • construction of temporary access roads. • use quietest work methods and plant items where practicable. • provision of PPE i. WAPDA August 2011 8-8 . particularly for the powerhouse. • power plant operation Operation Low Minor Negligible • provision of noise barriers at excessive noise producing areas (such as blasting sites).. • provision of vibration absorbing gloves. and • manage and properly design all blasting activities. Medium Moderate Moderate Adverse • Landscape Plan. Landscape and Visual Intrusion: Construction and • Construction: De- − excavation works. and − new roads. • Operation: Operation Medium Moderate Moderate Beneficial Construction and Medium Moderate Moderate Adverse − new planting and landscape restoration. and • informing the communities of activities taking place such as blasting. ear muffs and plugs.

Beneficial • enhance flora environment by planting fruit trees and ornamental shrubs. Flora / Vegetation: Construction and • loss of vegetation leads to soil erosion. • relocation of species. Negligible Construction and Medium Moderate Moderate Adverse • attaching markers/balls with the cables Negligible • monsoon increases turbidity which affect fish growth and survival Bird collision with transmission cables Operation WAPDA August 2011 8-9 . and • use grasses to assist slope and soil stability Fish: Potentially All Medium Moderate Moderate Adverse • during Monsoon runoff will be diverted to adjacent depressions and from there to river after settling. De- Medium Major Major Adverse commissioning • avoid dumping material in vegetated areas. Negligible • provide corridors for animal movement. • use fast-growing species. and • no illegal hunting or poaching. • disruption to areas that are currently used by wild fauna including birds/migratory birds. Positive • re-provide plantations in open spaces and practice watershed management.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Impacts Phase Receptor Impact Sensitivity Magnitude Significance Prior to Mitigation and Mitigation and Enhancement Measure Enhancement Residual Significance • closure of right bank road • additional traffic to remove demolished material. and • transport of decommissioning labor. Increased activities affecting Fauna / Wildlife / Vegetation: Construction Medium Moderate Moderate Adverse • avoid positioning spoil in areas used by fauna.

The plan will be prepared during the first year of the construction. Mitigation Attempts will be made to establish all these facilities within the area owned by WAPDA. However it would be possible that some land may have to be leased on temporary bases (e. and stores.4. There will be no significant change to the present land use of the area.4 Impacts during Pre-construction Stage 8. In the unlikely event that land or property is required for temporary facilities. and will be provided to the Supervision Consultants/environmental monitoring unit for review and approval. These activities would be monitored by the Environmental and Social Monitoring Unit (ESMU) (discussed later in the document). Also a part of the road to Right Bank Colony may have to be realigned. it will be purchased or leased on commercial basis. Most of these facilities will require some reconstruction and refurbishing activities. As much as possible existing structures such as barracks used in earlier projects will be used. Hence no land acquisition or resettlement of affected persons is expected for the project.4.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment 8. Also land has to be cleared and prepared for a batching plant.1. construction yards. Mitigation The removal of vegetation and trees would be mitigated by preparing a proper landscaping plan and a budget for future tree planting and landscaping measures to be implemented after completion of the project.g. Access roads will have to be upgraded and vegetation around these buildings will have to be cleared to create sufficient space. WAPDA August 2011 8-10 . for excavated material that is not reused in construction for the project. workshops and stores.2 and 8. for borrow and disposal areas and for the accommodation of the construction force.2 Preparation of Facilities for Contractor(s) and Labor Force Some minor adverse impacts might be associated with the preparation and refurbishing of the project offices.1 Land Use Change The power plant and auxiliary infrastructure will be built entirely on WAPDA-owned land that is uninhabited and exclusively used by WAPDA. workshops and stores for materials and equipment. the extended switchyard. Areas that will change include the new powerhouse. 8. labor camps. as shown in Figures 1. The area is characterized by restricted access and is not open for the general public. five years) for the erection of batching plant. a temporary batching plant and disposal areas.

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Figure 8.1: WAPDA August 2011 Project Construction Facilities 8-11 .

appropriate restoration of the borrow area such as recontouring would be carried out. material for stone pitching and rock). intake area. fine and coarse sands) from the Indus river bed and sand banks at suitable locations. It is estimated that during construction traffic volume on the roads leading to the Project area will increase by more than 200 additional vehicles (including trucks) per day. borrow sites and dumping sites for excavated material.g. Especially local roads are not designed for carrying heavy traffic and this may result in considerable damage to local roads.4. This plan would be prepared by the Contractor prior to mobilization.5 Impacts during Construction Stage 8. The contractor will be required to submit the TMP to the Supervision Consultants/ESMU/WAPDA Environmental Cell (WEC) for their review and approval before the plan is implemented. Other materials will be taken from quarries and borrow pits (e. penstock route. plant and labor) to the work site.g.  The construction of temporary access roads as the main Right Bank Colony road runs through where the powerhouse construction site is likely to be. and no deep ditches would be left behind. Material excavated by the project. Heavy transport of materials will cause congestions in urban areas and along access roads to the project.1 Changed Topography/Land Form The potential areas where topography will change as a result of blasting.  Delivery of resources (materials. Some of these can be obtained by dredging or excavating material (e.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment 8. part of the road connecting the existing powerhouse with Right Bank Colony. quartzites and other durable WAPDA August 2011 8-12 . Different types of construction materials will be required in implementing the project. The Project is implemented in a remote area and existing traffic density and volume is not high however. cutting.3 Hindrance and Damages during Mobilization and Transport of Materials Traffic and transportation impacts will start during the mobilization of the contractor and will continue during the entire construction period.5. The need for temporary bypass road and/or access roads and traffic measures in urban centers would be established and agreed with WAPDA and local authorities. Borrow materials would be obtained (as much as possible) from licensed quarries and borrow areas. and of suitable grade can also qualify as a source of construction material to be (re)used in the project (e.g. Where necessary. rip rap. the possible bypass in urban centers and the responsibilities in case of repair of damages to roads. excavation and dumping activities include the new powerhouse site. speed limits to be applied. The impact on road safety and increased risk of accidents will be dealt with in the next chapter. when mobilization and construction commences. and  Transfer of borrowed materials from the source to the Project area. Mitigation Prevention and mitigation can be achieved by preparing a traffic management plan which indicates the designated areas and access roads for vehicles and moving equipment to be used. 8. traffic intensity will rise significantly as a result of the following activities:  The construction of the powerhouse and related infrastructure.

3.5. First the connection of the inlet of Tunnel 4 will be made and in the next winter the new inlet of Tunnel 3 will be connected. 8. This can be done by increasing the operating hours from these tunnels as required. Tunnel 4 will be out of use in three different periods.2 Reduced Irrigation Releases due to closure of Tunnel 4 and Tunnel 3 There will be no impact on water availability for downstream areas. Contractors would follow the guidelines presented in the ECP 7. Borrow Areas Development and Operation. Mitigation It is expected that with proper management during the closure period the irrigation releases from tunnel 4 entirely could be taken over by the other Tunnels 1. e. During construction of the power off take the tunnel will be out of use for an estimated period of about 12 months. Disposal sites will be properly filled. and 5. in nearby disused quarries or borrow pits. 2. During construction.g. Other excavated materials of poor construction quality estimated at 1. For each inlet there will be a closure needed of three months. especially during the critical period of May. Mitigation To reduce the adverse impacts of deposition of excavated material the emphasis will be on reducing the volume of material requiring disposal as far as possible.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment rocks). During most of the construction time of these inlets the lower intake can be used. Once the raised inlets are completed both tunnels will be taken out of use in order to connect the shaft of the inlet to the tunnel. The Project has been designed to use most of the excavated material in the construction of a raised platform for the switchyard in the Ghazi-Barotha lake bed. Disposal of these materials may create environmental impacts such as an increase in dust pollution. erosion and an increase in sedimentation of the Ghazi barrage pond and the Barotha powerhouse head pond. and no deep ditches would be left behind. After connection it is possible to operate both inlets (the low and the raised) independently. Tunnel 5 operates only WAPDA August 2011 8-13 . Potential impact of insufficient release of irrigation water.June could be shortages of irrigation water in agriculture further downstream with reduced crop yields and risk of soil salinity and other problems. the intakes and slope excavations is estimated at 900. From historic discharge data over the period 2000.2010 it appeared that Tunnel 4 is used only for limited periods (5-80 hours/month) in the period May – July. shaped and reworked and where feasible planted with trees. provided that there are no ongoing construction works at the outlet site of the tunnel. Remaining material will be disposed in an environmentally sound manner. since the other tunnels can easily supply the water needed for irrigation. Borrow materials would be obtained (as much as possible) from licensed quarries and borrow areas. But this will happen in two consecutive years. landscape degradation. The longest closure will be when at the downstream end of Tunnel 4 the power branch has to be connected to the tunnel. Where necessary.000 m3. appropriate restoration of the borrow area such as re-contouring would be carried out. Any remaining spoil will be deposited in a depression not far from the powerhouse on the Right Bank.5 million m³ will have to be disposed at suitable sites. Two closures of each three months will be needed during construction of the raised intakes for respectively Tunnel 4 and Tunnel 3. depending of the level of the reservoir. The total quantity of material to be excavated from the powerhouse site.

8. Mitigation Mitigation is possible by increasing power production in other tunnels.  Accidental spillage of hazardous and toxic materials such as: batteries. 3 and 5 which is together over 4900 m³/s against a peak demand for irrigation which lies between 3000. 2.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment during part of the months and has sufficient extra capacity to releases more water for irrigation. Then. However during the closure of Tunnel 3 for a period of three months there will be no power generation possible through this tunnel. which becomes available for irrigation. unless priority has to be given to irrigation releases though the other tunnels in view of the fact that Tunnel 4 cannot be used for irrigation releases. It is possible that there might be some relatively small impact on total power production when Tunnels 1 and 2 have insufficient capacity to make up for the difference. Chemicals. including fish and turtles.  Waste water effluents and sewage water from workshops and construction workers camps. and solids used in construction activities in the tunnels might accidentally be spilled in the reservoir and/or the water downstream of the dam and affect aquatic flora and fauna.5. The construction activities themselves could also have an impact on the quality of the surface water.3 Reduced Power Generation Power generation will not directly be influenced by the construction works. oil. especially on water from the Tarbela Reservoir and the Ghazi Barotha lake. The closure of the tunnel 3 and 4 during construction of the raised intakes could be carried out in a period when the demand for irrigation water is low. In this way the impact on irrigation releases will be minimal. lubricants and chemicals. with a fully filled reservoir also water is spilled from the spillway. cement. The same might be concluded for the other tunnels.5.  Dumping of spoil material. fuel. paints. acids. The conclusion is that all three closures will have no effect on the overall irrigation releases of the Tarbela Reservoir. The most important potential causes are the following:  Increased water turbidity as a result of construction/dismantling of coffer dams and/or dredging. which is during winter. It is not expected that there will be a major reduction of power generation during construction. explosives. WAPDA August 2011 8-14 .July.4 Impacts on Surface Water Quality During construction water quality and flow in the areas immediately upstream and downstream of the inlet and outlet gates might change. There will be no difference in water availability for agriculture. 8.  Runoff from crushed and ground rock material from drilling and blasting.4000 m³/s in the months of June.  Contamination through polluted drainage water emissions in the river during monsoon. This also can be shown by comparing the maximum release capacity of the Tunnels 1.  Run off from dampening systems to control dust emissions.

Drainage Management to avoid and contain any spillage and pollution of the water resources both upstream and downstream of the dam.3 km from the construction site. At construction camps sewage will be pre-treated prior to discharge by installation of septic tanks or a pilot activated treatment plant at sewage generating sources. such as the construction of bunds around oil tanks and storages of chemicals. including right bank and left bank WAPDA colonies. 8. excavation machinery. Fuels and Hazardous Goods Management. and concrete mixing during construction. Noise from blasting with explosives and drilling will be resonated between the valley slopes and the dam and spread over the Ghazi-Barotha reservoir during excavation and construction works with predominant northerly winds and will reach the residential areas.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Construction of coffer dams (one or two are envisaged) can potentially cause increased water turbidity adversely affecting the aquatic life particularly fish. WAPDA August 2011 8-15 . Accidental spills and leakages that may occur during construction at both ends of Tunnel 4 would be avoided by taking proper safety measures. construction site workers are the most likely to be exposed to the potential impact of high noise levels (85 dBA or more) and / or vibration impacts associated with the use of some construction equipment. Space for a new road alignment has to be found and this requires the removal of at least a layer of rock of about 40 meter. Noise will also be generated from activities such as vehicular movement. In order to mitigate water quality impacts in line with Pakistani and World Bank Standards. nutrients (phosphates and nitrates) and pathogens (faecal coliforms) below the standards for effluent discharges to surface waters. but also on water quality of a number of tubewells used for the domestic water supply of the residential areas of the WAPDA colonies as well as by the nearby communities of Topi and Ghazi. ECP 3. Contamination of the surface water of the River would need to be avoided since this could have an impact on fish and aquatic life. Work sites and access roads will be carefully selected so that surface runoff does not enter the river. which are both situated at a distance within 2. Noise and vibration from construction activity may also disturb any wildlife in the area. The contractor(s) will be required to take appropriate measures according to the ECP 2. These will be included within the Wastewater Treatment Plan (which will be submitted to the ESMU/WEC for their review and approval). With regards occupational exposure. Strict monitoring of the water quality is required (ECPs are provided in Annex C).5 Impact of Noise on Workers and Residential Areas The construction of the new powerhouse and the associated works at the right bank will require blasting.5. excavation and reshaping of the steep river terrace slope behind the new powerhouse. A sewage collection system is also envisaged to avoid the spillage of sewage in open areas. Water Resources Management and ECP 4. pre-treatment will be required to maintain net biological oxygen demand (BOD) levels. Mitigation Detailed instructions and guidelines are given in the Environmental Code of Practices (ECP) for the Contractor (see Annex C). which will be part of the general conditions of all the contracts for the T4HP project.

8. Safety. when during 1981-82. Use of explosives may also disturb local population as vibration may be transplanted towards residential areas. Vibration levels during blasting are however expected to be low and within safe limits and are not expected to cause any structural damage to buildings. Mitigation Noise pollution would be restricted to day time periods and levels would be properly monitored. Workers will be instructed in the proper use of equipment and all blasting activities will be properly designed and managed. Access would be restricted during the periods that slope stability is not yet entirely secured and guaranteed by proper safety measures. Currently the upper part of these slopes has developed numerous cracks indicated by the growing of grass. and a maintenance program for all equipment and machinery. These slopes have posed problems in the past. safety nets and other protection measures may have to be applied including proper terracing to reduce the risk of slope failures. and if the noise levels at these locations are beyond the acceptable limits (WB Guidelines and NEQS). The intake area has even better quality rock but also involves creating some large cut rock slopes that could be susceptible to slope failure. WAPDA August 2011 8-16 . rock anchors. The Plan will need to be prepared before/during mobilization. such as rock bolts. Detailed geological rock sampling has revealed that the resistance against slope failure at the powerhouse site is somewhat better than at other places along the valley slope where the collapse occurred. acoustic screening of noisy equipment. Workers in drilling areas would wear suitable ear protection. Slope stability is a critical issue in this part of the river valley as some of these slopes have collapsed in the past. Noise reduction measures will be applied such as: enclosing the powerhouse within a solid structure. Mitigation Slope protection measures.5. The penstock will be buried in a 15 m deep trench and the powerhouse has been designed with sufficient space between it and the slopes.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Blasting with explosive is the most significant source of vibration as it can trigger landslides. Environment and Social (HSES) Plan. Particularly during monsoon periods and during earthquakes there might be increased risk of such incidents. which may occur during excavation and blasting works. these cracks do not seem to pose an immediate threat to the existing slopes. However.6 Risk of Landslides and Collapse of Slope during Construction The new powerhouse to be constructed is designed between the toe of the steep slope of the river terrace and the existing infrastructure of the project. The contractor is required to include safety measures in a Health. Extreme care needs to be exercised to protect workers and the public from the dangers of sudden landslides. Precautionary measures shall however be required while dealing with or disturbing these cut slopes. and submitted to ESMU/WEC for their review and approval. The rock cut slopes of the outlet area consist of numerous benches or berms over a height of about 150 m. Noise monitoring at the residential colonies will be required. Mitigation measures for operational noise impacts on workers will include standard occupational health and safety practices such as hearing protection. appropriate mitigation measures such as noise barriers will need to be employed. Detailed guidelines are given in ECP 9 for Noise and Vibration management. which seem to have been stabilized. large slides occurred and repair works were continued up to 1984.

Regular monitoring and updating of the traffic plan is required. conduct a Risk Assessment. cushion blasting will be the method applied. 8. tunnels and powerhouse. sand. which is used by WAPDA staff. This system will not be of use in unpredictable scenarios. Extreme care will be taken in designing the blasting pattern and blasting will be controlled so as to avoid disturbance of nearby slopes where stability is in a critical condition. glass strips positioned strategically across key areas. During the monsoon season there will be extra vigilance during excessive rainfalls to identify any potential risk of rock stability or landslide in the borrow areas. Mitigation Guidelines to minimize and avoid hindrance and to improve safety on roads are given in ECP 13 on Road Transport and Road Traffic Management. Use of heavy machinery. and prepare an Emergency Response Plan (ERP) to ensure that all existing project infrastructures have been adequately assessed prior to any excavation activity (ERP will need to be submitted to the Supervision Consultants/ESMU for their review and approval). Also associated safety hazards have to be considered. Many of the local roads are not designed for carrying heavy traffic and this may result in considerable damage to local roads.5. Should a breakage occur. Early warning systems will be introduced that will indicate when cracks appear and allow any widening to be monitored. blasting material and blasting technique will be carefully considered and the methodology will contain a stability analysis for a suitable factor of safety (FOS). a safe and well protected bypass would be provided and alternative transportation would be offered free of charge along the other embankment (detour of approximately 12 km).Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Prior to the construction the Contractor will submit Method Statements. In particular. workers and their families. When the road between dam and right bank colony is closed. These transports will cause traffic congestions and hindrance on the narrow roads towards and in the project area. it will be stabilized by pre-designed support systems such as shotcrete. The system will use numbered. large quantities of concrete. attention will be paid to the safety of the existing dam. In addition. mesh and rock bolts prior to drilling the next riser for excavation.7 Hindrance and Road Damage by Transport of Materials over Land The powerhouse components and other equipment to be installed will be transported to the site. especially in the busy commercial centers of the cities of Topi and Ghazi. Where there are confinement issues. These will be monitored on a weekly basis for any breakage. During excavations the concerned slopes will be stabilized and excavation started from the top then gradually working down the slope. Damage to local roads would be repaired by the contractor and where feasible bypasses will have to be used or constructed. Closure of road between dam and WAPDA right bank colony due to excavation and construction of the powerhouse can seriously affect commuting traffic along the right bank of the Ghazi Barotha lake. the gap will be measured and monitored for any widening that will provide an early warning of a potential landslide. such as earthquakes. After blasting a riser. These impacts would be partly mitigated by preparing and implementing an adequate traffic management plan. WAPDA August 2011 8-17 . steel and rock and other building materials will have to be transported during construction.

Mitigation Dumping of construction material would be avoided in areas which have dense vegetation. especially from fuels and hazardous goods is crucial to minimize impact on the environment. Also in the construction yards and workshops management of wastes. Other migrating birds will react on sudden noise by flying up and away. The contractor will be responsible to control hunting and poaching by the workers. in accordance with the ECP 1 Waste Management. The plans will set out the designated waste disposal site(s) and associated management controls. especially waders will avoid the staging places. Species will shift temporarily into the surrounding areas during project interventions and will progressively return following construction. Guidelines to be followed by the Contactor are given in ECP 10. Protection of Fauna and ECP 12 Protection of fisheries. also to prevent conflicts with resident population accommodated in the nearby colonies. such as shallow mud flats in the Ghazi-Barotha reservoir during construction periods. chemical and hazardous wastes and untreated sewage water with serious health risks. Site offices. Migrating birds. especially birds. Fish and aquatic fauna such as turtles will also be affected by noise during construction. The Contractor would provide adequate knowledge to the workers regarding protection of flora and fauna and the ban on illegal poaching and undertaking any other hunting activity.8 Disturbance of Fauna and Quality of Habitat by Increased Human Activities Movement of people and equipment. No permanent impact is expected provided their staging places are kept intact and no dredging activities are carried out downstream of the dam. Mitigation The contractor(s) will be required to prepare Waste Management Plans. reducing the quality of habitat for wildlife.9 Soil and Water Pollution by Solid and Hazardous Wastes and Waste effluents from Labor Camps and Construction Yards With an expected influx of 2500 workers for implementation of the project there is a need for a proper infrastructure for solid waste management and handling and treatment of waste and sewage water. All fish is expected to move away from the construction areas. Protection of flora. It is preferable to select suitable dumping areas in consideration of those locations which are not preferred for faunal habitation. The Plans will be submitted to ESMU/WEC for their review and approval. WAPDA August 2011 8-18 .5. 8. building and construction activities is likely to disturb faunal population. ECP 2 Fuels and Hazardous Goods and ECP 15 Construction Camp Management – before mobilization. Monitoring of the plan implementation will also be carried out. labor camps and barracks would be provided with adequate infrastructure and services in order to prevent pollution by solid waste and waste effluents. Both are very sensitive for vibrations and loud noise. Management and disposal of all kind of wastes and waste water would need to be well organized. Without adequate provisions there will be a high risk of severe soil and water pollution by organic. However it is expected that they will return to the shallow banks in the river after construction works are completed.5.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment 8. ECP 11. There will be a Waste Management Plan for solid and hazardous wastes and one for wastewater.

and water sprinkling would be carried out as appropriate. and road construction. The removal of herbaceous vegetation and loosening of the top soil generally causes soil erosion. cement mixing. NOx. It is recommended to establish a nursery with selected tree species (a.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment 8.5. Dust generation from construction sites would be restricted as much as possible. Mitigation In selecting the location for labor camps. Machinery and vehicles causing excess pollution would be banned from the project. especially near the population centers and WAPDA colonies.11 Removal of Natural Vegetation Trees and bushes will have to be removed from the construction area for the new power plant. A tree plantation plan would be prepared for compensation of lost trees and beautification of the landscape around the Dam. dumping sites. The main effect on air quality during construction is caused by increased dust and emission levels from construction machinery. Uncontrolled movement of heavy machinery used for setting up labor camps. These negative impacts will mainly be restricted to the Right Bank Colony which is in close proximity to some of the construction sites and to areas adjacent to the road. rock blasting. medicinal trees) in the beginning of the project in order to produce sufficient quantity of 4-5 year old trees with a girth of 10 cm or more for replanting. Exhaust gasses and dust caused by moving vehicles. 8.o. The construction activities will generate airborne dust as well as CO. Also the vegetation of the proposed area of the extended switchyard. the associated facilities and along the right bank access road. labor camps and machinery parks. stores and batching plant areas with thick and dense vegetation will be avoided as far as possible. batching plant operations. which is currently a wetland covered with low bushes and grasses will have to be removed to create an artificial platform within the Ghazi-Barotha lake. Mitigation Guidelines how to prevent and mitigate air quality impacts are given in ECP 8. excavated areas. workshops. vehicle and generator emissions will negatively affect air quality and dust levels. SOx and PM10 however.10 Impacts of Emissions of Gasses and Dust on Air Quality Earth moving activities. excavation. Such impacts will be primarily confined to the project sites and during initial periods of construction and need to be minimized by adopting appropriate mitigation measures.5. Air Quality Management. These emissions and dust is a nuisance for people and animals and can form a health hazard. stockyards. Some vegetation will have to be removed at sites used for borrowing materials and for disposal. wind blown sand and dust from construction activities can be blown in residential areas and grazing areas and will cause a nuisance to the local population and animals. these emissions will be mainly restricted to the project site. WAPDA August 2011 8-19 . Important is that the Contractor fits all vehicles and machinery with proper exhaust systems and emission control devices. Air quality would be properly monitored. batching plant and other project facilities might cause considerable damage to natural vegetation. Trees would be planted at the end of the construction period.

The proper type of markers would be determined in consultation with nature conservation organizations like IUCN or BirdLife International.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment 8.4 Bird Collision with Transmission Cables It is expected that the connection between the new powerhouse and the extended switchyard will be by 500 kV transmission lines supported by transmission towers erected within the tailrace of the tunnel outlets. but only on the right side of the valley. acoustic screening of noisy equipment. droughts. Especially for birds with a large wingspan such as storks. 8. 8.1 Potential Impacts on Irrigation Water Releases The operation of the powerhouse on tunnel 4 will not adversely affect the irrigation releases from the Tarbela reservoir.6. The location of the power house in a complex geological setting and below a steep hill consisting of rocks of variable composition requires frequent monitoring of slope stability. Although it is expected that most flocks of bird follow the axis of the valley or pass along the left bank where no obstacles are found (except the high dam). 8.6. However it is expected that this will be within acceptable limits (far below NEQS and WB standards).6.3 Operational Noise from New Power Station The new power station will produce noise during operation. Mitigation to prevent or reduce the number of bird fatalities is possible by attaching markers to the cables on places where many birds are passing through the Indus valley.5 Increased Maintenance Activities Regular maintenance activities will be carried out. since the reservoir will continue to be operated under its standard operating procedures through which irrigation water demands are met. Mitigation measures for operational noise impacts on workers will include standard occupational health and safety practices such as hearing protection. by operating a mix of tunnels 1-5 and the two spillways. The transmission cables will be hanging almost perpendicular to the flight direction of migrating bird. and a maintenance program for all equipment and machinery. depending upon the water availability in the reservoir. subsurface flows and erosion would be inspected at regular intervals. It is recommended to restrict these activities as much as possible to day time. Also the quality and adequacy of the measures to stabilize and protect the slope against gravitational gliding. such as heavy monsoon rains.6.6 Impacts during Operation and Maintenance 8. 8. WAPDA August 2011 8-20 . and frost.6. the situation would be frequently monitored during migration. herons and birds of prey there is a risk of bird collision with cables. cranes. but caused by extreme weather conditions or exceptional events such as earthquakes. although these will not be a direct impact of the project. since adequate noise reduction measures have been applied such as: enclosing the powerhouse within a solid structure. especially during and after extreme or abnormal weather conditions.2 Risks of Landslides during Extreme Weather Conditions Landslides might occur during operation of the project. Huge flocks of migrating birds follow the Indus valley fly-way twice a year in autumn and in spring passing the Tarbela Dam.

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment 8. At this point of time in future the lower intake will be taken out of use. The tunnel part from the low level intake will have to be plugged and for this operation the tunnel has to be closed. WAPDA August 2011 8-21 .6 Reduced Power Generation during Closure of Low Level Intake Tunnel 3 and 4 The low level intakes of Tunnel 3 and 4 would be retained and operated till it becomes too risky to operate them any longer. Continued sedimentation might cause blockage of the tunnel gate. but possibly there will be some impact on total power generation of the plant.6. When this operation is scheduled in winter there will be no impact on irrigation releases.

 Considerations regarding health.1. Associated social enhancement measures however could increase or distribute the benefits of the project.  Possible disturbances and inconveniences to local population. based on consultations with various stakeholders. The likely social impacts under the project. Direct adverse social impacts are expected to be marginal given the nature and the design of the project.2 Summary of Assessed Impacts 1.1 General With the existing design and the layout of the operations. All construction operations will take place within existing fenced off WAPDA areas.  Increased exposure to risks. safety and security. such as land acquisition. Potential impacts or opportunities for enhancement of consequences of the project can be found in the following areas:  Employment during construction. safety and wellbeing of construction workers. These measures are identified in the following sections.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment 9 Potential Social Impacts and their Mitigations 9. both positive and negative will all be related to construction operations.  Potential opportunities to assist local communities. The project’s potential social impacts and their significance have been assessed using the methodology described in Section 8.2. There will be no additional inundation or land acquisition necessary. 9. WAPDA August 2011 9-1 . The project will use the existing reservoir and tunnel. involuntary resettlement and impacts upon indigenous people. such as health. the project is not expected to have direct social safeguard impacts. A summary of these impacts and their significance is presented in Table 9.

and working and living conditions • Labor grievance mechanism in place Operation • Safety hazards for public Construction Low Medium Moderate Moderate Low beneficial Moderate adverse • Adherence to WAPDA’s environmental management and human resource policies and procedures • Good siting of temporary accommodation Moderate beneficial Slight adverse • Traffic management plan addressing general access and women’s mobility • Blasting procedures in place • Safety and security actions and procedures to protect local community • Procurement strategy in Workers’ Accommodation Plan for preventing pressures on local markets for goods and services required for keeping construction labour force healthy and well • CLO active and project performance grievance mechanism in place • Implementation of social assistance program • Resettlement Construction - - No impacts predicted • Health. workforce management.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Table 9. • Project commitment to workers’ rights - Negligible • Workers’ Code of Conduct 9-2 .1: Significance of Social Impacts Impacts Phase Sensitivity Magnitude Significance Prior Mitigation and Enhancement Measure to Mitigation and Residual Significance Enhancement Social Legacy Pre- Medium Moderate Moderate Adverse Medium Moderate Moderate beneficial construction Employment generation Construction • Outstanding cases will be resolved. • Local priority preference • Workers’ code of conduct Negligible Major beneficial • Occupational H+S organized and managed to international standards to address inherent Project risks and unanticipated emergencies • Monitoring of labor rights. funds allocated in the Project cost. Safety and Well-being of Workers WAPDA August 2011 Construction Medium Moderate Moderate adverse • Principles and procedures for resettlement planning identified in SIMF.

WAPDA August 2011 Low adverse Negligible 9-3 . visitor procedures and registration.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Impacts Phase Sensitivity Magnitude Significance Prior Mitigation and Enhancement Measure to Mitigation and Residual Significance Enhancement • Health and Safety Plan and procedures and Operation • Workers’ Accommodation Plan • Training Program • Community health. signage) • Security staff training • Safeguards and awareness raising against communicable diseases. Respect of local cultural norms and values by work force Construction Medium Moderate Moderate adverse • Awareness raising program for workers Increased load on local services and supplies Construction Medium Moderate Moderate adverse • Contractor to procure camp supplies in a manner not affecting availability of essential commodities. security and well-being Construction Medium Moderate Moderate adverse and Operation • Traffic Management Plan (including provisions for female mobility) Low adverse • Equipment and personnel safeguarding activities (fencing. safety.

4. given the possibility that the contractors may propose changes in its construction operation plan. The land is currently uninhabited and has low productivity value.4 Impacts and Opportunities during Construction Stage 9. No land acquisition and resettlement impacts for the main construction site are anticipated. Local communities in the region have requested to provide employment preferences to those already living near the project.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment 9. The land required for expanding the switchyard and upgrading the access roads is also unused. WAPDA August 2011 9-4 . tree planting. However. the number of new business opportunities will be limited since the project area is a restricted area. Employing construction workers and other staff from the region will offer an opportunity to create local employment. health services and other supporting services. The SIMF provides a guideline for such planning efforts. For a number of jobs qualified people from other regions of Pakistan will have to be attracted. This could be done through regular updates in the local newspapers and other media. They have high expectations of the employment opportunities generated by the project. No known archaeological or cultural heritage remains exist on the parcels of land intended for use. In an area with a relatively high percentage of unemployment the project will certainly attract a number of job seekers and followers. increase the local skill base and provide a boost to the local economy. Mitigation/compensation The project is not expecting to have any land impacts such as land acquisition or lease. technicians and employees.3. In this unlikely event these lands will be purchased or leased on a normal commercial basis.3 Impacts during Pre-Construction Stage 9. Women can be organized in female working groups to undertake discrete construction tasks. it is important that the project provides adequate and realistic information on the opportunities the project would offer. Site reviews and discussion within WAPDA also indicate that WAPDA has plenty of lands of its own available in the immediate and surrounding areas. For operation of the new power plant and associated facilities about 300 permanent employees will have to be recruited. which is only accessible for employees of WAPDA and related services and their families.1 Employment Opportunities during Construction The total work force employed during five years of construction has been estimated at 2500 people. This includes unskilled and skilled labor. there is a remote possibility that additional lands may be required outside the control area.1 Land Impacts WAPDA owns the land where the Tunnel 4 activities will take place and the infrastructure built. In order not to advocate too high expectations which could lead to social unrest. 9. These are sufficient to meet the needs of any additional land requirements. Local affected people including women should be encouraged to take up construction employment. However. Moreover they expect an important in-migration of people from the region. the creation of new business opportunities and other economic benefits.

how preference will be given to local population. the Contractors are required to:  Adopt a Human Resource Policy appropriate to the size and workforce which indicates the approach for management employees (this could be part requested in the tender process). will develop an implementation plan for hiring for construction employment. The contractors.  Ensuring no workers are charged fees to gain employment on the Project.4. terms of employment conditions and benefits. including the full range of benefits. as part of the construction operation plan. pre-job training arrangements. 9. as part of the construction operation plan. The construction contractor/s would not hire people under the age of 18 on permanent contracts but would include short training activities for youth to the extent possible.  Produce job descriptions and provide written contracts and other information that outline the working conditions and terms of employment. The plan will detail the steps of laying down employment criteria. Mitigation and enhancement measures The contractor(s) would observe and apply the following standards and requirements:  Observing statutory requirements relating to minimum age for employment of children and meeting international standards of not employing any persons under the age of 16 for general work and no persons under the age of 18 for work involving hazardous activity. following the abovementioned principles. how employment information will be disclosed locally including job descriptions. consultations with local government and WAPDA over the implementation of this plan.  Ensuring rigorous standards for occupational health and safety are in place (see below). for review and endorsement.  Ensuring acceptable conditions of work including by observing national statutory requirements related to minimum wages and hours of work.  Provide insurance for accidents resulting in disabilities or death of employees for the duration of their contracts WAPDA August 2011 9-5 . who would be responsible for implementing and monitoring this plan. In addition to the above commitments. WAPDA has developed a set of principles and requirements for the contractors to follow during construction. This plan will be submitted to WAPDA.  Having the Contractor establish a labor grievance mechanism and documenting its use for complaints about unfair treatment or unsafe living or working conditions without reprisal.2 Construction Workers’ Rights The project will provide an opportunity to ensure policy and procedural consistency in the implementation of the project with international labor standards related to workers’ rights and obligations.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Mitigation The contractors will be responsible for the hiring for the construction needs.  Provide health insurance for employees for the duration of their contracts.

Worker Health and Safety. and to prevent further environmental degradation a Code of Conduct will be developed for the labor force.  Report regularly on labor and working condition key performance indicators. e. for instance hours worked (regular and overtime) during period and cumulatively. fuel-wood and electricity. transmission line materials.  Careful use of local natural resources and project resources. poaching or illicit use of local natural resources. Details are given in ECP 17.  Organize a training program and keep training registers for construction workers. procedures and training.  Hold toolbox talks on workers’ rights and the labor grievance mechanisms during the construction phase. Mitigation The Code of Conduct recognizes the provision of resources by the employer and shares responsibilities among the workers for the use of equipment. Workers also might misbehave or get involved in illegal practices.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment  Develop a recruitment process community employees that involves local authorities in clearly understood procedures. WAPDA August 2011 9-6 .  Employ a community liaison officer (this could be full time or part of another post’s responsibilities).4. and use of labor grievance mechanism. site audits and meetings.  Raise awareness prior to recruitment. and location source of workers (for instance from Swabi and Haripur Districts. including gender. In order to contribute to a harmonious relationship with local communities. fuel.  Respect for the local community and its cultural norms in which laborers are working. Typical issues to be included in a Code of Conduct are the following:  No hunting. 9.  Safe driving practices. trainings.  Establish Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) procedures in the overall environmental management system which provide workers with a safe and healthy work environment taking into account the inherent risks for this type of project. especially water.  Restrictions related to consumption of alcohol and drugs.g. number and type of accidents. poaching or hunting. to reduce behaviors that could lead to social conflict. from KP. near misses.3 Prevention of Social Conflicts and Environmental Degradation: Development of Workers’ Code of Conduct The influx of a large construction force may easily lead to social conflicts with the local population. clarifying the local hire policy and procedures.  Report regularly on the labor force profile. including identification of opportunities for women to participate in employment and training. from outside the Province). hours lost.

working near water or at height and more. Training and drills based on the accident and emergency preparedness and response plan must be carried out quarterly with workers and local health authorities. The health screening would entail normal review of physical fitness and also include a review of appropriate vaccinations. Health and safety aspects will therefore need to be considered in all project activities in order to reduce the risk of accidents and illness. First aid must be provided and there would be procedures in place to access appropriate emergency facilities. vehicular traffic. This plan will be submitted to WAPDA and World Bank for review and approval. Training requirements. OHS issues need to be covered more frequently than normal in toolbox talks. lifting and handling of heavy equipment.  Public awareness training and workshops on safety and health risks will be conducted for local communities prior and during construction operations. OHS issues would be part of the employee training plan.  Health screening of employees would be a Contractor obligation prior to laborers working on site and living in the temporary accommodation facilities. Training would include the provision of appropriate written or visual materials to reinforce learning. This plan will be submitted to WAPDA and World Bank for review and approval. for instance in relation to extreme heat will be required. Management procedures to address temperature stress.  Hazards require staff training. Signage related to hazards and risks must be in place at the work sites.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment 9. All employees need to carry out induction health and safety training prior to commencement of work. including for emergency preparedness. Workers would be given vaccinations where required.  All workers must be provided with and use appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE).4 Increased Health and Safety Risks The T4HP project is a complicated technical project with a number of risks and hazards. Mitigation Mitigation measures will include the following: Provisions to be included in contracts:  Each contractor will establish a comprehensive Health and Safety Plan aimed at preventing accidents. WAPDA August 2011 9-7 . will need to be updated annually. use of hazardous substances.  An emergency response team and plan must be identified.  Contractors will be responsible for developing procedures to address the OHS hazards. These activities may pose health and safety hazards to the workers at site during the use of explosives. It is essential that all personnel likely to be involved in the Project at the construction site undergo a basic training program prior to performing assigned work.4. operating machinery and electrical equipment. Where illiteracy levels are high. injuries and work-related diseases.  Each contractor will prepare an Emergency Response Plan defining procedures to be followed during any emergency. excavation works and backfilling operations. The construction activities will involve operations of heavy construction machinery.

The safety plan will include at least the following:  Basic OHS awareness training. Traffic Management Plan A Traffic Management Plan will need to be produced. and directives for notification of proper authorities in the event of accidents (either human or release of pollutants). working in confined spaces. This plan will be submitted to WAPDA and World Bank for review. falling objects.  Basic first aid.  Familiarization with the fire protection system and emergency response plan (basic fire fighting training).  Due to increased use of trucks and other vehicles on the narrow roads in the project area on the access roads to the urban areas elderly people.5 Construction Disturbances and Possible Conflicts with Local Population The Project construction activities to be carried out near the local communities may cause disturbance and possible conflicts between the work force and the local population. women and children will be more exposed to dangerous situations. especially for elderly people. and dealing with hazardous materials. and. environmental monitoring requirements.  The influx and accommodation of a relatively large work force will result in increased concerns for the safety of women and children. migrant labor force could disturb the privacy of the local population. use of heavy machinery and intensive traffic.  There might be noise and dust pollution due to blasting. which may lead to traffic accidents and unrest. In addition. The mobility of women might be reduced. Driving behavior. movement of plant equipment.  Importance of PPE.  A regular emergency response drill for the identified hazards. This could be a hindrance for the local population.  Standard operation procedures for handling accidents related to electrocution. health and safety rules. 9. such as adhering to driving and speeding laws and use of mobile phones. They will have limited access to alternative routes unless WAPDA August 2011 9-8 .  Detailed briefing on the main hazards identified above. will be addressed in toolbox talks. good housekeeping.  Workers coming from different parts of Pakistan may have different norms and values in social behavior as compared with the resident population.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Safety Plan Contractors will prepare safety plan as part of their operational plan. Miscommunications between these two groups could easily lead to social unrest.  There could be shortage of supplies in local markets and shops due to the temporary presence of a large workforce. falls from height. People particularly women and children in the Right Bank Colony will be most affected and it is a tiny community.4.

5. the project plans to support the following community schemes from a long list of requests:  Updating the registration process so that villagers in Khabbal. alternate routes would be identified for women. 9. WAPDA August 2011 9-9 . A Project grievance mechanism will be established. 9. Hence.  Constructing three basic health units to improve the access of local people to dispensaries in the villages of Darra Mohat. if unavoidable. Shortage of supplies could be mitigated by requesting Contractor to procure their supplies in a manner not significantly affecting the availability of essential commodities in the area for residents. they are addressed separately in a study of the situation and action plan that remain under consideration. These communities have been identified and extensive consultations were carried out with the community members during the social assessment to understand their views and recommendations for the project. After screening. Nonetheless. Ghari Mera and Kukar Chawa have security passes to facilitate easier access to their homes. The Contractor will be required to appoint someone to have community liaison officer (CLO) responsibilities to be a point of contact for stakeholders. It will need to be developed in consultation with local leaders/elders of the community and include reference to mobility and access through the construction area in such a way that all females feel comfortable. Effects may be seasonal and weather dependent.  Assigning WAPDA male and female medical officers already working in the WAPDA hospital to visit bi. Ghari Mera and Pontian.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment provided by the Project. Special consideration would be taken to avoid routes used by women and. WAPDA has developed an out-reach program to provide social assistance to the communities in the immediate vicinity of the project construction areas.weekly the nearby hamlets of Ghazi and Pehur where dispensaries already exist.1 Community Development Assistance As a good practice in large infrastructure projects and a continuation of traditional practice in WAPDA operations. The consultations also covered people’s expectations. Mitigation The Contractor will be required to develop a Traffic Management Plan. their community priorities as well as potential schemes that the project may support. The CLO will be responsible for logging complaints and comments and ensuring their timely investigation and response.5 Social Assistance Program The social assistance program includes enhancement activities to address community development needs and to a limited extent project legacy from previous projects. the Contractor will need to have a monitoring system in place and as necessary procedures may be required to limit the time frame and frequency of blasting to minimize negative effects on community members and their livestock. Blasting is another disturbance which may require attention. The main legacy issues focus on outstanding resettlement claims and although referenced below. the impact of the Project on women’s mobility is considered to be an adverse impact.

and Topi area to minimize water born diseases in the project area. Kukar Chawa. The cost of the assistance program is estimated with input from design engineers and market rates. 9. implemented 1968-76) and (ii) the Ghazi Barotha Hydro Power project (GBHPP.  Addressing women’s concerns including: (i) supply of equipment and teaching staff in industrial school (already exists at Right Bank Colony). For GBHPP there are 404 pending court cases regarding compensation or land possession. The settlement of outstanding claims has been included as an activity to be implemented under the T4HP project.2 Addressing the Social Legacy of Previous Projects There is a certain social legacy of two earlier projects: (i) the Tarbela Dam Project (TDP.000 ha of mainly agricultural land. Ghazi Hamlet. Some of these cases are very complex. (v) welfare bazaar in schools. (ii) recruitment of a gynecologist at Pehur and Ghazi Hamlets. one boys high school at Pehur Hamlet and other at Girls school at Pehur Hamlet. From both projects a number of claims are not yet solved thus far. Topi area and Pehur Hamlet. (iv) provision of computer equipment for computer classes.000 people and land acquisition and compensation for the loss of about 27. implemented in 1995-2005). WAPDA is exploring options of its delivering mechanisms.  Constructing a primary school at Pehur hamlet (it currently is working at the residence of Government employees).  Providing water treatment or hygienic water drinking schemes in Darra Mohat. (vi) sewing machines. A Claim Negotiation and Settlement Committee will be established with a mandate for eight months to design and implement an out of court resolution mechanism to negotiate and resolve the outstanding claims. To resolve the outstanding issues an approach has been worked out to address these claims in a speedier and better manner. (vii) cooking classes and English language classes in the evening. These will be further discussed and finalized in consultation with local communities. including contracting local NGOs. The cost contingency is included in the overall project budget.5. The cost is still indicative and will be revised with detailed design information in consultation with local communities. It turned out that in a majority of cases the affected people are willing to resolve these cases out of court. These projects included a huge resettlement operation affecting 96.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment  Providing essential medicines to the existing and proposed dispensaries. From TDP there are still 40 outstanding claims for compensation or possession of land outstanding in different courts. The total cost is estimated at PKR 104 million (equivalent to US$ 1.  Providing sewage schemes for the villages Ghazi Hamlet.5 million.  Supporting existing schools with furniture. (iii) upgrading of middle school to secondary level at Pehur Hamlet.  Rehabilitation of a drainage system in the existing Drain near Topi and Pehur Hamlet.22 million). WAPDA August 2011 9-10 . An assessment was conducted of the pending claims by the Design Consultants. The total costs of this operation amount to US$ 12.

the rivers do not have surplus water to store after meeting the ecological requirements of the delta region and coastal zone. many of which are very controversial. This resource is now reaching its limit and further withdrawals are not possible without serious mining and extraordinary cost of pumping. Pakistan has been trying to build a dam on the Indus River at Kalabagh (downstream from Tarbela) for quite some time: studies have been conducted since 1953 and in 1986 the designs were completed. about equal amount of irrigation water comes from the groundwater wells. Pakistan once again faces numerous water-related challenges. with first priority given to the Diamer-Basha Dam.65 MAF) of additional storage. this is much less than the storage lost in sedimentation of the two reservoirs: Mangla and Tarbela. as elsewhere. The 2001-2010 average canal diversions have now been reduced to 116. Pakistan successfully overcame major water resources challenges and made great achievements – tackling the issues resulting from the 1947 partition of the sub-continent and division of the Indus waters. 10.2 Plans for Storage Reservoirs Pakistan has raised the level of the Mangla Dam on the Jhelum River. coupled with the looming threat of climate change. some believe that. However they have declined now due to reduced storage because of sedimentation and several other factors such state of the infrastructure and a sequence of dry years. Also the hydrology of Jhelum River would allow filling of this storage about four out of five years. In Punjab. which is recharged by the surface water system.608 Mm3 (8. Further increase is only possible with heavy investment in storage dams on the Indus River. To meet increasing food production demands. and the reduction is primarily in the rabi (winter: OctoberMarch) season by about 10. However.269 Mm3 (2. however. The other source of water Pakistan has tapped is groundwater.564 Mm3 (94. These challenges are increasing water stress. building large dams is a very contentious issue in Pakistan. After a heated technical and political debate over several years.6 MAF).516 Mm3 (105 MAF). with limited additional water resources that can be mobilized.1 Cumulative Impact of Investments in the Indus Basin Water System In the second half of the twentieth century. This is because the diversions are close to full potential supplies of the rivers and declining water storage capacity in the reservoirs due to siltation directly affected the flows during Rabi for irrigation. Since the 1980s. Pakistan has been trying to build new storage for years.5MAF). This provides about 3. 4 Diamer-Basha. apart from a few years of extraordinary floods.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment 10 Cumulative and Induced Impacts 10. Post Tarbela canal diversions reached as high as 129. as well as from extensive water logging and salinity. Pakistan has been expanding the surface water supplies to the Indus Basin Irrigation system over time by capturing more water from the rivers. the groundwater aquifers have supplied increasing amount of water for irrigation in areas underlain by the fresh groundwater. and Kurram Tangi dam. Munda dam on the Swat river.a tributary of the Kabul river. on the Kurram river. However. WAPDA August 2011 10-1 . Today Pakistan has the largest contiguous irrigation system in the world. Akhori dams on the Indus. the Government announced in January 2006 that five dams4 would be constructed by 2015. Also. Kalabagh.

The original delta of the river is on its left side. Given the construction period for the Diamer-Basha Dam. The erratic flow instead of regular flow each year is less beneficial for the river and delta below Kotri Barrage. 10. these rivers were given for full use of India and there were dams and link canals built upstream in India to fully utilize this water including the flood flows (the Treaty had no provision of environmental flows from these rivers). around which irrigated agriculture is carried out by diverting water from the last barrage on the Indus River namely the Kotri Barrage. Thus the Indus Delta has seen a continuous change in its hydrology and ecology over the past one hundred years or so. The estimates are that Basha would hold 35 years of sediment in its dead and live storage before it starts to pass down towards Tarbela. Thus it would extend the life of Tarbela Project by 35 years. There was a pronounced impact also after the Indus Treaty of 1960 when flood flows of three rivers-. as the development of the Indus Basin Water System (IBWS) proceeded and extraction from the river started increasing. starting from the Gudu Barrage to the sea. Water is generally released in years of floods and extraordinary quantities go down to the sea. as is the case of many mature rivers in the world.the Ravi. construction could not proceed. and that it has not started yet. These embankments are placed about 16 km (10 miles) apart.including the river’s delta and coastal zone . but it is not strictly followed. Average outflow to the sea from Kotri Barrage has been about 46. as well as of the Ghazi-Brotha Power plant which relies on water supplies from Tarbela Dam.through appropriate structural and non-structural measures. In the case of the Indus River. At this stage. because of a rise in sediment transport. 10. such as Diamer-Basha. whereas in other years flows are close to zero.480 Mm3 (92 MAF). Sutlej and Beas-.4 MAF) would barely make up for lost reservoir capacity.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment The construction of Kalabagh Dam. The Indus River in Sindh. It is also working on some run of the river hydropower plants upstream of Tarbela such as Dasu Hydropower Project.that ultimately discharged in Indus River were lost. measures for retention and/or safe disposal of drainage. thus changing the characteristics and ecology of the area.626 Mm3 (37. Delta and Coastal Zone Under the Sindh Water Sector Improvement Project (WSIP).4 Preparation of a Master Plan for the Left Bank of Indus. storm WAPDA August 2011 10-2 . The interprovincial Water Accord of 1991 has a provision for ecological flows to be released downstream from Kotri Barrage. embankments to contain the river were constructed in 1901. The Indus River meanders in a belt contained by these embankments. flows on a ridge. located downstream of Tarbela could not proceed due to interprovincial water allocation issues. the World Bank is assisting the Government of Sindh (GoSindh) to prepare a regional master plan for addressing the flooding issues and providing proper drainage to the area on the left bank of the Indus River . but the impacts have become more pronounced as the canal diversions upstream increased.516 Mm3 (105 MAF) in the future is unlikely.894 Mm3 (6. The dams upstream would have positive impact on Tarbela as the upstream dams would trap the sediments thus extending the life of Tarbela Reservoir. while minimum is zero and maximum is 113. the delta and coastal zone have been receiving lower volumes of water.3 Impact Downstream and on Delta and Coastal Zone From 1900 onwards. Pakistan is focusing on the dams upstream of Tarbela. and close to the delta and sea.8 MAF) mostly in summer. the dam with a live storage capacity of 7. Thus the increasing average annual canal water diversions back to 129.

A substantial part if the losses are in the watercourse command (over 40 percent) and with flood irrigation in the field.7 Role of Project in Cumulative Impacts No major projects are likely to be undertaken at or around the TDP site concurrent to the T4HP.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment and flood water. no construction related cumulative impacts are likely to take place in the area. and high efficiency irrigation system (HEIS) would be introduced such as drip irrigation. Therefore. The program would start in Punjab and then be expanded to other provinces. The irrigation efficiency of surface system is about 3540 percent. which is the main food machine for Pakistan. WAPDA is planning to undertake other hydroelectric projects on Indus River upstream of Tarbela. However. and the country has enough resources/infrastructure catering to the construction material needs of these projects. Pakistan has been increasing surface water diversion and also tapping groundwater both of which are reaching their limits. 10. and an analysis and design of solutions. The downstream area is already seeing the impact of increased sediment flow as the trap efficient of the Tarbela reservoir is reducing. improvement of wetlands in the delta area and in the coastal zone. could potentially have the following adverse cumulative impacts: i) cumulative vehicular traffic on the approach roads. substantial quantities of water would only come from cutting down losses in the irrigation system. 10. which offer a great potential source of water. The estimates of the water quantity that could become available with 10 percent point increase in water efficiency in watercourse and commands is more than two dams on the Indus River. This would also help to develop plans for eventual movement of sediment downstream once the reservoir is filled. iii) cumulative demand on construction labor. if carried out concurrent to the T4HP. In the future.6 Improving Irrigation Efficiencies With increasing population and development. and iv) cumulative safety hazards and restricted movement for the local population. 10. These four phased studies are to be carried out in consultation with the stakeholders starting from the beginning to the end of the process covering the identification of the issues. including Dasu and Basha dams. recognizing their environmental importance and considerable economic potential for local communities.5 Sediment Management Plan for the Basin and Tarbela Under the Water Capacity Building Project (WCAP) the World Bank is also assisting the Government of Pakistan and WAPDA to understand the sediment management issues for the basin and at Tarbela Dam. This would start a new era of water conservation and productivity that would hopefully reduce pressure on scarce water resources by using the existing resources more efficiently. To address these issues. water demand is expected to continue to increase in the Indus Basin. As shown above. ii) cumulative demand on construction materials and borrow areas. The construction of these projects. none of these impacts are likely to take place since the sites and approach routes of these future projects are well away from Tarbela. the Bank is assisting the government to start an irrigated agriculture productivity improvement program under which watercourse would be improved to reduce the delivery losses. WAPDA August 2011 10-3 . The drip systems have about 90 percent efficiency in delivering water and also the other nutrients which are washed away or leached down under flood irrigation.

localized social unrest or increased conflicts due to the migrated labor force. Downstream. the life of the Tarbela would be extended even more. The energy of this water. Some localized impacts. If upstream dams materialize. the future is making water use more efficient and timely delivery of water to maximize crop production. oil or gas if installed instead of this plant would generate substantial greenhouse gases and pollution.8 Possible Induced Impact Analysis of the induced impacts resulting from the project clearly shows minimal impacts due mainly to the nature and scope of works. The water which is currently spilled through the spillway (loses its energy in the structures downstream)5 would be diverted to the Tunnel 4 where it would pass through the three 470 MW turbines and generate electricity which would be transmitted to the unified common grid. which will be more of social disturbance nature. which is otherwise wasted in the spillway structure. The Tarbela would continue to perform that role in future by storing water and releasing when it is needed.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment The project would have no impact on the water releases from Tarbela Dam. spread of congenial diseases including HIV and AIDS have already been addressed in the Chapter 9 and appropriate mitigation measures recommended. arising out of congested roads. WAPDA August 2011 10-4 . the Dam would be operated in irrigation priority under overall instructions of Indus River System Authority (IRSA). As indicated earlier. coal. flow regime through Tarbela remains unaffected therefore there will be no change in the river hydrology and morphology. In case of spillways the structures are designed downstream to dissipate the energy of the water so that it does not scour the river bed and damage the river and the dam infrastructures. Even during the construction stage. would now be used for generating clean electricity (about 4. 10. 5 Water released from spillway or though power house has same amount of energy. In case of powerhouse installed on a tunnels the energy is converted to electricity for much better use instead of just dissipating it unproductively.000 GWhs) without any greenhouse emissions for pollution. Any thermal plant. So the project helps make better use of the waters of the Indus Rivers.

 Draw responsibilities for project proponent. The management will clearly delineate the responsibility of various participants and stakeholders involved in planning. has been produced to perform the same function specifically for the social issues set out in Chapter 9. and o Ensure the effectiveness of the mitigation measures. contractors. The ESMP has been prepared to ensure the implementation and monitoring of the proposed mitigation measures set out in Chapters 8 and 9. consultants. The ESMP will be managed through a number of tasks and activities and site specific management plans. it will be ensured that environmental measures are treated appropriately and separately in the tender documentation and that payment milestones are linked to environmental performance.1 Introduction This chapter sets out the Environmental and Social Management Plan (ESMP) for the Project.2 Objectives of ESMP The basic objective of the ESMP is to manage adverse impacts of project interventions in a way.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment 11 Environmental and Social Management Plan 11. 11. measured by execution of the prescribed WAPDA August 2011 11-1 . and  Assess environmental training requirements for different stakeholders at various levels. One purpose of the ESMP is to record the procedure and methodology for management of mitigation identified for each negative impacts of the Project. preserving biodiversity and where possible restoring degraded natural resources. the SIMF. The specific objectives of the ESMP are to:  Facilitate the implementation of the mitigation measures identified during the present ESA and discussed in Chapters 8 and 9.  Maintain essential ecological process.1 Inclusion of ESMP in Contract Documents In order to make contractors fully aware and responsible of the implications of the ESMP and to ensure its compliance. A separate document. implementation and operation of the Project. 11.  Maximize potential project benefits and control negative impacts.  Define a monitoring mechanism and identify monitoring parameters in order to: o Ensure the complete implementation of all mitigation measures. 11.3.3 Institutional Arrangements The following sections outline the institutional arrangements recommended for implementation of the ESMP. which minimizes the adverse impact on the environment and people of the Project area. and other members of the Project team for the environmental and social management of the Project.

The contractor is to bid for executing the ESMP.3. The ESMU will be specially designated for the Project and will include representative of all actors responsible for ESMP implementation. facilitation and coordination with all the stakeholders. WAPDA August 2011 11-2 . Such a procedure would help ensure adequate assessments of project impacts are carried out during Project construction and operation phases. Training and workshops would be arranged involving proponent. responsible for implementation of the ESMP and the SIMF. consultants and contractors to share the issues of environmental and social protection. consultants and contractors who are responsible for ensuring the implementation of the ESMP would have the capability to handle the complexities and spirit of management strategies. Regular environmental. public health and safety plan. the contractor will become bound to implement the ESMP and to hire trained environmental management staff for implementation and effectiveness of the mitigation measures. health and safety obligations in the construction area will also be part of the responsibility of the ESMU. 11. The following is the list of responsibilities to be performed by the ESMU:  Ensuring effective implementation of the ESMP and SIMF.3 Construction: Establishment of Environmental and Social Management Unit An Environmental and Social Management Unit (ESMU) will be established. The contractor would be made accountable through contract documents and/or other agreements of the obligations and importance of the environmental and social components of the Project. After the ESMP’s addition in the contract documents. supervising consultants and local population for the mitigation of adverse impacts. The contractor(s) would be required to prepare the following plans before mobilization on the basis of the ECPs (Annex C) and IFC/WBG EHS Guidelines (Annex D).  An occupational health. project management unit. and obtain approval from the Supervision Consultants/ESMU/WEC:  Traffic management plan  Pollution prevention plan  Waste disposal plan  Camp management plan (including drinking water management)  Borrow area and disposal area restoration plan  An emergency response plan. where a consistent approach will be expected on behalf of contractors that warrant data and information collected from monitoring programs are compared to baseline conditions. The staff of the proponent. 11.3.2 Implementation Responsibility It is responsibility of the proponent (WAPDA) to ensure implementation of the ESMP through consultants and contractor(s).Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment environmental mitigation measures. They would be prepared to co-operate with the executing agency. as part of their Bill of Quantities. including the recommended mitigation measures and monitoring programs.  Overall supervision.

Representative of Contractor. 11. municipal wastewater disposal.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment  Develop procedures of damages assessment and mode of compensation during project execution. Two pronged objectives were focused at that time.  Strengthening. bringing together representatives from the organizations that are active on-site. storage and use of flammable and explosive materials.4 Operation: The WAPDA Environment Cell The ESMU will play an important role during the construction phase. During the operation period. and  Environment and Social Supervisor (ESS) . WEC was created in 1989 to take stock of Environmental Aspects of WAPDA’s Water Sector Development Projects. biodiversity. It is important to have representation from stakeholders involved in delivering the Project. The ESMU will ultimately be responsible to the WAPDA Environment Cell (WEC). Since its creation. taking a leadership role in the ESMU. upgrading and enhancing of technical capability of environmental capability in WEC.  Ensure that all contractors follow the PEPA regulations and other requirements mentioned in the construction contracts concerning dust suppression. and  Recommendation of an institutional framework and linkages that would enable effective application of this capability within WAPDA and within the national framework of environmental institutions. incentives or penalties. including environmental water flow assessment and evaluation of various reports. with a senior WEC representative taking responsibility for the ESMU overall. noise and vibration. In addition.  Social Scientist (SS) (to be appointed by WAPDA).  Suggest mechanisms to link contractor performance in relation to the ESMP to the timing of financial payments. and  Implementation of contingency plans. air pollution.  Identify any issues of non-compliance and report these. Environmental Management Plan (EMP) and assessment of social and environment management of WAPDA Projects. EIA.  Health. and Environment (HSE) Specialist (to be appointed by WAPDA). including those with contractual responsibilities. Safety.  Environment and Social Monitor (ESM) . WEC will be solely responsible for the environmental performance of the operational hydropower station. WEC has carried out scores of IEE.3.  Interaction with the stakeholders for their concerns about the construction activities.Representative of Consultant (Design or Supervision). WEC was responsible for decade long monitoring of environmental and social issues of GBHPP. The proposed composition of the ESMU is as follows:  Senior Engineer level WAPDA officer having environmental science background. WAPDA August 2011 11-3 . transport. solid waste disposal.

 to help project authorities to monitor the environmental parameters during feasibility design. 11. during the detailed design phase. The trainings will be provided to the WAPDA staff.4.5 Consultant’s Environment and Social Monitor The Supervision Consultants (SC) will appoint an appropriately qualified specialist as the Environment and Social Monitor (ESM) at the site on a full time basis. The ESM will be responsible to ensure effective implementation of ESMP. with special emphasis on sensitizing the project staff to the environmental and social aspects of the area.3.4 Capacity Building and Institutional Strengthening 11. and other staff engaged for the project. The ESS will be responsible to effectively implement the ESMP during the construction phase. The scope of the training will cover general environmental awareness and the requirements of the ESA and the ESMP. 11.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment The charter of WEC was chalked in its infancy to go ahead with the environmental studies of various project vis-à-vis:  to carry out various EIA and IEE of Hydropower Projects. will supervise the construction activities for the environmental and social aspects. The primary responsibility for providing training to all project personnel will be that of the ESMU. The ESM will be a part of the ESMU as described earlier. and will liaise with ESM for this purpose.  to help WAPDA Authorities to facilitate in environmental auditing. Table 11. and  to evaluate and comment on the environmental (EIA) reports prepared by Consultants and other Agencies. construction and operation phase of the Projects.1 provides a summary of various aspects of the environmental and social trainings.6 Contractor’s Environment and Social Supervisor(s) The Contractor(s) will appoint adequate numbers of appropriately qualified specialist(s) as the Environment and Social Supervisors (ESSs) at the site on a full time basis.  to carry out assessment of social and environment management. the construction contractors. ESMU may revise the plan during the project implementation as required. During the O&M phase of the project. and will supervise the contractors for this purpose. 11. these trainings will continue to be conducted by WEC for all relevant WAPDA staff. ranging from the management and supervisory to the skilled and unskilled categories. Training will cover all staff levels. WAPDA August 2011 11-4 . The ESS will be a part of the ESMU as described earlier. The environmental and social training program will be finalized before the commencement of the project.3.1 Training and Awareness Environmental and social trainings will help to ensure that the requirements of the ESA and ESMP are clearly understood and followed by all project personnel throughout the project period.  to take stock of implementation of EMP according to EIA.

Mitigation measures.4. Waste disposal. 11. WEC will be strengthened to actively partake in the environmental and social management of the WAPDA projects. needed. needed.) Restoration requirements.2 Strengthening of WEC In addition to the project-specific capacity building described above. Social and cultural values of the area.) be repeated as Mitigation measures. field operations. Construction crew Contractor (ESS) Prior to the start of the construction activities. Natural resource conservation. needed. (To Housekeeping.) Camp operation.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Table 11. particularly towards the effective ESMP implementation of the T4HP.06 million has been included in the Project cost for this purpose.1: Environmental and Social Trainings Contents General environmental Participants and Design team. Camp staff Contractor (ESS) be repeated Before and during the Waste disposal. Drivers Contractor (ESS) Before and during the Defensive driving. Restoration teams Waste disposal Contractor (ESS) as be repeated as Before the start of the restoration activities. as well as the ESA studies and ESMP implementation of the forthcoming hydropower projects such as Basha and Dasu dams.) Road safety. field operations. field activities. (To Cultural values and social sensitivity. Waste disposal (To be repeated as needed. ESMP. A budget of US$ 1. Community issues.) Key findings of the ESA. Responsibility ESMU Schedule Prior to the start of the socioeconomic awareness. Environmental and social sensitivity of (To the project area. WAPDA August 2011 11-5 . ESMP. Selected WAPDA project activities. This will also enable WEC to be responsible for the environmental and social management of O&M phase of the T4HP and other WAPDA projects. Awareness of transmissible diseases Social and cultural values. Environmental and social sensitivity of management staff (To the project area. be repeated as needed. General environmental and All site personnel ESMU Prior to the start of the socioeconomic awareness.

3 Additional Capacity Building The project also includes building the capacity of WAPDA to effectively implement the project. WAPDA is engaging consultant experts to develop the Communication and Information Plan. and provide report to WAPDA on the overall environmental and social performance of the project. During the project regular briefings of progress will be organized for public information and for the media. financial management. The Panel will review on a regular basis the various reports and documents produced by EMU.28 million has been included in the Project cost for this purpose. An amount of US$ 0. asset management plans. documenting and responding to relevant communication from external interested parties.6 Communication A Communication and Information Plan will be developed by WAPDA which will be based on the development of a communication strategy for different target groups (local communities. This would include: (i) enhancing WAPDA’s capacity in planning and programming. contract administration and construction supervision. previously affected persons. detailed designs of structures. and legal issues. financial management. and (iii) an independent panel of experts for design and construction quality and safety enhancement or any other issues that may have to be addressed during project implementation. general public and press). impacts. and management of the environment and social issues. WAPDA August 2011 11-6 . (ii) technical assistance and training in such areas as designing of dams.5 Panel of Experts WAPDA will engage an independent panel of environment and social experts to advise ESMU and other project entities on all environmental and social matters including effective implementation of ESMP and SIMF. WEC and ESMU (ESMU to be responsible for communication with consultants and contractors relating to environmental issues). and their mitigation. procurement. O&M of the dams it manages and fully carrying out its mandated functions. and  All complaints received by the General Plant Management would be handled in a responsive manner. An amount of US$ 2 million has been earmarked for this in the Project cost estimates. The Communication and Information Centre will also have a section where complaints and grievances can be registered and addressed. A Communication and Information Specialist will be appointed for the project.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment 11. hydraulics. periodically visit the site to have first hand information on the environmental and social impacts and EMSP/SIMP implementation. particularly on unanticipated situations.4. local and provincial authorities. river training works. Supervision Consultants and contractors. engineering and O&M of the dams. WAPDA will establish and maintain procedures for the following levels of communication:  Internal communication between the various levels and functions of the organization and between WAPDA. This plan is expected to be completed by end 2011 For the environmental and social management of the project. in particular a procedure for managing environmental complaints that are received from the public or government organizations through a grievance mechanism discussed later in the Chapter. 11. 11.  Receiving. operations and management planning. procurement.

the impacts and monitoring/mitigation measures discussed may need to be revised to reflect such changes to allow the environmental and social implications of these changes to be addressed. 11.  Impacts – identified in the environmental assessment (Chapter 8). Procedures and processes for the above would be set up prior to construction and operation of the Project. The proposed activities are set out in two plans:  Mitigation Plan – Construction Phase (Table 11.  Actions .7.2).  Responsibility – the organization(s) responsible for executing the mitigation and monitoring performance indicators.7 Management and Monitoring Activities This section introduces the proposed activities for managing and monitoring the potential environmental effects associated with the Project.measures to mitigate and manage impacts.1 Structure of the Mitigation Plans The Mitigation Plans for the Project are structured around the following components:  Project activities – the stage of the Project.3). Should any changes to the Project design or methods of construction and operation take place post this assessment stage.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment 11. and  Target completion date / periodicity – the timing of when mitigations or monitoring would be implemented. WAPDA August 2011 11-7 . The impacts and mitigations identified for the decommissioning phase are considered to be sufficiently similar to the construction phase to conclude that a separate ESMP for the Decommissioning Phase is not required at this stage. and  Mitigation Plan – Operation Phase (Table 11.

powerhouse. Emergency Preparedness Plan to address the response to a disaster occurring during each phase of the Project lifecycle. ESMU All excavated materials to be disposed of in designated sites. Before construction Select access roads to avoid run-off to river. to reduce off site effects Design Consultants. Identification of re-use of excavated material on site. Before construction: during detailed designing of the Project. Design Consultants.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Table 11. Foundation design of the towers.4 Surface Water Quality Key Performance Indicator Timing Monitoring Excavated Material Disposal Plan to include siting and detailed assessment of the suitability of the proposed excavated materials disposal site Foundations for infrastructure would comply with relevant design standards for structures in areas at risk of seismic activity. Before construction 11-8 .3 Disposal of excavated material 1.2: Environmental Mitigation and Monitoring Plan – Construction (and Decommissioning) Project Activities Environmental Impact/Issue Action Responsibility Execution 1 Design / preconstruction considerations WAPDA August 2011 1. Compliance with Waste Management Plans. ESMU All excavated materials to be disposed of in designated sites. ESMU Emergency Preparedness Plan in place prior to commencement of construction.2 Geology and seismology 1.1 Slope Instability 1. Before construction Design Consultants. and other structures to consider the probability of earthquake at the earliest design stage. Design Consultants ESMU None proposed.

5 Groundwater Quality 1.7 Construction camp (and other temporary facilities) site selection 1. An Excavated Material Management Plan will be prepared and approval obtained from SC and ESMU/ESM.9 Waste management 1. A fuels and hazardous substances management plan will be prepared per ECP 2 and approval obtained from ESMU/ESM.11 Fuels and hazardous substances management Drainage system will be designed so that all spills will be drained and collected in a sump for further appropriate disposal.6 Traffic Management 1. Construction Camp Management Plan will be prepared per ECP 14 and approval obtained from SC/ESMU. Key Performance Indicator Timing Monitoring Design Consultants ESMU Monitoring in accordance with Ground Water Monitoring Program. Contractor ESMU Approved Plan Before mobilization of contractor 11-9 . Before construction Contractor ESMU Approved TMP Contractor ESMU Approval from ESMU/ESM Before mobilization of contractor commences Before mobilization of contractor Contractor ESMU Approved Plan Before mobilization of contractor Contractor ESMU Approved Plan Before mobilization of contractor Contractor ESMU Approved Plan Before commencing the construction activities. Areas having thick/dense vegetation will be avoided as far as possible. No breaches of MDSD for hazardous substances. A Waste Management Plan will be prepared per ECP 1 and approval obtained from ESMU/ESM.10 Excavated material management 1. and Oil and chemical storage and vehicle wash and oil change facilities will be on an impermeable surface to avoid percolation A Traffic Management Plan (TMP) will be prepared in accordance with ECP 13 Site for construction camp will be selected with approval from the Supervision Consultants (SC).Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Project Activities Environmental Impact/Issue Action Responsibility Execution WAPDA August 2011 1.8 Construction camp management 1.

13 Health. Fugitive dust emissions will be minimized by appropriate methods. water reservoir will be minimized. Operation of vehicles and machinery close to the water channels. such as spraying water on soil. and in compliance with the NEQS. NEQS compliance will be ensured. and approval obtained from ESMU/ESM. in order to minimize the exhaust emissions. Construction machinery and vehicles will be kept in good working condition and properly tunned. safety and environment (HSE) management 2. ECP 1 for waste management will be implemented.3 Air Quality Key Performance Indicator Timing Monitoring A water resource management plan will be prepared per ECP 3 and approval obtained from ESMU/ESM. If unavoidable.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Project Activities Environmental Impact/Issue Action Responsibility Execution 2 Contractor Mobilization and Demobilization WAPDA August 2011 1. The approved TMP will be followed Contractor ESMU Approved Plan Before mobilization of contractor Contractor ESMU Approved Plan Before mobilization of contractor Contractor ESM. Vehicles and equipment will not be repaired in the field. Project vehicles will avoid passing through the Contractor ESMU Lack of any noncompliance reports Throughout contractor mobilization and demobilization Contractor ESMU Lack of any noncompliance reports Throughout contractor mobilization and demobilization 11-10 . impervious sheathing will be used to avoid soil and water contamination. where required and appropriate.1 Traffic management 2. An HSE management plan will be prepared per ECP 16 and EHS Guidelines.12 Water resource management 1.2 Soil Erosion and Contamination 2. ESMU Lack of any noncompliance reports During mobilization Vehicular traffic on unpaved roads will be avoided as far as possible.

Key Performance Indicator Timing Monitoring Contractor ESMU Lack of any noncompliance reports. noise measurement data. Road signage will be fixed at appropriate locations to reduce safety hazard associated with project-related vehicular traffic. ECP-9 will be enforced. speed will be reduced to 15 km/h to avoid excessive dust emissions. NEQS compliance will be ensured. Vehicular traffic through the communities will be avoided as far as possible.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Project Activities Environmental Impact/Issue Action Responsibility Execution WAPDA August 2011 2.5 Public Safety communities as far as possible. Vehicle speeds near / within the communities will be kept low. Vehicles will have exhaust mufflers (silencers) to minimize noise generation. ECP 8 for air quality management will be implemented. Nighttime traffic will be avoided near the communities. Local population will be taken in confidence if such work is unavoidable. NEQS compliance will be ensured. Vehicle speeds will be kept low. Throughout contractor mobilization and demobilization 11-11 . Project drivers will be trained on defensive driving.4 Noise 2. ECP-13 and ECP-16 will be implemented. Throughout contractor mobilization and demobilization Contractor ESMU Lack of any noncompliance reports. If unavoidable. to avoid safety hazard and dust emissions. lack of any public complaints. and horns will not be used while passing through or near the communities.

and broken/used parts) will be sold to recycling contractors. Vehicular traffic on unpaved roads will be avoided as far as possible. drums. leveling and grading will be minimized. soil and water contamination Photographs will be taken to record the site conditions prior to the establishment of the camp.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Project Activities Environmental Impact/Issue Action Responsibility Execution 3 Construction workers camp: Construction and Operation WAPDA August 2011 Key Performance Indicator Timing Monitoring 2.6 Damage to Infrastructure All damaged infrastructure will be restored to original or better condition. Operation of vehicles close to the water channels. Domestic sold waste from the camp site will be disposed off in a manner that does not Contractor ESMU Lack of any noncompliance reports. Lack of any noncompliance reports Throughout contractor mobilization and demobilization Before and throughout the construction phase 11-12 . Contractor ESMU 3. The inert recyclable waste from the site (such as cardboard. and carried out in a manner to minimize soil erosion. Land clearing. For the domestic sewage. water reservoirs will be minimized. lack of any public complaints. Contractors will prepare a Waste Management Plan. The hazardous waste will be kept separate and handled according to the nature of the waste.1 Soil erosion. appropriate treatment and disposal system will be constructed having adequate capacity Waste oils will be collected in drums and sold to the recycling contractors.

ECP-3. NEQS compliance will be ensured. NEQS compliance will be ensured. or killing activities. where required and appropriate. if required) fuel. ECP-8 will be implemented. Complete record will be maintained for any tree cutting. Fugitive dust emissions will be minimized by appropriate methods. The construction crew will be provided with LPG as cooking (and heating. and ECP-14 will be implemented. The camp site area will be completely restored after completion of construction works. catching. in order to minimize the exhaust emissions. such as spraying water on soil.3 Vegetation loss. All temporary structures will be demolished. Clearing natural vegetation will be avoided as far as possible. The camp will be established in a natural clearing. ECP-1. outside forested areas. ECP-2.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Project Activities Environmental Impact/Issue Action Responsibility Execution WAPDA August 2011 3. Key Performance Indicator Timing Monitoring Contractor ESMU Lack of any noncompliance reports Throughout the construction phase Contractor ESMU Lack of any noncompliance reports Before and throughout the construction phase 11-13 . Use of fuel wood will not be allowed. threat to wildlife cause soil contamination.2 Air Quality 3. The camp staff will not indulge in any animal shooting. Generators and vehicles will be kept in good working condition and properly tunned. trapping.

lack of any complaints Throughout the construction phase Contractor ESMU Lack of any noncompliance reports Throughout the construction phase 11-14 . Protective fencing to be installed around the Camp to avoid any accidents. The approved TMP will be followed (ECP-13). ECP-2 and ECP-16 will be implemented. ECP-16 will be implemented. Generators and vehicles will have exhaust mufflers (silencers) to minimize noise generation. NEQS compliance will be ensured.7 Social and Gender Issues 4. The camp staff will be provided fire fighting training. ECP-11. Firefighting equipment will be made available at the camps. Liaison with the community will be maintained. Construction camps and site offices will have first aid kits Construction crew will be provided with awareness for transmissible diseases (HIV.1 Traffic management ECP-10. and ECP-12 will be implemented.6 Public Safety 3. handle and store hazardous substances. Construction crew will avoid entering the villages No child labor will be employed. such as fuel.4 Noise 3. All safety precautions will be taken to transport. hepatitis B and C). ECP-9 will be implemented. Key Performance Indicator Timing Monitoring Contractor ESMU Lack of any noncompliance reports Throughout the construction phase Contractor ESMU Lack of any noncompliance reports Before and throughout the construction phase Contractor ESMU Lack of any noncompliance reports Before and throughout the construction phase Contractor ESMU Lack of any noncompliance reports.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Project Activities Environmental Impact/Issue Action Responsibility Execution 4 Transportation of Equipment and WAPDA August 2011 3.5 Health and Safety 3.

Monitoring of early warning systems. rock anchors. tunnels and powerhouse. Changes to the topography will only occur in designated areas to accommodate defined project features.5 of this table. Same as Section 2.1 5. such as rock bolts.6 Damaged to Infrastructure Changes to topography 4. Same as Section 2.3 of this table.5 Public Safety 4. Same as Section 2. Throughout the construction phase Before construction Before construction Before construction Throughout the construction phase 11-15 .2 5 Construction of Powerhouse.2 WAPDA August 2011 Landslide Same as Section 2. Method Statements and Risk Assessments produced for construction of each item of infrastructure.4 Noise 4.2 of this table.3 Soil Erosion and Contamination Air Quality 4. All excavated materials to be disposed of in designated sites. All excavated materials to be disposed of in designated sites. Attention will be paid to the safety of the existing dam. Use of heavy machinery. Excavated material will be managed in accordance with the Excavated Material Disposal Plan Method Statements and Risk Assessments prepared prior to any excavation activity Slope protection measures.6 of this table. blasting material and blasting technique will be carefully considered and Contractor ESMU Contractor ESMU Contractor ESMU Contractor ESMU Contractors ESMU Contractor ESMU Contractor.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Project Activities Environmental Impact/Issue Action Responsibility Execution Key Performance Indicator Timing Monitoring Construction Material 4. Same as Section 2. Excavation of material will be kept to a minimum. ESMU Lack of any noncompliance reports Lack of any noncompliance reports Lack of any noncompliance reports Lack of any noncompliance reports Lack of any noncompliance reports Volume of spoil extracted (monitor against predictions). Before construction Number of blasting events.4 of this table. Penstock Route and Intake Area 5. safety nets and other protection measures will have to be applied including proper terracing to reduce the risk of slope failures.

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Project Activities Environmental Impact/Issue Action Responsibility Execution 5. particularly slopes Borrow pits/areas to be covered Areas exposed during construction and not used for operation will be re-vegetated (‘greened’) immediately Adopt measures set out in the Contractor Key Performance Indicator Timing Monitoring ESMU Incidences of borrow pits not being covered. Emergency Preparedness Plan and Early Warning System will set out response actions in the event of a landslide Other methods to be considered as alternatives to blasting Areas not used during operation will be re-vegetated.3 WAPDA August 2011 Soil erosion the methodology will contain a stability analysis for a suitable factor of safety (FOS). it will be stabilized by predesigned support systems such as shotcrete. After blasting a riser. Compliance with the Tree Plantation Plan. During excavations the concerned slopes will be stabilized and excavation started exacted from the top then gradually working down the slope. Throughout the construction phase and prior to operation 11-16 . All replanting to be commenced prior to operation. cushion blasting will be the method applied. Where there are confinement issues. mesh and rock bolts prior to drilling the next riser for excavation. Extreme care will be taken in designing the blasting pattern and blasting will be controlled so as to avoid disturbance of nearby slopes where stability is in a critical condition.

using fast-growing native species.5 Air Quality Tree Plantation Plan Road edge buffer re-planting Replanting to occur prior to the commencement of operation. Compliance with Traffic Management Plan.4 Soil and water contamination 5. ECP-4. Reduce risk of a pollution event through adoption of measures set out in Solid Waste Management Plan and Wastewater Treatment Plan Hazardous & toxic materials stored separately Oil and Chemical Spill Response Plan. ECP-1. ECP-6 will be implemented.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Project Activities Environmental Impact/Issue Action Responsibility Execution WAPDA August 2011 5. Excavated Material Disposal Plan to include measures to reduce risk of environmental pollution. Throughout construction phase 11-17 . and grasses to assist slope and soil stability. used and handled appropriately. covered if transporting Key Performance Indicator Timing Monitoring Contractor ESMU Monthly auditing of management of hazardous materials against Material Safety Data Sheet Throughout the construction phase Contractor ESMU Number of dustrelated complaints. Construction materials will be stored. and ECP-7 will be implemented. ECP-2. Construction materials will be stored in designated areas away from sensitive receptors and covered to minimize dust on site from site construction works Construction vehicles will be sprayed with water when entering and leaving the site. ECP-5. NEQS compliance will be ensured. Number of air quality-related complaints.

ECP-16 will be implemented. Provision of respiratory protective devices for workers Designate agreed routes for traffic (set out in the Traffic Management Plan) Compliance with Occupational Health & Safety standards (See Social Impact Management Framework) Provision of insurance-backed compensation scheme for major injury or loss of life reflecting settlement sums that are consistent with national/international benchmarks. Record of equipment used on site capable of producing over 85dB and whether equipment has been Throughout construction phase 11-18 . Target zero dust related complaints Target zero air quality related complaints.7 Noise and Vibration materials. NEQS compliance will be ensured. Monitoring of compliance with Health & Safety standards (including monthly reporting of accidents).6 Health and Safety 5. Communities will be informed in advance of planned blasting. ECP-8 will be implemented. Noise barriers will be provided in areas where significant noise is expected (e. during blasting). NEQS compliance will be ensured. and engines will be turned off when idling.g. Blasting activity will be restricted to fixed times. Key Performance Indicator Timing Monitoring Contractor ESMU Number of respiratory protective devices issues to workers. adhere to speed limits. Construction plant producing sound in excess of 85dB will be fitted with mufflers.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Project Activities Environmental Impact/Issue Action Responsibility Execution WAPDA August 2011 5. Evidence of providing advance warning of blasting to communities. Throughout construction phase Contractor ESMU Number of blasting events recorded.

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Project Activities Environmental Impact/Issue Action Responsibility Execution WAPDA August 2011 5. Preparation of a Landscape Plan Adoption of Tree Plantation Key Performance Indicator Timing Monitoring fitted with mufflers Duration of works demonstrated to be kept to minimum and demonstrated efforts to undertake work during dates of annual closure. Throughout construction phase Contractor ESMU Compliance with Tree Plantation Plan Before the completion of the construction phase Throughout construction phase 11-19 . Select access roads to avoid run off to river.8 Irrigation Releases 5. No breaches of MDSD for hazardous substances. ECP-1. ECP-5.11 Landscape and Visual Intrusion ECP-9 will be implemented. Contractor ESMU Joining of new tunnel to existing Tunnel 4 ESMU.10 Surface Water Quality 5. Close coordination will be maintained with the TDP operational staff. in coordination and consultation with the TDP Operational staff.9 Power Generation 5. ECP-2. Connection of the tunnels will be carried out during the annual canal closure or periods of low demand Increase discharge from other tunnels to compensate in reduction of Tunnel 4. ECP-4. Wastewater Treatment Plan including pre-treated sewage prior to discharge within the labor camps Solid Waste Management Plan Oil and Chemical Spill Response Plan. Contractor ESMU Contractor ESMU Monitoring in accordance with Surface Water Monitoring Program. and ECP-7 will be implemented. Store and handle all hazardous substances in accordance with their Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Irrigation releases to remain consistent during period of tunnel joining ESMU. and tunnel closure will be planned in advance in a consultative manner. Closure of tunnel 3 will be planned in advance. Surface Water Monitoring Program.

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project
Environmental and Social Assessment

Project
Activities

Environmental
Impact/Issue

Action

Responsibility
Execution

WAPDA
August 2011

5.12

Vegetation loss

5.13

Fauna / Wildlife

5.14

Damage to
infrastructure

5.15

Borrow area and
borrow material

Plan
New planting and landscape
restoration as soon as
practicable at the end of
construction phase
Replanting of flora/vegetation
alongside new access roads
Enhance flora environment by
planting fruit trees and
ornamental shrubs.
Avoid dumping material in
vegetated areas.
Avoid unnecessary loss of
vegetation
ECP-10 will be implemented.

Key Performance
Indicator

Timing

Monitoring

Contractor

ESMU

None proposed.

Throughout
construction phase

Avoid positioning spoil in areas
used by fauna
No hunting or poaching
Provide corridors for animal
movement.
ECP-11 and ECP-12 will be
implemented.

Contractor

ESMU

Throughout
construction phase

Any damaged infrastructure
such as roads, bridges and
culverts will be repaired
Reduce the volume of material
requiring disposal as far as
possible. Remaining material
will be disposed in an
environmentally sound manner.
Disposal sites will be properly
filled, shaped and reworked
and where feasible planted with
trees.
Borrow materials would be
obtained (as much as possible)

Contractor

Instances of spoil
being deposited in
non-designated
areas.
Reported incidences
of hunting or
poaching on the
Project site / in land
ownership.
Lack of any noncompliance reports

Contractor

Lack of any noncompliance reports

11-20

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project
Environmental and Social Assessment

Project
Activities

Environmental
Impact/Issue

Action

Responsibility
Execution

6

Decommissioning

WAPDA
August 2011

6.1

Soil erosion

6.2

Surface Water Quality;
air contamination;
noise; and other
environmental
impacts.

from licensed quarries and
borrow areas. Where
necessary, appropriate
restoration of the borrow area
such as re-contouring would be
carried out, and no deep
ditches would be left behind.
ECP-7 will be implemented.
As part of decommissioning, all
disturbed areas would be
contoured and re-vegetated
Disturbed areas will be
contoured and re-vegetated to
minimize the potential for soil
erosion and water quality
related impacts.
ECP-1, ECP-2, ECP-3, ECP-4,
ECP-5, ECP-8, ECP-9, ECP10, ECP-11, ECP-12, ECP-13,
ECP-14, ECP-15, and ECP-16
will be implemented.

Key Performance
Indicator

Timing

Monitoring

Contractor

ESMU

Contractor

ESMU

Audit areas of site
that were disturbed
and remain without
vegetation.
Audit areas of site
that were disturbed
and remain without
vegetation.

During
decommissioning

Upon completion of
decommissioning

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Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project
Environmental and Social Assessment

Table 11.3:

Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan – Operation
Impact

Project

Action

Responsibility

Indicator
Execution

1

Pre-operation

Timing

Key Performance

Activities

1.1

Visual amenity

Adoption of Tree Plantation

ESMU,

Plan and Landscape Plan

Contractor

Monitoring
ESMU

Compliance with Tree

Before the completion

Plantation Plan

of the construction

Compliance with

phase

Landscape Plan
2

Operation

2.1

activities

3

Operation and

3.1

Tunnels 1 to 3 increase their

TDP O&M

the irrigation flow

discharge to compensate for

staff

rate will be reduced

the 5% reduction in irrigation

during period of tunnel

by around 5%.

release from Tunnel 4.

joining

Waste

Adherence to the Waste

TDP O&M

Maintenance

Management Plan and

staff

Activities

measures put in place
3.2

WEC

Irrigation Releases-

Irrigation releases to

During operation

remain consistent

WEC

Compliance with

During operation

Waste Management
Plan
WEC

Noise and Vibration

Compliance with Occupational

TDP O&M

Monitoring of

During operation and

to Occupational

Health & Safety standards

staff

Workers

(See Social Impact

compliance with
Health & Safety

maintenance activities

Management Framework)

standards (including
monthly reporting of
accidents).

WAPDA
August 2011

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Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project
Environmental and Social Assessment

11.7.2 Compliance Monitoring
The compliance monitoring of the project activities is principally a tool to ensure that the
environmental and social control measures identified during the ESA are strictly adhered
to during the project execution.
Various aspects of the ESA compliance monitoring will be to: 

Systematically observe the activities undertaken by the contractors or any other
persons associated with the project. 

Verify that the activities are undertaken in compliance with the ESA and ESMP. 

Document and communicate the observations to the concerned person(s) of the
contractors, ESMU and Supervision Consultants, so that any corrective measures, if
required, can be taken in a timely fashion. 

Maintain a record of all incidents of environmental and social significance and
related actions and corrective measures. 

Maintain contact with the communities, solicit their views and concerns, and discuss
them during the fortnightly meetings. 

Prepare periodic reports of the environmental and social performance of project.

The mitigation plan discussed above will be used as a management and monitoring tool
for compliance monitoring. Inspections will be carried out using checklists prepared by
the contractor, on the basis of the Table 11.2, during the construction phase, and by the
O&M staff on the basis of Table 11.3 during the O&M phase.

11.7.3 Monitoring Predicted Effects
The ESA predicts the impacts of the proposed project on the basis of information
available at the time of conducting the assessment and the natural processes that link
various environmental and social parameters. Based on this prediction, mitigation
measures are introduced such that the predicted residual effects do not exceed acceptable
levels. However, there can be an element of uncertainty in such predictions, for example,
due to an insufficient grasp of the processes, limitations in prediction techniques, or
inadequate data on the environment. This is true for the physical, biological, as well as
socioeconomic environment. Consequently, it is possible that even if the mitigation
measures are implemented fully, the negative impacts of the Project could exceed
predicted levels or acceptable limits.
In order to address the above concerns, effects monitoring will be undertaken during the
Project activities, with the overall objective of proper management of environmental and
social risks and uncertainties. Broadly, effects monitoring has the following objectives: 

To verify that the impacts of the proposed project are within acceptable limits, thus
establishing credibility (public assurance); 

To immediately warn the Project proponents (and the regulatory agencies, if
required) of unanticipated adverse impact or sudden changes in impact trends so that
corrective actions can be undertaken, which may include modifications in the
proposed activities, or the inclusion of modified or additional mitigation measures; 

To provide information to plan and control the timing, location, and level of certain
project activities so that the effects are minimized; and

WAPDA
August 2011

11-23

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project
Environmental and Social Assessment 

To facilitate research and development by documenting the effects of the proposed
project that can be used to validate impact-prediction techniques and provide a basis
for more accurate predictions of future projects.

The effects monitoring plan is provided in Table 11.4 below. The detailed
methodologies will be developed during the detailed design phase of the Project when the
specific information on field activities will be known. The effects monitoring will
comprise the following: 

Soil erosion; 

Landslide; 

Water quality; 

Oil spills; 

Waste; 

Air quality; 

Noise; 

Socioeconomic aspects; and 

Grievance monitoring.

ESMU may revise the effects monitoring plan during the project implementation as
required.

WAPDA
August 2011

11-24

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project
Environmental and Social Assessment

Table 11.4:
No

Monitoring of Predicted Effects

Monitoring parameter

Monitoring Locations

Frequency

Responsibility

Methodology/

Documentation

Resource Requirement
1

Soil erosion

Construction sites, labor

During routine monitoring

ESMU

campsites, borrow areas,

Visual observation, digital

Record

of

visual

camera

observation/photographs

Numbered, glass strips

Complete record

disposal sites
2

Landslide

Construction sites

Weekly

ESMU

positioned

strategically

across key areas
Borrow areas, disposal

Weekly

ESMU

sites
3

Water quality

At

wells

water

and

surface

bodies

WAPDA

Before mobilization

ESMU

near

colonies

Visual

observations,

Record

of

visual

digital camera

observation/photographs

Laboratory

Record of sampling and

analysis/sampling bottles

analysis

Sampling bottles

Record of sampling and

and

labor campsite
Selected local wells

Monthly

ESMU

analysis
Selected
nearby

locations
surface

at

Monthly

ESMU

Sampling bottles

water

Record of sampling and
analysis

bodies
4

Damage to groundwater

Construction site

During routine monitoring

ESMU

wells, watercourse
5

Oil spill

Construction
workshops

site
and

During routine monitoring

ESMU

oil

Visual

observations,

Solid waste

Construction site, labor

of

visual

observation/photographs

Visual

Record

observations,

digital camera

storage areas
6

Record

digital camera

of

visual

observations/
photographs

During routine monitoring

ESMU

campsite

Visual

observations,

digital camera

Record

of

visual

observations/
photographs

7

Wastewater

Labor campsite

During routine monitoring

ESMU

Sampling bottles

Record of sampling and
analysis

WAPDA
August 2011

11-25

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project
Environmental and Social Assessment
No

Monitoring parameter

Monitoring Locations

Frequency

Responsibility

Documentation

Methodology/
Resource Requirement

8

Ambient air quality

Construction site, labor

Before mobilization

ESMU

campsite
Construction site, labor

Once every two months

ESMU

campsite
9

Exhaust emissions

Construction sites, camp

During routine monitoring

ESMU

site

Ambient

air

quality

Record of sampling and

monitoring equipment

analysis

Ambient

Record of sampling and

air

quality

monitoring equipment

analysis

Visual

Record

observations,

digital camera

of

visual

observations/
photographs

10

Dust emissions

Construction sites, labor

During routine monitoring

ESMU

camp site, project roads

Visual

observations,

digital camera

Record

of

visual

observations/
photographs

11

Noise

Nearby communities

Fortnightly

or

construction

during

ESMU

Noise meter

activities

measurement

causing noise
12

Public grievance

Nearby communities

Throughout
work

WAPDA
August 2011

construction

Complete record of noise
and

location
ESMU

Complaints register

Complete record of any
complaints

11-26

The following aspects will be covered  the ESMP is being adequately implemented. However.4 Internal Audits Environmental audits of the Project would be arranged once during construction phase and once at the end of the construction activities. For the Project.7. not the creation of complex bureaucratic procedures. consideration would be given to the monitoring programs in place to determine whether their purpose has been served and they can therefore be terminated or reduced in frequency 11. Environmental auditing is generally done by an unbiased independent organization or a person having full command on the subject. The objective of environmental management audits is to review the effectiveness of environmental Management.7. WAPDA Management would support the proposed ESMU in mechanisms to manage financial payments to contractors based on performance against the items identified in the ESMP. reduce and where possible offset any significant adverse impacts on the environment are being implemented throughout the Project lifecycle. disseminating and responding to information which emerges from the various environmental monitoring and management programs.8 Record Keeping Proper arrangements are necessary for recording. 11.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment 11. on an annual under the external audit: years of the construction works and operation for an industrial environmental management audit of the existing practices against the basis.  the compliance and effects monitoring are being conducted.5 External Audits (Third Party Validation) As a minimum.  mitigation measures are being implemented and their effectiveness. 11. 11.6 Management Reviews WAPDA Management would review the results of internal and external audits and provide commitment and resources to tackling outstanding issues. arrangements would be made specialist to carry out an independent requirements of the ESMP. Attention would be given to lessons learnt in the light of experience. throughout the first three activities. In particular. They are also necessary for rendering the environmental management system “auditable”.8. and  complete documentation is being maintained.7. WAPDA August 2011 11-27 . it is proposed that WEC should carry out these audits on six-monthly basis. the primary focus must remain on the pragmatic control of pollution. These audits would be used to re-examine the continued appropriateness of the ESMP and to provide advice on any up-dates required.  environmental and social trainings are being conducted.1 Monitoring Records Quantitative Physical Monitoring The objective of quantitative physical monitoring is to ensure that the mitigation measures designed to prevent.

with involvement from WEC for storing the results of the quantitative monitoring. The Site Inspection Checklist would be supported by sketches. and  Date of reply to the complainant. General Site Inspections and Monitoring A Site Inspection Checklist for recording the findings of the general site condition surveys would be developed by the respective contractors. The monitoring data would be continually processed as it is received. with a file reference to any correspondence.3. so as to avoid a build up of data. during the construction phase. with a file reference to any correspondence from the complainant.  All relevant Pakistan regulations. if justified.e.  Brief description of the complaint. This would cover all the ESMP commitments as provided in Section 10. 11.3 Information Sources A complete and up-to-date file of all relevant sources of information should be maintained by the ESMU. visits to the Plant. All complaints received by the Plant Management would be handled in this way 11.8. The facility would be capable of producing tabulated weekly and monthly reports that provide the following information:  Sampling points.  “Action limits” (circa 80% of the control limits) at which steps must be taken to prevent the impending breach of the control limit.2 Complaints Records A tabulated standard form would be prepared for recording any environmental complaints that are received from the public or government organizations by whatever medium i. The form would concisely list the following information:  Date of the complaint. as necessary.  Control limits.  Dates and times of sample collection. international guidelines and codes of practice. telephone calls or correspondence.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment A database would be developed by ESMU.  Test results. on the basis of the Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan described in Section 10. WAPDA August 2011 11-28 . This file would be readily accessible and include. copies of the following documents:  Current environmental permits and consents.8.  Name and contact address of the complainant. including explanations if available. and  Any breaches of the control limits.  Manufacturers’ MSDSs for all hazardous substances used on the plant. as a minimum.  Brief description of the action taken by the Plant Management to investigate the cause of the complaint and bring about corrective action.  Manufacturers’ operating manuals for all the environmental monitoring equipment.4.

to be replaced by the reply copy when it is received. 11. and  The latest version of this Environmental Management and Monitoring Manual. a Non-Compliance Report (NCR). A copy of each completed NCR would be held on file by the ESMU. This will be the responsibility of the Project Manager. the Contractor’s Site Manager and a person designated to be responsible for stakeholder liaison (for the purposes of this document called the communication officer (CO)).  Outstanding NCRs. local services and infrastructure.e.  Any emerging issues where information or data collected is substantially different from the baseline data reported in the Environmental Assessment. As a general policy. action levels or standards of general site management.  Findings of the monitoring programs.4 Non-Compliance Report Any breaches of the acceptable standards specified. regulations and international practices. Potential impacts and effects that are most likely to give rise to grievances for this Project are related to:  Distribution of employment opportunities.  Construction noise. Any stakeholder (individual or organization) will be able to submit a grievance to the Project if they believe a practice is having a detrimental impact on their community. A record of corrective actions would also be made and tracked to their completion. 11. and. using a standard form. These reports would normally be no more than one or two pages in length. i. and  Relevant changes or possible changes in legislation. 11.  Summary of any complaints by external bodies and actions taken / to be taken. would be reported to the ESMU / WEC (dependent on project phase).9 Grievance Mechanism A grievance can be defined as an actual or perceived problem that might give grounds for complaint.8.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment  Current calibration certificates for all the equipment that requires calibration by an external organization. WAPDA will work proactively towards preventing grievances through the implementation of impact mitigation measures and community liaison activities that anticipate and address potential issues before they become grievances.  Presence of a construction labor force and the effects on neighboring villages. the WAPDA August 2011 11-29 . to summarize the following:  Progress in implementing this ESMP.5 Monthly Internal Reports The ESMU would prepare a monthly report for issue to the Plant General Manager.8. with emphasis on any breaches of the control standards.

In addition to the contact information and complaint details. High Probable risk and could reoccur Probable substantiation CO will get the contractor to organize a Major Investigation Team for prompt investigation and resolution.9. financial loss. Work will be stopped in the affected area. 11.5: Grievance Grievance Classification Criteria Risk Level Validity Response None or low Unsubstantiated CO will conduct investigation. the logging system needs to track the action taken by the contractor and Project staff to investigate the cause of the complaint and bring about corrective action if justified. Table 11.g. as well as the date of reply to the complainant. The CO will prepare a standard form to record complaints that are received from individuals or organizations by any means including site visits.  Dangers to health and safety or the environment. The Site one off event Manager or HS Manager may decide to stop work during the investigation to allow the corrective preventive actions to be determined. In the first instance.  Improper conduct or unethical behavior. grievances will be directed to the CO to classify according to Table 11.  Criminal activity. suggestions.  Failure of WAPDA. WAPDA August 2011 11-30 . nuisance). Grievances could include: They may also submit comments and  Negative impacts on a person or a community (e. telephone calls or written correspondence. The CO will provide a response.1 Grievance Logging The contractor will be required to log grievances are received directly and have a formal logging system. with a file reference to any correspondence.  Harassment of any nature. physical harm. Grievances during construction will be investigated to review validity and responsibility. The CO will provide a response. its Contractors and their workers or drivers to comply with standards or legal obligations.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment environment.  Financial malpractice or impropriety or fraud. document Classificatio n Low findings and provide a response Medium Possible risk and likely a Possible substantiation CO and an appropriate investigation team will conduct investigation.5 below. or on their quality of life. and  Attempts to conceal any of the above.

5). The CO will summarize grievances in project performance reports.6 below. submitted to KP EPA. any changes to activities that will be undertaken to address the grievance or how the issue is being managed to meet appropriate environmental and social management systems and requirements.2) have been addressed while formulating the environmental and social mitigation and enhancement measures discussed in Chapters 8 and 9. most of the concerns raised and recommendations forwarded by the stakeholders consulted during the ESA and discussed in Chapter 5 (Table 5. The CO will identify an appropriate investigation team with the correct skills to review the issue raised and to decide whether it is Project related or whether it is more appropriately addressed by a relevant authority outside the Project.4. equipment and training to address and prevent reoccurrence will be part of the investigation activities. orally) the manner in which the review was carried out. would be the aim.10 Adequacy of Environmental and Social Management The impact assessment covered under Chapters 8 to 9. Individuals will be asked permission to disclose their identity. and approval obtained (see Section 2. WAPDA August 2011 The present ESA has been conducted. formally acknowledge it. Table 11. A summary of these concerns and recommendations along with the way they have been addressed is given in Table 11. The CO will explain in writing (or where literacy is an issue. will also contribute to investigations as required. In addition. WAPDA will play a role in investigating the validity and responsibility for some grievances. and outside authorities as appropriate. and environmental and social management covered under Chapter 11 adequately address all the potential environmental and social impacts of the project identified during the scoping stage.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment The CO will log the receipt of a comment. unless there are exceptional circumstances. track progress on its investigation and resolution. Identifying and implementing activities. The Project will aim to protect a person’s confidentiality when requested and will guarantee anonymity in annual reporting. WAPDA should fulfill the regulatory requirements of conducting ESA of proposed project. Project staff. and respond in writing with feedback to the aggrieved party. 11-31 .6: Stakeholders’ Concerns/Recommendations and their Redressal Suggestions/Comments Recommended Action Suggestions from Institutional Stakeholders 1. A response time of 10 working days. at least bi-annually during construction and annually during operation. The aggrieved party will need to recognize that there may be situations when disclosure of identity is required and the Project will identify these situations to see whether the aggrieved party wishes to continue with the investigation and resolution activities. the results of the review. procedures. In some cases it will be appropriate for the CO to follow up at a later date to see if the person or organization is satisfied with the resolution or remedial actions. The investigation will aim to identify whether the incident leading to the grievance is a singular occurrence or likely to reoccur. Investigations will be undertaken in a manner that is respectful of the aggrieved party and the principle of confidentiality. 11.

2). 3.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Suggestions/Comments Recommended Action 2. WAPDA will ensure free mobility of women and children. 9.8 and 8. 6. particularly preparation and implementation of a tree plantation plan (see Sections 8. Construction related issues like excavated material. The project proponents should develop organizational structure for implementation of SIMF to handle the environmental and social issues during the project implementation.1). ESMU will be established to manage the environmental and social aspects of the Project (see Section 11. Pending issues of compensation on Tarbela and Ghazi Barotha HydroPower Project.1).5.5 and 9. Problems in sewage and solid waste collection system The Social Assistance program under this project aims to address some of the community needs of the area (see Section 9. 12.5 and 9.5. Appropriate mitigation measures are included in the mitigation plan. Lack of health and education facilities in Ghazi and Pehur Hamlets. soil erosion and hazards for local communities and labor force should be appropriately addressed during the construction activities. The Social Assistance program under this project aims to address some of the community needs of the area (see Section 9. Health and safety measures for labor force Appropriate mitigation measures are included in the mitigation plan (see Section 9.2).2. Polluted drinking water in the hamlets The Social Assistance program under this project aims to address some of the community needs of the area (see WAPDA August 2011 11-32 .4). Settlements of pending issues of old affected persons of Tarbela project The old resettlement issues pending in the courts will be settled (see Section 9. especially students of girls and boys schools at WAPDA Right Bank Colony Appropriate mitigation measures are included in the mitigation plan (see Sections 8.5. 4.4). 7.5.3). Rights of employment in Tarbela Project for local community Appropriate measures are included in the mitigation plan (see Section 9. 14. Suggestions from Grass-root Stakeholders 10.4).4.5. Appropriate mitigation measures among others in the form of preparing and implementing a traffic management plan are included in the mitigation plan (Sections 8. Seepage problem due to Ghazi Barrage pond This aspect has not been addressed in ESA.4). 8.11). 11. Rights of employments in Tarbela project Appropriate measures are included in the mitigation plan (see Section 9. Safe transportation of construction material Same as above. 5. 15. Possible damage to flora and fauna particularly at proposed site for power house should be addressed.4).5. The old resettlement issues pending in the courts will be settled (see Section 9.3. 8. 13.

WAPDA August 2011 The Social Assistance program under this project aims to address some of the community needs of the area (see Section 9. Recruitment in Tarbela and GBHP projects from other parts of the country. Suggestions and Recommendations forwarded by Workshop Participants 28. The project will provide employment opportunities and recommendations have been 11-33 .5. Polluted drinking water. It is beyond the jurisdiction of WAPDA. The project will provide employment opportunities for people from other parts of the country as well (see Section 9. Settlement of compensation issues of old affectees of Tarbela and Ghazi Barotha.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Suggestions/Comments Recommended Action Section 9.5. This aspect has not been addressed in ESA. 19. Appropriate mitigation measures are included in the mitigation plan.4). The Social Assistance program under this project aims to address some of the community needs of the area (see Section 9.2). particularly preparation and implementation of a tree plantation plan (see Section 8. Shortage of water and low water table in the areas downstream Ghazi barrage. Same as above. 18. Solid waste and sewerage disposal problems. 24. 26.1).5.5. Appropriate mitigation measures in the form of preparing and implementing a traffic management plan are included in the mitigation plan (see Section 8.4 and 8. Seepage and high water table at Right Bank in Topi area. Lack of health and educational facilities in the area.5 and 9.1).1). especially in the villages where old affectees of Tarbela and Ghazi Barotha are residing. WAPDA should fix a quota in employment for local peoples in TDP and GBHPP. provision of electricity at subsides rates in the Project area. Fear of road accidents during construction phase of the project Same as above 27. 23.5). 21. 17.4). Restoration of the source of livelihood of fishermen. The project will provide employment opportunities and recommendations have been included in ESA to give preference to local population (see Section 9. 22. Tree management plan. Un employment in the area. The old resettlement issues pending in the courts will be settled (see Section 9. The Social Assistance program under this project aims to address some of the community needs of the area (see Section 9. 25.1). Issues highlighted by the Consultation Workshop Participants 16. 20.4).5.

41. A public park can be added in the Social Assistance plan. 33. WAPDA August 2011 Same as above. Same as above.4 and 8.1). The Social Assistance program under this project aims to address some of the community needs of the area (see Section 9. The Social Assistance program under this project aims to address some of the community needs of the area (see Section 9. Same as above.4). WAPDA may establish recreational parks at Ghazi and Topi for local peoples. Same as above. The Social Assistance program under this project aims to address some of the community needs of the area (see Section 9. 39.5). Establishment of emergency unit with ambulance for local communities. WAPDA should arrange clean drinking water in Project area.5. 31.5. Needs to introduce computer as a subject in the schools. 11-34 .5.1). WAPDA may rehabilitate the old road near Ghazi and use during construction phase to avoid traffic hazards to local community. Same as above. 35.1). 30. Establishment of a heavy machinery training centre at Topi. Same as above.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Suggestions/Comments Recommended Action included in ESA to give preference to local population (see Section 9. 36. 34. 37. Consultation with Women This aspect will be considered during the project implementation. WAPDA should help in the up gradation of educational and health facilities in the Ghazi and Topi area. 40. Problems of proper disposal of solid waste and sewage issues at Right Bank Colony. Same as above. The Social Assistance program under this project aims to address some of the community needs of the area (see Section 9.1). Appropriate mitigation measures in the form of preparing and implementing a traffic management plan are included in the mitigation plan (see Sections 8.5. WAPDA may engage a NGO like GBTI to work with local communities for the implementation of the project in environmentally and socially safe way. 38. 29. 32. Establishment of vocational training centre for women. Civil department of WAPDA should work on proposal for the rehabilitation of drainage system at Right Bank and replacement of old water supply pipelines. Drinking water is contaminated with other particles and people have to use this contaminated water. Lack of cold drinking water in summer in the school.

00 0. especially for women in Civil Hospital Topi.39 C2 15 Workers Accommodation Plan *) A WAPDA August 2011 33.59 C2 9 Training and Capacity building 83. Needs of a vocational training centre for women in the area. Lack of health facilities.15 11-35 . Same as above.29 C2 Environmental and Social Management Plan (ESMP) 1 Landscaping Plan and Replanting Plan 24.00 1.28 E2 Social Impact Management Framework (SIMF) 12 Land acquisition/ temporary lease of land *) A 13 Workers health/safety/wellbeing Plan *) A 14 Monitoring & Evaluation workers health/safety/wellbeing 0.11 Cost Estimates for Environmental Management and Monitoring The estimated costs for the environmental management and monitoring activities are set out in Table 11. Environmental Management 50. 44.7: Cost Estimates for Management and Monitoring Activities Description Cost Cost Million PKR Million US$ Project Component 0. 43.06 11 Independent Panel of experts 24. Table 11. Seepage problems in Topi area due to Ghazi Barrage pond.30 0. Same as above.7 below.65 2 Pollution Prevention Plan *) A 3 Waste Disposal Plan *) A 4 Drinking Water Management Plan *) A 5 Borrow Area Restoration Plan *) A 6 Traffic Management Plan *) A 7 Waste Disposal Plan *) A 8 Monitoring & Evaluation. Same as above.15 0. lack of teaching staff in the Girls Middle School at Pehur Hamlet. Same as above.98 C2 10 Strengthening of WEC 90. 11.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Suggestions/Comments Recommended Action 42. lack of furniture. 45. Inadequate building structure.

50 C1 18 Implementing Social Assistance Program 104.61 Total ESMP and SIMF *) in contractors budget WAPDA August 2011 11-36 .29 C1 16 Information and Communication Strategy 17 Addressing social legacy TDPGBHPP 1062.80 17.23 C1 1.4 1.65 0.50 12.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Description Cost Cost Million PKR Million US$ Project Component 24.496.

Munaza School Teacher Summera Iqbal School Teacher Wakeela Naz School Teacher Kaneez Akhtar Resident Alia Zafar Resident Salma Shehnaz Resident Nobia Naveed Resident Summera Ammar Resident Zeenat bibi Resident Ghazala Naveed Resident Shazia Resident Shagufta Saeed Resident Mrs. Zahida Resident Tayyaba Khan Resident Aqeeda Nasreen Resident Sadaf Naeem Resident Beghum Iqbal Resident WAPDA August 2011 A-1 .8: List of Women Participants in Scoping Consultation Meeting at Girls High School WAPDA Right Bank Colony Date: 10th August 2010 Mrs.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Annex A: Consultation Details Table A. Atia Begum Headmistress Jamila Hassan School Teacher Afra Bashra School Teacher Ms. Naveed Resident Ms.

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Shereen Taj Resident Sarwat Khan Resident Ayesha Hina Resident Nazia Gul Resident WAPDA August 2011 A-2 .

E (Mech) 0346-8999760 26 Raj Wali Khan P. Engineer 0334-8697544 6 Abdul Rahim ???? 0321-9876393 7 Ghous Nawaz PEIE-II 0332-5056159 8 Irshad Hussain Bangash SSE 0346-9070696 9 Iftikhar Ahmad Sub Engineer 0305-5727502 10 Shoiab Saleem ASA 0300-5311157 11 Zohaib Hashim Junior Engineer 0344-9019514 12 Usman Jamil Junior Engineer 0344-9019514 13 Munir Ahmad Junior Engineer 0345-5445661 14 Asif Saeed Junior Engineer 0321-2059427 15 Mazhar Nouman Lab Assistant 0345-9373301 16 Abdul Majid Test Inspector 0345-6520280 17 Shamsuddin Assistant Foreman 0333-7369246 18 Ihsan Ullah Senior Engineer P&I-I 0344-9212080 19 Ashfaq Ahmad JP&IE -II 0333-5324581 20 Imtiaz Ahmad Junior Engineer 0313-9095171 21 Habib-ur-Rehman Senior Engineer 0306-5510413 22 M.E (E) 0342-9184105 2 Khurshid Khan OE 0303-5120265 4 Asif Jan OE 0334-9304782 5 Muhammad Farooq Sr. Zafar Khan Resident Engineer 0312-5033481 23 Javed Akhtar Senior Engineer 0300-5829739 24 Amin Ullah JIE 0306-7058881 25 Khalid Khan P. 9: Participants in WAPDA Consultation Meeting 10 August 2010 Name Designation Contact No.A to R.A to R. 1 S.E (P) 0344-2829678 27 Khurshid Anwar Project Director 0321-9897172 28 Muhammad Amin Khalid RE (M) 29 Hameed Ullah EME (P)-I WAPDA August 2011 A-3 . Bashir Ahmad R.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Table A.

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Table A. 0300-5688606 0300-5394800 Muhammad Ali Shah Syed Sharaf Ali Shah 4 Abdul Rasheed 5 Muhammad Din 6 Ghazanfar Shah 7 Shabir Ahmed 8 Javed Iqbal 9 Aqil Shah 10 Muhammad Maskeen WAPDA August 2011 0300-8585695 (Ex. Bakhat Gul Jahangeer 4 Muhammad Waqas 5 Ijaz Ahmed 6 Usman Sher 7 Muddsar Iqbal 8 Paris Khan 9 Muhammad Rafique 10 Ghulam Qadir 11 Bahadar Sher 12 Allah Baksh 13 Siddique Ahmed 14 Fida Muhammad Ghazi Hamlet 2 (November 2010 3 Syed Asif Ali Shah 25.10: Participants Initial Awareness Campaign (Scoping Stage) List of Village/Settlement 1 Pehur Hamlet 2 (November 2010) Person Contacted Muhammad Javed 24. Nazim Batakha Union Council) 3 1 Contact Number 03015037032 0300-5258117 A-4 .

Cell. Office Clerk Phone. Senior Engineer 04 05 Office of the XEN(civil) WAPDA Mr. 0321-9897172 Mr. Deputy Director. Abdul Rasheed Tanooli. Sultan Nadeem. 0301-5525180 02 Library Tarbela Project Offices Mr. Project Director Office. Assistant Director O8 Fisheries Department. 0301-8345117 07 Fisheries Department . SDFO Mr Safdar Rehman. 0995611846 10 Wild Life Department. Muhammad Irfan.11: Consultation 01 List of Officials Contacted During Institutional Location Officials Contacted Project Office 4th Extension Tarbela Mr. Haripur Mr.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Table A. Cell (KP) 0346-7868651 Mr. SDFO 12 Tehsil Municipal Administration . Senior Medical Officer Colony Right Bank 06 Community Centre. Muhammad Shafi Marwat. 0301-8883014 Mr. Deputy Range Officer. 0346-9595078 11 Forest Department Ghazi (KP) Mr. Care Taker Cell. Hizbullah. Javed Iqbal. PA to Project Dorector Cell. 0321-4868140 Mr. WAPDA Mr. Senior Engineer Mr. Farhad Shah. Niaz Sardar Hussain. Haydait Shah. Chief Engineer Mr. Rajab Khan 03 Power House Tarbela Mr. Khurshed Anwer. Abdul Rasheed.Tarbela Mr.WAPDA Dr. Khalid Saeed. Haripur(KP) Mr. TMO WAPDA August 2011 A-5 . Asif Jehan. Deputy Range Officer (KP) Cell. Ahmed Waheed.Director Admin Cell. Incharge Community Colony Right Bank Centre/Dy. Assistant Director Cell 0300-5996510 09 Forest Department. Munsif Shah. 0995-662013 Cell. XEN (civil) Colony Right Bank Cell 0312-9064002 Dispensary . Haripur Mr.Ghazi Mr. Jan Sher. Sajjad Haider.

Tasswar Rasheed. Hattian WAPDA August 2011 Mr. Afia Bashura Mrs. 03009082446 Mr.Topi Dr. Program Coordinator A-6 . Muhammad Ikram. WAPDA Right Bank Mr. Habib Ullah. Headmaster 20 Govt. Jameela Hassan 16 Boys High School. Pehur Hamlet Mr. Senior Nurse 14 Civil Hospital . Principal Colony Mrs. Teacher 19 Govt. Supervisor NADRA Cell. Headmaster Colony Cell. Javed ahmed. Secretary Mr. Qasim Asad. WAPDA Right Bank Ms. 0301-5471320 Ms. 0336-9410879 22 Ghazi Bortha tarqiati Idara. Iftekhar Ahmed. 0314-9898725 Mr. Aqeel Ahmed. Teacher 17 Govt. Talat Begham. Boys Primary School. Pehur Hamlet Ms. Senior M O 15 Girls High School. Topi Mr.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Location Officials Contacted Cell. Senior Teacher Ms.Ghazi Dr. Arshad ul Islam. Acting Headmaster Cell. Muhammad Javed. Dispensary . Girls High School. Rukhsana Ghous. Atia Beg. Medical Officer Cell. Muhammad Bilal. Anwer Ahmed. Pehur Hamlet Mr. Teacher 18 Govt. Wakeela Naz. Boys High School. Incharge 21 Union Councils Office. 0300-5958563 13 Civil Hospital . Pehur Hamlet Dr.

12: List of Persons Contacted During Grass Root Consultation Village / Settlement Person Contacted Contact Number 01 Syed Asif Ali Shah 0300-5394800 02 Muhammad Sarfraz Shah 03 Ghaznfer Shah 04 Shabir Ahmed 05 Javed Iqbal 06 Aqil Shah 07 Alf Din 08 Liaqat Ali 09 Ghazi Hamlet Syed Shafat Ali shah 12 Muhammad Maskeen 13 Azhar Ali 14 Saeed Shah 15 Muhammad Ali Shah 16 Syed Sharaf Ali Shah 17 Abdul Rasheed 18 Muhammad Din 19 Muhammad Javed 20 Ghulam Qadir 21 Bahadar Sher 22 Taus Khan 23 Usman Sher 24 Allah Baksh 25 Siddique Ahmed 26 Sher Khan Pehur Hamlet 0300-5258117 Syed Azmat Ali Shah 10 27 0301-5037032 0300-8585695 0300-5688606 Muddsar Iqbal 28 Paris Khan 29 Muhammad Rafique 30 Bakhat Gul 31 Jahangeer 32 Muhammad Waqas 33 Ijaz Ahmed 34 35 WAPDA August 2011 A-7 .Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Table A.

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Village / Settlement Person Contacted Contact Number 36 Muhammad Javed 0300-9082446 37 Khan Muhammad 38 Allah Baksh 39 Siddique Ahmed 40 Fazal e waliat 41 Kafiat ur Rehman Boys High School Pehur Hamlet 42 Muntzar Khan 43 Fida Muhammad 44 Muhammad Javed 45 Usman Sher 46 Muhammad Shahzad 47 Iftekhar Ahmed 0344-9215199 48 Khalid Ghafoor 0313-9412721 49 Tanveer Alam 0345-9495220 50 Muhammad Ayub 51 Abdul Hameed 52 Saleem Bahadar 03005523695 0300-9086466 Topi House. Swabi Road Topi 53 Ayub Jan 54 Haji Naiz Muhammad 0300-5689998 55 Yasir Mahmood 0314-9995565 56 Muhammad Abdullah 57 Abdul Haq 58 Anwer Ahmed 033-9136976 59 Gohar Ali 0314-9898725 60 Javed Iqbal 0302-5685033 61 Habib Ullah 0346-5611386 Muhammad Asghar 0300-4875325 Ayaz Awan 034609804212 64 Ali Badsh 0301-5751645 65 Fakher e Alam 0300-9358165 66 Zia ul Haq 0303-5353235 67 Wisal Shah 0345-9491145 68 Waqar Hussan 0302-5470599 69 Umer Khaliq 0300-9712004 Nasar Iqbal 0300-9787113 62 63 70 Boys High School WAPDA Right Bank Colony Darra Mohat 71 WAPDA August 2011 Abdul Sattar A-8 .

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Village / Settlement Person Contacted Contact Number 72 Sultan Afzal 73 Bashir Khan 74 Jameel Rehman 75 Nazir Hussain 76 Farman Shah 77 Meraj Khan 78 Mohsin Shah 79 Shakir Nawaz 0303-5290611 80 Ashiq Hussain 0302-5306419 81 Khalid Zaman 0332-5727140 82 Sarzameen Khan 83 Rabaz Khan 84 Muhammad Sajjad 0308-8079313 0308-8582757 Kukar Chawa 85 Muslim Khan 86 Rizwan Khan 87 Jalil Rehman 88 Mir Haider 89 Asad Ghani 90 Shahras Khan 91 Mir Muhammad Afzal 92 Aizaz Afzal 93 Muhammad Ajmal 94 Ahmed Nawaz 95 0308-8569281 0306-8168237 0300-5809632 Naeem Khan Ghari Mera 96 Roshin Din 97 Muqdar Khan 98 Faisal Nawaz 99 Faisal Qadeer 100 Muhammad Naiz 101 Sardar Lal Khan 102 Muhammad Shahzad 0300-5813331 103 Muhammad Adnan 0313-5882582 Umer Khaliq 0300-9712004 104 Sobra City 105 Muhammad Sohail 106 Akhtar Javed 107 Aziz Ullah WAPDA August 2011 0301-5751158 0301-8343290 A-9 .

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Village / Settlement Person Contacted Contact Number 108 Fazal-e-Subhan 109 Kareem Khan 0345-2994731 110 Sardar Babar Ali 0343-5257933 111 Bashir ahmed 0300-8306243 112 Muhammad Ilyas 0347-9342694 113 Dr.Ameer Khan 0300-5907301 Syed Niaz Hussain Shah 0300-9139466 115 Nayyar Iqbal 0346-5628747 116 Arsalan Ajmal 0313-5911838 117 Dilfraz Khan 0301-8765881 118 Rab Nawaz 0307-5338729 119 Orengzeb Khan 120 Jalat Khan 121 Tamraz Khan 122 Mukhtar Khan 114 Qazi Pur 123 Khabbal Bukhtair Khan 124 Ejaz Khan 125 Yasin Khan 126 Khawas Khan 127 Taufail Khan 128 Ikram Ullah 129 Said Akbar 130 Abdul Qadoos 131 Taufail Ahmed 132 Javed Ahmed 0344-4141158 0342-9686533 0300-9343294 0314-9769529 Pontian 133 Waheed Khan 134 Gul Bahadar 135 Yasir Khan 136 Muhammad Idrees 137 Sabaz Ali WAPDA August 2011 A-10 .

Kamran Affectee Village Khbal 23. Syed Farman Shah Chairman UCC Mian Dhari 22. TDP 12. Tarbela 2. List of Participants of Stakeholders Consultation Workshop at Ghazi Date: 24. Sajjad Haidar TMO Ghazi Local govt. TDP 13. 2011 Name of Participants Designation Department/ Village 1. Ammad Ali Affectee Khalo 5. 20. Malik Fazl-i-Karim G. Assad Affectee Dull Dara 15. Tarbela 3. Amjad Ali President committee 9. STPC Press 4. Seismology WAPDA Tarbela 7. deptt. Umaer Khaliq Principal QPS Ghazi 14. Amin Khan ASE (D&S) WAPDA. Sardar Shehzad Affectee Sobra City 26. 02. Waqas Ahmad Affectee Khalo 18.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Table A. Abul Kalam Sr. Israr Khan SE (D& S) WAPDA.Nazim Umerkhana 8. Engineer Tarbell 4th HP 17. Naseer Iqbal Ex. Torab Khan Affectee Khano 25. Naila Taseen Sangi Foundation Khalo Sungi Foundation 6. Muhammad Shahbaz President Tasbeh Press Club 10 Nasir Mohmmud Inspector TDP 11. Shakir Nawaz Affectee Village Kukar Chowa 16. Shabbir Ahmad Affectee Ghazi Hamlet 27 Sher Khan Affectee Darra Muhat WAPDA August 2011 village HADAF A-11 . Fazli Amin SE (S & E) WAPDA. Bashir Ahmad Affectee Village Qazipur 19. Javed Iqbal PRO (Protocol) WPADA. Qasim Shah Affectee Ummer Khano 24. Zahoor Ahmad Teacher Education Mian Dhari 21.13: List of Participants for Consultation Workshops 1. Syed Kazim Dir.

2011 Name Designation Department/Village 1.O Forest Dept 30 M. Shareen Affectee Galla 5. Asad Aman Foreseer Forest Dept Swabi 7. Ghazanfar Ali shah Affecters/NGO Hamlet Ghazi 32 Mushtaq Malik Affectees Ghazi Hamlet 33 Mir Afzal Khan Ex-chairman Ghazi/Ghari Meera 34 Rab Nawaz Affectees Ghari Meera 35 Abid Ali Khan Ex-Nazim Ghazi Ghazi 36 Javed Iqbal Journalist Press 37 Hazrat Umar G. Tarbell WAPDA 38 Syed Munsif Shah PA T4th Extension WAPDA. Sociologist MMP 2.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Name of Participants Designation Department/ Village 28 Adeel Khan ARY Reporter Ghazi 29 Abdul Rashid S. Afsar Affectee Darra Mohat 31 S. M.D. Tarbela 39 Arshad khan Team leader GBTI GBTI 40 Adeel Nasir - Piplian 41 Faisal Zaman Ex MPA Ghazi 42 Khurshid Ex Councellor Ghazi 43 Prof. Degree College 44 Shahid Ali Affectee Ghazi 45 Rashid Zaman Student Khalo 46 Muhammad Idrees Press/Bureau chief Khndi 47 Abdul Hafeez Sr. 02. Tamraiz Khan Affectee Village Khabal 2. M. Mohammad Rafiq General Librarian Hamlet WAPDA August 2011 A-12 .P. Khurshid A. Ejaz Affectee Village Khabbal 3.P Govt. Sarzamin Affectee Galla 4. List for Participants of Stakeholders Consultation Workshop at Topi Date: 26. Khalid Ghafoor YAD’s President Topi/YAD organization 6.

Topi 28. Dr. Taufeeq Zaman Chief Officer M. Niaz Mohammad Affectee Topi House. Sardar Shehza Afectees Sobra 16. Javed Ahmad Primary School Teacher Pontian 30. Khaista Khan Affectee Pehur Hamlet 37.E. Fazli Qadir SMO Health Dept. 17. Saleh Mohammad Fisherman Galla 15. Khan Mohammad School Teacher Education 34. Usman Sher Manager Research GIKI 33. Mohammad Asfan Sr. C. Topi 21. Engineer Tarbell power house 22. Amjad Ali Vice president Press 20. Topi Topi Local Govt. Iftikhar Ahmad Primary School Teacher Education Pehur 11. Sajjad In charge Encroachments Corporation Toll 18. Yaser Mohammad Affectee Topi 12. M. Akmal Zeb Affectee Thandkoi 10. Ahmed Waheed C. Jehan Sher khan WAPDA August 2011 WAPDA Tarbell\a A-13 . Syed Anjum Shah President/social organization Tanzeem-e-Naujawanane-Topi 19. Momen Khan Fisherman Galla 14. Gul Hayat Nazim Union Council Topi 27. Azmat Ali Journalist Ashara Azar Swabi Time 13.(P)Tarbela WAPDA 32. Tanveer Alam Politics Topi 26. Hafeez Affectee Topi 25. Ikram-ullah Primary School Teacher Pontian 31.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Name Designation Department/Village 8. Muhammad Shafiq Admin officer GIK Institute 23. Siddiq Ahmed Primary School Teacher Education 35. Abdur Rasheed Affectee Pehur Hamlet 36. Javed Khan Ex-Nazim Hamlet Pehur 9. Saryat Khan Manager Warid SAD/IDM 29. Javed Zaman Affectee Kotha 24.

Zafar Mohammad P. Arshad Affectees Nilab 43. Khursheed Anwar PD 4th Extension WAPDA. Rashiq Ahhmer A. Fayyaz Khalid MFO T4 JVC T4 Extension Project 47. 35842653 Sunny view Lahore 4. Saeed President/Social organization Islahi Jarga Topi 44.D (Ecology) WAPDA 042Environment Cell.A Tarbell WAPDA 42. Azmat Beg Principal Environmentalist MM Pakistan Lahore 03334535623 7. M. 0333510784 03215573711 A-14 . Abul kalam Sr.2011 Name Participants of Designation Department/ Organization Contact No 1.03. A. Ghazanfar Ali Head Sector WAPDA August 2011 Water GCISC 051-2202694 Agri. of Archeology 3. Dr. Abdul Hafeez Sr. M. Engineer Tarbell 4th WAPDA 39. Prof. Ashraf Bodla Chief Environmentalist MM Pakistan 03004739866 6. Waqar Ahmad Social worker Batakara 46. M. S. Shafqat Ali Malik DPM T4 Consultant JV 48. Research PMAS Arid University Rawalpindi 8.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Name Designation Department/Village 38. Tarbela 0995-662013 5. Niaz Mohammad Affectee Khalo 49. Khurshid Anwar Project Director Tarbell WAPDA 41. Sajid Zaman Fisherman Batakara 45. Dr. Mohsin Iqbal Head Agriculture Global Change 051-2077300 Impacts Study Center Islamabad 2. I Lone Dir. Rana Attia Dastgir A. E Dept. Dr. List of Participants of Stakeholders Workshop at Islamabad Date: 17. Munsif Shah PD Tarbela 4th WAPDA 40. Sociologist MMP 3.

/ 03009716115 PARC. 7th Floor UNIDO Coordinator 03335678078 29. Dr. Iman Malik Assistant Manager IESCO 31. Dr. NUST 90854308 23. M. Tanvir Mohmmud National Prog. NUST 25. Abdul Hafeez 15.) NARC UNIDO 03459325118 / 9255074 of 9245605 A-15 . Tanveir Abbasi Rizwan Manager 10. Safeguard Officer Department/ Organization Contact No MM Pakistan 03015452005 ADD / SUO 03215827597 Ahmad Chairman Pakistan Wildlife 03335214333 Foundation Asst. Dr. Khawar 11. MEAs Ministry Environment 32. Prof Federal Directorate of 03335227389 Education WAPDA 03015710104 Sr. Sociologist MM Pakistan 03334236494 Saadullah Ayaz CC Coordinator IUCN Pakistan 2271027 16. Sameera Zaib Environmentalist Project Procurement 26. NUST 24. Ayesha Aftab Butt Programme Officer 8354814 30. Fareed Rokhany EA ( C) M/O Water Power and 9244623 19. Waseem Khan 12. Ayesha Asghar NUST Scholar NUST WAPDA August 2011 Ahmad Director (Envir. Numair Aman HSE Laraib Energy 03005552418 17. Abdul Qadir Rafiq ACD Environment UNDP 8355641 20. Asjad Imtiaz Ali RRC M/O Water Power and 9244600 18. Ishteqaq Kokab 14. Aneeza Rafique Student NUST 03434432841 22. Qudsia Siddiqui Env. PARC 27. M. Waseem 13. JPSO UNRCO 8355646 21.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Name Participants of Designation 9. P. Ahmad Hussain DPM. Ashfaq A. Anwar Beg Professor IESE. Moshabbir RSP Water WRRI. Mariyam Siddiq Student IESE. Islamabad 28. Dr. Azeem Khan Director Social Sciences Inst. M. Hina Amber Haneef Student IESE.

Sher Afzal AD impact) 37. Col Aqil Project Manager MM Pakistan 03335324736 39. MMP 03015117949 41. M. Imran Account Officer MM Pakistan 03455070837 40.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Name Participants of Designation Department/ Organization Contact No 33. Omer Khalid Envr. Zahoor Ahmad RSA MM Pakistan 03325513080 35. M. M. Naeem-ul-Hassan Admin Asst. Specialist World Bank 03335314736 38. Hanif Shareef Regional Manager MM Pakistan 03008545493 34. Ghulam Ali BD Coordinator MMP 03335518722 WAPDA August 2011 (Social IESCO 03212495221 A-16 . Riffat Qamar DG W&C 0519250345 36.

Ext. 0333-9061578 2 Sajjad Ali DFO (WL) WLD. Deptt 0300-5857393 4 Uman Ahad AD (EIA) EPA 0333-9481997 5 M. 2011 Name Designation Department/Village Contact No. KP 0300-5910807 3 Nawaz Khattak EDO Agri Agri . Dastagir Ecologist 11 Khursheed Anwar 12 Syed Munsif Shah 13 Zahid Abbas 14 Gul Muhammad 15 Muhammad Shafiq 16 WAPDA Env. A Eng Archaeology Peshawar 0300-5822734 25 Muhammad Ismail Khan A/C Archaeology Peshawar 0300-5951342 WAPDA August 2011 A-17 .Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment 4. Kokab Director WAPDA Env. Nasim Golra P.T EPA-KPK 9210148 22 Rubina Noor AD EPA-KPK 9210148 23 Taj Ali Khan Prof UET-Peshawar 0301-8993556 24 Ahmad Nawaz A. S&T 0300-5884194 19 Inayat-ur-Rehman SO PCSIR.D FORD Irrigation 9213700 18 Jehangir Shah S. Peshawar 0333-9613475 20 Turab Shah Planning MMP/Peshawar Branch 0332-9230940 21 Neelam Asad E. SO PCSIR. 1 Sher Azam Khan Dir (M&E) P & D Deptt. List of Participants of Stakeholders Workshop at Peshawar 30. Cell 042-35842603 WAPDA 0321-9897172 WAPDA 0301-5525180 Assistant PD Irrigation 4th Extension 0333-9055123 PD Extension 4 th Forest Department 0300-5615473 SSRO Soil Survey of Pak 0333-9327424 Gauher Rehman PM MMP 091-5254188 17 M. Cell 0301-5710104 9 Purdil Khan Advisor T 4th Extension Project 0308-5220025 10 Rana A. Younas Khan Monitoring Inspector EPA 0308-5875385 6 Jawad Ali MI EPA 0313-5216652 7 Shahid Hamid CE TDP WAPDA 0300-5795242 8 Ishtiqaq A. 03.

Engr. Khan Prof Director 31 Shakeel Chander Advocate 32 Asif Shehzada DD (P) EPA .KP. Peshawar 091-9210282 33 Alamgir Sultan Intern EPA 0334-9035612 34 Abid Noor Afridi Chief Water P&D Department 35 Javed Khattak SDO Irrigation 0304-4478228 36 Iftikhar Ahmad Engineer NESPAK 0321-9819814 37 Mohsin Ali GIS analyst MMP 0345-4199534 38 Abdul Hafeez Senior Sociologist MMP 0333-4236494 39 Abuzar Afghan Site inspector MMP 0300-8010479 40 Basharat Ali Office Assistant MMP 0314-9909908 WAPDA August 2011 & NCE Physical 091-821848 0300-8590241 A-18 .Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Name Designation Department/Village Contact No. WAPDA HP. Hasan M. of chemical 0333-9322129 sciences Univ. of Peshawar 30 Prof Dr. 26 Gulshan Photographer Roznama Mashriq 0333-9142090 27 Mian Atiq Mahboob AD(R&S) EPA (RD Swat) 0333-9399400 28 Abul Kalam Sr. 0345-5999964 29 Prof. Dr. T 4th Ext. Ikhtiar Khan Prof Inst.

14: List of contacted women during grass root consultation Participant Meeting Place Ghazi Hamlet (left Bank) 1 Sartaj Beghum w/o Mehbob Ali Shah 2 Riffat Beghum w/o Akbar Khan 3 Nosheen Imran w/o Imran Khan 4 Noreen Nisar Ali d/o Nisar Ali 5 Tehmina Beghum w/o Niaz Muhammad 6 Fazal Jan w/o Allah Dita 7 Nasreen Beghum w/o Talib Hussain 8 Asma Bibi w/o Umer Hayat 9 Razia Beghum w/oAftab Khan 10 Misbah Khanam w/o Nadeem Iqbal 11 Shaheen Beghum w/o Hassan Zaib 12 Zahida Raheem d/o Raheem Khan Residence of Nadeem Iqbal Pehur Hamlet (Right Bank) 13 Talat Beghum w/o v 14 Shabana Beghum w/o Misal Khan 15 Salma Waris d/o Waris Khan 16 Saima Aseem d/o Aseem Khan 17 Shakeela Iqbal w/o Iqbal Khan 18 Taj Bibi w/o Munawar Khan 19 Fehmida Khan w/o Anwar Khan 20 Neelofar Anwar d/o Anwar Khan 21 Shehla Ibrar w/o Ibrar Khan 22 Naheed Gul w/o Muhammad Gul 23 Abida Bibi d/o Fazal dad 24 Rani Sajad w/o Sajad Khan Residence of Sajjad Khan Right Bank Colony (Right Bank) 25 Ayesha Naz w/o Sajid Ali 26 Kaneez Akhtar w/o Yousaf Masih 27 Alia Zafar w/o Muhammad Zafar WAPDA August 2011 Ladies / Women Club A-19 .Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Table A.

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Participant 28 Jamila Hassan w/o Muhammad Hassan 29 Salma Shehnaz /o Bashir Ahmad 30 Nobia Naveed w/o Saad Ahmed 31 Summera Ammar d/o Ammar Sher 32 Zeenat bibi w/o Fazal Mabood 33 Ghazala Naveed w/o Naveed Ahmed 34 Shazia w/o Hafeez-ur-rehman 35 Afra Bashra w/o Rana Hameed Ahmed 36 Shagufta Saeed w/o Sohail Azam Meeting Place Topi (Right Bank) 37 Sadaf Naeem d/o Sajad Naeem 38 Ayesha Hina d/o Muhammad Saeed 39 Nazia Gul d/o Waris Khan 40 Mariam Hadi Khan w/o Hadi Khan 41 Beghum Iqbal w/o Muhammad Iqbal 42 Aqeeda Nasreen w/o Sikandar Zaib 43 Shereen Taj w/o Momin Khan 44 Wakeela Naz w/o Tariq Akhtar 45 Sarwat Khan w/o Asal Khan 46 Fatima Zafar d/o Muhammad Zafar 47 Summera iqbal d/o Iqbal zafar 48 tayyaba khan w/o muhammad yousaf Residence of Waris Khan Darah Mohat (Left Bank) 49 Razia Umar w/o Umar Khitab 50 Sayyeda sattar w/o Sattar Khan 51 Nazreen Nazeer d/o Nazeer Ahmad 52 Shabana bibi w/o Ghulzar Khan 53 Gulmar Jan w/o Nazar Gul 54 Pashmena Jan w/o Mukhiar Khan 55 Absana Wazeer d/o Wazeer Rehman 56 Zeenat Pervaiz w/o Shafqat Khan 57 Zeton Dilwarshah w/o Dilwar shah WAPDA August 2011 Residence of Wazeer Rehman A-20 .

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Participant 58 Dilsana Nisar w/o Nisar Khan 59 Abida Bibi w/o Aslam Hayat 60 Jameela Khantoon w/o Dilafsan Meeting Place Qazi pur (Left Bank) Gulnaz Shafique w/o Muhammad 61 shaafique 62 Tazeem w/o Hidayat Ali Khan 63 Nabeela Azeem w/o Muhammad Azeem 64 Aarzi Irfan w/o Muhammad Irfan 65 Anwar Jan w/o Muhammad Saleem 66 Asmara Khan d/o Muhammad Ajmal 67 Arshia Usman w/o Usman Ali 68 Naheed Bukhshish w/o Bukhshish Ali 69 Aneesa Ali Khan w/o Junaid Ali Khan Residence of Junaid Ali Khan Shazia Tabassum w/o Muhammad 70 Naveed Sobra City (Left Bank) 71 Nasreen Beghum w/o Lal Khan 72 Shazia Babar w/o Sardar Babar Ali 73 Haleema Aleem w/o Muhammad Aleem 74 Rukhsana Naveed w/o Naveed Residence of Lal Khan Khabbal (Right Bank) 75 Gul Naseen Khan w/o Fazal Khan 76 Wakhud Bedar d/o Rangzeb Khan 77 Fehmida Jalat Khan w/o Jalat Khan 78 Dilshad Rangzeb w/o Rangzeb Khan Residence of Jalat khan Kukar Chawa (Left Bank) 79 Zember Jan w/o Meer Wali 80 Shahida Perveen w/o Muhammad Fazil 81 Husanfia w/o Shah Fazil 82 Zakia Beghum w/o Muhammad Jameel 83 Azra Ashiq w/o Ashiq Hussain 84 Hajrah Beghum w/o Zamzameen WAPDA August 2011 Residence of Ashiq Hussain A-21 .

0333-5170767 0333-7599914 A-22 .EPA 6 Farhea Irshad Gender Specialist. o/o GM Land 99202735 Acquisition and Resettlement. (EIA) KP-EPA 4 Muhammad Khalid 5 Dr. 2011 Name Designation and Address Contact. WAPDA Lahore 7 M. 0995-662013 2 Purdil Khan Advisor WAPDA Tarbela 4th 0308-5220025 Ext 3 Dr.D. D Tarbela 4th Ext. Topi Date: June 23.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Participant Meeting Place 85 Khber Jan w/o Zeloam Khan 86 Hussan Naz d/o Muhammad Jameel Pontian (Right Bank) 87 Beena Khan w/o Muhammad Ikram 88 Zar Pari w/o Syed Akbar 89 Shameeda Khan w/o Fida Muhammad 90 Shafa Rehman w/o Ali Rehman 91 Sabeena Ameer w/o Ameer Khan 92 Raheela Naz w/o Abdul Qadoos 93 Asia Khatoon w/o Abdul Qadir 94 Nasreen Afzal w/o Afzaal Khan 95 Gulsana Rafe Ullah w/o Rafe Ullah 96 Zoojan w/o Dilawar Shah Residence of Syed Akbar Table A. Amjad Ali Khan D. WAPDA Lahore 9 Ali Hussain Assistant Live Stock Specialist WAPDA August 2011 Omar Environmental Islamabad 0333-9322510 Specialist. WAPDA Lahore 8 Maqbool Bangash Social Development Specialist 042-99202738 o/o GM Land Acquisition and Resettlement.15: List of Participants of Public Hearing Venue: Officers Club WAPDA Right Bank Colony. No 1 Khursheed Anwar P. Iqbal Shah Anthropologist o/o GM Land 99202738 Acquisition and Resettlement. Hussain Ahmad Director KP.

Environment Department.O Wildlife Mardan 23 Hazrat Omar G. 0301-8990542 School 0937-873606 Teacher 0301-5072019 A-23 . MFO 0344-4370080 20 Asif Sahibzada Kotha Village. Swabi 0938-271889 21 Zahir Hussain S. 9211406 Peshawar 22 Said Kamal D.M (LA&R) House. WAPDA 14 Malik Waseem Awan Agronomist LA&R.F.E (R&L) 0345-9428326 26 Wazir-ur-rehman Jr.O.G.E.S. Engineer 0301-9706377 27 Polail Khan District Officer Social Welfare 0300-9052210 28 Javaid Iqbal Protocol Officer TDP 0333-5059712 29 Saleem Shahzad Office Assistant ACE 0300-5813331 30 Javed Ahmed Primary Batakara 31 Ikram ullah Primary School Teacher Pontia 0300-9343294 32 Muqaddam Khan Dawn Correspondent 0301-8350258 33 Engr. WAPDA 13 Ahsan Shah Assistant M&E LA&R. Aftab Azhar Irrigation WAPDA 16 Raheel Mustefa Assistant Agronomist LA&R 17 Haris Basharat Assistant Community 0321-8426969 Development Specialist 18 Ayaz-ul-Haq Student Swabi 19 Iftekhar Mali.Raz Muhammad Tehsil Management 0345-7932460 Administration Swabi 34 Faseer S.Soil Specialist 0301-7053660 730.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Name Designation and Address Contact. No 10 Kalam Deputy Director T4th Extension 0345-5999964 11 Munazza Rafique Agri. Tarbela 0345-9694678 25 Mir Farman Khan S. Lahore 12 Samimo Panni WAPDA Assistant Anthropologist 0345-4013123 LA&R. 0334-9955870 0300-5315110 (Environmentalist).. WAPDA 15 Dr.G WAPDA WAPDA August 2011 Specialist Specialist 0321-9621432 0321-5119979 LA&R.M Tarbela 24 Amin-ul-haq S.Distt.

No 35 Mushtaq Chaudhry Driver 0332-5645874 36 Farman Shah Mat 0345-9707720 37 Abdul Wahab Assistant Ghazi 38 Muhammad Asim Jr. Photographer 62 M. Bashir Ahmad RE (E) 0345-9184105 49 Sultan Zeb Sub. Engineer 50 Rawind Ali S. 60 Sultan Nadeem XEN 61 Noor Muhammad Sr. Shahbaz Correspondent Nawai Waqt 63 M.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Name Designation and Address Contact.S 51 Abid Ahmad Principal GDC Kotha Swabi 0302-5680813 52 Adeel Khan ARY one World 0313-5045066 53 Wajid Ali Old Affectee GHBP 0300-5333306 54 Noor Zaman Old Affectee TDP 0347-5228818 55 Fareed Khan Old Affectee GHBP 0300-8585695 56 Muhammad Adu Khan Peon 0306-8307907 57 Meer Amin Attendent 58 Zahid Hussain Carpenter 59 Wajid Hussain Jr. Clerk 0301-8342582 39 Salim Khan ATD 0334-9495312 40 Aziz ullah Head Mali - 41 Nisar Ahmad ACO Swabi 0345-4744721 42 Zafran Affectee/ Mali 0343-5974095 43 Zard Ali Forest Guard 0345-59171904 44 Arslan Khan Affectee/ Mali 45 Mazhar Jang Newspaper 46 Sareen Driver 0346-9801669 47 Ahmad Waheed CECP 0346-5627230 48 S. Rafiq Old Affectee GHBP / Topi Hamlet 64 Taous Khan Old Affectee GHBP / Topi Hamlet WAPDA August 2011 Education Officer 0312-9277792 0332-9411768 A-24 . Engr.

Usman Union Vice Chairman 0308-5671073 82 A.Munir Sub Engineer 0300-5680298 83 Humayun Khan Sr. Store person 84 Pervez Shah Attendant 0345-8985152 85 Abdul Waheed Affected person 0346-5594233 86 Shah Alam Sr. Engineer 0332-5056159 78 Azeem Khan Driver/ Affected person 03345-616422 79 Sher Hussain Khan Divisional Forest Officer Haripur 0346-69222003 0306-5041449 0300-9767063 0995611846 80 Firdoos Khan Ex. Engineer (M) 0321-5217052 89 Naveed Ahmed Driver/ Affected person 0345-9500891 90 Milmram Zeb Khan Student/ Old Affectee TDP 0345-970595955 91 M.Naseem Khan Sr.C Qazipur 74 Gul Badhah Former/ Affected person 0303-3180790 75 Sajid Ali Affected person 0302-5137357 76 Mohammad Farooq Sr.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Name Designation and Address Contact. Clerk 0334-5608213 87 Fazal Wahab Affected person 03085597030 88 Aziz-ur-Rehman Sr. Engineer (SCADA) 0334-8697544 77 Gharis Nawaz Sr. Engineer 0300-5840871 WAPDA August 2011 Keeper/ Affected 0345-9691744 A-25 . Nazim (Ghazi Hamlet) 0344-9417288 81 M.S Tarbela Press Club Ghazi 67 Haji Jannat Old Affectee TDP / Pehure Hamlet 68 Khaista Khan Old Affectee TDP / Pehure Hamlet 69 Khursheed Old Affectee TDP / Pehure Hamlet 70 Asad Coli/Old Affectee GHBP 71 Fazal Hussain Coli/ Old Affectee GHBP 72 Kh. No 65 Gul Old Affectee TDP/ Topi Hamlet 66 Malik Fazal Karim G. Zahoor Ahmad Coli/ Old Affectee GHBP 73 Sayed Farman Shah Chairman U. Engineer 033-9454331 92 Rehmat Shah Sr.

S. Engineer 0300-5829300 95 Ihsan-ulah Sr. Nazim (UC) Ghazi Hemlet. Engineer 0300-5196440 96 Qamar Zaman Sr. No 93 Faisal Student/ Affected person 0345-5950350 94 Javeed Akhter Sr.C Harripur Forest Division 0300-9195415 102 Naseer Ahmed A. Engineer 0300-5196440 97 Firdous Khan Ex.F.A 0345-6121357 103 Iqbal Shah Joint Sectary L/Union 0346-9804978 104 Khanzad Shah Bahria University Islamabad 0334-5524732 105 Naser Iqbal Ex.D. 0344-9417288 98 Sayed Nadeem Shah Ghazi Hamlet/ Old Affectee TDP 0334-5363583 99 Abdul Rasheed S.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Name Designation and Address Contact.Nazim Ghazi 0300-9787113 106 Umer Khalid Organizer PTI 0300-9712004 WAPDA August 2011 A-26 .O Ghazi 0300-8350212 100 Shabir Press Reporter 0301-5107983 101 Safder Khan S.

3 Ageratum conyziodes L Asteraceae Neel Kanthi Leaves decoction is used for fever and as blood purifier. Latex is commonly used for ring worm and Ait. skin diseases.1: Lists of Flora and Fauna Medicinal Plants of the Tarbela Area Species 1 Acacia modesta Wall. tumors and pimples and leprosy. and for treating dysentery and diabetes. irritation. 10 Carissa opaca Stapf ex Apocynaceae Garanda Haines 11 Cassia occidentalis L. 9 Calotropis procera (Ait. WAPDA August 2011 B-1 . Leaves are palatable for goat and sheep. Seeds are also used for making wine. Fa Vernacular mily Name Mimosaceae Phulai Medicinal Uses Gum extracted from fruits is used as tonic and stimulant. 6 Boerhavia procumbens Nyctaginaceae It-Sit Leaves used as tonic.) Asclepiadaceae Aq Whole plant extract is applied on dog bite. which is considered as sacred for the treatment of various diseases. Fruit is edible and blood purifier. Dried plant is used Fisch. 12 Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. Leaves provide shade. as fuel. Caesalpiniaceae Kaswandi Leaves. The seeds are used as external application for skin diseases. Buddlejaceae Banna Leaves. seeds and roots are purgative. Artemisia scoparia 5 Asteraceae Chaho Papilionaceae Tindani Leaves are anthelmintic Waldst.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Annex B: Table B. 8 Buddleja asiatica Lour. Pailionaceae Shesham Wood boiled with water is used as blood purifier. seeds and roots are purgative. tonic and also given for back ache after Ktz birth in women. Papilionaceae Chachra Gum is mixed with sugar and milk used as Banks ex Roxb. 2 Acacia nilotica (L. & Kit. Astragalus psilocentros leaves are grind and used for stomach problems such as ulcer.) Delile Mimosaceae Kikar Legume is used as tonic. Washing the hair with leaves increase the length of hairs and make them healthy. The seeds are used as external application for skin diseases. f. 7 Butea monosperma O. 4 Albizia lebbeck Benth Mimosaceae Sreeia Seeds are used for curing the severe kidney infection.

Webber Ziziphus nummularia 20 (Burm. Justicia adhatoda. Wood oil is used for toothache 14 Ficus benghalensis L. Vegetation of labor area Upstream: main Tarbela spill way (harbor area) Parthenium hysterophorus and Lantana camara. Acacia modesta and Acacia nilotica. Leaves and fruit powder are used as blood purifier. 15 Ficus palmata Forssk. Colebrookea oppositifolia. Dodonaea viscosa. Pinus roxburghii.) 16 Leliaceae Draik Pers. Leaves are used to heal Jacq. Malvastrum coromandelianum. Ficus spp. fever and diabetes..) Wight & Arn. Themeda anathera. 18 Morus nigra L. 17 Morus alba L. Justicia adhatoda. Vegetation at the downstream end point (Topi) Acacia modesta and Dodonaea viscose. Seteria italica. Moraceae Bohar Latex is highly aphrodisiac. Ageratum conyzoides. Moraceae Marrotch Fresh fruit grind and used as tonic and throat irritation. Rhamnaceae Sezan Leaves are used to cure scabies. Moraceae Marrotch Fresh fruit is ground and used as tonic and for cough and throat irritation. Setaria glauca.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Species 13 Dodonaea viscosa (L. Carissa opaca. Budleja asiatica. f. Dodonaea-Acacia. Morus spp. wounds and cracked skin. WAPDA August 2011 B-2 . Saccharum spontaneum and Erioscirpus comosus. 19 Taraxacum officinalis Asteraceae Hund Root is used is useful for heart disorders. Buddleja asiatica. Maytenus royleana and Ziziphus mauritiana. Lantana cammara. Melia azedarach (L. Saccharum benghalensis. It soothes the bee sting by simple rubbing on the skin. Carissa opaca and Otostegia limbata. Otostegia limbata. Leucaena leucocephala.. 21 Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Moraceae Phugwara Fruit is edible and laxative. Dalbergia sissoo. Rhamnaceae Sezan Leaves and fruit is used in gas trouble. Pinus roxburghii.2: Vegetative Pattern at Different Locations of the Project Area Location Vegetation of the powerhouse area (along slopes from base to 100 m above) Vegetative Species Lantana camara. Table B.) Fa Vernacular mily Name Sapindaceae Sanatha Medicinal Uses Stem barks are anthelmintic and astringent. Segretia thea. Heteropogon contortus. Oxalis corniculata.

Melia azedarach.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Location Vegetation at upstream end point Vegetative Species Buddleja asiatica. Geranium ocillatum. Anagallis arvensis. Capsicum annuum. Solanum nigrum. Woodfordia fruticos. Ailanthus altissima. Themeda anathera. Dodonaea viscosa. Amaranthus viridis. Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana. Boerhavia procumbens. Typha domingensis. Cannabis sativa. Malvastrum coromandelianum. Acacia modesta. Justicia adhatoda. Kikxia incana. Olea ferruginea. Dodonaea viscose. Ziziphyus mauritiana. Artemisia scoparia WAPDA August 2011 B-3 . Luffa cylindrica. Capparis deciduas Juglans regia. Bidens biternata. Broussonetia papyrifera and Melia azedarach. Artemisia scoparia. Oxalis corniculata. Asparagus gracilus. Grewia villosa. Cucurbita pepo. Diospyros lotus. Acacia-Justicia.Fumaria indica. Xanthium strumarium. Taraxacum officinale. Chenopodium ambrosoides. Erodium cicutarium. Abelmoschus esculentus. Mentha piperata. Solanum surratense. Maytenus royleana. Acyranthes aspera. Morus nigra and Mangifera indica.Lonicera quinquelocularis. and Broussonetia papyrifera. Solanum surretense. Quercus incana. Conyza Canadensis. Vegetation of Haripur Acacia modesta. Acasia nilotica. Acacia modesta and Rumex hastatus. Broussonetia papyrifera and Melia azedarach. Cotinus coggyria. Segretia thea. Albizia lebbeck. Cedrella toona. Oxalis corniculata. Vegetation at borrow area (Gandaf) Ipomoea carnea. Papaver hybridum Trifolium repens. Myrsine Africana. Sagretia theezan. Rumex dentatus. Verbascum thapsus. Datura innoxia. Urtica dioica. Cynodon dactylon. Oxalis corniculata. Vegetation of Swabi Acacia modesta. Cannabis sativa.Ficu palmata. Silybum marianu. Vegetation along cultivated fields and villages Zea mays and Triticum aestivum. Solanum nigrum. Trifolium repens and Micromeria biflora. Cuscuta reflexa. Hypericum oblogifolium. Vegetation at borrow area (Dara) Justicia-Themeda-Ziziphus. Mentha royleana. Solanum nigrum. Commelina benghalensis. Juglans regia. etc.

Erythraea ramosissima. Onobrychis stewartii. Ficus virgata. Polygonum plebeium. Alhaji camelorum. Serratula pellida. Cuscuta europea. Anagalis arvensis. Indigofera linifolia. Carthamus oxycantha. Mazus japonicus. Polygonum barbatum. Astragalus scorpiurus. Potamogeton perfoliatus. Rostraria pumila. Commelina benghalnsis. Anisomeles indica. Melilotus alba. Vitex negundo.. Zizyphus nummularia. Cannabis sativa. Eryngium coeruleum. Salvia plebeian. Ailanthus altisissima. Euphorbia pilulifera. Linum strictum. Calotropis procera. Argyrolobium roseum. Broussonetia papyrifera. Diarthron vesiculosum. Mimosa rubicaulis. Pentanema vestitum. Chenopodium album. Stellaria media. Shrubs: Acacia hydaspica. Solanum surattense. Acacia nilotica. Verbasscum thapsus. Gnaphalium spathulatum. Tamarix aphylla. Salix acmophylla. Mimulus strictus. Psammogeton biternatum. Campanula canescens. Physalis minima. Astragalus punjabicus. Vicoa vestita. Sonchus asper. Dalbergia sissoo. Chenopodium murale. Mentha longifolia. Micromeria biflora. Saussurea candicans. Cousinea prolifera. Dodonea viscose. Xanthium strumarium. Launnea procumbens. Hydrilla verticillata. Chrozophora tinctoria. Phagnalon spathulatum. Cynoglossum lanceolatum. Veronica agrestris. Commelina benghalnsis. Heliotropium strigosum. Sonchus oleraceus. Malva neglecta. Veronica biloba. Taraxacum sp. Lantana camara. Trigonella incise. Fumaria parviflora. Morus nigra. Solanum nigrum. WAPDA August 2011 B-4 .Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Location Vegetation of Bellas (islands) downstream of Ghazi Barrage Vegetative Species Trees: Acacia modesta. Erodium cicutarium. Blumea membrancea. Crotalarria medicaginea. Oxalis corniculatus. Vicia sativa. Serratula pellida. Ricinus communis. Amaranthus viridis. Phylla nodiflora. Euphorbia prosrtrata. Filago spathulata. Melilotus indica. Onopordum acanthium. Seggeretia theezans. Lactuca scariola. Polygala abyssinica. Rumes dentatus. Ottostegia limbata. Withania somnifera. Medicago ploymorpha. Salvia moorcroftiana. Herbs: Asparagus racemosus. Nerium indicum. Gastrocotyle hispida. Ranunculus muricatus. Conyza bonarriensis. Zizyphus mauritiana. Kickxia rammosissima. Veronica beccabunga. Launnea procumbens. Tamarix indica. Arenaria serpyllifolia. Malcolmia cabulica.

Myrtaceae Tree Cool and moist 4 Jasminum humile. Mimusops elengi Linn. Hibiscus sp. Magnolia grandiflora Linn. Oleaceae Shrub Msic conditions 5 Lagerstroemia indica L. Gravillea robusta. Jasmine sp. 7 Ligustrum ovalifolium Mimosaceae Hassk.4: Sterculiaceae Plants Recommended for Cultivation at Different Locations. Rosa rubiginos. Salix babylonica Linn. Cassia fistula Linn. Delonix regia (Boj.Verticillatasp.. Ziziphus mauritiana Cassia fistula. Don. Papilionaceae Tree Dry conditions 2 Duranta repens L. Lagerstroemia flosreginae Retz.. Lawsonia inermis Powerhouse area Cestrum nocturnum.) Raf.. Location Road sides Vegetative Species Jacaranda mimosaefolia D. Rosa berifolia. Cestrum nocturnum.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Table B. Bauhinia purpurea Linn. Ficus elastic.) R. Grevillea striata. 8 Pinus roxburghii Sarg.. Bohimia variegata Labor camps Cestrum noctumum. L. Hill tops and upper slopes Lower hill slopes Spoil deposits Pinus roxburghii. Verbenaceae Tree Dry conditions 3 Eucalyptus sp. and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Myrtaceae Tree Dry places 6 Leucaena leucocephala Tree Dry Oleaceae Shrub Dry places Pinaceae Tree Xeric conditions Tree Mesic conditions (Lam. Morus alba.. Acacia nilotica Acacia modesta. Table B. de Wit. Alestonia scholaris.3: List of Cultivated Plants in the Project Area Species Family Habit Habitat 1 Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. Rosa rubiginos WAPDA August 2011 B-5 . Rosa berifolia. 9 Pterospermum acerifolium L.

5: Bird Species Observed During Survey Common Name Zoological Name Family 1 Black Redstart Phoenicurus ochruros Muscicapidae 2 Eurasian Blackbird Turdus merula Muscicapidae 3 Blue-whistling Thrush Myophonus caeruleus Muscicapidae 4 Blue Rock Thrush Montocola solitaries Muscicapidae 5 Desert Wheatear Oenanthe deserti Muscicapidae 6 Plain Martin Riparia diluta Hirundinidae 7 Common Rose Finch Carpodacus erythrinus Fringillidae 8 Common Starling Sturnus vulgaris Sturnidae 9 Common Myna Acridotheres tristris Sturnidae 10 Bank Myna Acridotheres ginginianus Sturnidae 11 White Wagtail Motacilla alba Motacillidae 12 White Browed Wagtail Motacilla maderaspatensis Motacillidae 13 Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus Oriolidae 14 Common Babbler Turdoides caudatus Sylviidae 15 Jungle Babbler Turdoides striatus Sylviidae 16 Common Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita Phyllooscopidae 17 Greenish Warbler Phylloscopus trochiloides Sylviidae 18 Crested Lark Galerida cristata Alaudidae 19 House Sparrow Passer domestica Passeridae 20 White-throated Kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis Alcedinidae 21 Long Tail Shrike Lanius schach Laniidae 22 White-cheeked bulbul Pycnonotus leucogenys Pycnonotidae 23 Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer Pycnonotidae 24 Black Kite Milvus migrans Accipitridae 25 Eurasian Sparrowhawk Accipter nisus Accipitridae 26 Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus Falconidae 27 Black Francolin Francolinus francolinus Phasianidae 28 Grey Francolin Francolinus pondicerianus Phasianidae 29 Rock Pigeon Columba livia Columbidae 30 Oriental Turtle Dove Streptopelia orintalis Columbidae 31 Laughing Dove Streptopelia senegalensis Columbidae 32 Eurasian Collared Dove Streptopelia decaocta Columbidae 33 Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos Scolopacidae 34 Little Stint Calidris minuta Scolopacidae 35 Eurasian Cuckoo Cuculus canorus Cuculidae WAPDA August 2011 B-6 .Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Table B.

Tor putitora Mullah Schizothorax spp.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Common Name Zoological Name Family 36 Common Hoope Upupa epops Upupidae 37 Mallard Anus Platyrhynchos Anatidae 38 Common Moorhen Gallinula Choloropus Rallidae 39 Common Coot Fulica atra Rallidae 40 Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis Podicipedidae 41 Little Cormorant Phalacrocorax niger Phalacrocoracidae 42 Little Egret Egretta garzetta Ardeidae 43 Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis Ardeidae 44 Pond Heron Ardeola grayii Ardeidae 45 Common Snipe Gallinago Gallinago Scolopacidae 46 Red-wattled Lapwing Vanellusindicus Caradriidae 47 Rufous Tree Pie Dendrocitta vagabunda Corvidae 48 House Crow Corvus Splendens Corvidae 49 Black Drongo Dicrurus macrocercus Corvidae 50 Blue Throat Erithacus svecicus Muscicapidae 51 Caspian Tern Sterna caspia Rallidae 52 Peedy filed Pipet Anthus rufulus Motacillidae Table B.6: Common Fish Species in the Tarbela Dam Reservoir Local Name Scientific Name Indigenous Species Seenghara Mystus seenghala Seenghara Mystus aor Masher Tor tor. Goonch Bagarius bagarius Sunnee Cirrhinus reba Daula Saul Mullee Channa punctatus Channa marulius Wallago attu Talapia Oreochromis mosombica Bam Mastacembelus armatus Pari Notopterus notopterus Sareeha Kharni Labeo gonius Puntius sarana Cultivated Species WAPDA August 2011 B-7 .

7: Species of Tarbela and Ghazi Barrage Reservoirs Species Family Local Name Endemic species 1 Notopterus notopterus (Pallas) Notopteridae Pari 2 Salmostoma bacaila (Hamilton) Cyprinidae Chilwa 3 Barilius vagra (Hamilton) Cyprinidae Chilwa 4 Danio devario (Hamilton) Cyprinidae Poongh 5 Schizothorax labiatus (McClelland) Cyprinidae Chun 6 Schizothoraz esocinus (Heckel) Cyprinidae Swati 7 Schizothorax plagistomus (Heckel) Cyprinidae Swati 8 Gara gotyla (Grey) Cyprinidae Pathar chatt 9 Aspidoparia morar (Hamilton) Cyprinidae Goloo 10 Crossochelius latius diplocheilus (Heckel) Cyprinidae Poonngh 11 Labeo dero (Hamilton) Cyprinidae Mori 12 Tor Putitora (Hamilton) Cyprinidae Mahasheer 13 Puntious sophore (Hamilton) Cyprinidae Chiddu 14 Punctius ticto (Hamilton) Cyprinidae Chiddu 15 Botia dayi (Hora) Cobitidae Chipper 16 Nemacheilus choprai (Hora) Nemacheilidae Zebra 17 Nemacheilus botia (Hamilton) Nemacheilidae Zebra 18 Nemacheilus alipidotus alipidotus (Mirza & Nemacheilidae Zebra Banarescu) 19 Nemacheilus corica (Hamilton) Nemacheilidae Zebra 20 Nemacheilus stoliczkai (Steindachner) Nemacheilidae Zebra 21 Clupisoma murius naziri (Mirza & Awan) Schilbeidae 22 Glyptothorax punjabiensis (Mirza & Kashmiri) Sisoridae Chotat Khagga 23 Glyptothorax platypogonoides (Bleeker) Sisoridae Chota Khagga 24 Gagta cenia (Hamilton) Sisoridae Peela Kingar WAPDA August 2011 B-8 . Tarbela Table B.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Local Name Scientific Name Mori Cirrhinus mrigala Rohu Labeo rohita Thaila Catla catla Grass carp Ctenophary ngodon idella Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Gulfam Cyprinus carpio Source WAPDA Fisheries Unit.

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Species Family Local Name 25 Mystus tengara (Hamilton) Bagridae Kingar 26 Colisia lalius (Hamilton) Belontidae Kanghi 27 Mastacembelus armatus (Lecapede) Mastacemblidae Sanp Machli 28 Channa punctatus (Bloch) Channidae Dola 1 Channa marulia (Hamilton) Channidae Saul 2 Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenceinnes) Cyprinidae Grass Carp 3 Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenceinnes) Cyprinidae Silver Carp 4 Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus) Cyprinidae Grass Carp 5 Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) Cichlidae Toffee Exotic Species WAPDA August 2011 B-9 .

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Annex C. Environmental Code of Practice Introduction The objective of preparation of the Environmental Code of Practices (ECP) is to address less significant environmental impacts and all general construction related impacts of the proposed project implementation. WAPDA August 2011 C-1 . Violation of the compliance requirements will be treated as non-compliance leading to the corrections or otherwise imposing penalty on the contractors. The list of ECPs prepared for the T4HP is given below:  ECP 1: Waste Management  ECP 2: Fuels and Hazardous Substances Management  ECP 3: Water Resources Management  ECP 4: Drainage Management  ECP 5: Soil Quality Management  ECP 6: Erosion and Sediment Control  ECP 7: Borrow Areas Development & Operation  ECP 8: Air Quality Management  ECP 9: Noise and Vibration Management  ECP 10: Protection of Flora  ECP 11: Protection of Fauna  ECP 12: Protection of Fisheries  ECP 13: Road Transport and Road Traffic Management  ECP 14: Construction Camp Management  ECP 15: Cultural and Religious Issues  ECP 16: Workers Health and Safety The Contractor can also prepare a ‘Construction Environmental Action Plan’ (CEAP) demonstrating the manner in which the Contractor will comply with the requirements of ECPs and the mitigation measures proposed in the EMMP of the ESA Report. The CEAP will form the part of the contract documents and will be used as monitoring tool for compliance. This ECP will be annexed in the general conditions of all the contracts carried out under the T4HP project. The ECPs will provide guidelines for best operating practices and environmental management guidelines to be followed by the contractors for sustainable management of all environmental issues.

Collect chemical wastes in 200 liter drums (or - WAPDA August 2011 similar sealed container). wherever practical.Minimize the production of waste materials by 3R (Reduce.Request suppliers to minimize packaging where practicable. .Segregate and reuse or recycle all the wastes. Store. . .Provide refuse containers at each worksite. tidy and safe condition and provide and maintain appropriate facilities as temporary storage of all wastes before transportation and final disposal. Store all hazardous wastes appropriately in bunded areas away from water courses. . This will include consideration of the nature and location of disposal site.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment ECP 1: Waste Management Project Activity/ Impact Source General Waste Hazardous Waste Environmental Impacts Soil and water pollution from the improper management of wastes and excess materials from the construction sites.g.Develop waste management plan for various specific waste streams (e. . Health hazards and environmental impacts due to improper waste management practices Mitigation Measures/ Management Guidelines The Contractor shall: . .. recycling.) prior to commencing of construction and submit to WAPDA for approval. . construction debris. appropriately labeled for safe transport to an approved chemical waste depot. . The Contractor shall: .Collect and transport non-hazardous wastes to all the approved disposal sites. . food waste etc. transport and handle all chemicals avoiding potential environmental pollution.Maintain all construction sites in a cleaner. Collect hydrocarbon wastes. including lube oils. Construct concrete or other impermeable flooring to prevent seepage in case of spills C-2 . Make available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for hazardous materials on-site during construction. treatment or disposal at approved locations. so as to cause less environmental impact. Recycle and Reuse) approach. flammable waste.Place a high emphasis on good housekeeping practices.Organize disposal of all wastes generated during construction in an environmentally acceptable manner. reusable waste. for safe transport off-site for reuse.Train and instruct all personnel in waste management practices and procedures as a component of the environmental induction process.

chemicals and hazardous goods/materials on-site. Take all precautionary measures when handling and storing fuels and lubricants.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment ECP 2: Fuels and Hazardous Substance Management Project Activity/ Impact Source Environmental Impacts Fuels and Materials used in hazardous construction have a goods.Prepare spill control procedures and submit the plan for WAPDA approval. Put containers and drums in temporary storages in clearly marked areas. or rusted might eventually leak. Store dangerous goods in bunded areas on a top of a sealed plastic sheet away from watercourses. where they will not be run over by vehicles or heavy machinery. Put containers and drums in permanent storage areas on an impermeable floor that slopes to a safe collection area in the event of a spill or leak. to a designated disposal site approved by EPA. . which cannot be recycled. Transport waste of dangerous goods. gloves. potential to be a source of contamination. or tank that is dented. Store hazardous materials above flood plain level. C-3 . Refueling should occur only within bunded areas. lubricants. Provide absorbent and containment material (e. cracked. Make available MSDS for chemicals and dangerous goods on-site. and potential spills from these goods may harm the environment or health of construction workers. Make sure all containers. Avoid the use of material with greater potential for contamination by substituting them with more environmentally friendly materials. Provide protective clothing.. Check for leakage regularly to identify potential problems before they occur. masks. drums. avoiding environmental pollution. and tanks that are used for storage are in good condition and are labeled with expiry date. drum.Train the relevant construction personnel in - - - - - WAPDA August 2011 handling of fuels and spill control procedures. goggles.g. Any container. safety boots. Mitigation Measures/ Management Guidelines The Contractor shall: . helmets. to the construction personnel. The area should preferably slope or drain to a safe collection area in the event of a spill. absorbent matting) where hazardous material are used and stored and personnel trained in the correct use. appropriate to materials in use. Improper storage and handling of fuels.

chemicals.Minimize the generation of sediment.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment ECP 3: Water Resources Management Project Activity/ Impact Source Environmental Impacts Hazardous Water pollution from the Material and storage. bitumen spray waste and wastewaters from brick. litter.Wash out ready-mix concrete agitators and concrete handling equipment at washing facilities off site or into approved bunded areas on site. Soil Erosion Soil erosion and dust and siltation from the material stockpiles will increase the sediment and contaminant loading of surface water bodies.Ensure that roads used by construction vehicles are swept regularly to remove sediment. oil and grease.Stockpile materials away from drainage lines . to capture sediment-laden run-off from site . These substances must not enter waterways. handling and Waste disposal of hazardous materials and general construction waste. This should be done in every exit of each construction vehicle to ensure the local roads are kept clean. oils. including infiltration and storage of storm water.Divert runoff from undisturbed areas around the construction site . increased flooding. access roads and bare soils on an as required basis to minimize dust. WAPDA August 2011 Mitigation Measures/ Management Guidelines The Contractor shall: . concrete and asphalt cutting where possible and transport to a approved waste disposal site or recycling depot .Install temporary sediment basins. The construction works will modify groundcover and topography changing the surface water drainage patterns. The Contractor shall: . debris and any form of waste (particularly petroleum and chemical wastes). groundwater contamination. storm water systems or underground water tables The Contractor shall: . excess nutrients. Ensure that tires of construction vehicles are cleaned in the washing bay (constructed at the entrance of the construction site) to remove the mud from the wheels.Water the material stockpiles. .Prevent all solid and liquid wastes entering waterways by collecting solid waste. where appropriate. Increase the watering frequency during C-4 .Install temporary drainage works (channels and bunds) in areas required for sediment and erosion control and around storage areas for construction materials . The change in hydrological regime leads to increased rate of runoff and in sediment and contaminant loading.Stabilize the cleared areas not used for construction activities with vegetation or appropriate surface water treatments as soon as practicable following earthwork to minimize erosion . organic matter. sewerages from construction sites and work camps.Follow the management guidelines proposed in ECPs 1 and 2. and accidental spillage Discharge from During construction both construction surface and groundwater sites quality may be deteriorated due to construction activities in the river. and effect habitat of fish and other aquatic biology. .

Protect water bodies from sediment loads by silt screen or bubble curtains or other barriers . Tube wells will be installed with due regard for the surface environment. and improve work practices as necessary . storm water systems or underground water tables. Protect groundwater supplies of adjacent lands C-5 . oil and grease. . organic matter. and protection of aquifer cross contamination All tube wells. protection of groundwater from surface contaminants.Minimize the generation of sediment. debris and any form of waste (particularly petroleum and chemical wastes).Do not discharge cement and water curing used for cement concrete directly into water courses and drainage inlets. excess nutrients. high winds) The Contractor shall: .Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Project Activity/ Impact Source Environmental Impacts Construction Construction works in the activities in water bodies will increase water bodies sediment and contaminant loading. Safe and sustainable discharges are to be ascertained prior to selection of pumps. Mitigation Measures/ Management Guidelines periods of high risk (e.Use environment friendly and non toxic slurry during construction of piles to discharge into the river.g. and effect habitat of fish and other aquatic biology. .Dewater sites by pumping water to a sediment basin prior to release off site – do not pump directly off site .Reduce infiltration of contaminated drainage through storm water management design . These substances must not enter waterways. litter. The Contractor shall: . monitoring wells that are no longer in use or needed shall be properly decommissioned Install monitoring wells both upstream and downstream areas near construction yards and construction camps to regularly monitor and report on the water quality and water levels. test holes.Monitor the water quality in the runoff from the site or areas affected by dredge plumes. Drinking water Groundwater at shallow depths might be contaminated and hence not suitable for drinking purposes.Control the quality of groundwater to be used - Depletion and pollution of groundwater resources - - WAPDA August 2011 for drinking water on the bases of NEQS and World Bank standards for drinking water.

Provide appropriate silt collector and silt screen at the inlet and manholes and periodically clean the drainage system to avoid drainage congestion Protect natural slopes of drainage channels to ensure adequate storm water drains.Prepare a program for prevent/avoid standing - - - - Ponding water of Health hazards due to mosquito breeding - WAPDA August 2011 waters. after use or store them in inverted position C-6 . before it being discharged into recipient water bodies. which EMSU will verify in advance and confirm during implementation Provide alternative drainage for rainwater if the construction works/earth-fillings cut the established drainage line Establish local drainage line with appropriate silt collector and silt screen for rainwater or wastewater connecting to the existing established drainage lines already there. Build new drainage lines as appropriate and required for wastewater from construction yards connecting to the available nearby recipient water bodies. The Contractor shall: .Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment ECP 4: Drainage Management Project Activity/ Impact Source Excavation and earth works. Ensure the internal roads/hard surfaces in the construction yards/construction camps that generate has storm water drainage to accommodate high runoff during downpour and that there is no stagnant water in the area at the end of the downpour. Reduce infiltration of contaminated drainage through storm water management design Do not allow ponding of water especially near the waste storage areas and construction camps Discard all the storage containers that are capable of storing of water. and mosquito growth. and construction yards Environmental Impacts Mitigation Measures/ Management Guidelines Lack of proper drainage for rainwater/liquid waste or wastewater owing to the construction activities harms environment in terms of water and soil contamination. Rehabilitate road drainage structures immediately if damaged by contractors’ road transports. Ensure wastewater quality conforms to the relevant standards provided by EPA. Construct wide drains instead of deep drains to avoid sand deposition in the drains that require frequent cleaning. Regularly inspect and maintain all drainage channels to assess and alleviate any drainage congestion problem.

straw bales or bunds C-7 . where erosion is likely to occur. The impact may be contained by isolating the source or implementing controls around the affected site .Strictly manage the wastes management plans proposed in ECP1 and storage of materials in ECP2 .Identify the cause of contamination.Establish and maintain a hazardous materials register detailing the location and quantities of hazardous substances including the storage. and contain the area of contamination.Remediate the contaminated land using the most appropriate available method to achieve required commercial/industrial guideline validation results The Contractor shall: . if it is reported. use of disposals .Train personnel and implement safe work practices for minimizing the risk of spillage . with silt fences.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment ECP 5: Soil Quality Management Project Activity/ Impact Source Environmental Impacts Storage of Spillage of hazardous hazardous and and toxic chemicals will toxic chemicals contaminate the soils Construction Erosion from material stock construction material piles stockpiles may contaminate the soils WAPDA August 2011 Mitigation Measures/ Management Guidelines The Contractor shall: .Protect the toe of all stockpiles.Construct appropriate spill contaminant facilities for all fuel storage areas .

Reinstate and protect cleared areas as soon as possible. C-8 . streams. for example.Mulch to protect batter slopes before planting . The Contractor shall: The impact of soil erosion are (i) Increased run off and sedimentation causing a greater flood hazard to the downstream.Locate stockpiles away from drainage lines .Protect the toe of all stockpiles. and (iii) destruction of vegetation by burying or gullying.Cover unused area of disturbed or exposed surfaces immediately with mulch/grass turfings/tree plantations The Contractor shall: . sediment traps Control drainage through a site in protected channels or slope drains Install ‘cut off drains’ on large cut/fill batter slopes to control water runoff speed and hence erosion Observe the performance of drainage structures and erosion controls during rain and modify as required.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment ECP 6: Erosion and Sediment Control Project Activity/ Impact Source Clearing of construction sites Construction activities and material stockpiles Environmental Impacts Mitigation Measures/ Management Guidelines Cleared areas and slopes are susceptible for erosion of top soils. . (ii) destruction of aquatic environment in nearby lakes. WAPDA August 2011 . straw bales or bunds Remove debris from drainage paths and sediment control structures Cover the loose sediments and water them if required Divert natural runoff around construction areas prior to any site disturbance Install protective measures on site prior to construction. with silt fences. and reservoirs caused by erosion and/or deposition of sediment damaging the spawning grounds of fish. where erosion - is likely to occur. that affects the growth of vegetation which causes ecological imbalance.

Do not dug the borrow pits within 5m of the toe of the final section of the road embankment.Reuse excavated or disposed material available in the project area to the maximum extent possible .Identify borrow pits in consultation with the local governments and WAPDA. . down progressively towards the nearest cross drain.Obtain the borrow material from: . if any. . there will be impacts on local topography. Ridges of not less than 8 m widths shall be left at intervals not exceeding 300 m and small drains should be cut through the ridges to facilitate drainage . The Contractor shall: . to ensure efficient drainage. WAPDA August 2011 C-9 . the borrow pits developed by the Contractor. .barren land or land without tree cover outside the road reserve.Return stockpiled topsoil to the borrow pit if is used for agriculture. . .Control at each site by ensuring that base of the borrow pit drains into a sediment trap prior to discharging from the site.Slope the bed level of the borrow pits. as far as possible. landscaping and natural drainage. .Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment ECP 7: Borrow Areas Development & Operation Project Activity/ Impact Source Development and operation of borrow areas Environmental Impacts Mitigation Measures/ Management Guidelines In case.return stockpiled topsoil to the borrow pit and all worked areas to be stabilized through revegetation using local plants.Dig the borrow pits continuously. Follow the below for restoration of borrow areas are: . and do not lower it than the bed of the cross-drain.

Focus special attention on containing the emissions from generators Machinery causing excess pollution (e. if necessary to avoid during periods of high wind and if visible dust is blowing off-site Restore disturbed areas as soon as practicable by vegetation/grass-turfing Store the cement in silos and minimize the emissions from silos by equipping them with filters. high winds) Minimize the extent and period of exposure of the bare surfaces Reschedule earthwork activities or vegetation clearing activities.Fit machinery with appropriate exhaust systems - Construction activities Dust generation from construction sites. Increase the watering frequency during periods of high risk (e.Control the movement of construction traffic .g. visible smoke) will be banned from construction sites Service all equipment regularly to minimize emissions Water the material stockpiles. The Contractor shall: Air quality can be adversely affected by emissions from machinery and combustion of fuels.Service all vehicles regularly to minimize emissions .Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment ECP 8: Air Quality Management Project Activity/ Impact Source Construction vehicular traffic Construction machinery Environmental Impacts Mitigation Measures/ Management Guidelines Air quality can be adversely affected by vehicle exhaust emissions and combustion of fuels.Cover haul vehicles carrying dusty materials moving outside the construction site . - - - WAPDA August 2011 and emission control devices.Operate the vehicles in a fuel efficient manner .g.Impose speed limits on all vehicle movement at the worksite to reduce dust emissions . . Maintain these devices in good working condition. C-10 . access roads and bare soils on an as required basis to minimize the potential for environmental nuisance due to dust. material stockpiles and access roads is a nuisance in the environment and can be a health hazard. .Limit the idling time of vehicles not more than 2 minutes The Contractor shall: .Water construction materials prior to loading and transport .Fit vehicles with appropriate exhaust systems and emission control devices. where practical. Maintain these devices in good working condition. in compliance with the NEQS.

.Plan activities on site and deliveries to and from site to minimize impact . where possible.Employ best available work practices on-site to minimize occupational noise levels . fauna. livestock to avoid noise pollution to local residents and the natural .Appropriately site all noise generating activities property.Install acoustic enclosures around generators to reduce noise levels.Notify adjacent residents prior to any typical property. fauna. driving hours. . when working at night near the residential areas C-11 .Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment ECP 9: Noise and Vibration Management Project Activity/ Impact Source Construction vehicular traffic Construction machinery Construction activity WAPDA August 2011 Environmental Impacts Mitigation Measures/ Management Guidelines Noise quality will be deteriorated due to vehicular traffic The Contractor shall: . . blasting . noise control kits. etc.Make sure all drivers will comply with the traffic codes concerning maximum speed limit. lining of truck trays or pipelines) .Educate the operators of construction environment.Monitor and analyze noise and vibration results and adjust construction practices as required. .g. .Use the quietest available plant and equipment environment. equipment on potential noise problems and the techniques to minimize noise emissions . e.Avoid undertaking the noisiest activities.Maintain all equipment in order to keep it in good working order in accordance with manufactures maintenance procedures .Fit high efficiency mufflers to appropriate construction equipment Noise and vibration may The Contractor shall: have an impact on people. The Contractor shall: Noise and vibration may have an impact on people.Maintain all vehicles in order to keep it in good working order in accordance with manufactures maintenance procedures .Notify affected people if noisy activities will be undertaken.Modify equipment to reduce noise (for example. livestock noise event outside of daylight hours and the natural .Install temporary noise control barriers where appropriate .

retains soil moisture and nutrients. Control noxious weeds by disposing of at designated dump site or burn on site. Avoid work within the drip-line of trees to prevent damage to the tree roots and compacting the soil. can limit embankment erosion. Get approval from supervision consultant for clearance of vegetation. Make selective and careful pruning of trees where possible to reduce need of tree removal. offer fruits and/or timber/fire wood. Ensure excavation works occur progressively and re-vegetation done at the earliest Provide adequate knowledge to the workers regarding nature protection and the need of avoid felling trees during construction Supply appropriate fuel in the work caps to prevent fuel wood collection C-12 . temporary access tracks or landscaping. Do not burn off cleared vegetation – where feasible. protect soil erosion and overall keep the environment very friendly to humanliving. and encourages re-growth and protection from weeds.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment ECP 10: Protection of Flora Project Activity/ Impact Source Vegetation clearance Environmental Impacts Mitigation Measures/ Management Guidelines Local flora are important to provide shelters for the birds. The Contractor shall: . disposal of fill and construction of diversion roads. Return topsoil and mulched vegetation (in areas of native vegetation) to approximately the same area of the roadside it came from. Clear only the vegetation that needs to be cleared in accordance with the plans. etc. These measures are applicable to both the construction areas as well as to any associated activities such as sites for stockpiles. As such damage to flora has wide range of adverse environmental impacts.Reduce disturbance to surrounding vegetation .Use appropriate type and minimum size of - - - - WAPDA August 2011 machine to avoid disturbance to adjacent vegetations. chip or mulch and reuse it for the rehabilitation of affected areas. Mulch provides a seed source. Minimize the length of time the ground is exposed or excavation left open by clearing and re-vegetate the area at the earliest practically possible.

check the site for animals trapped in. After felling.Restrict the tree removal to the minimum required. oil wastes or any other substances harmful to migratory birds to any waters or any areas frequented by migratory birds. where appropriate .Minimize the release of oil. . hollow bearing trees will remain unmoved overnight to allow animals to move of their own volition. and relevant government regulations and punishments for illegal poaching.Fell the hollow bearing trees in a manner which reduces the potential for fauna mortality. Felled trees will be inspected after felling for fauna and if identified and readily accessible will be removed and relocated or rendered assistance if injured.Retain tree hollows on site.Not be permitted to destruct active nests or eggs of migratory birds .Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment ECP 11: Protection of Fauna Project Activity/ Impact Source Construction activities Environmental Impacts Mitigation Measures/ Management Guidelines The location of construction activities can result in the loss of wild life habitat and habitat quality.Leave dead trees where possible as habitat for fauna . The Contractor shall: . or relocate hollows.Provide adequate knowledge to the workers regarding protection of flora and fauna.Minimize the tree removal during the bird Vegetation clearance Construction camps WAPDA August 2011 Clearance of vegetation may impact shelter.. C-13 . or in danger from site works and use a qualified person to relocate the animal The Contractor shall: . a nest survey will be conducted by a qualified biologist prior to commence of works to identify and located active nests . its habitat and its active nests . The Contractor shall: Impact on migratory birds. feeding and/or breeding and/or physical destruction and severing of habitat areas Illegal poaching breeding season.Limit the construction works within the designated sites allocated to the contractors . . If works must be continued during the bird breeding season.

materials and human resources . be it hazardous or nonhazardous into the nearby water bodies or in the river The Contractor shall: . sanitary discharge from work camps.Do not dump wastes.follow mitigation measures proposed in ECP 3 : Water Resources Management and EC4: Drainage Management C-14 .Ensure that boats used in the project are well maintained and do not have oil leakage to contaminate river water. . and hydrocarbon spills WAPDA August 2011 .Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment ECP 12: Protection of Fisheries Project Activity/ Impact Source Environmental Impacts Mitigation Measures/ Management Guidelines Construction activities in River The main potential impacts to fisheries are hydrocarbon spills and leaks from boats and disposal of wastes into the river The Contractor shall: Construction activities on the land The main potential impacts to aquatic flora and fauna River are increased suspended solids from earthworks erosion.Contain accidental spillage and make an emergency oil spill containment plan to be supported with enough equipments.

road signs. Operate road traffics/transport vehicles. where practicable. necessary barricades. The Contractor shall: . Provide signs at strategic locations of the roads complying with the schedules of signs contained in the Pakistani Traffic Regulations. temporary road. Enforce on-site speed limit C-15 . Restrict the transport of oversize loads. to day time working hours. Restrict truck deliveries. temporary diversions. which shall clearly show the following information in Urdu: Location: chainage and village name Duration of construction period Period of proposed detour/alternative route Suggested detour route map Name and contact address/telephone number of the concerned personnel Name and contact address/telephone number of the Contractor Inconvenience is sincerely regretted. warning signs/lights. to non-peak periods to minimize traffic disruptions.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment ECP 13: Road Transport and Road Traffic Management Project Activity/ Impact Source Construction vehicular traffic Environmental Impacts Mitigation Measures/ Management Guidelines Increased traffic use of road by construction vehicles will affect the movement of normal road traffics and the safety of the road-users. Install and maintain a display board at each important road intersection on the roads to be used during construction. if possible. etc. Include in the traffic management plan to ensure uninterrupted traffic movement during construction: detailed drawings of traffic arrangements showing all detours.Prepare and submit a traffic management plan - - - Accidents and spillage of fuels and chemicals - WAPDA August 2011 to WAPDA for their approval at least 30 days before commencing work on any project component involved in traffic diversion and management.

water supply and sanitation facilities will increase pressure on the local services and generate substandard living standards and health hazards. The minimum number of toilet facilities required is one toilet for every ten persons. Construction Camp Facilities Lack of proper infrastructure facilities. prior to the development of the construction camps. The toilets and domestic waste water will be collected through a common sewerage. and drainage facilities. solid waste management and dumping locations. .Consider the location of construction camps away from communities in order to avoid social conflict in using the natural resources such as water or to avoid the possible adverse impacts of the construction camps on the surrounding communities. Both sides of roads are to be provided with shallow v drains to drain off storm water to a silt retention pond which shall be sized to provide a minimum of 20 minutes retention of storm water flow from the C-16 . WAPDA August 2011 Mitigation Measures/ Management Guidelines The Contractor shall: . religious and security shall be duly informed on the set up of camp facilities so as to maintain effective surveillance over public health.Safe and reliable water supply. cultural or social point of view.Treatment facilities for sewerage of toilet and domestic wastes . Female toilets should be clearly marked in language understood by the persons using them to avoid miscommunication. fuel storage areas (for use in power supply generators).Storm water drainage facilities. Provide separate latrines and bathing places for males and females with total isolation by wall or by location.Submit to the PMU for approval a detailed layout plan for the development of the construction camp showing the relative locations of all temporary buildings and facilities that are to be constructed together with the location of site roads. .Locate the construction camps at areas which are acceptable from environmental. .Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment ECP 14: Construction Camp Management Project Activity/ Impact Source Environmental Impacts Siting and Location of construction camps Campsites for construction workers are the important locations that have significant impacts such as health and safety hazards on local resources and infrastructure of nearby communities. social and security matters Contractor shall provide the following facilities in the campsites: . such as housing. .Local authorities responsible for health.Adequate housing for all workers . Water supply from tube wells that meets the national standards .Hygienic sanitary facilities and sewerage system.

mosquitoes.Provide child crèches for women working on the construction site. Pave the internal roads of at least haring-bond bricks to suppress dusts and to work against possible muddy surface during monsoon. kitchen. Ensure with grass/vegetation coverage to be made of the use of top soil that there is no dust generation from the loose/exposed sandy surface. take care to protect groundwater from contamination by leachate formed due to decomposition. dogs. . rats. Cover the bed of the pit with impervious layer of materials (clayey. Dependence of local entertainment outlets by construction camps to be discouraged/prohibited to the extent possible. are not attracted. Encompass C-17 . Locate the garbage pit/waste disposal site min 500 m away from the residence so that peoples are not disturbed with the odor likely to be produced from anaerobic decomposition of wastes at the waste dumping places. Dispose organic wastes in a designated safe place on daily basis. transportation and disposal systems with the manpower and equipments/vehicles needed. The crèche should have facilities for dormitory. . thin concrete) to protect groundwater from contamination. organic wastes in one pot and inorganic wastes in another pot at household level. cats. One may dig a large hole to put organic wastes in it. Schools should be attached to these crèches so that children are not deprived of education whose mothers are construction workers . Channel all discharge from the silt retention pond to natural drainage via a grassed swale at least 20 meters in length with suitable longitudinal gradient. indoor/outdoor play area. Establish waste collection. At the end of the day cover the organic wastes with a thin layer of sand so that flies.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Project Activity/ Impact Source Disposal of waste Environmental Impacts Management of wastes is crucial to minimize impacts on the environment Mitigation Measures/ Management Guidelines whole site.Ensure proper collection and disposal of solid - - - WAPDA August 2011 wastes within the construction camps Insist waste separation by source. The Contractor shall: . Store inorganic wastes in a safe place within the household and clear organic wastes on daily basis to waste collector.Provide in-house community/common entertainment facilities.Paved internal roads.

Conduct awareness campaigns to educate workers on preserving the protecting of biodiversity in the project area.Make available alternative fuels like natural gas or kerosene on ration to the workforce to prevent them using biomass for cooking. The Contractor shall: . in order to discourage them to use fuel wood or other biomass.Provide first aid facility round the clock. . Initial health screening of the laborers coming from outside areas Train all construction workers in basic sanitation and health care issues and safety matters. The Contractor shall: .Provide fuel to the construction camps for their domestic purpose. Carryout short training sessions on best hygiene practices to be mandatorily participated by all workers. education and communication for all workers on regular basis Complement educational interventions with easy access to condoms at campsites as well as voluntary 18counseling and testing Provide adequate drainage facilities throughout camps to ensure that disease vectors habitats (stagnant water bodies. and relevant government regulations and punishments on wildlife protection.Provide adequate health care facilities within construction sites. puddles) do not form. All solid waste will be collected and removed from the work camps and disposed in approval waste disposal sites. and on the specific hazards of their work Provide HIV awareness programming. . . Regular mosquito repellant sprays in monsoon. exacerbated by inadequate health and safety practices. . Place display boards at strategic locations within the camps containing messages on best hygienic practices C-18 .Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Project Activity/ Impact Source Environmental Impacts Fuel supplies for cooking purposes Illegal sourcing of fuel wood by construction workers will impact the natural flora and fauna Health and Hygiene There will be a potential for diseases to be transmitted including malaria. - - - WAPDA August 2011 Maintain stock of medicines in the facility and appoint fulltime designated first aider or nurse. including STI (sexually transmitted infections) and HIV information. Mitigation Measures/ Management Guidelines the waste dumping place by fencing and tree plantation to prevent children to enter and play with.Do not establish site specific landfill sites. Provide ambulance facility for the laborers during emergency to be transported to nearest hospitals. There will be an increased risk of work crews spreading sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS.

Mitigation Measures/ Management Guidelines The Contractor shall: . Not make false promises to the laborers for future employment in O&M of the project. Handover the construction camps with all built facilities as it is if agreement between both parties (contactor and land-owner) has been made so.Provide appropriate security personnel (police / home guard or private security guards) and enclosures to prevent unauthorized entry in to the camp area. Give prior notice to the laborers before demolishing their camps/units Maintain the noise levels within the national standards during demolition activities Different contractors should be hired to demolish different structures to promote recycling or reuse of demolished material.Display emergency contact numbers clearly and prominently at strategic places in camps. . C-19 . . Ensure that these houses/rooms are of sound construction and capable of withstanding storms/cyclones.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Project Activity/ Impact Source Safety Site Restoration Environmental Impacts In adequate safety facilities to the construction camps may create security problems and fire hazards Restoration of the construction camps to original condition requires demolition of construction camps. Dismantle camps in phases as the work decreases (do not wait for completion of the entire work.Maintain register to keep track on a head count of persons present in the camp at any given time. Restore the site to its original condition or to an agreed condition with the landowner defined prior to the commencement of the works (in writing). The Contractor shall: .Encourage use of flameproof material for the construction of labor housing/site office. .Dismantle and remove from the site all facilities - - - WAPDA August 2011 established within the construction camp including the perimeter fence and lockable gates at the completion of the construction work. Reuse the demolition debris to a maximum extent.Provide appropriate type of fire fighting equipments suitable for the construction camps . . Dispose remaining debris at the designated waste disposal site by WAPDA.Communicate the roles and responsibilities of laborers in case of emergency in the monthly meetings with contractors.

Restrict all construction activities within the foot prints of the construction sites. sites. . and contractors regarding the scope and schedule of construction.Inform the local authorities responsible for health.Provide separate prayer facilities to the construction workers.Stop construction works that produce noise (particularly during prayer time) should there be any mosque/religious/educational institutions close to the construction sites and users make objections. . during construction.Take special care and use appropriate equipment when working next to a cultural/religious institution. social and security matters C-20 . an archaeological or burial site is discovered. wherever possible . . . It is an offence to recommence work in the vicinity of the site until approval to continue is given by the PMU .Do not block access to cultural and religious social disturbances.Allow the workers to participate in praying during construction time . .Resolve cultural issues in consultation with local leaders and supervision consultants . .Stop work immediately and notify the site manager if.Establish a mechanism that allows local people to raise grievances arising from the construction process.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment ECP 15: Cultural and Religious Issues Project Activity/ Impact Source Construction activities near religious and cultural sites WAPDA August 2011 Environmental Impacts Mitigation Measures/ Management Guidelines Disturbance from The Contractor shall: construction works to . religious and security duly informed before commencement of civil works so as to maintain effective surveillance over public health. lack of knowledge on as well as certain construction activities causing cultural issues cause disruptions or access restriction.Show appropriate behavior with all construction workers especially women and elderly people .Communicate to the public through community the cultural and religious consultation and newspaper announcements sites.

religious and security duly informed before commencement of civil works and establishment of construction camps so as to maintain effective surveillance over public health. Appropriately equipped first-aid stations should be easily accessible throughout the place of work .Document and report occupational accidents. (e.Inform the local authorities responsible for health. HIV etc) and (iii) road accidents from construction traffic. health and safety manager to look after the health and safety of the workers . noise. STD.Provide personal protection equipment (PPE) for workers. protective clothing. waste water. Maintain the PPE properly by cleaning dirty ones and replacing them with the damaged ones.Appoint an environment. social and security matters The Contractor shall: . construction material. such as safety boots. . vector transmitted diseases etc). dust. taking into account inherent risks in its particular construction activity and specific classes of hazards in the work areas.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment ECP 16: Worker Health and Safety Project Activity/ Impact Source Best practices Environmental Impacts Mitigation Measures/ Management Guidelines Construction works may pose health and safety risks to the construction workers and site visitors leading to severe injuries and deaths. chemicals. full-face eye shields.Implement suitable safety standards for all workers and site visitors which should not be less than those laid down on the international standards (e. . International Labor Office guideline on ‘Safety and Health in Construction. helmets.Safety procedures include provision of information.Provide the workers with a safe and healthy work environment. masks. in accordance with the Pakistani Labor Laws and Employment of Child Act (1977).g. and ear protection.Provide health care facilities and first aid facilities are readily available. solid waste.g. in addition to complying with the national acts and rules of the Government of Pakistan . goggles. C-21 .g. The Contractor shall: Child and pregnant labor . (ii) risk factors resulting from human behavior (e. The population in the proximity of the construction site and the construction workers will be exposed to a number of (i) biophysical health risk factors. gloves. World Bank Group’s ‘Environmental Health and Safety Guidelines’) and contractor’s own national standards or statutory regulations.not hire children of less than 14 years of age Accidents WAPDA August 2011 Lack of first aid facilities and health care facilities in the immediate vicinity will aggravate the health and pregnant women or women who delivered a child within 8 preceding weeks. training and protective clothing to workers involved in hazardous operations and proper performance of their job . .

These portable toilets should be cleaned once a day and all the sewerage should be pumped from the collection tank once a day and should be brought to the common septic tank for further treatment. Water supply - Water and sanitation facilities at the construction sites WAPDA August 2011 Lack of Water sanitation facilities at construction sites cause inconvenience to the construction workers and affect their personal hygiene.Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Project Activity/ Impact Source Environmental Impacts Mitigation Measures/ Management Guidelines diseases. associated with. Arrangement for trainings Paved internal roads. if about 25 people are working the whole day for a month. so far as reasonably practicable. Recreational and social facilities Safe storage facilities for petroleum and other chemicals in accordance with ECP 2 Solid waste collection and disposal system in accordance with ECP1. Treatment facilities for sewerage of toilet and domestic wastes Storm water drainage facilities. - from deep tube wells that meets the national standards Hygienic sanitary facilities and sewerage system. from.Prevent accidents. particularly those that may be life-threatening and provide necessary preventive and protective measures. the causes of hazards. or occurring in the course of work by minimizing. C-22 . . Location of portable facilities should be at least six m away from storm drain system and surface waters.Safe and reliable water supply. Sick bay and first aid facilities The contractor shall provide portable toilets at the construction sites. water supply and sanitation facilities will increase pressure on the local services and generate substandard living standards and health hazards.Provide awareness to the construction drivers to strictly follow the driving rules .Adequate ventilation facilities . The toilets and domestic waste water will be collected through a common sewerage. In a manner consistent with good international industry practice. conditions of the victims . .Identify potential hazards to workers. and disease arising Construction Camps Lack of proper infrastructure facilities. Security fence at least two m height. and incidents. such as housing.Provide adequate lighting in the construction area and along the roads The Contractor shall provide the following facilities in the campsites to improve health and hygienic conditions as mentioned in ECP 14 Construction Camp Management: . injury.

Contractor should provide bottled drinking Other ECPs Potential risks on health and hygiene of construction workers and general public water facilities to the construction workers at all the construction sites. and natural disaster. and on the specific hazards of their work Training should consist of basic hazard awareness.Commence the malaria. This should be complemented by easy access to condoms at the workplace as well as to voluntary counseling and testing. HIV/AIDS and STI education campaign targeting all workers hired.g.Train all construction workers in general health and safety matters. make them susceptible to potential diseases.ECP 2: Fuels and Hazardous Goods Management ECP 4: Drainage Management ECP 8: Air Quality Management ECP 9: Noise and Vibration Management ECP 13: Road Transport and Road Traffic Management The Contractor shall: Trainings WAPDA August 2011 Lack of awareness and basic knowledge in health care among the construction workforce. female and male. increased access to condoms in the area as well as to voluntary counseling and testing. international and national. evacuation. semi. . as appropriate. how to avoid malaria and transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STI) HIV/AIDS.Implement malaria. .and unskilled occupations. at the time of recruitment and thereafter pursued throughout the construction phase on ongoing and regular basis. safe work practices. site specific hazards.Train all construction workers in basic sanitation and health care issues (e. The Contractor shall follow the following ECPs to reduce health risks to the construction workers and nearby community: . skilled. HIV/AIDS and STI education campaign before the start of the construction phase and complement it with by a strong condom marketing. . and emergency procedures for fire. ..Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Project Activity/ Impact Source Environmental Impacts Mitigation Measures/ Management Guidelines . C-23 .

Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project Environmental and Social Assessment Annex D. WAPDA August 2011 IFC/WBG EHS Guidelines D-1 .

5 Transport of Hazardous Materials 3.4 Water Conservation 1.6 Waste Management 1.4 Traffic Safety 3.7 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) 2. APRIL 30. diligence. When one or more members of the World Bank Group are involved in a project. these EHS Guidelines are applied as required by their respective policies and standards. When host country regulations differ from the levels and measures presented in the EHS Guidelines.ifc. and other project factors. For complex projects.5 Hazardous Materials Management 1.2 Communication and Training 2.1 Air Emissions and Ambient Air Quality 1. are taken into account. Community Health and Safety 3.3 Community Health & Safety References and Additional Sources* 3 3 17 24 32 35 45 51 53 59 60 62 64 68 70 72 72 73 74 77 77 78 79 82 82 85 86 89 89 92 94 96 1 . and Safety General Guidelines Introduction The Environmental. This justification should demonstrate that the choice for any alternate performance levels is protective of human health and the environment. The applicability of the EHS Guidelines should be tailored to the hazards and risks established for each project on the basis of the results of an environmental assessment2 in which site-specific variables.6 Disease Prevention 3. use of multiple industry-sector guidelines may be necessary. assimilative capacity of the environment.2 Energy Conservation 1.nsf/Content/EnvironmentalGuidelines The EHS Guidelines contain the performance levels and measures that are generally considered to be achievable in new facilities by existing technology at reasonable costs.4 Chemical Hazards 2. prudence and foresight that would be reasonably expected from skilled and experienced professionals engaged in the same type of undertaking under the same or similar circumstances globally. The applicability of specific technical recommendations should be 1 Defined as the exercise of professional skill. Health. such as host country context. Health.1 Environment 4. 2 For IFC. Application of the EHS Guidelines to existing facilities may involve the establishment of site-specific targets.2 Structural Safety of Project Infrastructure 3. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: INTRODUCTION WORLD BANK GROUP Environmental. a full and detailed justification for any proposed alternatives is needed as part of the site-specific environmental assessment. projects are expected to achieve whichever is more stringent.3 Wastewater and Ambient Water Quality 1. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines are technical reference documents with general and industry-specific examples of Good International Industry Practice (GIIP) 1. with Operational Policy 4. in view of specific project circumstances.1 Water Quality and Availability 3. The General EHS Guidelines are organized as follows: 1. with an appropriate timetable for achieving them. A complete list of industry-sector guidelines can be found at: www.7 Noise 1. Construction and Decommissioning 4. Occupational Health and Safety 2. Health.3 Life and Fire Safety (L&FS) 3. The circumstances that skilled and experienced professionals may find when evaluating the range of pollution prevention and control techniques available to a project may include. varying levels of environmental degradation and environmental assimilative capacity as well as varying levels of financial and technical feasibility.7 Emergency Preparedness and Response 4.9 Monitoring 3. but are not limited to.5 Biological Hazards 2. These General EHS Guidelines are designed to be used together with the relevant Industry Sector EHS Guidelines which provide guidance to users on EHS issues in specific industry sectors.org/ifcext/enviro.6 Radiological Hazards 2.8 Contaminated Land 2.Environmental.2 Occupational Health & Safety 4.1 General Facility Design and Operation 2. such assessment is carried out consistent with Performance Standard 1. 2007 based on the professional opinion of qualified and experienced persons.3 Physical Hazards 2. and for the World Bank.01. If less stringent levels or measures than those provided in these EHS Guidelines are appropriate.8 Special Hazard Environments 2. Environmental 1.

• Preparing workers and nearby communities to respond to competence. Understanding the likelihood and magnitude of EHS risks. 1985) APRIL 30. with the application of pollution controls to reduce process change plans. or the environment if hazards are not adequately managed. and facility-level business processes in an organized. for orders. for example. 2007 2 . or layout and example. the levels of emitted contaminants to workers or environments. Involving EHS professionals. 1985). engineering engineering and management controls to reduce or minimize planning process for capital requests..Environmental. and safety (EHS) environment. 4 Defined as “quantitative measures of hazard consequences. health. et. who have the experience. and Safety Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: INTRODUCTION WORLD BANK GROUP General Approach to the Management of EHS Issues at the Facility or Project Level people or to the environmental resources on which they depend. and environmental management functions including the restoring workplace and community environments to a safe preparation of project or activity-specific plans and procedures and healthy condition. and carry out specialized resources to effectively and safely control such events. hierarchical approach that includes the following steps: • • or processes that avoid the need for EHS controls. based on: o The nature of the project activities. focusing on the prevention of irreversible and / or issues entails the inclusion of EHS considerations into corporate- significant impacts. which may depend on the proximity of project activities to 3 Defined as “threats to humans and what they value” (Kates. • Favoring strategies that eliminate the cause of the hazard at its source.. al. o The potential consequences to workers. by selecting less hazardous materials Identifying EHS project hazards3 and associated risks4 as including the incorporation of EHS considerations into the site Prioritizing risk management strategies with the objective of • Improving EHS performance through a combination of ongoing monitoring of facility performance and effective accountability. usually expressed as conditional probabilities of experiencing harm” (Kates. communities. engineering work the possibility and magnitude of undesired consequences. incorporating selection process. product design process. or involve hazardous materials or processes. such as whether the project will generate significant quantities of emissions or effluents. and training necessary to assess and manage accidents. et al. Health. that incorporate the technical recommendations presented in this document that are relevant to the project. • • When impact avoidance is not feasible. including providing technical and financial EHS impacts and risks. • achieving an overall reduction of risk to human health and the Effective management of environmental. early as possible in the facility development or project cycle. facility modification authorizations.

.....10 Monitoring of Small Combustion Plants Emissions.............................. the processing of which may result in less polluting emissions Applicability and Approach • This guideline applies to facilities or projects that generate The selected prevention and control techniques may include one emissions to air at any stage of the project life-cycle.................... such as combustion.............8 Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)................. 2007 3 ......4 Projects Located in Degraded Airsheds or Ecologically Sensitive Areas.. materials storage....8 Particulate Matter (PM).. and the environment from emissions to air............. further..5 Small Combustion Facilities Emissions Guidelines ........................................................0 Environmental 1...... and Safety Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL AIR EMISSIONS AND AMBIENT AIR QUALITY WORLD BANK GROUP 1............ and decommissioning phases of a project.....................9 Mobile Sources – Land-based ....... Applicability and Approach ... and mobile sources and. This guideline provides an approach to the management • Location of sensitive receptors of significant sources of emissions........9 Greenhouse Gases (GHGs)...8 Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) ..........5 Stack Height........ facilities and projects should avoid....... operation........... by process..... It or more methods of treatment depending on: Application of emissions control techniques complements the industry-specific emissions guidance presented in the Industry Sector Environmental.. and potential for degradation of assessment and monitoring of impacts........................................................ control....... Emissions of air pollutants can occur from a wide variety of activities during the construction.3 Ambient Air Quality .......... and release of emissions it may be necessary to establish project-specific emissions standards.... minimize............................................. safety.........................5 Point Sources ................. or other industry sectorspecific processes....................4 General Approach.... including specific guidance for • Existing ambient air quality..........6 Fugitive Sources .......................................... Where possible...... where the airshed from a proposed project • Technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of the available options for prevention..Environmental......1 Air Emissions and Ambient Air Quality the spatial characteristic of the source including point sources.................. and control adverse impacts to human health.........9 Monitoring..... It is also intended to provide additional information on approaches to emissions management in projects located in areas of poor air quality............................................... and Safety (EHS) • Regulatory requirements Guidelines by providing information about common techniques for • Significance of the source emissions management that may be applied to a range of industry • Location of the emitting facility relative to other sources sectors............ These activities can be categorized based on APRIL 30. Health...11 fugitive sources.... the generation and release of emissions of any type should be managed through a combination of: • Energy use efficiency • Process modification • Selection of fuels or other materials.......... Health.............................. Where this is not possible............................

2007 Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Particulate Matter PM10 Averaging Period Guideline value in µg/m3 24-hour 125 (Interim target-1) 50 (Interim target-2) 20 (guideline) 500 (guideline) 40 (guideline) 200 (guideline) 70 (Interim target-1) 50 (Interim target-2) 30 (Interim target-3) 20 (guideline) 10 minute 1-year 1-hour 1-year 24-hour Particulate Matter PM2.gov/air/criteria.eu/environment/ippc/eper/index.5 (Interim target-3) 25 (guideline) 160 (Interim target-1) 100 (guideline) 12 US EPA Prevention of Significant Deterioration Increments Limits applicable to non-degraded airsheds.1). NOx: 500 tpy. 1 Part 52. or as established through national legislation.int/en 11 For example the United States National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) (http://www.5 1-year 24-hour Ozone 8-hour daily maximum 150 (Interim target-1) 100 (Interim target-2) 75 (Interim target-3) 50 (guideline) 35 (Interim target-1) 25 (Interim target-2) 15 (Interim target-3) 10 (guideline) 75 (Interim target-1) 50 (Interim target-2) 37. The the current WHO Air Quality Guidelines10 (see Table 1.1. nearby13 structures. 2000.europa.21. The significance of emissions of inorganic and organic pollutants should be established on a project-specific basis taking into account toxic and other properties of the pollutant. or or other internationally recognized sources11.pdf 7 World Health Organization (WHO). APRIL 30.6 sources of air emissions. future sustainable development in the same airshed. wakes. “National Pollutant Inventory Guide. climatic. of the source. 4 . for example. 8 Interim targets are provided in recognition of the need for a staged approach to achieving the recommended guidelines. As a general rule. Other references for establishing significant emissions include the European Commission. “Guidance Document for EPER implementation. 6 United States Environmental Protection Agency.au/handbooks/pubs/npiguide. and terrain features.1: WHO Ambient Air Quality Guidelines 7. this Guideline suggests 25 Table 1. Prevention of Significant Deterioration of Air Quality. PM 24-hour value is the 99th percentile.” http://ec. http://www. toxicological. impacts should be estimated through qualitative or quantitative assessments by the use of baseline air quality assessments and atmospheric dispersion models to assess potential ground level concentrations. 2004. Air Quality Guidelines Global Update. 10 Available at World Health Organization (WHO). dispersion model applied should be internationally recognized.html) and the relevant European Council Directives (Council Directive 1999/30/EC of 22 April 1999 / Council Directive 2002/3/EC of February 12 2002). Local atmospheric. 9 Ambient air quality standards are ambient air quality levels established and published through national legislative and regulatory processes. comparable. or exceed relevant ambient quality guidelines and standards9 protection against atmospheric downwash.gov. should prevent or minimize impacts by ensuring that: • • WORLD BANK GROUP additional. and epidemiological evidence (such as those published by the World Health Organization).” http://www. Examples of acceptable emission estimation and Emissions do not contribute a significant portion to the dispersion modeling approaches for point and fugitive sources are attainment of relevant ambient air quality guidelines or standards. and Safety Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL AIR EMISSIONS AND AMBIENT AIR QUALITY Ambient Air Quality General Approach Projects with significant5.npi.1.who. 2005. and potential for significant impacts to ambient air quality.8 percent of the applicable air quality standards to allow Sulfur dioxide (SO2) 5 Significant sources of point and fugitive emissions are considered to be general sources which. and ambient quality guidelines refer to ambient quality levels primarily developed through clinical. can contribute a net emissions increase of one or more of the following pollutants within a given airshed: PM10: 50 tons per year (tpy). and combustion sources with an equivalent heat input of 50 MWth or greater. 40 CFR Ch. or in their absence. Health. and Australian Government.Environmental. or eddy effects by applying national legislated standards. SO2: 500 tpy. 12 At facility level.epa.htm . Emissions do not result in pollutant concentrations that reach and air quality data should be applied when modeling dispersion.

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included in Annex 1.1.1. These approaches include screening

Point Sources

models for single source evaluations (SCREEN3 or AIRSCREEN),

Point sources are discrete, stationary, identifiable sources of

as well as more complex and refined models (AERMOD OR

emissions that release pollutants to the atmosphere. They are

ADMS). Model selection is dependent on the complexity and geo-

typically located in manufacturing or production plants. Within a

morphology of the project site (e.g. mountainous terrain, urban or

given point source, there may be several individual ‘emission

rural area).

points’ that comprise the point source.15

Projects Located in Degraded Airsheds or
Ecologically Sensitive Areas

Point sources are characterized by the release of air pollutants

Facilities or projects located within poor quality airsheds14, and

nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide

within or next to areas established as ecologically sensitive (e.g.

(CO), and particulate matter (PM), as well as other air pollutants

national parks), should ensure that any increase in pollution levels

including certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and metals

is as small as feasible, and amounts to a fraction of the applicable

that may also be associated with a wide range of industrial

short-term and annual average air quality guidelines or standards

activities.

as established in the project-specific environmental assessment.
Suitable mitigation measures may also include the relocation of
significant sources of emissions outside the airshed in question,
use of cleaner fuels or technologies, application of comprehensive
pollution control measures, offset activities at installations
controlled by the project sponsor or other facilities within the same
airshed, and buy-down of emissions within the same airshed.
Specific provisions for minimizing emissions and their impacts in
poor air quality or ecologically sensitive airsheds should be
established on a project-by-project or industry-specific basis.
Offset provisions outside the immediate control of the project
sponsor or buy-downs should be monitored and enforced by the
local agency responsible for granting and monitoring emission
permits. Such provisions should be in place prior to final
commissioning of the facility / project.

typically associated with the combustion of fossil fuels, such as

Emissions from point sources should be avoided and controlled
according to good international industry practice (GIIP) applicable
to the relevant industry sector, depending on ambient conditions,
through the combined application of process modifications and
emissions controls, examples of which are provided in Annex
1.1.2. Additional recommendations regarding stack height and
emissions from small combustion facilities are provided below.

Stack Height
The stack height for all point sources of emissions, whether
‘significant’ or not, should be designed according to GIIP (see
Annex 1.1.3) to avoid excessive ground level concentrations due
to downwash, wakes, and eddy effects, and to ensure reasonable
diffusion to minimize impacts. For projects where there are
multiple sources of emissions, stack heights should be established
with due consideration to emissions from all other project sources,
both point and fugitive. Non-significant sources of emissions,

13 “Nearby” generally considers an area within a radius of up to 20 times the stack

height.
14 An airshed should be considered as having poor air quality if nationally
legislated air quality standards or WHO Air Quality Guidelines are exceeded
significantly.

APRIL 30, 2007

15 Emission points refer to a specific stack, vent, or other discrete point of pollution

release. This term should not be confused with point source, which is a regulatory
distinction from area and mobile sources. The characterization of point sources
into multiple emissions points is useful for allowing more detailed reporting of
emissions information.

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including small combustion sources,16 should also use GIIP in
stack design.

Small Combustion Facilities Emissions Guidelines
Small combustion processes are systems designed to deliver
electrical or mechanical power, steam, heat, or any combination of
these, regardless of the fuel type, with a total, rated heat input
capacity of between three Megawatt thermal (MWth) and 50
MWth.
The emissions guidelines in Table 1.1.2 are applicable to small
combustion process installations operating more than 500 hours
per year, and those with an annual capacity utilization of more
than 30 percent. Plants firing a mixture of fuels should compare
emissions performance with these guidelines based on the sum of
the relative contribution of each applied fuel17. Lower emission
values may apply if the proposed facility is located in an
ecologically sensitive airshed, or airshed with poor air quality, in
order to address potential cumulative impacts from the installation
of more than one small combustion plant as part of a distributed
generation project.

16 Small combustion sources are those with a total rated heat input capacity of

50MWth or less.
17 The contribution of a fuel is the percentage of heat input (LHV) provided by this
fuel multiplied by its limit value.

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Table 1.1.2 - Small Combustion Facilities Emissions Guidelines (3MWth – 50MWth) – (in mg/Nm3 or as indicated)
Combustion Technology /
Fuel

Particulate Matter (PM)

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)

Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)

Dry Gas, Excess
O2 Content (%)

N/A

N/A

200 (Spark Ignition)
400 (Dual Fuel)
1,600 (Compression Ignition)

15

Engine
Gas

50 or up to 100 if justified by project specific
considerations (e.g. Economic feasibility of
using lower ash content fuel, or adding
secondary treatment to meet 50, and
available environmental capacity of the site)

Liquid

Turbine
Natural Gas
=3MWth to < 15MWth

1.5 percent Sulfur or up to 3.0 percent Sulfur if
justified by project specific considerations (e.g.
Economic feasibility of using lower S content fuel,
or adding secondary treatment to meet levels of
using 1.5 percent Sulfur, and available
environmental capacity of the site)

If bore size diameter [mm] < 400: 1460
(or up to 1,600 if justified to maintain high
energy efficiency.)

15

If bore size diameter [mm] > or = 400: 1,850

N/A

N/A

42 ppm (Electric generation)
100 ppm (Mechanical drive)

15

Natural Gas
=15MWth to < 50MWth

N/A

N/A

25 ppm

15

Fuels other than Natural Gas
=3MWth to < 15MWth

N/A

0.5 percent Sulfur or lower percent Sulfur (e.g. 0.2
percent Sulfur) if commercially available without
significant excess fuel cost

96 ppm (Electric generation)
150 ppm (Mechanical drive)

15

Fuels other than Natural Gas
=15MWth to < 50MWth

N/A

0.5% S or lower % S (0.2%S) if commercially
available without significant excess fuel cost

74 ppm

15

N/A

320

3

2000

460

3

2000

650

6

Boiler
Gas
Liquid
Solid

N/A
50 or up to 150 if justified by environmental
assessment
50 or up to 150 if justified by environmental
assessment

Notes: -N/A/ - no emissions guideline; Higher performance levels than these in the Table should be applicable to facilities located in urban / industrial areas with degraded airsheds or close to ecologically sensitive areas where more
stringent emissions controls may be needed.; MWth is heat input on HHV basis; Solid fuels include biomass; Nm 3 is at one atmosphere pressure, 0°C.; MWth category is to apply to the entire facility consisting of multiple units that are
reasonably considered to be emitted from a common stack except for NOx and PM limits for turbines and boilers. Guidelines values apply to facilities operating more than 500 hours per year with an annual capacity utilization factor of
more than 30 percent.

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Fugitive Sources

WORLD BANK GROUP

Implementing a leak detection and repair (LDAR) program
that controls fugitive emissions by regularly monitoring to

Fugitive source air emissions refer to emissions that are

detect leaks, and implementing repairs within a predefined

distributed spatially over a wide area and not confined to a specific

time period.18

discharge point. They originate in operations where exhausts are
not captured and passed through a stack. Fugitive emissions have
the potential for much greater ground-level impacts per unit than
stationary source emissions, since they are discharged and
dispersed close to the ground. The two main types of fugitive

For VOC emissions associated with handling of chemicals in open
vats and mixing processes, the recommended prevention and
control techniques include:

solvents;

emissions are Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and
particulate matter (PM). Other contaminants (NOx, SO2 and CO)

Substitution of less volatile substances, such as aqueous

Collection of vapors through air extractors and subsequent

are mainly associated with combustion processes, as described

treatment of gas stream by removing VOCs with control

above. Projects with potentially significant fugitive sources of

devices such as condensers or activated carbon absorption;

emissions should establish the need for ambient quality

Collection of vapors through air extractors and subsequent
treatment with destructive control devices such as:

assessment and monitoring practices.

o

Catalytic Incinerators: Used to reduce VOCs from

Open burning of solid wastes, whether hazardous or non-

process exhaust gases exiting paint spray booths,

hazardous, is not considered good practice and should be

ovens, and other process operations

avoided, as the generation of polluting emissions from this type of

o

source cannot be controlled effectively.

gas stream by passing the stream through a combustion
chamber where the VOCs are burned in air at

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

temperatures between 700º C to 1,300º C

The most common sources of fugitive VOC emissions are

o

associated with industrial activities that produce, store, and use

Enclosed Oxidizing Flares: Used to convert VOCs into
CO2 and H2O by way of direct combustion

VOC-containing liquids or gases where the material is under
pressure, exposed to a lower vapor pressure, or displaced from an

Thermal Incinerators: Used to control VOC levels in a

Use of floating roofs on storage tanks to reduce the

enclosed space. Typical sources include equipment leaks, open

opportunity for volatilization by eliminating the headspace

vats and mixing tanks, storage tanks, unit operations in

present in conventional storage tanks.

wastewater treatment systems, and accidental releases.
Equipment leaks include valves, fittings, and elbows which are
subject to leaks under pressure. The recommended prevention
and control techniques for VOC emissions associated with
equipment leaks include:

Particulate Matter (PM)
The most common pollutant involved in fugitive emissions is dust
or particulate matter (PM). This is released during certain
operations, such as transport and open storage of solid materials,
and from exposed soil surfaces, including unpaved roads.

Equipment modifications, examples of which are presented in
Annex 1.1.4;

18 For more information, see Leak Detection and Repair Program (LDAR), at:

http://www.ldar.net

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GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL
AIR EMISSIONS AND AMBIENT AIR QUALITY

WORLD BANK GROUP

Recommended prevention and control of these emissions sources

programs. In the absence of these, the following approach should

include:

be considered:

Use of dust control methods, such as covers, water
suppression, or increased moisture content for open

operators should implement the manufacturer recommended

materials storage piles, or controls, including air extraction

engine maintenance programs;

and treatment through a baghouse or cyclone for material

Regardless of the size or type of vehicle, fleet owners /

Drivers should be instructed on the benefits of driving

handling sources, such as conveyors and bins;

practices that reduce both the risk of accidents and fuel

Use of water suppression for control of loose materials on

consumption, including measured acceleration and driving

paved or unpaved road surfaces. Oil and oil by-products is

within safe speed limits;

not a recommended method to control road dust. Examples

Operators with fleets of 120 or more units of heavy duty

of additional control options for unpaved roads include those

vehicles (buses and trucks), or 540 or more light duty

summarized in Annex 1.1.5.

vehicles21 (cars and light trucks) within an airshed should

Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS)
Several chemicals are classified as ozone depleting substances

consider additional ways to reduce potential impacts
including:
o

(ODSs) and are scheduled for phase-out under the Montreal
Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.19 No new

alternatives
o

systems or processes should be installed using CFCs, halons,
1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, methyl bromide or

regulations.20

Converting high-use vehicles to cleaner fuels, where
feasible

o

HBFCs. HCFCs should only be considered as interim / bridging
alternatives as determined by the host country commitments and

Replacing older vehicles with newer, more fuel efficient

Installing and maintaining emissions control devices,
such as catalytic converters

o

Implementing a regular vehicle maintenance and repair
program

Mobile Sources – Land-based

Greenhouse Gases (GHGs)

Similar to other combustion processes, emissions from vehicles

Sectors that may have potentially significant emissions of

include CO, NOx, SO2, PM and VOCs. Emissions from on-road

greenhouse gases (GHGs)22 include energy, transport, heavy

and off-road vehicles should comply with national or regional

industry (e.g. cement production, iron / steel manufacturing,
aluminum smelting, petrochemical industries, petroleum refining,
fertilizer manufacturing), agriculture, forestry and waste

19 Examples include: chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs); halons; 1,1,1-trichloroethane

(methyl chloroform); carbon tetrachloride; hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs);
hydrobromofluorocarbons (HBFCs); and methyl bromide. They are currently used
in a variety of applications including: domestic, commercial, and process
refrigeration (CFCs and HCFCs); domestic, commercial, and motor vehicle air
conditioning (CFCs and HCFCs); for manufacturing foam products (CFCs); for
solvent cleaning applications (CFCs, HCFCs, methyl chloroform, and carbon
tetrachloride); as aerosol propellants (CFCs); in fire protection systems (halons
and HBFCs); and as crop fumigants (methyl bromide).
20 Additional information is available through the Montreal Protocol Secretariat
web site available at: http://ozone.unep.org/

APRIL 30, 2007

management. GHGs may be generated from direct emissions

21 The selected fleet size thresholds are assumed to represent potentially

significant sources of emissions based on individual vehicles traveling 100,000 km
/ yr using average emission factors.
22 The six greenhouse gases that form part of the Kyoto Protocol to the United
Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change include carbon dioxide (C02);
methane (CH4); nitrous oxide (N 2O); hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs); perfluorocarbons
(PFCs); and sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6).

9

Environmental, Health, and Safety Guidelines
GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL
AIR EMISSIONS AND AMBIENT AIR QUALITY

WORLD BANK GROUP

from facilities within the physical project boundary and indirect

decisions to be made based on the data and the consequences of

emissions associated with the off-site production of power used by

making an incorrect decision, the time and geographic

the project.

boundaries, and the quality of data needed to make a correct

Recommendations for reduction and control of greenhouse gases

decision.25 The air quality monitoring program should consider
the following elements:

include:

Carbon financing;23

Enhancement of energy efficiency (see section on

should reflect the pollutants of concern associated with
project processes. For combustion processes, indicator

‘Energy Conservation’);

parameters typically include the quality of inputs, such as the

Protection and enhancement of sinks and reservoirs of

sulfur content of fuel.

greenhouse gases;

Promotion of sustainable forms of agriculture and

Monitoring parameters: The monitoring parameters selected

Baseline calculations: Before a project is developed, baseline

forestry;

air quality monitoring at and in the vicinity of the site should

Promotion, development and increased use of

be undertaken to assess background levels of key pollutants,

renewable forms of energy;

in order to differentiate between existing ambient conditions

Carbon capture and storage technologies;24

and project-related impacts.

Limitation and / or reduction of methane emissions

Monitoring type and frequency: Data on emissions and

through recovery and use in waste management, as well

ambient air quality generated through the monitoring program

as in the production, transport and distribution of energy

should be representative of the emissions discharged by the

(coal, oil, and gas).

project over time. Examples of time-dependent variations in
the manufacturing process include batch process

Monitoring

manufacturing and seasonal process variations. Emissions

Emissions and air quality monitoring programs provide information

from highly variable processes may need to be sampled

that can be used to assess the effectiveness of emissions

more frequently or through composite methods. Emissions

management strategies. A systematic planning process is

monitoring frequency and duration may also range from

recommended to ensure that the data collected are adequate for

continuous for some combustion process operating

their intended purposes (and to avoid collecting unnecessary

parameters or inputs (e.g. the quality of fuel) to less frequent,

data). This process, sometimes referred to as a data quality
objectives process, defines the purpose of collecting the data, the
23 Carbon financing as a carbon emissions reduction strategy may include the host

government-endorsed Clean Development Mechanism or Joint Implementation of
the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
24 Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is a process consisting of the
separation of CO2 from industrial and energy-related sources; transport to a
storage location; and long-term isolation from the atmosphere, for example in
geological formations, in the ocean, or in mineral carbonates (reaction of CO2 with
metal oxides in silicate minerals to produce stable carbonates). It is the object of
intensive research worldwide (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC), Special Report, Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (2006).

APRIL 30, 2007

monthly, quarterly or yearly stack tests.

Monitoring locations: Ambient air quality monitoring may
consists of off-site or fence line monitoring either by the
project sponsor, the competent government agency, or by
collaboration between both. The location of ambient air

25 See, for example, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Guidance on
Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process EPA QA/G-4,
EPA/240/B-06/001 February 2006.

10

Environmental, Health, and Safety Guidelines
GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL
AIR EMISSIONS AND AMBIENT AIR QUALITY
quality monitoring stations should be established based on

o

consistently and significantly better than the required

estimate potential impact to the receiving airshed from an

levels, frequency of Annual Stack Emission Testing can

emissions source taking into consideration such aspects as

be reduced from annual to every two or three years.
o

prevailing wind directions.

Emission Monitoring: None

Boilers with capacities between =20 MWth and < 50 MWth

Sampling and analysis methods: Monitoring programs should

o

Annual Stack Emission Testing: SO2, NOx and PM. For

apply national or international methods for sample collection

gaseous fuel-fired boilers, only NOx. SO2 can be

and analysis, such as those published by the International

calculated based on fuel quality certification (if no SO2

Organization for Standardization,26 the European Committee

control equipment is used)

for Standardization,27 or the U.S. Environmental Protection

o

Emission Monitoring: SO2. Plants with SO2 control

Agency.28 Sampling should be conducted by, or under, the

equipment: Continuous. NOx: Continuous monitoring of

supervision of trained individuals. Analysis should be

either NOx emissions or indicative NOx emissions using

conducted by entities permitted or certified for this purpose.

combustion parameters. PM: Continuous monitoring of

Sampling and analysis Quality Assurance / Quality Control

either PM emissions, opacity, or indicative PM

(QA/QC) plans should be applied and documented to ensure

emissions using combustion parameters / visual

that data quality is adequate for the intended data use (e.g.,

monitoring.

method detection limits are below levels of concern).

Monitoring reports should include QA/QC documentation.

Additional recommended monitoring approaches for
turbines:
o

Monitoring of Small Combustion Plants Emissions

If Annual Stack Emission Testing demonstrates results

the results of scientific methods and mathematical models to

the location of potentially affected communities and

WORLD BANK GROUP

only for gaseous fuel-fired turbines).

Additional recommended monitoring approaches for boilers:

o

If Annual Stack Emission Testing results show
constantly (3 consecutive years) and significantly (e.g.

Boilers with capacities between =3 MWth and < 20 MWth:
o

Annual Stack Emission Testing: NOx and SO2 (NOx

Annual Stack Emission Testing: SO2, NOx and PM. For

less than 75 percent) better than the required levels,

gaseous fuel-fired boilers, only NOx. SO2 can be

frequency of Annual Stack Emission Testing can be

calculated based on fuel quality certification if no SO2

reduced from annual to every two or three years.

control equipment is used.

o

Emission Monitoring: NOx: Continuous monitoring of
either NOx emissions or indicative NOx emissions using
combustion parameters.SO2: Continuous monitoring if

26 An on-line catalogue of ISO standards relating to the environment, health

protection, and safety is available at:
http://www.iso.org/iso/en/CatalogueListPage.CatalogueList?ICS1=13&ICS2=&ICS
3=&scopelist=
27 An on-line catalogue of European Standards is available at:

http://www.cen.eu/catweb/cwen.htm .
28 The National Environmental Methods Index provides a searchable
clearinghouse of U.S. methods and procedures for both regulatory and nonregulatory monitoring purposes for water, sediment, air and tissues, and is
available at http://www.nemi.gov/.

APRIL 30, 2007

SO2 control equipment is used.

Additional recommended monitoring approaches for
engines:
o

Annual Stack Emission Testing: NOx ,SO2 and PM (NOx
only for gaseous fuel-fired diesel engines).

11

and Safety Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL AIR EMISSIONS AND AMBIENT AIR QUALITY o WORLD BANK GROUP If Annual Stack Emission Testing results show constantly (3 consecutive years) and significantly (e. less than 75 percent) better than the required levels. PM: Continuous monitoring of either PM emissions or indicative PM emissions using operating parameters. Health.Environmental.g. o Emission Monitoring: NOx: Continuous monitoring of either NOx emissions or indicative NOx emissions using combustion parameters. APRIL 30. 2007 12 . frequency of Annual Stack Emission Testing can be reduced from annual to every two or three years. SO2: Continuous monitoring if SO2 control equipment is used.

2007 13 .co. UN / ECE / EMEP and the European Environment Agency http://www.oecd.aeat.Environmental.gov/ttn/chief Guidelines on Air Quality Models (Revised).uk/netcen/airqual/TFEI/unece.gov.environmentagency. UK Environment Agency http://www.org/ehs/urchem.1.olis.1 – Air Emissions Estimation and Dispersion Modeling Methods The following is a partial list of documents to aid in the estimation of air emissions from various processes and air dispersion models: Australian Emission Estimation Technique Manuals http://www.nsf/ APRIL 30.uk/subjects/airquality/236092/?version=1&lang=_e OECD Database on Use and Release of Industrial Chemicals http://www.epa. US EPA Office of Air Quality Planning & Standards http://www.gov/scram001/guidance/guide/appw_05.htm Emission factors and emission estimation methods. Health.npi. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2005 http://www.pdf Frequently Asked Questions. and Safety Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL AIR EMISSIONS AND AMBIENT AIR QUALITY WORLD BANK GROUP Annex 1. Air Quality Modeling and Assessment Unit (AQMAU).gov.au/handbooks/ Atmospheric Emission Inventory Guidebook.epa.

and Safety Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL AIR EMISSIONS AND AMBIENT AIR QUALITY WORLD BANK GROUP Annex 1.0 to 3.1. Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization >90% Produces gypsum as a by-product Precondition gas to remove large particles.Environmental.40 mg/Nm3 Fuel Switching >90% Sorbent Injection 30% . Achievable outlet concentrations of 30 .99. 14 .2 – Illustrative Point Source Air Emissions Prevention and Control Technologies Principal Sources and Issues General Prevention / Process Modification Approach Control Options Reduction Efficiency (%) Gas Condition Comments Fabric Filters 99 . Health. temp <400F Applicability depends on flue gas properties including temperature. Fuel switching (e. Efficiency dependent on resistivity of particle. light diesel or natural gas with consequent reduction in particulate emissions related to sulfur in the fuel. ocean spray. selection of lower sulfur fuels) or reducing the amount of fine particulates added to a process. Achievable outlet concentrations of 30 . Levels below 10% are not rich enough for this process and should therefore utilize absorption or ‘scrubbing. For SO2 concentrations in excess of 10%. Fuel cleaning or beneficiation of fuels prior to combustion is another viable option but may have economic consequences.’ where SO2 molecules are captured into a liquid phase or adsorption. forest fires and blowing dust (most prevalent in dry and semiarid climates) contribute to background levels. where SO2 molecules are captured on the surface of a solid adsorbent. APRIL 30.g.40 mg/Nm 3 Wet Scrubber 93 – 95% None Wet sludge may be a disposal problem depending on local infrastructure. abrasion and load. Typical air to cloth ratio range of 2.5 cfm/ft2 Particulate Matter (PM) Main sources are the combustion of fossil fuels and numerous manufacturing processes that collect PM through air extraction and ventilation systems. Alternate fuels may include low sulfur coal. chemical properties.7% Dry gas. 2007 Control system selection is heavily dependent on the inlet concentration. Achievable outlet concentration of 23 mg/Nm3 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Mainly produced by the combustion of fuels such as oil and coal and as a by-product from some chemical production or wastewater treatment processes. Achievable outlet concentrations of 23 mg/Nm 3 Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) 97 – 99% Varies depending of particle type Cyclone 74 – 95% None Most efficient for large particles.70% Calcium or lime is injected into the flue gas and the SO2 is adsorbed onto the sorbent Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization 70%-90% Can be regenerable or throwaway. Volcanoes. the stream is passed through an acid plant not only to lower the SO2 emissions but also to generate high grade sulfur for sale.

which is also a greenhouse gas. 2007 15 . APRIL 30. Generally. namely nitric oxide (NO). and adsorption. nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The method of combustion control used depends on the type of boiler and the method of firing fuel.1. SNCR. some ammonia slips through and is part of the emissions. Low-NOx Burners 30–40 30–40 30–40 Flue Gas Treatment Coal Oil Gas Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) 60–90 60–90 60–90 N/A 30–70 30–70 Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) These modifications are capable of reducing NOx emissions by 50 to 95%. Note: Compiled by IFC based on inputs from technical experts. Means of reducing NOx emissions are based on the modification of operating conditions such as minimizing the resident time at peak temperatures. Health. The term NOx serves as a composite between NO and NO2 and emissions are usually reported as NOx.Environmental. Flue gas treatment is more effective in reducing NOx emissions than are combustion controls. SCR involves the injection of ammonia as a reducing agent to convert NOx to nitrogen in the presence of a catalyst in a converter upstream of the air heater. Here the NO is multiplied by the ratio of molecular weights of NO2 to NO and added to the NO2 emissions. Percent Reduction by Fuel Type Comments Combustion modification (Illustrative of boilers) Coal Oil Gas Low-excess-air firing 10–30 10–30 10–30 Staged Combustion 20–50 20–50 20–50 Flue Gas Recirculation N/A 20–50 20–50 Water/Steam Injection N/A 10–50 N/A. and Safety Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL AIR EMISSIONS AND AMBIENT AIR QUALITY WORLD BANK GROUP Annex 1.2: Illustrative Point Source Air Emissions Prevention and Control Technologies (continued) Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) Associated with combustion of fuel. SNCR also involves the injection of ammonia or urea based products without the presence of a catalyst. reducing the peak temperatures by increasing heat transfer rates or minimizing the availability of oxygen. Techniques can be classified as SCR. May occur in several forms of nitrogen oxide.

100 (ii)). plug. HG = H + 1. cap. of nearby Pumps structures “Nearby structures” = Structures within/touching a radius of 5L but less than 800 m.3 .5*L Rupture disk assembly 100 Valves Seal-less design 100 Connectors Weld together 100 Open-ended Lines Blind.Examples of VOC Emissions Controls Stack Height (Based on United States 40 CFR. 2007 16 . 30 Actual efficiency of a closed-vent system depends on percentage of vapors collected and efficiency of control device to which the vapors are routed. part 51. APRIL 30. where Equipment Type Modification HG = GEP stack height measured from the ground level elevation at the base of the stack Approximate Control Efficiency (%) Seal-less design 10029 Closed-vent system 9030 Dual mechanical seal with barrier fluid maintained at a higher pressure than the pumped fluid 100 Closed-vent system 90 Dual mechanical seal with barrier fluid maintained at a higher pressure than the compressed gas 100 H = Height of nearby structure(s) above the base of the stack. 29 Seal-less equipment can be a large source of emissions in the event of equipment failure. or second valve 100 Sampling Connections Closed-loop sampling 100 HG h H Maximum 5*L Variable31 Note: Examples of technologies are provided for illustrative purposes.Environmental. Projected width (w) Compressors Stack Closed-vent system Pressure Relief Devices 1. and Safety Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL AIR EMISSIONS AND AMBIENT AIR QUALITY Annex 1. 31 Control efficiency of closed vent-systems installed on a pressure relief device may be lower than other closed-vent systems.1. L = Lesser dimension.1. Health.Good International Industry Practice (GIIP) WORLD BANK GROUP Annex 1.5L. height (h) or width (w).4 . The availability and applicability of any particular technology will vary depending on manufacturer specifications.

Slag. or "Road Carpet" 30% .96% APRIL 30. Health.98% Speed Reduction 0% .96% Surfactants 0% .68% Wet Suppression – Watering 12% . and Safety Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL AIR EMISSIONS AND AMBIENT AIR QUALITY WORLD BANK GROUP Annex 1.98% Hygroscopic salts Bitumens/adhesives 60% .80% Traffic Reduction Not quantified Paving (Asphalt / Concrete) 85% .50% Vacuum Sweeping 0% .Fugitive PM Emissions Controls Control Type Control Efficiency Chemical Stabilization 0% .99% Covering with Gravel.Environmental.58% Water Flushing/Broom Sweeping 0% . 2007 17 .1.5 .

.... Health......... However..........24 from manufacturing process modifications.... which are adjusted to account for changes in major influencing factors on energy use • taken to reduce energy use This guideline applies to facilities or projects that consume • appropriate levels systems and heating.............. pumps....... and regular measurement and reporting of Energy Efficiency For any energy-using system...........21 Refrigerant Compression Efficiency .................................................24 Load reduction ...... 2007 18 .................18 Energy Management Programs.......................................... and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL ENERGY CONSERVATION WORLD BANK GROUP 1..................... The following section provides guidance on energy o Improve energy conversion efficiency management with a focus on common utility systems often o Exploit energy purchasing opportunities representing technical and financially feasible opportunities for o Use lower-carbon fuels improvement in energy conservation........................ and fans....Environmental...............19 Energy Conversion System Efficiency Improvements20 Process Cooling................23 Compressed Air Systems.............. as Regular review of targets................. ventilation and air conditioning systems specific emissions guidance presented in the Industry Sector Environmental............... and Safety (EHS) Guidelines by providing information about common techniques for energy conservation that may be applied to a range of industry sectors.................21 Energy Conversion.......................18 Energy Efficiency.......... Health........19 Heat Distribution Systems.................................................... Energy Management Programs Energy management programs should include the following elements: • principal energy flows within a facility at unit process level • Preparation of mass and energy balance....................24 Distribution..... compressed air (HVAC)... a systematic analysis of energy efficiency improvements and cost reduction opportunities should include a hierarchical examination of opportunities to: • Demand/Load Side Management by reducing loads on the energy system • Supply Side Management by: well as overall impacts associated with emissions from power o Reduce losses in energy distribution sources.. to confirm that targets are set at systems......................... operations APRIL 30.... process and auxiliary Identification.2 Energy Conservation should also evaluate energy conservation opportunities arising Applicability and Approach .. Energy management at the facility level should be viewed in the context of overall consumption patterns...............................................19 Heating Load Reduction ...20 Load Reduction........... such as motors....... It complements the industry- Regular comparison and monitoring of energy flows with performance targets to identify where action should be Applicability and Approach energy in process heating and cooling...............18 Process Heating................................................... • Definition and regular review of energy performance targets..23 Refrigeration System Auxiliaries.... which may include comparison with benchmark data........................................... and lighting systems... including those associated with production processes and supporting utilities.....................

distribution. for example. or conversion • operating capacity • following techniques are often valuable and cost-effective.nrcan. hot water. heat treating.gc. melting agglomeration.ca/commercial/financial-assistance/newbuildings/mnecb.Environmental. calcining.cfm?attr=20). a system heat and mass balance will show how much of the system’s energy input provides true process heating. for example. Health. distribution process is less than that of power systems. If the heat-power ratio of the thermal mass product carriers. and forming33. Electricity purchase is usually cheaper accurately to avoid. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL ENERGY CONSERVATION Common opportunities in each of these areas are summarized WORLD BANK GROUP • Process Heating Review opportunities to schedule work flow to limit the need for process reheating between stages below. 2007 19 . or thermal fluid systems. Since 33 US DOE.html).htm ). http://europa. thereby reducing the energy required to heat including heating for fluids. metal unnecessary air to system operating temperature heating.energy. structure • Recover heat from hot process or exhaust streams to reduce system loads • • • In intermittently-heated systems. and ensure that traps are not bypassed.html APRIL 30.eu. opportunities should be considered to increase the ratio. kiln cars etc. overheating or overdrying overall. and quantify fuel used to satisfy energy losses caused by excessive parasitic loads. Heating Load Reduction • Ensure adequate insulation to reduce heat losses through furnace/oven etc. curing. • Regularly verify correct operation of steam traps in steam systems. by using low-pressure steam to drive absorption Additional guidance on energy efficiency is available from sources such as Natural Resources Canada (NRCAN http://oee. such as heated shapers. and United States Department of Energy (US DOE.gov/consumer/industry/process. especially when the cost to treat turbine-quality Examine opportunities to use low weight and/or low boiler feed water is included. http://www. and maintain air seals to reduce air in-leakage into the heated Process heating is vital to many manufacturing processes. the European Union (EUROPA.int/scadplus/leg/en/s15004.energy. use the system for long runs close to or at process temperature • Near net weight and shape heat designs • Robust Quality assurance on input material • Robust Scheduled maintenance programs Heat Distribution Systems Heat distribution in process heating applications typically takes place through steam. and consequent reduction in losses.eere. though the Where possible. Examination of savings opportunities should be directed by the results of the heat and mass balance. • Reduce radiant heat losses by sealing structural openings and keep viewing ports closed when not in use In process heating systems. consider use of low Consider use of high emissivity coatings of high temperature insulation. system. drying.32 • Operate furnaces/ovens at slight positive pressure. Losses can be reduced through the following actions: thermal mass insulation to reduce energy required to heat • Promptly repair distribution system leaks the system structure to operating temperature • Avoid steam leaks despite a perceived need to get steam Control process temperature and other parameters through the turbine.eere. melting. cooling systems rather than using electrically-driven vapor- 32 compression systems.gov/consumer/industry/process. http://www.

consider opportunities to recover heat to Consider steam expansion through a back-pressure turbine combustion air through the use of recuperative or rather than reducing valve stations regenerative burner systems Eliminate distribution system losses by adopting point-of- • use heating systems Energy Conversion System Efficiency Improvements The following efficiency opportunities should be examined for process furnaces or ovens. cogeneration of electrical power. down to and including 1” (25 mm) • Maintain clean heat transfer surfaces. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL ENERGY CONSERVATION steam traps typically last approximately 5 years. use economizers to recover heat water storage tanks distribution pipework. condensate. 20% • • gases should be no more than 20 K above steam Insulate distribution system vessels. Minimize the number of boilers kept at hot–standby • Use flue dampers to eliminate ventilation losses from hot boilers held at standby APRIL 30. such as boilers and fluid heaters: • Consider reverse osmosis or electrodialysis feed water treatment to minimize the requirement for boiler blowdown for re-use. Health. in addition to insulating all hot valves and flanges • Adopt automatic (continuous) boiler blowdown In steam systems. of capacity than two at 45%. Commonly used and cost-effective Minimize the number of boilers or heaters used to meet measures to improve process cooling efficiency are described loads. such as hot wells and temperature) • from flue gases to pre-heat boiler feed water or combustion Insulate all steam. since condensate is expensive boiler-quality • In steam boiler systems. hot water and thermal fluid air • diameter pipe. It is typically more efficient to run one boiler at 90% below. flue should be replaced or repaired annually de-aerators. in steam systems and thermal fluid or hot • WORLD BANK GROUP Regularly monitor CO. oxygen or CO2 content of flue For systems operating for extended periods (> 6000 hours/year). and utility systems. heat and /or cooling can be cost effective • Oxy Fuel burners • Oxygen enrichment/injection • Use of turbolators in boilers • Sizing design and use of multiple boilers for different load configurations • Fuel quality control/fuel blending gases to verify that combustion systems are using the • • minimum practical excess air volumes Process Cooling Consider combustion automation using oxygen-trim The general methodology outlined above should be applied to controls process cooling systems.Environmental. return condensate to the boiler house • Recover heat from blowdown systems through flash steam water and valuable beyond its heat content alone • recovery or feed-water preheat • Use flash steam recovery systems to reduce losses due to evaporation of high-pressure condensate • Do not supply excessive quantities of steam to the deaerator • With fired heaters. 2007 20 . in steam boilers.

thus reducing the energy required to cool this unnecessary air to system operating temperature • Examine opportunities to pre-cool using heat recovery to a process stream requiring heating. vents.download_guidelines). Health.g. as well as minimization of the temperature difference through which the system works and of auxiliary loads (i. circulation (e.com/new_buildings/pdf_files/greenbuild_strategi es_guide. chilled water. ensure there is no gas bypass of the expansion valve since this imposes compressor load while providing little effective cooling • If process temperatures are above ambient for all. which is the ratio of cooling duty divided by input power. minimize heat gains to the cooled space by use of air curtains. • Most refrigeration systems are electric-motor driven vapor compression systems using positive displacement or centrifugal compressors.ca/energystar/english/consumers/heating. However. or by using a higher temperature cooling utility • In cold and chill stores. for fans in cooling tunnels.greenbuildingsbc. such as Quantify and minimize “incidental” cooling loads. by using strip curtains • Energy Conversion The efficiency of refrigeration service provision is normally discussed in terms of Coefficient of Performance (“COP”). and doors APRIL 30. when a cheap or free heat source is available (e. or part.nrcan.gov/index. may be example. or rapidly opening/closing doors.cfm?text=N&pri ntview=N#AC ).pdf). of the year. 2002. Where conveyors carry products into chilled areas. COP is maximized by effective refrigeration system design and increased refrigerant compression efficiency.energystar.gc. and the US Energy Star Program (http://www. windows.g. glycols) • Do not use refrigeration for auxiliary cooling duties. other machinery. or secondary refrigerant pumps Installing ventilation heat recovery systems34 summer conditions. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL ENERGY CONSERVATION WORLD BANK GROUP Load Reduction o Planting trees as thermal shields around buildings • o Installing timers and/or thermostats and/or Ensure adequate insulation to reduce heat gains through enthalpy-based control systems cooling system structure and to below-ambient temperature o refrigerant pipes and vessels • Control process temperature accurately to avoid overcooling • Operate cooling tunnels at slight positive pressure and maintain air seals to reduce air in-leakage into the cooled system.cfm?c=guidelines.gc.e. appropriate.cfm?PrintView=N&Text=N) and NRCAN’s Energy Star Programs (http://oee.nrcan. use of ambient cooling systems. waste heat from an engine-driven generator—low-pressure steam In the case of air conditioning applications. shaded locations o Improving building insulation including seals.ca/equipment/english/index. 21 . minimize the area of transfer openings. energy efficiency techniques include: o Placing air intakes and air-conditioning units in cool. perhaps supplemented by refrigeration in defrost systems and lighting in cooled spaces. 2007 34 More information on HVAC energy efficiency can be found at the British Columbia Building Corporation (Woolliams.Environmental. for example. http://www. The remainder of this guideline relates primarily to vapor-compression systems. brines. System Design • provided by cooling towers or dry air coolers. entrance vestibules. NRCAN’s EnerGuide (http://oee. those in addition to compressor power demand) used to operate the refrigeration system. those due to evaporator fans. such as compressor cylinder head or oil cooling • While not a thermal load.

ensure opportunity for countercurrent (cascade) cooling. When cooling liquids. with air cooled or evaporative condensers should not be evaporator fans) does not outweigh compression savings. temperature of the refrigerant from somewhat below the lowest process temperature (the evaporating temperature) to provide Reducing Condensing Temperature process cooling. somewhat above ambient. or economized screw compressors. Reducing energy use. and a 4K In air-cooling applications. • Whichever basic system is chosen. of 6-10 K between leaving air temperature and evaporating APRIL 30. adequate treatment to prevent growth of legionella Elevating Evaporating Temperature • bacteria. which correct defrost operation.g. evaporator. Minimizing Temperature Differences consistent with avoidance of liquid carry-over to compressors. and that oil additions and removals balance. rather • Adjust expansion valves to minimize suction superheat than single-stage compression. especially in condensing temperature increases evaporator cooling capacity low humidity climates. 2007 22 . temperature is indicative of an appropriately sized absorption refrigeration may be appropriate.Environmental. 2K between leaving Exploit high cooling temperature range: precooling by liquid and evaporating temperatures can be achieved. select a relatively large Select a large evaporator to permit relatively low condenser to minimize differences between condensing temperature differences between process and evaporating and the heat sink temperatures. Increasing cooling towers). Condensing temperatures temperatures. consider two-stage or compound • Avoid the use of back-pressure valves. refrigerant/process temperature differences and compare Keep ‘hot’ and ‘cold’ fluids separate. ensure and substantially reduces compressor power consumption. do not with design expectations to be alert to heat exchanger mix water leaving the chiller with water returning from contamination by scale or oil. cooling circuits. hence higher compressor capacity without greatly affecting power consumption. for example. In low-temperature systems where high temperature differences are inevitable. more than 10K above design ambient condition. to a higher temperature (the condensing • Consider whether to use air-cooled or evaporation-based temperature). generously-sized evaporator. to facilitate heat cooling (e. Air-cooled evaporators usually have evaporating temperature typically increases compressor cooling higher condensing temperatures. evaporative or water cooled condensers and rejection to the air or cooling water systems. • A vapor-compression refrigeration system raises the Ensure that an appropriate refrigerant charge volume is present. If a wet system is used. Ensure that energy use of auxiliaries (e.g. When cooling air. monitor reduces refrigerant flow needs. ambient and/or ‘high temperature’ refrigeration before final though a 4K difference is generally indicative of a cooling can reduce refrigeration capital and running costs. Health. and auxiliary power consumption. • WORLD BANK GROUP • Ensure oil is regularly removed from the evaporator. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL ENERGY CONSERVATION • that has passed through a back-pressure turbine). compression. High cooling temperature range also provides an • • Keep the evaporator clean. a design temperature difference approach in a liquid-cooled condenser is possible. In liquid cooling.

Many refrigeration system auxiliaries (e. Consider the installation of refrigerated • Some refrigerant compressors and chillers are more non-condensable purgers. listed in the next section of these guidelines. Check operating efficiency under with design expectations to be alert to heat exchanger these conditions. identify the operating conditions under which the Keep condensers clean and free from scale. In multiple condenser applications. or cooling • Consider turndown efficiency when specifying chillers. and ask for estimates of annual running contamination. reductions in their energy use have a double benefit. Head pressure is often kept higher • Use of thermal storage systems (e. thermostatic expansion valves. Before operating below atmospheric pressure..g.Environmental. or reduced condensing and elevated evaporating near. commonly occurring off-design conditions is likely to be or “up and over” liquid lines leading from condensers. evaporator fans and Site condensers and cooling towers with adequate spacing chilled water pumps) contribute to refrigeration system load. it is unlikely to be energy efficient compressor power consumption. purchase. Health. Use of electronic rather than avoid part-loaded compressor operation. capacity (usually by switching off the condenser. which accompanies to operate a single compressor-chiller at less than 50% of reduced condensing temperature. refrigerant line to ensure that hot gases flow to all Note that package chillers can gain coefficient of condensers. This can be caused by installation errors such deliberately extreme. which are condensers. can liquid refrigerant circulation. It therefore prevents reduction in temperature. which restricts heat transfer area in for extended periods at design conditions. should be applied to refrigeration auxiliaries. Note that refrigeration and HVAC systems rarely run Avoid liquid backup. General energy saving techniques for pumps and fans. cost. ice storage) can than necessary to facilitate hot gas defrost or adequate avoid the need for close load-tracking and. design levels. Operational efficiency under the most as concentric reducers in horizontal liquid refrigerant pipes. so so as to prevent recirculation of hot air into the tower. Avoid should be connected via drop-leg traps to the main liquid operation of multiple compressors at part-load conditions. However. 2007 23 . Monitor compressor or chiller is likely to operate for substantial refrigerant/ambient temperature differences and compare parts of its annual cycle. performance (COP) when slightly unloaded. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL ENERGY CONSERVATION • • • • • WORLD BANK GROUP Avoid accumulation of non-condensable gases in the Refrigerant Compression Efficiency condenser system. most important. particularly for systems efficient than others offered for the same duty. APRIL 30. hence. Head compressor efficiency can be outweighed by the benefits of pressure control maintains condensing temperature at. and liquid refrigerant • pumps can permit effective refrigerant circulation at much Refrigeration System Auxiliaries reduced condensing temperatures. as loss of Avoid head pressure control to the extent possible. refrigerant liquid lines • Compressors lose efficiency when unloaded. by restricting condenser capacity. temperature conditions. tower fans.g. or restricting cooling water flow) under Variable speed control or multiple compressor chillers can conditions of less severe than design load or ambient be highly efficient at part loads.

Do not leave drain valves continuously ‘cracked open’ centrifugal fan towers). which opens only when air is required o Use manual or automatically operated valves to isolate air supply to individual machines or zones that are not in continuous use APRIL 30.g. 2007 24 . Health. to propel product). for example. • Do not mix high volume low pressure and low volume high pressure loads. axial fan evaporative condensers generally use less energy than equivalent o All condensate drain points should be trapped. for example: o Use air amplifier nozzles rather than simple open-pipe compressed air jets o Consider whether compressed air is needed at all o Where air jets are required intermittently (e. usually when the down. by using fans rather than compressed air. the energy contained in compressed air delivered to the user is often 10% Distribution • Monitor pressure losses in filters and replace as appropriate • Use adequately sized distribution pipework designed to minimize pressure losses or less of energy used in air compression. Compressed Air Systems Compressed air is the most commonly found utility service in industry.g. • Review air use reduction opportunities. o Under extreme off-design conditions. Decentralize low volume high-pressure applications or provide dedicated low-pressure utilities. lowest possible condensing pressure has been achieved.Environmental. consider operating the jet via a process-related solenoid valve. Savings are often possible through the following techniques: Load reduction • Examine each true user of compressed air to identify the air volume needed and the pressure at which this should be delivered. reduction in duty of cooling Train workers never to direct compressed air against their bodies or clothing to dust or cool themselves system fans and pumps can be worthwhile. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL ENERGY CONSERVATION WORLD BANK GROUP Additionally. yet in many compressed air systems. auxiliary use can be reduced by avoidance of part- o Implement systems for systematic identification and repair of leaks load operation and in plant selection (e.

..... Projects with the potential to generate process Water use efficiency to reduce the amount of wastewater pollutants requiring treatment • If needed. quantity...............g........ or the environment................ from water to air or land) In the context of their overall ESHS management system... and sanitary sewage.. Characteristics of individual streams may also be used for source segregation.................30 Occupational Health and Safety Issues in Wastewater Treatment Operations...26 Discharge to Sanitary Sewer Systems.30 Applicability and Approach Understand the quality....27 Sanitary Wastewater ... 2007 25 ....27 Septic Systems ...... This guideline is meant to be complemented by the industry-specific effluent guidelines presented in the • generation • wastewater.Environmental.... safety.............26 Land Application of Treated Effluent. water conservation...................... This includes knowledge about the locations........27 Wastewater Management.............30 Monitoring........... the generation and discharge of wastewater of any operations....................... in order to limit the volume of water requiring specialized treatment.... and control adverse impacts to human health....... taking into consideration potential impacts of cross-media transfer of contaminants during treatment (e.. including waste minimization... • Identify opportunities to prevent or reduce wastewater pollution through such measures as recycle/reuse within their facility...26 Discharge to Surface Water........ change of technology or operating conditions/modes).......... stormwater.. It provides type should be managed through a combination of: information on common techniques for wastewater management............... or process modification (e........25 General Liquid Effluent Quality.........g................ frequency and sources of liquid effluents in its installations..... sanitary (domestic) sewage.... wastewater from utility discharged to a surface water or sewer).... input substitution.......... Health......................... discharge to the environment without any treatment......3 Wastewater and Ambient Water Quality • Applicability and Approach...g............... routes and integrity of internal drainage systems and discharge points • Plan and implement the segregation of liquid effluents principally along industrial............................ and stormwater categories..... application of wastewater treatment techniques to further reduce the load of contaminants prior to discharge........... or stormwater should incorporate the necessary precautions to avoid.. if the wastewater is reused are also applicable to industrial discharges to sanitary sewers that for irrigation)..... and reuse that can be applied to a wide range of industry sectors.............. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines............................27 Industrial Wastewater ...... minimize..29 Emissions from Wastewater Treatment Operations .. These guidelines standard for a specific reuse (e... Health.. and reducing the use of hazardous materials to reduce the load of Industry Sector Environmental.......... utility.....30 Residuals from Wastewater Treatment Operations.... Process modification. facilities should: APRIL 30.................. Process wastewater may include contaminated wastewater from utility Additionally............ • Assess compliance of their wastewater discharges with the This guideline applies to projects that have either direct or indirect applicable: (i) discharge standard (if the wastewater is discharge of process wastewater....... sanitary. and (ii) water quality operations or stormwater to the environment... and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL WASTEWATER AND AMBIENT WATER QUALITY WORLD BANK GROUP 1........

A seasonally representative baseline assessment of ambient water quality may be required for use with established scientific methods and mathematical models to estimate potential impact to the receiving water from an effluent source. receiving water use and assimilative capacity among other considerations. flushing rate of the water body and the loading of pollutants from other effluent sources in APRIL 30. Health.g. Intended use of the receiving water body (e.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/guidelines/en/index. should also influence the level of treatment should be based on: acceptable pollution loadings and effluent discharge quality. recreation.html) 37 The assimilative capacity of the receiving water body depends on numerous factors including. or adversely impact include: drinking water (with some level of treatment). private wastewater treatment systems should: other sources of ambient water quality. Discharge to Sanitary Sewer Systems wastewater from utility operations or stormwater to surface water Discharges of industrial wastewater. ornamental.g. Examples of healthbased guideline values for receiving waters include World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for recreational use (http://www. irrigation. as a source of • Compliance with national or local standards for sanitary drinking water. directly or indirectly.35 Receiving water use36 and assimilative capacity37. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL WASTEWATER AND AMBIENT WATER QUALITY WORLD BANK GROUP When wastewater treatment is required prior to discharge. sanitary wastewater. in their absence. flow rate.. recreation.html maintenance of the collection and treatment systems. or other) wastewater discharges or. 35 An example is the US EPA National Recommended Water Quality Criteria • Not interfere.1 below . the total volume of water. Good International Industry Practice (GIIP) for the relevant • Temperature of wastewater prior to discharge does not result in an increase greater than 3°C of ambient temperature at industry sector the edge of a scientifically established mixing zone which General Liquid Effluent Quality takes into account ambient water quality. endangered species) guideline values applicable to sanitary wastewater or habitats discharges shown in Table 1. taking other sources of discharges to • Meet the pretreatment and monitoring requirements of the sewer treatment system into which it discharges. should not result in contaminant concentrations in excess of local wastewater from utility operations or stormwater into public or ambient water quality criteria or. Discharge to Surface Water Discharges of process wastewater. sanitary wastewater. general aquatic life. with the operation and http://www.epa. or 36 Examples of receiving water uses as may be designated by local authorities pose a risk to worker health and safety.3.Environmental. in the absence of local criteria. the the receiving water into consideration. the indicative Presence of sensitive receptors (e. and navigation. 2007 the area or region. but not limited to. navigation. Projects for Assimilative capacity of the receiving water for the load of which there are no industry-specific guidelines should contaminant being discharged wastewater if discharge is to reference the effluent quality guidelines of an industry sector surface water with suitably analogous processes and effluents.gov/waterscience/criteria/wqcriteria. aquaculture. Additional considerations that should be included in the setting of • • Whether wastewater is being discharged to a sanitary sewer project-specific performance levels for wastewater effluents system. or to surface waters include: National and local standards as reflected in permit requirements and sewer system capacity to convey and treat • • • • • Process wastewater treatment standards consistent with wastewater if discharge is to sanitary sewer applicable Industry Sector EHS Guidelines. irrigation. 26 .who.

copper.who. wastewater from utility wastewater treatment. The pollutants in an industrial when land is used as part of any wastewater treatment system. Transfer of pollutants to treatment. well project site is required if the municipal or centralized drained.. surface or groundwater. such as air.. and wastewater operations or stormwater discharged on land. regulations and guidance to prevent any hazard to public Be discharged into municipal or centralized wastewater health or contamination of land. elevated temperature). 38 Additional guidance on water quality considerations for land application is Process Wastewater – – Examples of treatment approaches available in the WHO Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater. and water quality monitoring. . Volume 2: Wastewater Use in Agriculture http://www.1. 2007 summarized in Annex 1. as well as from thermal characteristics of the sanitary sewage.int/water_sanitation_health/wastewater/gsuweg2/en/index. water quality guidelines for Industrial wastewater generated from industrial operations surface water discharges specific to the industry sector process includes process wastewater. and permeable. Excreta and Greywater.3. oily materials. should apply. zinc). etc. and water.html typically used in the treatment of industrial wastewater are APRIL 30. conservation and long term miscellaneous activities including wastewater from laboratories. • Installed in areas of stable soils that are nearly level. stormwater management.. nitrogen). suspended solids. toxic organic chemicals.g. Where land is used as part of the treatment system and the Industrial Wastewater ultimate receptor is surface water. . nutrients (phosphorus. with enough separation between the wastewater treatment system receiving wastewater from the drain field and the groundwater table or other receiving project does not have adequate capacity to maintain waters. should be established based on local regulatory requirements. wastewater may include acids or bases (exhibited as low or high pH). Health. they should be: minimized through process and engineering controls. and networks. sustainability of water and land resources should be assessed equipment maintenance shops. While the choice of treatment 27 . and unsuitable for industrial wastewater discharge (e. soluble organic chemicals causing depletion of dissolved Septic Systems oxygen. cyanide.38 Potential impact on soil. Wastewater Management Land Application of Treated Effluent Wastewater management includes water conservation. chromium.Environmental. regulatory requirements for treatment of wastewater • Installed in areas with sufficient soil percolation for the design generated from the project. Pretreatment of wastewater to meet regulatory requirements before discharge from the wastewater loading rate. Septic systems should only be used for treatment of volatile materials. should be wastewater disposal and treatment. regulatory compliance. or the sub-surface. in the context of protection. groundwater. and surface runoff from process and materials staging areas. mercury. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL WASTEWATER AND AMBIENT WATER QUALITY characteristics of residuals from wastewater treatment • • WORLD BANK GROUP Properly designed and installed in accordance with local operations. The quality of treated process wastewater.g. lead. soil. wastewater from utility operations. including wetlands. Septic systems are commonly used for treatment and disposal of heavy metals (e. treatment systems that have adequate capacity to meet local • Well maintained to allow effective operation. cadmium. domestic sanitary sewage in areas with no sewerage collection nickel. When septic systems are the selected form of another phase.

maintenance of its installed facilities. wastewater treatment technologies should avoid uncontrolled air • Testing for residual biocides and other pollutants of concern emissions of volatile chemicals from wastewaters. The design and operation of the selected recommendations. receiving water use. metals. the following principles of biocides. as well as the potential release of receiving water by eroding stream beds and banks. potential performance of this technology depends largely on the adequacy receptors and assimilative capacity among other of its design. and performance is strongly dependent on the technical use of screens. coliform. petroleum hydrocarbons. etc. drainage or other and land resources. Polycyclic Aromatic Wastewater from Utilities Operations . • Use of heat recovery methods (also energy efficiency Surface runoff from process areas or potential sources of contamination should be prevented • Where this approach is not practical. biodegradability. Dose applied should accord with quality and to maintain consistent compliance with regulatory local regulatory requirements and manufacturer requirements. bioavailability.g. compliance with local regulatory requirements. Adequate resources are • Minimizing use of antifouling and corrosion inhibiting required for proper operation and maintenance of a treatment chemicals by ensuring appropriate depth of water intake and facility. Least hazardous alternatives should be used ability and training of its operational staff. Health.Utility operations such Hydrocarbons (PAHs). Typically stormwater runoff contains suspended sediments. Recommended water management strategies for utility operations include: • Stormwater should be separated from process and sanitary wastewater streams in order to reduce the volume of • Adoption of water conservation opportunities for facility cooling systems as provided in the Water Conservation wastewater to be treated prior to discharge • section below. runoff from process and improvements) or other cooling methods to reduce the storage areas should be segregated from potentially less temperature of heated water prior to discharge to ensure the contaminated runoff discharge water temperature does not result in an increase • Runoff from areas without potential sources of contamination greater than 3°C of ambient temperature at the edge of a should be minimized (e. equipment selection. In order to high temperature water containing high dissolved solids. in the absence of which disposal has to be consistent with protection of public health Stormwater Management . even of as cooling towers and demineralization systems may result in high uncontaminated stormwater. 2007 28 . Rapid runoff. sources. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL WASTEWATER AND AMBIENT WATER QUALITY WORLD BANK GROUP technology is driven by wastewater characteristics.Stormwater includes any surface and safety. as well as operation and considerations. and conservation and long term sustainability of water runoff and flows resulting from precipitation. and technologies may be used to achieve the desired discharge bioaccumulation potential. also degrades the quality of the rates of water consumption.Environmental. the actual account ambient water quality. residues of other cooling system anti-fouling agents. by minimizing the area of scientifically established mixing zone which takes into impermeable surfaces) and the peak discharge rate should APRIL 30. residues reduce the need for stormwater treatment. should be applied: etc. One or more treatment with regards to toxicity. Residuals from should be conducted to determine the need for dose industrial wastewater treatment operations should be disposed in adjustments or treatment of cooling water prior to discharge.

for meeting water needs at the facility. either for groundwater recharge or • Segregation of wastewater streams to ensure compatibility • Sludge from sanitary wastewater treatment systems should be disposed in compliance with local regulatory Sanitary Wastewater requirements. Sludge from stormwater catchments or collection and treatment systems may contain elevated levels of pollutants discharges shown in Table 1. by using vegetated swales and retention medical infirmaries. in the absence of which disposal has to be Sanitary wastewater from industrial facilities may include effluents consistent with protection of public health and safety. may also be discharged ponds). food service. fuel storage and containment indicative guideline values applicable to sanitary wastewater areas.g. • If sewage from the industrial facility is to be discharged to either a septic system. treatment to meet applicable national or requirements. present.3. Health. Oil water separators and grease traps should be installed • for sanitary wastewater discharges or. Miscellaneous wastewater from laboratories. the workshops. and required. septic system which can where the majority of potential contaminants tend to be only accept domestic sewage).1. water softening etc. 2007 29 . and from domestic sewage. treatment to meet national or local standards and maintained as appropriate at refueling facilities. APRIL 30. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL WASTEWATER AND AMBIENT WATER QUALITY • WORLD BANK GROUP be reduced (e. • When water quality criteria allow. and laundry facilities serving conservation and long term sustainability of water and land site employees.g. in the absence of which disposal has to be local standards for sanitary wastewater discharges is consistent with protection of public health and safety. • Segregation and pretreatment of oil and grease containing effluents (e. or where land is used as part of the and should be disposed in compliance with local regulatory treatment system. stormwater should be • sewer systems. in their absence.Environmental. priority should be given to managing and treating the first flush of stormwater runoff • with selected treatment option (e. use of a grease trap) prior to discharge into managed as a resource. Recommended Where stormwater treatment is deemed necessary to protect sanitary wastewater management strategies include: the quality of receiving water bodies. to the sanitary wastewater treatment system. If sewage from the industrial facility is to be discharged to surface water.g. conservation and long term sustainability of water and land resources. parking areas. resources.

Detailed recommendations for the management of occupational health and safety issues are presented in the relevant section of this document. and methane. volatile chemicals used for disinfection processes (e. Air emissions from wastewater treatment operations may include hydrogen sulfide.. 2007 30 . Additional guidance specifically applicable to wastewater treatment systems is provided in the EHS Guidelines for Water and Sanitation. Residuals from Wastewater Treatment Operations • Monitoring type and frequency: Wastewater monitoring Sludge from a waste treatment plant needs to be evaluated on a should take into consideration the discharge characteristics case-by-case basis to establish whether it constitutes a hazardous from the process over time. wastewater treatment systems which are included in EHS Guidelines for Water and Sanitation. gaseous or implemented to meet the objective(s) of the monitoring program. municipal. and bioaerosols. and biological hazards depending on the design of the facilities and the types of wastewater effluents contact with pathogens and vectors.3. ozone (in the case of ozone Monitoring disinfection). including chlorine. chloroform A wastewater and water quality monitoring program with adequate generated from chlorination activities and other volatile organic resources and management oversight should be developed and compounds (VOCs) from industrial wastewater). and should include parameters that are Sanitation.g. methane. volatile organic compounds (e. Recommendations for the management of emissions • Monitoring parameters: The parameters selected for are presented in the Air Emissions and Ambient Air Quality monitoring should be indicative of the pollutants of concern section of this document and in the EHS Guidelines for Water and from the process. Monitoring of discharges from processes with batch manufacturing or seasonal process variations should take into consideration of time-dependent APRIL 30. Odors from treatment facilities consider the following elements: can also be a nuisance to workers and the surrounding community. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL WASTEWATER AND AMBIENT WATER QUALITY WORLD BANK GROUP or a non-hazardous waste and managed accordingly as described Table 1. chemical. Examples of these hazards include the potential for Total phosphorus mg/l 2 trips and falls into tanks..1 Indicative Values for Treated Sanitary Sewage Discharges a Pollutants in the Waste Management section of this document. Health.g. confined space entries for maintenance Oil and grease mg/l 10 operations. regulated under compliance requirements. and inhalation of VOCs. and ammonia. and use of potentially hazardous chemicals.Environmental. Occupational Health and Safety Issues in Wastewater Treatment Operations Units Guideline Value pH pH 6 –9 BOD mg/l 30 COD mg/l 125 Total nitrogen mg/l 10 managed. bioaerosols. b MPN = Most Probable Number Emissions from Wastewater Treatment Operations Wastewater treatment facility operators may be exposed to physical. Total suspended solids mg/l 50 Total coliform bacteria MPN b / 100 ml 400a Notes: a Not applicable to centralized. sodium and calcium hypochlorite. chlorine The wastewater and water quality monitoring program should and ammonia).

is more complex than monitoring of continuous discharges. preservation and analysis. Sampling should be conducted by or under the supervision of trained individuals. • Data quality: Monitoring programs should apply internationally approved methods for sample collection. as well as at strategic upstream points prior to merging of different discharges. Sampling and Analysis Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) plans should be prepared and. Grab samples or. 2007 31 . Effluent sampling stations may be located at the final discharge. QA/QC documentation should be included in monitoring reports. Process discharges should not be diluted prior or after treatment with the objective of meeting the discharge or ambient water quality standards. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL WASTEWATER AND AMBIENT WATER QUALITY WORLD BANK GROUP variations in discharges and. Health.g. Composite samplers may not be appropriate where analytes of concern are short-lived (e. Effluents from highly variable processes may need to be sampled more frequently or through composite methods. APRIL 30.Environmental. Analysis should be conducted by entities permitted or certified for this purpose. composite samples may offer more insight on average concentrations of pollutants over a 24-hour period.. • Monitoring locations: The monitoring location should be selected with the objective of providing representative monitoring data. implemented. therefore. quickly degraded or volatile). if automated equipment permits.

centrifuge. UV.Aerobic. Chemical oxidation. flocculation. Size Exclusion. Size Exclusion Chemical oxidation. Thermal oxidation.Non-Biodegradable Oxidation. Activated Carbon. Chemical oxidation. Thermal oxidation. chlorination. Oxidation. Adsorption. Oxidation Biological Nutrient Removal. Sterilization Adsorption. Facultative Suspended growth.BOD (< 2 Kg/m3) Biological . filtration .Examples of Industrial Wastewater Treatment Approaches pH Pollutant/Parameter Control Options / Principle Chemical. microfiltration Hi . 2007 Adsorption. Oxidation Biological : Suspended growth. Evaporation Organics .Aerobic. Evaporation. oil water separator. Size Exclusion.Settleable Settling. clarifier.Size Exclusion.BOD (> 2 Kg/m3) Biological . chemical hydrolysis and air stripping. filtration . Thermal oxidation. Reverse Osmosis Active Ingredients/Emerging Contaminants Adsorption. Reverse Osmosis.3.Anaerobic Suspended growth. Facultative. Activated Carbon Surface Aerators. Facultative. Ozone. Adsorption. Evaporation. crystallization. Reverse Osmosis 32 .Environmental. Concentration Disinfection. Activated Carbon Biological : Attached growth. Activated Carbon Aerobic/Anoxic biological treatment. Thermal oxidation. hybrid COD .VOCs and SVOCs Biological .Non-Settleable Floatation. size exclusion Flash mix with settling. Crystallization Emissions – Odors and VOCs Nutrients Color Radionuclides Pathogens Toxicity APRIL 30.traditional and tangential Inorganics / Non-metals Coagulation. attached growth. Filtration . Size Exclusion Sedimentation basin. Concentration Chemical oxidation. Crystallization Chlorine. Oxidation.traditional and tangential. Evaporation. Anaerobic.Aerobic. Thermal Chemical oxidation. Adsorption. Chemical oxidation. Activated Carbon. size exclusion. Physical. Anaerobic. attached growth. Thermal oxidation. Oxidation. Health. grease trap TSS . and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL WASTEWATER AND AMBIENT WATER QUALITY WORLD BANK GROUP Annex 1.Particulate and Soluble Coagulation. fabric filter. crystallization. Adsorption. attached growth. Oxidation Evaporative Cooling TDS Concentration. Membranes Metals . precipitation. ion exchange Temperature Capture – Active or Passive. Flow Equalization Ion Exchange. hybrid Lo . Chemical. Size Exclusion Evaporation. ultrafiltration. Thermal oxidation. Biological. precipitation. Adsorption Flash mix with settling. flocculation. Activated Carbon. Ion Exchange. screens TSS . Chemical oxidation.traditional and tangential Dissolved air floatation. Adsorption Biological . Flow equalization Oil and Grease / TPH Phase separation Dissolved Air Floatation. sand filter. Concentration Biological Aerobic. Multimedia filter. hybrid. Reverse Osmosis. Peroxide. Equalization Common End of Pipe Control Technology Acid/Base addition. Reverse Osmosis.1 . Activated Carbon.

.... and other techniques... General recommendations include: Process Water Reuse and Recycling • Storm/Rainwater harvesting and use Opportunities for water savings in industrial processes are • Zero discharge design/Use of treated waste water to be highly industry-specific.. regular measurement.. industrial production rate)..........34 Heating Systems............ • Definition and regular review of performance targets... Use can increase as nozzles become enlarged due to repeated cleaning and /or wear.... Water measurement (metering) should emphasize areas of techniques......... • Water reuse: Common water reuse applications include countercurrent rinsing.. compare with specification..33 Building Facility Operations ........ Water conservation measures may include water monitoring/management Regular comparison of water flows with performance water use......g..... which Water conservation programs should be implemented are adjusted to account for changes in major factors commensurate with the magnitude and cost of water use.4 Water Conservation Applicability and Approach ............33 Process Water Reuse and Recycling......... Health....... and recording of principal flows within a facility............33 Water Monitoring and Management......... process and cooling/heating water recycling................... reuse.. • recirculation system)..... the following techniques have included in project design processes all been used successfully.... and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL WATER CONSERVATION WORLD BANK GROUP 1.... 2007 33 ....34 Cooling Systems.......... However..... treatment and disposal costs....... Based on review of metering data. for example in multi-stage washing APRIL 30... greatest water use........ with provision only for makeup water • Use of dry process technologies e.... spill control and leakage control system levels warranting such work..... affecting water use (e.............. These programs should promote the continuous reduction in water consumption and achieve savings in the water • targets to identify where action should be taken to reduce pumping.......... and should be considered in Use of localized recirculation systems in conjunction with the development of the metering system plant/facility/shops (as opposed to centralized described above... dry quenching • Process water system pressure management • Project design to have measures for adequate water • Washing Machines: Many washing machines use large quantities of hot water.....g.. Monitor machine water use....34 Applicability and Approach Water Monitoring and Management The essential elements of a water management program involve: • Identification............. and sanitary water conservation ‘unaccounted’ use–indicating major leaks at industrial facilities– techniques.......... could be identified......................................Environmental..... and replace nozzles when water and heat use reaches collection..

and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL WATER CONSERVATION • WORLD BANK GROUP and rinsing processes. Health. whether sanitary or including other activities process for another with less exacting water such as showering or catering requirements. toilets. If they do consume water.g. automatic shut-off valves. Water jets/sprays: If processes use water jets or sprays urinals. to keep conveyors clean or to cool product) review • when needed the accuracy of the spray pattern to prevent unnecessary water loss. or even washing the floor. 2007 34 . or bottle-washer rinse water for • Shut off water to unused areas bottle crate washing. o Use of closed circuit cooling systems with cooling cooling system • Use of treated waste water for cooling towers • Reusing/recycling cooling tower blowdown Heating Systems Heating systems based on the circulation of low or medium pressure hot water (which do not consume water) should be closed. pressure reducing valves. regular maintenance should be conducted to check for leaks. However. which are refilled to control losses. and this can be reduced by the following measures: Compare daily water use per employee to existing benchmarks taking into consideration the primary use at APRIL 30. large quantities of water may be used by steam systems. and identify and repair leaks for textile washing.g. and spring loaded or sensored faucets) (e. it may be possible to reduce flow while maintaining cooling performance. savings can readily be identified. and water conserving before reuse are also sometimes practical. such as lowflow toilets Cooling Systems Water conservation opportunities in cooling systems include: • towers rather than once-through cooling systems cooling sprays.Environmental. and sometimes to reduce tank levels to reduce spillage. use flow controls to restrict wasteful water flow o of water sprayed from hosepipes o Using flow timers and limit switches to control water use o Using ‘clean-up’ practices rather than hosing down Building Facility Operations Consumption of building and sanitary water is typically less than that used in industrial processes. • Flow control optimization: Industrial processes sometimes require the use of tanks. as outlined below: • accumulation of dissolved solids • Use of air cooling rather than evaporative cooling. It is often possible to reduce the rate of water supply to such tanks. or reusing waste water from one the facility. fixtures (e. Testing can • If hoses are used in cleaning. although this may increase electricity use in the Consider the use of high pressure. If the process uses water Operate dishwashers and laundries on full loads. For example. and only • Install water-saving equipment in lavatories. More • Install self-closing taps. faucets. spray sophisticated reuse projects requiring treatment of water nozzles. low volume cleaning systems rather than using large volumes Limiting condenser or cooling tower blowdown to the minimum required to prevent unacceptable determine the optimum balance. low flow shower heads. using bleaching rinse water • Regularly maintain plumbing. However.

Use of reverse osmosis boiler feed water treatment substantially reduces the need for boiler blowdown • Minimizing deaerator heating APRIL 30.Environmental. 2007 35 . and use of heat exchangers (with condensate return) rather than direct steam injection where process permits • Flash steam recovery • Minimizing boiler blowdown consistent with maintaining acceptably low dissolved solids in boiler water. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL WATER CONSERVATION • WORLD BANK GROUP Repair of steam and condensate leaks. Health. and repair of all failed steam traps • Return of condensate to the boilerhouse.

...44 purpose and is intended for disposal..........39 Hazardous Materials Transfer. Fire... flammable liquids......40 Storage Tank and Piping Leak Detection.......... store......... Protection of Environment (Title Threshold quantities are provided in the US Environmental Protection Agency.... minimize uncontrolled gases......0 on Occupational Health and Safety Management. releases of hazardous materials or accidents (including explosion flammable solids...........36 General Hazardous Materials Management......39 Preventive Measures...........Environmental..... Guidance on the Transport of Hazardous Materials is provided in Section 3........ Hazmats can be The overall objective of hazardous materials management is to classified according to the hazard as explosives..... Management of Major Hazards: Additional guidance for projects or Applicability and Approach These guidelines apply to projects that use.5 Hazardous Materials Management When a hazardous material is no longer usable for its original Applicability and Approach ....... leaks or spills. 112. including toxic or flammable gases................. and corrosive substances....................... and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDOUS MATERIALS MANAGEMENT WORLD BANK GROUP 1. defined as materials facilities that store or handle hazardous materials at......40 Control Measures. but still has hazardous properties............................... it is considered a hazardous waste (see Section 1.............39 Overfill Protection........ oxidizing substances....... and 355).... Protection of Environment (Title 40 CFR Parts 68............ This guidance is intended to be applied in conjunction with traditional occupational health and safety and emergency preparedness programs which are included in Section 2.....43 Emergency Preparedness and Response .... This radioactive material............ explosions..............40 Secondary Containment (Liquids) .......39 Reaction.......... and fire) during their production...............42 Preventive Measures........7 on Emergency Preparedness and Response......5. APRIL 30................................................... and Section 3.. storage and use.............. property................... toxic materials....37 Release Prevention and Control Planning ....... Health............... threshold quantities39. compressed avoid or............44 Community Involvement and Awareness.........38 Occupational Health and Safety .................37 Hazard Assessment ... or handle any quantity of hazardous materials (Hazmats).. that represent a risk to human health.............................37 Management Actions.42 Management Actions.........41 Management of Major Hazards........... and thus require special treatment to prevent accidents such as fire..... Guidance on the objective can be achieved by: transport of hazardous materials is covered in Section 3 of this document. handling......................41 Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) ............ or above... This section is divided into two main subsections: General Hazardous Materials Management: Guidance applicable to all projects or facilities that handle or store any quantity of hazardous materials......... and Explosion Prevention.. when avoidance is not feasible............. and to prepare and respond to emergencies..4)............................... or the environment due to their physical or chemical characteristics. 39 For examples....................38 Process Knowledge and Documentation ............ 2007 36 . threshold quantities should be those established for emergency planning purposes such as provided in the US Environmental Protection Agency..................

and other environmentally sensitive areas materials should establish management programs that are Hazard assessment should be performed by specialized commensurate with the potential risks present. o PCBs in electrical equipment. handle. General Hazardous Materials Management Projects which manufacture. 112.g. 37 . • Internationally accepted regulatory reporting threshold quantity or national equivalent40 of the Hazmat Preventing uncontrolled releases of hazardous materials to the environment or uncontrolled reactions that might result in • Classification (e. class or division) of the Hazmat (POPs) in pesticides formulations. This information should be recorded and should through Social and Environmental Assessment. persistent organic pollutants o substances in refrigeration systems. and shut-off systems) commensurate with the nature of Implementing management controls (procedures. water resources. avoiding or minimizing the use of o hazardous materials. use. toxicity) • Analysis of potential spill and release scenarios using available industry statistics on spills and accidents where hazard.g.Environmental. communications. or store hazardous o Quantity of Hazmat used per month o Characteristic(s) that make(s) the Hazmat hazardous (e. and procedures into day-to-day business activities. management actions. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDOUS MATERIALS MANAGEMENT • • Establishing hazardous materials management priorities WORLD BANK GROUP • The types and amounts of hazardous materials present in the based on hazard analysis of risky operations identified project. fire or explosion. and Hazard Identification (HAZID). non-hazardous materials the Hazmat have been found to substitute asbestos in building materials. training. and drills) to address residual risks that have not been prevented or controlled through engineering measures. releases and accidents. automatic alarms. The main professionals using internationally-accepted methodologies such objectives of projects involving hazardous materials should be the as Hazardous Operations Analysis (HAZOP). Failure Mode and protection of the workforce and the prevention and control of Effects Analysis (FMEA). include a summary table with the following information: Where practicable. For example. Using engineering controls (containment. Health. 2007 40 Threshold quantities are provided in the US Environmental Protection Agency. inspections. flammability. Potentially applicable elements of a management program include the following: Management Actions The management actions to be included in a Hazardous Materials Management Plan should be commensurate with the level of Hazard Assessment The level of risk should be established through an on-going assessment process based on: APRIL 30. and ozone depleting • Name and description (e. These objectives should be addressed by integrating prevention and control measures. code. composition of a mixture) of available • Analysis of the potential for uncontrolled reactions such as fire and explosions • Analysis of potential consequences based on the physicalgeographical characteristics of the project site. and 355). including aspects such as its distance to settlements.g. Protection of Environment (Title 40 CFR Parts 68.

osha. safe operating and materials handling accidentally or willfully defeated procedures. U. and compare trained in the safe transfer and filling of the hazardous with applicable occupational exposure standards41 material. including: • Job safety analysis to identify specific potential occupational (SOPs) for filling USTs. hazards. employee re-entry. safe work practices. associated activities on an emergency plan site map • Documentation of availability of specific personal protective equipment and training needed to respond to an emergency • Documentation of availability of spill response equipment sufficient to handle at least initial stages of a spill and a list of APRIL 30. tanks. and associated process equipment • Preparation of written Standard Operating Procedures • The Hazardous Materials Management Plan should address applicable. including drills restoration of spill response equipment. containment infrastructure. National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Health. basic emergency Identification of locations of hazardous materials and procedures. specifically the removal of any accumulated fluid. Release Prevention and Control Planning release. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDOUS MATERIALS MANAGEMENT WORLD BANK GROUP potential risks associated with the production.S.0 on Occupational Health and Safety. ASTs or other containers or hazards and industrial hygiene surveys.cdc. Indicative Occupational Exposure Limit Values. storage. http://europe. • incident investigation.osha. necessary.gov/niosh/npg/. if and use of hazardous materials. U.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp. and o Specific responsibilities of individuals or groups countermeasure plan as a specific component of their Emergency o Decision process for assessing severity of the release. or other chemical emergency including: Where there is risk of a spill of uncontrolled hazardous materials. emergency shutdown systems. specific to hazardous materials as part of emergency preparedness response training • Implementation of inspection programs to maintain the mechanical integrity and operability of pressure vessels. European Union. external resources for equipment and personnel. to ensure that the intent of the system is not identification. o Internal and external notification procedures facilities should prepare a spill control. http://www. piping systems. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). and other similar sources. 38 . and special hazards unique to their jobs. and include: o Post-event activities such as clean-up and disposal. and Training of operators on release prevention. http://www. to equipment as well as for transfer operations by personnel monitor and verify chemical exposure levels. to supplement internal resources • Description of response activities in the event of a spill. Programs should include aspects of hazard such as rainfall.Environmental. http://www. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). The plan should be tailored to the hazards o Facility evacuation routes associated with the project.S. relief and vent valve systems. controls and pumps. 2007 41 Including: Threshold Limit Value (TLV®) occupational exposure guidelines and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs®).show_document?p_table=STANDARD S&p_id=9992. and in spill prevention and response • Occupational Health and Safety • Hazard communication and training programs to prepare SOPs for the management of secondary containment workers to recognize and respond to workplace chemical structures. as appropriate. essential elements of occupational health and safety management as described in Section 2. handling.org/TLV/. Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs). Preparedness and Response Plan (described in more detail in and determining appropriate actions Section 3.acgih. prevention.7).eu.int/good_practice/risks/ds/oel/.

chemical substances. safe operation ranges for temperature. 2007 • Installation of gauges on tanks to measure volume inside • Use of dripless hose connections for vehicle tank and fixed connections with storage tanks 39 .. emergency eyewash and shower stations. Health. but might not be prepared for chemical intermediates that are not distributed in commerce.e. such as hot work or confined space entries transfer between storage systems or process equipment. APRIL 30. drip trays or other overflow and drip containment measures. and maintaining procedures to procedures designed to verify and record the effectiveness of prevention and control of exposure to occupational hazards. • Compliance audit procedures Recommended overfill protection measures include: • Prepare written procedures for transfer operations that includes a checklist of measures to follow during filling operations and the use of filling operators trained in these procedures 42 MSDSs are produced by the manufacturer. masks. Monitoring and record-keeping activities. Provision of suitable personal protection equipment (PPE) Recommended practices to prevent hazardous material releases (footwear.g. and sanitary facilities • WORLD BANK GROUP • materials in tanks (e.Environmental. all acids use one type of connection. pipes and hoses The Hazardous Materials Management Plan should be incorporated into. hazards of the overflow points. pressure. MSDSs should be readily accessible to employees in their local language. • • Preventive Measures Hazardous Materials Transfer Uncontrolled releases of hazardous materials may result from small cumulative events. and hoses specific to Overfill Protection Overfills of vessels and tanks should be prevented as they are deviations. the other elements of the Use of transfer equipment that is compatible and suitable for the characteristics of the materials transferred and designed on file for a period of at least five years Process Knowledge and Documentation Use of dedicated fittings. safety equipment specifications. ventilation systems. employers still need to provide workers with equivalent information. and other applicable parameters. evaluation of the consequences of Provision of secondary containment.. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDOUS MATERIALS MANAGEMENT Training should incorporate information from Material Safety Data Sheets42 (MSDSs) for hazardous materials being handled. and among the easiest to prevent. and consistent with. or from more significant equipment Definition and implementation of permitted maintenance failure associated with events such as manual or mechanical activities. In these cases. for hazardous facility ES/OHS MS and include: • Regular inspection.) among the most common causes of spills resulting in soil and • Written operating procedures water contamination. pipes. including audit all caustics use another). etc. maintenance and repair of fittings. and maintaining accident and incident investigation reports prevent addition of hazardous materials to incorrect tanks • to ensure safe transfer • • materials containers at connection points or other possible Written process safety parameters (i. protective clothing and goggles in from processes include: appropriate areas).

and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDOUS MATERIALS MANAGEMENT • Provision of automatic fill shutoff valves on storage tanks to WORLD BANK GROUP • Prohibition of all sources of ignition from areas near flammable storage tanks prevent overfilling • Use of a catch basin around the fill pipe to collect spills • Use of piping connections with automatic overfill protection Control Measures (float valve) Secondary Containment (Liquids) Pumping less volume than available capacity into the tank or A critical aspect for controlling accidental releases of liquid vessel by ordering less material than its available capacity hazardous materials during storage and transfer is the provision of Provision of overfill or over pressure vents that allow secondary containment. flammable. Recommended prevention practices include: containing the larger of 110 percent of the largest tank or 25% • percent of the combined tank volumes in areas with above-ground Storage of incompatible materials (acids. one or more alternative forms of spill containment should be provided. physical separation should be provided using structures designed to prevent fire. dikes. bases. 2007 40 . and Explosion Prevention should hold released materials effectively until they can be Reactive. oxidizers. reactive chemicals) in separate areas. Health. explosion. spill. It is not necessary for secondary controlled release to a capture point containment methods to meet long term material compatibility as • • with primary storage and piping. or shut off valves in drainage or sewer facilities. Appropriate secondary managed to avoid uncontrolled reactions or conditions resulting in containment structures consist of berms. and other emergency situations from affecting facility operations Transfer of hazardous materials from vehicle tanks to storage collection system • Where it is not practical to provide permanent. such as portable drain covers (which can be deployed for the duration of the operations). Where proximity is unavoidable. transfer stations. automatic shut-off valves on storm water basins.Environmental. combined with oil-water separators APRIL 30. Fire. flammables. and with containment facilities separating material storage areas • Provision of material-specific storage for extremely hazardous or reactive materials • • Use of flame arresting devices on vents from flammable and will be made of impervious. and explosive materials should also be detected and safely recovered. chemically resistant material.000 liters • in areas with surfaces sufficiently impervious to avoid loss to Selection of materials of construction compatible with the environment and sloped to a collection or a containment products stored for all parts of storage and delivery systems. and other equipment that handles flammable materials • tanks with a total storage volume equal or greater than 1. dedicated containment structures for transfer operations. structure not connected to municipal wastewater/stormwater and avoiding reuse of tanks for different products without checking material compatibility • Storage of hazardous materials in an area of the facility separated from the main production works. storage containers Other secondary containment measures that should be applied Provision of grounding and lightning protection for tank depending on site-specific conditions include: farms. Secondary containment design should also consider means to prevent contact between incompatible materials in the event of a release. or walls capable of fire or explosion. but their design and construction Reaction.

Examples of techniques to manage these risks Conducting periodic (e.g.. vacuum. for steel tanks • containment. APRIL 30. Acceptable lines that direct any leaked product to monitoring ports at the lowest point of the liner or structure • Use of automatic pressure loss detectors on pressurized or long distance piping • Use of approved or certified integrity testing methods on • Considering the use of SCADA 44 if financially feasible Reconciling tank contents by measuring the volume in store with the expected volume.Environmental.000 liters in areas with impervious Although there are many environmental and safety advantages of surfaces that are sloped or bermed to contain a minimum of underground storage of hazardous materials. such as in long pipe runs. and installing and maintaining cathodic protection (or equivalent rust protection) storage tanks (USTs) and underground piping. including replacement with new 43 High-risk locations are places where the release of product from the storage system could result in the contamination of drinking water source or those located in water resource protection areas as designated by local authorities. leaks of hazardous materials can go undetected for pipes) of the hazardous material storage system.g. they should provide a means of Avoiding use of USTs for storage of highly soluble organic Considering the monitoring groundwater of quality down gradient of locations where multiple USTs are in use • Evaluating the risk of existing UST in newly acquired facilities to determine if upgrades are required for USTs that will be continued to be used. tracers. composite. 44 Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition 45 Additional details on the management of USTs is provided in the EHS Guidelines for Retail Petroleum Stations. Ensuring that new USTs are sited away from wells. installing impermeable liners or structures (e. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDOUS MATERIALS MANAGEMENT • • • Storage of drummed hazardous materials with a total volume Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)45 equal or greater than 1. • WORLD BANK GROUP Use of double-walled. If doublewalled systems are used. acoustic. to the long periods of time with potential for soil and groundwater extent feasible contamination. daily or weekly) reconciliation of include: tank contents. and deliveries to and withdrawals from the store • Testing integrity by volumetric. systems or permanent closure of abandoned USTs. concrete vaults) under and around tanks and Storage Tank and Piping Leak Detection Leak detection may be used in conjunction with secondary Assessing local soil corrosion potential. including reduced 25 percent of the total storage volume risk of fire or explosion. Health. given the stored quantity at last stocking. 2007 41 . atmosphere. or specially coated storage and piping systems particularly in the use of underground • materials • detecting leaks between the two walls. particularly in high-risk locations43. at regular intervals • Monitoring the surface above any tank for indications of soil movement leak detection methods include: • For new installations. and lower vapor losses into the Provision of secondary containment for components (tanks. and inspection of visible portions of tanks and piping for leaks. Leak detection is especially important in situations where secondary containment is not feasible or practicable. or other means on all tanks at regular intervals • piping or tank systems.

Washington.47 The objective of this guidance is the prevention and control of catastrophic releases of toxic. Additionally. The technical basis for changes in processes and operations Employee Participation: A written plan of action should describe an active employee participation program for the Management of Change: These procedures should address: o • • • Contractors: There should be a mechanism for contractor o The impact of changes on health and safety control which should include a requirement for them to o Modification to operating procedures develop hazard materials management procedures that meet o Authorization requirements the requirements of the hazardous materials management o Employees affected plan. fire. procedures should compliance with the prevention program requirements for require that contractors are: each process. 48 The approach to the management of major hazards is largely based on an approach to Process Safety Management developed by the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. and storage of hazardous materials at or above threshold limits46 should prepare a o • Documentation that any deficiency has been corrected Incident Investigation: Incidents can provide valuable information about site hazards and the steps needed to Hazardous Materials Risk Management Plan.C. please refer to International Finance Corporation (IFC) Hazardous Materials Risk Management Manual. An incident investigation overall ES/OHS MS. in the context of its prevent accidental releases. APRIL 30. and maintained so as to prevent corrosion. 2007 o Observe safety practices o Act responsibly o Have access to appropriate training for their employees o Ensure that their employees know process hazards and applicable emergency actions 42 . flammable. or explosion o Summarizing the investigation in a report hazards. A compliance audit covering each element of o Provided with safety performance procedures and safety and hazard information 46 Threshold quantities should be those established for emergency planning purposes such as provided in the US Environmental Protection Agency. least every three years and should include: Management of Major Hazards o Preparation of a report of the findings o Determination and documentation of the appropriate In addition to the application of the above-referenced guidance on response to each finding prevention and control of releases of hazardous materials. December 2000.Environmental.48 o Addressing the report findings and recommendations o A review of the report with staff and contractors Management Actions • prevention of accidents. D. reactive. or o Initiation of the investigation promptly explosive chemicals that may result in toxic. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDOUS MATERIALS MANAGEMENT WORLD BANK GROUP reservoirs and other source water protection areas and the prevention measures (see below) should be conducted at floodplains. 47 For further information and guidance. Protection of Environment (Title 40 CFR Parts 300-399 and 700 to 789). projects involving production. handling. Their procedures should be consistent with those of o Training needs the contracting company and the contractor workforce should Compliance Audit: A compliance audit is a way to evaluate undergo the same training. Health. containing all of the elements presented mechanism should include procedures for: below.

temporary operations. emergency shutdown systems. and accepted standards and codes are adopted. and start-up following a normal or emergency their work shutdown or major change).Environmental. o A list of employees to be trained Other procedures to be developed include impacts of o Specific training objectives deviations. limits to be placed on the operations are well known. piping and instrumentation: Inspection and maintenance procedures should be developed and documented to ensure mechanical integrity of equipment. relief and vent systems and devices. Health. exposure control measures. piping. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDOUS MATERIALS MANAGEMENT Prepare and submit training records for their employees initial startup. normal Inform their employees about the hazards presented by shutdown. videos. controls. and instrumentation inspections and maintenance the process • Conducting employee training on the inspection and o Identifying and correcting identified deficiencies step of all processes or operations within the project (e. prevention of chemical o Mechanisms to achieve the objectives (i. piping. o The means to determine whether the training program is effective o Training procedures for new hires and refresher courses for existing employees Preventive Measures The purpose of preventive measures is to ensure that safetyrelated aspects of the process and equipment are considered. diversion of gaseous o o • Training: Project employees should be provided training on Hazmat management. and pumps. emergency operations.e. 2007 43 . where they apply. These SOPs should include o Assess trends of repeated similar incidents special considerations for Mazmats used in the process or o Develop and implement procedures to manage repeated operations (e.g. and instrumentation and prevent uncontrolled releases of hazardous materials from the project. These procedures should be included as part of the project SOPs. o Compilation of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) o Identification of maximum intended inventories and safe upper/lower parameters o maintenance materials. temperature control to prevent emissions of similar incidents a volatile hazardous chemical. steps to avoid deviations.) inspections.g. • WORLD BANK GROUP Mechanical Integrity of process equipment. build and operate maintenance procedures o Operating Procedures: SOPs should be prepared for each Conducting equipment.. The specific process components of major interest include pressure vessels and storage tanks. APRIL 30. to the contracting company emergency shutdown. etc. normal operations. and equipment workshops. piping systems. and spare parts o Documentation of equipment specifications and of codes and standards used to design. Recommended Process Safety Information: Procedures should be prepared aspects of the inspection and maintenance program include: for each hazardous materials and include: o Developing inspection and maintenance procedures o Establishing a quality assurance plan for equipment. hands-on exposure. The training program should include: discharges of hazardous pollutants from the process to a temporary storage tank in case of emergency).

and hot metal and informed of such changes radiant energy produced during hot work. the facility’s overall ES/OHS if necessary. and emergency are adequate mechanisms for sharing the results of hazard and risk assessment Include a process hazard assessment. Health. updating the inspection and maintenance MS. management of change procedure. protection equipment (PPE). • Planning Coordination: Procedures should be prepared for: • Training: Employees and contractors should be trained on emergency response procedures.uneptie. gases.Environmental. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDOUS MATERIALS MANAGEMENT o Evaluating the inspection and maintenance results and. personnel training. notification and involvement that should be equipment meet design specifications commensurate with the potential risks identified for the project Ensure that procedures for safety. hot work procedures. and the prevention and control measures in place to ensure no effects to human health accidents that could result in human injury or damage to the environment. APRIL 30.org/pc/apell/publications/handbooks. This should include maintenance. operation. incorporated into and consistent with. and maintaining the emergency include the responsibility for hot work permitting. inspecting. and resolve or studies in a timely. 2007 49 For a comprehensive treatment of the development of emergency response plans in conjunction with communities refer to the Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level (APELL) Guidelines available at: http://www. grinding. The procedures should: the management plan should include a system for community o o o o Confirm that the new or modified construction and/or awareness. Hot work permit is required for any operation involving open flames or producing • Emergency Equipment: Procedures should be prepared for heat and/or sparks. and ensuring that employees are resulting from the fumes. and recordkeeping. • o Informing the public and emergency response agencies Hot Work Permit: Hot work operations – such as brazing. during the hazard assessment studies. soldering. personal response equipment. and property hazards o Reviewing and updating the emergency response plan to reflect changes. The section of SOPs on hot work should using. procedures and practices should be developed allowing for quick and efficient responses to • Availability of general information to the potentially affected community on the nature and extent of project operations. testing.html 44 . sparks. Pre-Start Review: Procedures should be prepared to carry out pre-start reviews when a modification is significant Community Involvement and Awareness enough to require a change in safety information under the When hazardous materials are in use above threshold quantities. safety. An Emergency Preparedness and Response Plan. understandable and culturally sensitive manner implement recommendations for new process with potentially affected communities that provides a means for Ensure that training for all affected employees is being public feedback. should be prepared to cover the following:49 procedures o • WORLD BANK GROUP Reporting the results to management. and welding – are o Taking emergency response actions associated with potential health. Community involvement activities should include: conducted Emergency Preparedness and Response When handling hazardous materials. o Documenting first aid and emergency medical treatment torch-cutting.

to decisions concerning hazardous installations and the development of community emergency preparedness plans. as appropriate. 2007 45 . and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDOUS MATERIALS MANAGEMENT • WORLD BANK GROUP The potential for off-site effects to human health or the environment following an accident at planned or existing hazardous installations • Specific and timely information on appropriate behavior and safety measures to be adopted in the event of an accident including practice drills in locations with higher risks • Access to information necessary to understand the nature of the possible effect of an accident and an opportunity to contribute effectively. APRIL 30.Environmental. Health.

... Health......Environmental... • Solid (non-hazardous) wastes generally include any garbage........ transportation.. Health. or contained gaseous material resulting from industrial operations needs to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis to establish whether it constitutes a hazardous or a non-hazardous waste...... used for intended purpose and requires disposal.47 Recycling and Reuse.... or disposal of wastes.. Examples of such waste include domestic trash and garbage.......................47 Waste Management Planning ...........46 General Waste Management......... refuse....... and APRIL 30... store.............. liquid........ Hazardous waste shares the properties of a hazardous material (e................... Sludge from a waste treatment plant............. recovering and reusing waste such as metal scrap and empty containers (except those previously used to contain hazardous materials which should......... or air pollution control facility............ based on the origin of the waste and its inclusion on hazardous waste lists... 2007 46 ........ clinker.... or contained gaseous material impacts and considering waste generation and its that is being discarded by disposal..... recycling.......... and fly ash........................ Facilities that generate and store wastes should practice the treatment. liquid............. or handle any quantity of waste across a range of industry sectors.. semisolid........ or other physical.. Wastes may also be defined as “hazardous” by local regulations or international conventions... as far as practicable • Where waste generation cannot be avoided but has been minimized.............47 Waste Prevention............. such as boiler slag. Specific guidance for these following: types of facilities is presented in the Environmental Health and Safety (EHS) Guidelines for Waste Management • Establishing waste management priorities at the outset of activities based on an understanding of potential Facilities. and other discarded Applicability and Approach These guidelines apply to projects that generate... removal and finally disposal of wastes. reduction........................48 Transportation. reactivity..........48 Hazardous Waste Management...... inert construction / demolition materials......49 Small Quantities of Hazardous Waste ..... or biological characteristics that may pose a potential risk to human health or the environment if improperly managed.50 WORLD BANK GROUP residual waste from industrial operations....... in principle.................... including solid...... and Safety (EHS) risks and A waste is any solid.... water supply treatment plant.....49 Commercial or Government Waste Contractors.. Avoiding or minimizing the generation waste materials......... refuse...... burning or consequences incineration... where the primary business is the collection................... Environmental........... be managed as a hazardous waste).......49 Treatment and Disposal. chemical............ It is not intended to apply to projects or facilities material........................... recovery................50 Monitoring... or toxicity)................48 Waste Storage ..... It can be byproduct of a manufacturing process • Establishing a waste management hierarchy that or an obsolete commercial product that can no longer be considers prevention....... or based on its characteristics.. ignitability..... corrosivity......6 Waste Management Applicability and Approach ........48 Treatment and Disposal...............g................ recycling........... reuse..... and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL WASTE MANAGEMENT 1.........

quantities. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL WASTE MANAGEMENT • Where waste can not be recovered or reused. or excess to modifications and process alterations. Effective planning and implementation of Substituting raw materials or inputs with less hazardous • Minimizing hazardous waste generation by implementing stringent waste segregation to prevent the and potential use/disposition commingling of non-hazardous and hazardous waste to Establishment of priorities based on a risk analysis that be managed takes into account the potential EHS risks during the waste cycle and the availability of infrastructure to manage the waste in an environmentally sound manner • Definition of opportunities for source reduction.htm 47 . requirements. and monitoring. storage. the quantities of wastes generated and hazards below. damaged. including characterization of waste streams by type. transport. disposal. Waste management should be addressed through a associated with the wastes generated in accordance with the Waste management system that addresses issues linked to following strategy: waste minimization. and • Instituting procurement measures that recognize opportunities to return usable materials such as disposal infrastructure containers and which prevents the over ordering of Collection of data and information about the process materials and waste streams in existing facilities. according to composition. operating conditions.gov/epaoswer/hazwaste/minimize/lean. and process controls50 Review of new waste sources during planning. contaminated. or according to local regulatory waste management strategies should include: • • Instituting good housekeeping and operating practices. Waste Management Planning Facilities that generate waste should characterize their waste • or toxic materials. treating. providing higher product output yields.epa. and necessary treatment. to identify plant needs opportunities. pollution prevention • Applying manufacturing process that convert materials efficiently. off- and design activities.Environmental. including during equipment specification. as well as reuse and recycling APRIL 30. WORLD BANK GROUP • site storage destroying. generation. types of wastes produced. siting. and disposing of it in an environmentally sound manner Definition of procedures and operational controls for on- • Definition of options / procedures / operational controls for treatment and final disposal General Waste Management The following guidance applies to the management of non- Waste Prevention hazardous and hazardous waste. expected waste generation. including inventory control to reduce the amount of waste resulting from materials that are out-of-date. Additional guidance Processes should be designed and operated to prevent. or specifically applicable to hazardous wastes is presented minimize. Health. source. or with those where processing generates lower waste volumes • including modification of design of the production generation rates. • process. 2007 50 Examples of waste prevention strategies include the concept of Lean Manufacturing found at http://www.

reuse. the total amount of waste may be significantly of waste. and Hazardous waste should be stored so as to prevent or may include one or more of the following: control accidental releases to air. Health.int/) and Rotterdam Convention on the prior Inform Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade (http://www. and industrial processing operations located in the the environment.pic. or other methods known to be effective in the reduced through the implementation of recycling plans. and disposing of hazardous waste are reputable and Treatment and Disposal legitimate enterprises.basel. its management Investigation of external markets for recycling by other should focus on the prevention of harm to health. chemical.. final disposal of waste materials such as should consider the following elements: bioremediation. recovery and industry practice for the waste being handled recycling measures. reduction. soil. or physical treatment of the waste material to render it nonhazardous prior to final disposal • Treatment or disposal at permitted facilities specially designed to receive the waste. licensed by the relevant If waste materials are still generated after the implementation regulatory agencies and following good international of feasible waste prevention. waste materials should be treated and disposed of and all measures should be taken to avoid potential impacts to human health and the environment.Environmental. • Evaluation of waste production processes and identification of potentially recyclable materials • Identification and recycling of products that can be reintroduced into the manufacturing process or industry activity at the site • Hazardous wastes should always be segregated from nonhazardous wastes. treating.int/) composting operations for organic non-hazardous APRIL 30. Examples include: 51 International requirements may include host-country commitments under the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste and their disposal (http://www. 2007 48 . safety.g. If generation of hazardous waste can not be prevented through the implementation of the above general waste management practices. according to the following additional neighborhood or region of the facility (e. permitted and operated In addition to the implementation of waste prevention landfills or incinerators designed for the respective type strategies. properly designed. Selected management approaches should be consistent with • Ensuring compliance with applicable local and international regulations51 Waste Storage the characteristics of the waste and local regulations. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD BANK GROUP Recycling and Reuse wastes. and water resources in • area location where: On-site or off-site biological. waste principles: exchange) • Hazardous Waste Management Establishing recycling objectives and formal tracking of • with the management of any generated hazardous waste generation and recycling rates • Providing training and incentives to employees in order to meet objectives Understanding potential impacts and risks associated waste during its complete life cycle • Ensuring that contractors handling. which safe.

Environmental. 2007 49 . be properly loaded on the transport vehicles before The available volume of secondary containment should leaving the site. the following issues specific to hazardous wastes should be considered: Commercial or Government Waste Contractors In the absence of qualified commercial or government-owned waste vendors (taking into consideration proximity and transportation requirements). releases. and approvals.4 greater). Examples include sufficient space in Section 3 of this document) between incompatibles or physical separation such as • walls or containment curbs • • • • Transportation Secondary containment systems should be constructed On-site and Off-site transportation of waste should be with materials appropriate for the wastes being conducted so as to prevent or minimize spills. including labeling each container to identify its contents Limiting access to hazardous waste storage areas to employees who have received proper training • Treatment and Disposal In addition to the recommendations for treatment and disposal applicable to general wastes. Health. of applicable government authorities and documenting the findings APRIL 30. manner that reduces immediate and future impact to the including documentation of its location on a facility map environment or site plan • piping of hazardous waste wind and rain Hazardous waste storage activities should also be subject to • Avoiding underground storage tanks and underground Store in closed containers away from direct sunlight. certifications. hazards. and contained and adequate to prevent loss to the exposures to employees and the public. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL WASTE MANAGEMENT • Waste is stored in a manner that prevents the WORLD BANK GROUP • commingling or contact between incompatible wastes. in that specific location on the Transport of Hazardous Materials.. manifest) that describes the load and its associated or 25 percent of the total storage capacity (whichever is hazards. (i. stored. consistent with the guidance provided in Section 3.e. emergency plans to address their accidental release and allows for inspection between containers to monitor (additional information on Emergency Plans in provided leaks or spills. • Preparing and implementing spill response and Conducting periodic inspections of waste storage areas • Have all required permits. conducted by employees who have received specific training in handling and storage of hazardous wastes: Provision of readily available information on chemical compatibility to employees. and be accompanied by a shipping paper be at least 110 percent of the largest storage container. Provide adequate ventilation where volatile wastes are special management actions. All waste environment containers designated for off-site shipment should be Secondary containment is included wherever liquid secured and labeled with the contents and associated wastes are stored in volumes greater than 220 liters. facilities generating waste should consider using: • Have the technical capability to manage the waste in a Clearly identifying (label) and demarcating the area.

project sponsors should o Installing on-site waste treatment or recycling required and employing the practice of keeping As a final option. and lighting equipment. Health. empty paint cans. characteristics and proper management of the waste. location up until external commercial options become emissions. such as lamps or lamp Regular audits of waste segregation and collection practices Examples of these types of wastes include: spent solvents and oily rags. preferably by facility departments lubricating oil.Environmental. corrosion. used Documenting any changes to the storage facility. Whenever possible. soil vapor. emergency valves. Verification of locks. and other safety devices for easy operation (lubricating if processes • Identification of cracks. chemical containers. drips or other • Characterizing waste at the beginning of generation of a ballasts. protective equipment. or available groundwater) o Small Quantities of Hazardous Waste materials in storage quantities by many projects through a variety of activities • • Tracking of waste generation trends by type and amount of waste generated. constructing facilities that will provide locks and safety equipment in standby position for the environmental sound long-term storage of when the area is not occupied) wastes on-site (as described elsewhere in the General EHS Guidelines) or at an alternative appropriate o Checking the operability of emergency systems o Documenting results of testing for integrity. and periodically documenting the guidance provided in the above sections. When significant quantities of hazardous wastes APRIL 30. and disposal services including re-use and recycling facilities when significant quantities of hazardous wastes are managed by third parties. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL WASTE MANAGEMENT • WORLD BANK GROUP Have been secured through the use of formal are generated and stored on site. 2007 Keeping manifests or other records that document the • Periodic auditing of third party treatment. or monitoring stations (air. especially hazardous wastes Monitoring • amount of waste generated and its destination Monitoring activities associated with the management of hazardous and non-hazardous waste should include: • Regular visual inspection of all waste storage collection and storage areas for evidence of accidental releases and to verify that wastes are properly labeled and stored. used batteries (such as nickel-cadmium or lead acid). or damage to tanks. audits should include site visits to the treatment storage and disposal location 50 . or floors consider using: • Inspection of vessels for leaks. These wastes should be managed following the new waste stream. monitoring activities procurement agreements should include: o In the absence of qualified commercial or government-owned indications of loss waste disposal operators (taking into consideration proximity o and transportation requirements). and any significant changes in the quantity of Hazardous waste materials are frequently generated in small such as equipment and building maintenance activities.

date dispatched. of these) o Quantity (e.e. or shipped should include: o Name and identification number of the material(s) composing the hazardous waste o Physical state (i. number of containers) o Waste shipment tracking documentation to include. or disposing at the facility. quantity and type. or more. Health.Environmental. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL WASTE MANAGEMENT • WORLD BANK GROUP Regular monitoring of groundwater quality in cases of Hazardous Waste on site storage and/or pretreatment and disposal • Monitoring records for hazardous waste collected. and the quantity at each location APRIL 30. liquid. solid.g.. the receiver and the transporter o Method and date of storing.. record of the originator. gaseous or a combination of one. treating. kilograms or liters. cross-referenced to specific manifest document numbers applicable to the hazardous waste o Location of each hazardous waste within the facility. stored. date transported and date received. 2007 51 . repacking.

equipment manufacturers should provide design or construction specifications in the form of “Insertion Loss Performance” for silencers and mufflers. and “Transmission Loss Performance” for acoustic enclosures and upgraded building construction. places of worship. schools and daycares.7. 53 At the design stage of a project. Noise reduction options that should be considered include: Taking advantage of the natural topography as a noise buffer during facility design sources is to implement noise control measures at source.53 Methods for prevention and control of sources of noise Siting permanent facilities away from community areas if possible guideline at the most sensitive point of reception. Health. and parks and campgrounds.7 Noise source or to the receptor location to be effective Applicability • Installing vibration isolation for mechanical equipment This section addresses impacts of noise beyond the property • Limiting the hours of operation for specific pieces of boundary of the facilities. timing and altitude for aircraft (airplane and helicopter) flying over community areas • Developing a mechanism to record and respond to complaints Noise Level Guidelines Noise impacts should not exceed the levels presented in Table 1. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE MANAGEMENT WORLD BANK GROUP barrier. Barriers should be located as close to the 1.Environmental. apply sound insulation • Installing acoustic barriers without gaps and with a continuous minimum surface density of 10 kg/m2 in order to minimize the transmission of sound through the 52 A point of reception or receptor may be defined as any point on the premises occupied by persons where extraneous noise and/or vibration are received. Improving the acoustic performance of constructed buildings. especially mobile sources covered in Section 2. operating through community areas Prevention and Control Noise prevention and mitigation measures should be applied • advantage of distance and shielding • where predicted or measured noise impacts from a project facility or operations exceed the applicable noise level • • • Selecting equipment with lower sound power levels • Installing silencers for fans • Installing suitable mufflers on engine exhausts and compressor components • Installing acoustic enclosures for equipment casing radiating noise • Reducing project traffic routing through community areas wherever possible • emissions depend on the source and proximity of receptors. 2007 52 .0 on Occupational Health and Safety. hospitals and nursing homes. Worker exposure to noise is equipment or operations. or result in a maximum increase in background levels of 3 dB at the nearest receptor location off-site. APRIL 30.1. hotels / motels. Examples of receptor locations may include: permanent or seasonal residences.52 The preferred method for controlling noise from stationary Re-locating noise sources to less sensitive areas to take Planning flight routes.

should not be included when establishing background noise levels. educational55 55 45 Industrial. APRIL 30. and educational settings refer to WHO (1999). 55 For acceptable indoor noise levels for residential. Typical monitoring periods should be sufficient for statistical analysis and may last 48 hours with the use of noise monitors that should be capable of logging data continuously over this time period. Noise monitoring programs should be designed and conducted by trained specialists.. commercial 70 70 levels that would be present in the absence of the facility or noise source(s) under investigation.1. Health.Environmental.22:00 Nighttime 22:00 . Monitoring Noise monitoring56 may be carried out for the purposes of establishing the existing ambient noise levels in the area of the proposed or existing facility. In general.7.g. institutional. as established by a noise expert. The type of acoustic indices recorded depends on the type of noise being monitored. Monitors should be located approximately 1. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE MANAGEMENT WORLD BANK GROUP m to any reflecting surface (e. or more frequently. institutional. or hourly. such as noise from aircraft flyovers and passing trains.07:00 Residential. the noise Table 1. or for verifying operational phase noise levels. including weekday and weekend workdays).5 m above the ground and no closer than 3 54 Guidelines values are for noise levels measured out of doors. Highly intrusive noises. wall). 1999. 2007 53 . as appropriate (or else cover differing time periods within several days. Source: Guidelines for Community Noise. 56 Noise monitoring should be carried out using a Type 1 or 2 sound level meter meeting all appropriate IEC standards.Noise Level Guidelines 54 level limit is represented by the background or ambient noise One Hour L Aeq (dBA) Receptor Daytime 07:00 . World Health Organization (WHO).

......Environmental... When contamination of land is suspected or confirmed during any project phase. or oil to the environment.........59 reputation and/or business-community relations) or affected parties (e......g.. may affect groundwater............. concentrations Contaminated land is a concern because of: • • plants........ hazardous wastes.57 Occupational Health and Safety Considerations..... for land decontamination is to reduce the level of contamination Land is considered contaminated when it contains hazardous materials or oil concentrations above background or naturally occurring levels... soil vapor may also become a transport and exposure medium.. or oil in any environmental media at potentially hazardous indoor air spaces of buildings.. the following assessment approach should be applied to establish whether the three risk factors of ‘Contaminants’....8 Contaminated Land • The liability that it may pose to the polluter/business owners (e.. Where subsurface contaminant sources include volatile substances...... workers at the site... To determine whether risk management actions are warranted................. Health...........56 Permanent Risk Reduction Measures...... The preferred strategy and storage. accidents during their handling human health and ecological receptors. Contaminated lands should be managed to avoid the risk to including... ‘Receptors’.... may be the result of historic or current site activities. nearby property owners)... Contamination of land should be avoided by preventing or Applicability and Approach This section provides a summary of management approaches for land contamination due to anthropogenic releases of hazardous materials. cost of remediation.... leaching into potable groundwater) and exposure routes APRIL 30......... and adjacent sites. Releases of these materials controlling the release of hazardous materials.. Contaminated lands may involve surficial soils or subsurface soils that....... and ‘Exposure Pathways’ co-exist. through leaching and transport..... loss of ecology).... at the project site under current or possible future land use: • Contaminant(s): Presence of hazardous materials.. wastes.. damage of business Applicability and Approach ..54 Risk Screening ... but not limited to................. Receptor(s): Actual or likely contact of humans.... and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATED LAND WORLD BANK GROUP 1...55 Interim Risk Management ................... or oil........... or due to their poor management or disposal.... risk of cancer or other human health effects......56 Detailed Risk Assessment.. including naturally occurring substances............. surface water.g... or are likely to co-exist.... wildlife.. and create potential for contaminant infiltration of at the site while preventing the human exposure to contamination. the cause of the uncontrolled release should be identified and corrected to avoid further releases and associated adverse impacts..... 2007 54 ......g..........g. waste........... concern • Exposure pathway(s): A combination of the route of migration of the contaminant from its point of release (e.. and other living organisms with the contaminants of The potential risks to human health and ecology (e......

g. ingestion. 2001. In the absence of such regulations or environmental standards. which would WORLD BANK GROUP • Identification of the location of suspected highest level of allow receptor(s) to come into actual contact with contamination through a combination of visual and contaminants historical operational information.58. the following steps are recommended: APRIL 30. • Evaluation of the analytical results against the local and national contaminated sites regulations. whichever occurs at a lower concentration) in water. or lifetime cancer risk of 1E-6. Risk Screening This step is also known as “problem formulation” for environmental risk assessment. a Hazard Quotient (HQ) of 1. Additional useful soil quality guidelines can also be obtained from Lijzen et al.e. sediment or groundwater.59 • Verification of the potential human and/or ecological receptors and exposure pathways relevant to the site in question FIGURE 1. “Selecting Exposure Routes and Contaminants of Concern by Risk-Based Screening”).env.gov/reg3hwmd/risk/human/index.epa. and soil for individual chemical substances. The RBC Tables contains Reference Doses (RfDs) and Cancer Slope Factors (CSFs) for about 400 chemicals. and often a distinction is made between land uses (as noted earlier) because of the need for more stringent guidelines for residential and agricultural versus commercial/industrial landuse.. 2007 57 BC MOE.bc. transdermal absorption). Where there is potential evidence of contamination at a site. Alternatively.gov/dep/cleanup 59 These may include the USEPA Region 3 Risk-Based Concentrations (RBCs). 3) Detailed quantitative risk assessment.htm. These RBCs are considered acceptable for specific land use and contaminant exposure scenarios as they have been developed by governments using risk assessment techniques for use as general targets in the site remediation. The primary use of RBCs is for chemical screening during baseline risk assessment (see EPA Regional Guidance EPA/903/R-93-001. 55 . other sources of risk-based standards or guidelines should be consulted to obtain comprehensive criteria for screening soil concentrations of pollutants. • Sampling and testing of the contaminated media (soils or water) according to established technical methods applicable to suspected type of contaminant57.1: Inter-Relationship of Contaminant Risk Factors The outcome of risk-screening may reveal that there is no overlap between the three risk-factors as the contaminant levels identified are below those considered to pose a risk to human When the three risk factors are considered to be present (in health or the environment. These toxicity factors have been combined with “standard” exposure scenarios to calculate RBCs--chemical concentrations corresponding to fixed levels of risk (i.ca/epd/epdpa/contam_sites/guidance 58 Massachusetts Department of Environment. fish tissue..gov. interim or permanent spite of limited data) under current or foreseeable future conditions. Separate PRGs have been developed or adopted for soil. http://www. and 4) Permanent risk reduction measures.mass. 2) Interim risk management. the following steps should be followed (as described in the remaining parts of this section): 1) Risk screening. http://www. air. http://www.Environmental.8. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATED LAND (e. Health.

and development scenarios (e.g.g..bc. dermal contact.gov. hazard. method detection imminent hazards include. the British Columbia Ministry of Environment Canada (BC MOE) http://www. and urban parkland or wilderness use). fish. Health. Examples of situations considered to involve adequate for the intended data use (e.. Interim risk management actions should be implemented at A detailed quantitative risk assessment builds on risk screening any phase of the project life cycle if the presence of land (problem formulation). The risk term exposure and potency of contaminants could result factors and conceptual site model provide a framework for in acute toxicity. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATED LAND WORLD BANK GROUP risk reduction measures may need to be taken with. An assessment of contaminant described below.g. USEPA Region 3 Risk-Based Concentrations (RBCs). or strategies that yield acceptable health risks..Environmental.gov/reg3hwmd/risk/human/index. Interim Risk Management commercial. APRIL 30. a detailed site-specific. and depending on local regulatory requirements..htm. It involves first.epa. how they are transported. and where Accessible and excessive contamination for which short- routes of exposure occur to organisms and humans. representing investigation to identify the scope of contamination. ingestions of soil. 56 . or accumulation of persistent biocumulative and toxic substances • Concentrations of pollutants at concentrations above the Risk Based Concentrations (RBCs60) or drinking water standards in potable water at the point of abstraction Appropriate risk reduction should be implemented as soon as practicable to remove the condition posing the imminent Human or ecological risk assessments facilitate risk management decisions at contaminated sites.mass. environmental risk assessment may be used to develop 60 For example. industrial. while achieving low without. more detailed risk assessment activities. i. as level contamination on-site.g.env. • sensitization.. a detailed site contamination poses an “imminent hazard”.gov/dep/cleanup. Specific risk assessment objectives include: • (e. assessing contaminant risks.e. inhalation of dust) 61 Examples include processes defined by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) Phase II ESA Process. but are not restricted to: limits are below levels of concern). The site investigation in turn • Presence of an explosive atmosphere caused by should be used to develop a conceptual site model of how and contaminated land where contaminants exist.. risks needs to be considered in the context of current and future land use. Detailed Risk Assessment Identifying relevant human and ecological receptors levels above applicable regulatory criteria based on health or environmental risk considerations) • Determining how human or ecological receptors are exposed to the contaminants (e.ca/epd/epdpa/contam_sites/guidance).g. irreversible long term effects. even a short period control (QA/QC) measures to ensure that data quality is of time. wildlife) • As an alternative to complying with numerical standards or preliminary remediation goals. and the Massachusetts Department of Environment http://www. residential. 2007 Determining if contaminants are present at levels that pose potential human health and/or ecological concerns (e. http://www. adults.61 Site an immediate risk to human health and the environment if investigation programs should apply quality assurance/quality contamination were allowed to continue. children.

If such a need exists.2 presents a schematic of the inter-relationship of risk controls) at the site. risk ultimately reduce contaminant exposure to the receptor. and the practicality of prevailing factors and Determining if the risk is likely to remain stable.g. eliminate.g..g.. or decrease with time in the absence of any selected.8.. or as part of the overall strategy towards managing health risks at be transported to other media)62 contaminated sites. Quantifying the potential environmental and/or human The underlying principle is to reduce. net improvement of the site) reasonably degradable and likely to remain in place. Health. The reduction measures should be implemented selected approach should take into consideration the technical and financial feasibility (e. the following factors and example strategies to mitigate contaminant health additional objectives become relevant: risk by modifying the conditions of one or more risk factors to • Determining where. A short list consider if leaching and groundwater transport. land use restrictions) as part lifetime cancer risk or ratios of estimated exposure rates of a comprehensive approach compared to safe exposure rates) • • • Determining how current and proposed future land use Permanent Risk Reduction Measures influence the predicted risks (e.8. calculate controls (e.. or control any or health risks from off-site contaminant migration (e. remediation (e. site constraints. Example risk mitigation strategies for contaminant source and exposure concentrations include: 57 .g.g. all of the three risk factors illustrated in Figure 1.g.g. or of examples of risk mitigation strategies is provided below. cancer..Environmental. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATED LAND • Identifying the types of adverse effects that might result • Identifying the preferred technologies (including from exposure to the contaminants (e. clean-up. 2007 and its associated costs). consider if the contaminant is contaminant source reduction (i. impaired growth or reproduction) in the risk reduction measures absence of regulatory standards • WORLD BANK GROUP • reduction measures are effective Quantifying the magnitude of health risks to human and ecological receptors based on a quantitative analysis of Developing a monitoring plan to ascertain whether risk • Considering the need and appropriateness for institutional contaminant exposure and toxicity (e. whenever possible.g. deed restriction. as this alone provides for improved Addressing these objectives provides a basis to develop and environmental quality. and in what conceptual manner. Regardless of the management options increase. change of land use The risk factors and conceptual site model within the from industrial to residential with more sensitive contaminant risk approach described also provide a basis to receptors such as children) manage and mitigate environmental contaminant health risks. effect on target engineering controls) needed to implement the conceptual organ.e. the action plan should include.1. operability of a selected technology given the local availability of technical expertise and equipment 62 An example of a simplified quantitative risk assessment method is the ASTM E1739-95(2002) Standard Guide for Risk-Based Corrective Action Applied at Petroleum Release Sites and the ASTM E2081-00(2004)e1 Standard Guide for Risk-Based Corrective Action (at chemical release sites). surface water transport results in exposure at adjacent although actual strategies should be developed based on site- lands/receptors) specific conditions. implement risk reduction measures (e. APRIL 30. on-site Figure 1.

. 6- Example risk mitigation strategies for receptors include: phase heating) • Limiting or preventing access to contaminant by receptors Ex situ biological treatment (e.g.e. and treat technologies to prevent contaminated groundwater from discharging into fish streams Soil vapor extraction to reduce VOC contaminant The above-reference containment measures should also be source in soil considered for immediate implementation in situations where Installation of a sub-slab depressurization system source reduction measures are expected to take time.g.g.. to prevent migration of soil vapor into the building o Creating a positive pressure condition in buildings APRIL 30. excavation and collection thermal desorption or incineration) • Educating receptors (people) to modify behavior in order to o Containment (e. for example. steam injection. landfill) reduce exposure (e. a contaminated groundwater supply well • Capping contaminated soil with at least 1m of clean soil to prevent human contact. excavation and (actions targeted at the receptor may include signage with composting) instructions. or site security) Ex situ physical/chemical treatment (e.g. air sparging.g.. soil vapor alternative flow pathway for soil vapor beneath extraction with off-gas treatment.. shellfish Ex situ thermal treatment (e.. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATED LAND • Soil. and use of o Natural attenuation protective clothing and equipment) o Other treatment processes Groundwater. improved work practices. porous media and oxidation) ventilation to shunt vapors away from building) o o o In situ thermal treatment (e.g..g. crab trapping. surface water.g..Environmental. slurry wall or sheet pile barrier) o Natural attenuation o Other treatment processes Soil vapor intrusion: o o Example risk mitigation strategies for exposure pathways include: • Providing an alternative water supply to replace.g.. fencing... Health. and sludge: Installation (during building construction) of an In situ biological treatment (aerobic or anaerobic) impermeable barrier below the building and/or an o In situ physical/chemical treatment (e. physical. 2007 58 . and leachate: o In situ biological treatment (aerobic and/or aerobic) o In situ physical/chemical treatment (e. and or chemical treatment (i. • Imposing health advisory or prohibiting certain practices excavation and stabilization) leading to exposure such as fishing. groundwater extraction and • o o o • WORLD BANK GROUP mammal penetration into contaminated soils • Paving over contaminated soil as an interim measure to negate the pathway of direct contact or dust generation and inhalation • Using an interception trench and pump.g. chemical building foundations (e. as well as plant root or small Ex situ biological. zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier) o treatment) o Containment (e. sediment.

show_document?p_table=STAN DARDS&p_id=9765 APRIL 30.63 FIGURE 1. 2007 59 .osha.120. In addition. sediments. wastewater. as described in Section 2 on Occupational Health and Safety.Environmental. US Occupational Safety and Health Agency (OSHA) regulations found at 40 CFR 1910.8.. http://www. Occupational health and safety precautions should be exercised to minimize exposure. and soil vapor). workers on contaminated sites should receive special health and safety training specific to contaminated site investigation and remediation activities.2: Inter-Relationship of Risk Factors and Management Options 63 For example.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATED LAND WORLD BANK GROUP Occupational Health and Safety Considerations Investigation and remediation of contaminated lands requires that workers be mindful of the occupational exposures that could arise from working in close contact with contaminated soil or other environmental media (e.g. groundwater. Health.

..62 Lighting...... using different manufacturing processes.............. • Minimizing the hazard through design of safe work systems and administrative or institutional control measures.................64 Labeling of Equipment....69 2............................ and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY WORLD BANK GROUP 2......................................... 2007 60 ..................... etc....................................74 Lone and Isolated Workers ...................................71 2....................68 Illumination........63 Work Environment Temperature.........9 Monitoring........................................ isolation rooms.................................73 2.......66 Eye Hazards... Repetitive Motion.............................. Examples include substitution with less hazardous chemicals...... extending the application of the hazard management activities through formal procurement agreements...... • Controlling the hazard at its source through use of engineering controls.............. This section provides guidance and examples of reasonable precautions to implement in managing principal risks to occupational health and safety..................... training safe work procedures...63 Air Supply.................................................61 Severe Weather and Facility Shutdown .............................0 Occupational Health and Safety Applicability and Approach...................Environmental.............................................3 Physical Hazards ............................................. use.........................................................63 2.............67 Welding / Hot Work.... Companies should hire contractors that have the technical capability to manage the occupational health and safety issues of their employees.......... oxidizing......... much of the guidance also applies to construction and decommissioning activities......65 Vibration..................................69 Air Quality .......................62 Safe Access................................................ etc................. The application of prevention and control measures to occupational hazards should be based on comprehensive job APRIL 30..................................................64 Communicate Hazard Codes .60 2.......... • Providing appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) in conjunction with training... etc........ lock-out and tag-out..............................67 Industrial Vehicle Driving and Site Traffic..... Examples include job rotation........... Health.................71 2................................................................71 Asbestos Containing Materials (ACM)..............................63 Visitor Orientation.......................76 Applicability and Approach Employers and supervisors are obliged to implement all reasonable precautions to protect the health and safety of workers.70 Fire and Explosions ...........61 Integrity of Workplace Structures.. acoustic insulating...................61 Fire Precautions ...............................64 Area Signage .................... Examples include local exhaust ventilation.............................64 2.......2 Communication and Training............................... machine guarding...............................8 Special Hazard Environments.1 General Facility Design and Operation................68 Ergonomics.......................... limiting exposure or work duration.........62 Lavatories and Showers..................... Preventive and protective measures should be introduced according to the following order of priority: • Eliminating the hazard by removing the activity from the work process...............63 New Task Employee and Contractor Training..............65 Electrical ...................68 Working at Heights ..................62 Potable Water Supply .......................63 Basic OHS Training .............................. Although the focus is placed on the operational phase of projects.......................................... workplace monitoring......70 Corrosive.................. Manual Handling................75 2.6 Radiological Hazards.....................................................................................62 Clean Eating Area .................. and maintenance of the PPE..........5 Biological Hazards....67 Working Environment Temperature.............................................................4 Chemical Hazards...........................................................................................................................75 Accidents and Diseases monitoring...... and reactive chemicals...........................63 OHS Training .....................65 Noise .............62 First Aid.74 Confined Space............64 Rotating and Moving Equipment......................73 2...........61 Workspace and Exit....................7 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).......................

Environmental. and non-skid. and have acceptable light and noise conditions. provide appropriate E. including an evacuation plan. management responsibility should be specified • Heavy oscillating. Drills to practice the procedure and plan should also be undertaken annually. H: high risk. be used for cladding on ceilings and walls. structures and installations should be easy to clean and maintain.1. including Work place structures should be designed and constructed to withstand the expected elements for the region and have an • Workspace and Exit transport and interim storage of materials and products. M: moderate risk. 2007 The space provided for each worker. The number and capacity of emergency exits should be sufficient for safe and orderly evacuation of the greatest number of people present at any time. noise-absorbing materials should.1. Risk Ranking Table to Classify Worker Scenarios Based on Likelihood and Consequence should be prioritized as part of an action plan based on the likelihood and severity of the consequence of exposure to the identified hazards. Almost certain Integrity of Workplace Structures B. Severe Weather and Facility Shutdown • • area designated for safe refuge.1. APRIL 30. • Passages to emergency exits should be unobstructed at all times. Exits should be clearly marked to be visible in total darkness. 61 .1 General Facility Design and Operation A. • Buildings should be structurally safe. rotating or alternating equipment should be L: low risk. and not allow for accumulation of hazardous D. Moderate Surfaces. should be adequate for safe execution of all activities. even. The results of these analyses Table 2. if appropriate. manage by routine procedures located in dedicated buildings or structurally isolated sections. Health. to the extent E: extreme risk. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) should be developed for project or process shut-down. Likelihood 2. and there should be a minimum two exits from any work area. and in total. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY WORLD BANK GROUP safety or job hazard analyses. • Legend Fire resistant. senior management attention needed • Floors should be level. An example of a qualitative risk ranking or Consequences analysis matrix to help identify priorities is described in Table 2.1. immediate action required feasible. Rare protection against the climate. Unlikely compounds. Likely Permanent and recurrent places of work should be designed and Insignificant CatasMinor Moderate Major trophic 1 2 3 4 5 L M E E E L M H E E L M H E E L L M H E L L M H H equipped to protect OHS: • C.

Passageways for pedestrians and vehicles within and outside buildings should be segregated and provide for easy. and showering and changing into and out of street and work clothes should be provided. unrestricted. safe. APRIL 30. and/or cleaning should have unobstructed. physical and chemical properties of made for provision of clean eating areas where workers are substances present. and Safe Access • ingestion and skin contamination may occur. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY WORLD BANK GROUP • Facilities also should be designed and built taking into Potable Water Supply account the needs of disabled persons. • provided from a fountain with an upward jet or with a sanitary Fire Precautions The workplace should be designed to prevent the start of fires through the implementation of fire codes applicable to industrial means of collecting the water for the purposes of drinking • Equipping facilities with fire detectors. • Water supplied to areas of food preparation or for the purpose of personal hygiene (washing or bathing) should settings. and enable safe equipment operation. inspection.Environmental. to the degree feasible. Where workers may be exposed to substances poisonous by Emergency lighting of adequate intensity should be installed and automatically activated upon failure of the principal Adequate lavatory facilities (toilets and washing areas) should be provided for the number of people expected to • Workplaces should. ramps. suitable arrangements are to be equipment installed. Lavatories and Showers met. • artificial light source to ensure safe shut-down. or for indicating whether the toilet facility is “In Use” or “Vacant”. etc. present. 2007 62 . platforms. and the maximum number of people not exposed to the hazardous or noxious substances Provision of manual firefighting equipment that is easily Lighting accessible and simple to use • light and be supplemented with sufficient artificial illumination visible to promote workers’ safety and health. soap. receive natural Fire and emergency alarm systems that are both audible and The IFC Life and Fire Safety Guideline should apply to buildings • Where there is potential for exposure to substances adequate for the dimensions and use of the premises. and • meet drinking water quality standards fire-fighting equipment. evacuation. The equipment should be maintained Clean Eating Area in good working order and be readily accessible. facilities for and appropriate access • Equipment and installations requiring servicing. loading bays. It should be • poisonous by ingestion. permanent and interim floor openings. knee and foot railings should be installed on stairs. alarm systems. work in the facility and allowances made for segregated facilities. Toilet facilities should also be provided with adequate supplies of hot and cold running water. Other essential measures include: • Adequate supplies of potable drinking water should be ready access • Hand. fixed ladders.3). hand drying devices. etc. Health. Supplemental ‘task lighting’ may be required where specific visual acuity requirements should be accessible to the public (See Section 3.

have received adequate training and information enabling them to Re-circulation of contaminated air is not acceptable. be maintained at a Eye-wash stations and/or emergency showers should be level appropriate for the purpose of the facility. Air inlet filters should be kept clean and free of dust and APRIL 30. a visitor include physical activity. Appropriately equipped first-aid stations • should be easily accessible throughout the place of work facilities should. maintained and operated so as to prevent growth Measures to prevent unauthorized access to dangerous and spreading of disease agents (e.Environmental. gowns. as the point at which patient care can be transferred to an appropriate. Legionnella areas should be in place pneumophilia) or breeding of vectors (e. prior to commencement of new assignments.g. mosquitoes and • flies) of public health concern. • Sufficient fresh air should be supplied for indoor and confined work spaces. Air distribution systems should be ensure visitors do not enter hazard areas unescorted. during service hours. and natural disaster. provided close to all workstations where immediate flushing with water is the recommended first-aid response • Where the scale of work or the type of activity being carried out so requires. safe work practices. • If visitors to the site can gain access to areas where hazardous conditions or substances may be present. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY WORLD BANK GROUP • Openings should be sealed by gates or removable chains microorganisms. and process- • Training should consist of basic hazard awareness. and emergency place for dealing with cases of trauma or serious illness up to Air Supply Provisions should be made to provide OHS orientation training to all new employees to ensure they are apprised of should be equipped with gloves. Point-source exhaust systems required for maintaining a safe ambient environment should have local indicators of correct functioning.2 Communication and Training OHS Training • the basic site rules of work at / on the site and of personal protection against direct contact with blood and other body fluids Remote sites should have written emergency procedures in protection and preventing injury to fellow employees. 2007 63 . Visitor Orientation • orientation and control program should be established to related emissions. be installed to protect against (HVAC) and industrial evaporative cooling systems should be falling items equipped. ventilation and air conditioning • Covers should. and masks for • The temperature in work. dedicated and appropriately equipped firstaid room(s) should be provided. substances in use. designed so as not to expose workers to draughts Mechanical ventilation systems should be maintained in good working order. First aid stations and rooms 2. sitespecific hazards.g. Any site-specific hazard or color coding in use appropriate medical facility. Health. Factors to be considered in ventilation design should be thoroughly reviewed as part of orientation training. evacuation. Heating. First Aid • • The employer should ensure that qualified first-aid can be Work Environment Temperature provided at all times. if feasible. rest room and other welfare New Task Employee and Contractor Training • The employer should ensure that workers and contractors. • procedures for fire.

incidents should be labeled with the direction of flow and contents of and accidents the pipe.3 Physical Hazards Physical hazards represent potential for accident or injury or Area Signage illness due to repetitive exposure to mechanical action or work • Hazardous areas (electrical rooms. should be invited to participate in periodic (annual) Through appropriate contract specifications and monitoring. to areas of risks and hazards. as well as with potential hazards present. and tools o Known hazards in the operations and how they are controlled Labeling of Equipment • All vessels that may contain substances that are hazardous o Potential risks to health as a result of chemical or toxicological properties. compressor rooms. standards and be well known to. • • Information regarding the types of hazardous materials Workers with rescue and first-aid duties should receive stored. etc. Basic OHS Training • A basic occupational training program and specialty courses Communicate Hazard Codes should be provided. piping systems that contain hazardous substances wall or floor is interrupted by a valve or junction device. or o Precautions to prevent exposure temperature or pressure. Multiple exposures over prolonged APRIL 30. supervisors. 2. workers. equipment. visitors and the general public as appropriate. should be marked appropriately. 2007 64 . etc). or appropriately color coded. and occasional visitors come to the attention of emergency services personnel. should be labeled as to the o Hygiene requirements contents and hazard. or color coded whenever the pipe passing through a • Similarly. orientation tours and site inspections to ensure familiarity the employer should ensure that service providers. safety measures. from minor and medical aid only. and/or fatal. catastrophic. contracted and subcontracted labor. to ensure that workers are • oriented to the specific hazards of individual work outside the facility at emergency entrance doors and fire assignments. as needed. Single exposure to physical hazards may result in a wide installations. to disabling. o Wearing and use of protective equipment and clothing o Appropriate response to operation extremes. are trained adequately before assignments begin. materials. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY WORLD BANK GROUP understand work hazards and to protect their health from • Signage should be in accordance with international hazardous ambient factors that may be present. handled or used at the facility. activity. should be exposures and health hazards to themselves or their co- shared proactively with emergency services and security workers. Health. and easily understood by The training should adequately cover: workers. Training would include the risks of becoming personnel to expedite emergency response when needed. o Knowledge of materials. including typical dedicated training so as not to inadvertently aggravate maximum inventories and storage locations. infected with blood–borne pathogens through contact with • Copies of the hazard coding system should be posted • Representatives of local emergency and security services bodily fluids and tissue. Training should generally be provided to emergency connection systems where they are likely to management.Environmental. exits. and emergency range of injuries.

2007 65 The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). isolating. APRIL 30. Recommended exposed to a peak sound pressure level (instantaneous) of protective measures include: • more than 140 dB(C).65 • isolation of the noise source.g. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY WORLD BANK GROUP periods can result in disabling injuries of comparable significance Noise and consequence. In addition. and de-energizing duration should be reduced by 50 percent. Hearing prevent amputations or the availability of emergency stops protective devices provided should be capable of reducing dedicated to the machine and placed in strategic locations. • protection can be obtained.3. installation of vibration dampening pads or devices. to enable Vibration routine service.04 Safe Guarding of Machinery. where feasible • Periodic medical hearing checks should be performed on workers exposed to high noise levels Designing and installing equipment. Designing machines to eliminate trap hazards and ensuring that extremities are kept out of harm’s way under normal • dB(A). or whole-body vibrations from surfaces on which the worker stands or sits. should be controlled through choice of equipment.Environmental. Limits for vibration and 64 For example: CSA Z432.64 The use of hearing protection should be enforced actively when the equivalent sound level over 8 hours reaches 85 operating conditions. the machine or equipment should be equipped with. where feasible.1. or in which energy can be stored (e. a guard or other device that prevents limiting the duration of noise exposure. Examples of proper design • No employee should be exposed to a noise level greater than should be investigated and implemented. Health. such as lubrication. 2006 65 . entangled. Noise limits for different working environments are provided in Rotating and Moving Equipment Injury or death can occur from being trapped. standards. disconnecting. or the considerations include two-hand operated machines to average maximum sound level reaches 110dB(A). by and protected by. ISO 11161 Safety of Machinery – Integrated Manufacturing Systems or ISO 14121 Safety of Machinery – Principals of Risk Management or equivalent ANSI standard. and limiting the duration of exposure. but less easily managed. no unprotected ear should be unobvious movement during operations. the ‘allowed’ exposure period or designed and installed in conformance with appropriate machine safety Turning off. • 85 dB(A) for a duration of more than 8 hours per day without by machinery parts due to unexpected starting of equipment or hearing protection. and other engineering controls guarded moving parts. maintenance. in conformance with a standard such as CSA Z460 Lockout or equivalent ISO or ANSI standard • Prior to the issuance of hearing protective devices as the final control mechanism. without removal of the Exposure to hand-arm vibration from equipment such as hand and guarding devices or mechanisms power tools. Where a machine or equipment has an exposed moving part or exposed pinch point that may endanger the safety of any sound levels at the ear to at least 85 dB(A). or struck Table 2. an equivalent level of worker. use of acoustic insulating materials. Guards should be increase in sound levels. For every 3 dB(A) access to the moving part or pinch point. (Locked Out and Tagged Out) machinery with exposed or compressed air. CSA Z434 Robot Safety. electrical components) during servicing or Although hearing protection is preferred for any period of noise exposure in excess of 85 dB(A). the peak sound levels reach 140 dB(C).

without actual contact.e.fast with ground fault interrupter (GFI) protected circuits • Heavy Industry (no demand for oral communication) 85 dB(A) 110 dB(A) Protecting power cords and extension cords against damage from traffic by shielding or suspending above traffic areas • Appropriate labeling of service rooms housing high voltage equipment (‘electrical hazard’) and where entry is controlled Light industry (decreasing demand for oral communication) 50-65 dB(A) Open offices. or arcing between. Vehicles or grounded metal objects brought into close proximity with overhead wires can result in arcing between the wires and the object. service counters or similar 45-50 dB(A) Individual offices (no disturbing noise) 40-45 dB(A) Classrooms. the level of exposure at which remediation • warning signs should be initiated) are provided by the ACGIH 66. 2005 APRIL 30. Siting.2 • Rubber tired construction or other vehicles that come into direct contact with. such as death. Health. control rooms. Exposure levels should be checked on the basis of daily exposure time and data Marking all energized electrical devices and lines with • Locking out (de-charging and leaving open with a controlled locking device) and tagging-out (warning sign placed on the provided by equipment manufacturers. • - Establishing “No Approach” zones around or under high voltage power lines in conformance with Table 2. Recommended actions include: 66 ACGIH. 2007 66 . Checking all electrical cords.3. wet. cables. cords and hand tools. (i.8h Maximum LAmax. such as circuit breakers. • Conducting detailed identification and marking of all buried electrical wiring prior to any excavation work poles or ladders. using equipment Location /activity Equivalent level LAeq.Environmental. cables. lecture halls 35-40 dB(A) - Hospitals 30-35 dB(A) 40 dB(A) 110 dB(A) or prohibited (see also Section 3 on Planning. Overhead wires can be struck by metal devices. lock) devices during service or maintenance Electrical • Exposed or faulty electrical devices. and by vehicles with metal booms. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY WORLD BANK GROUP action values. can pose a serious risk to workers. and hand power tools for frayed or exposed cords and following manufacturer recommendations for maximum permitted operating voltage Table 2.1.3. or may become. potentially causing serious injury or panels. and Design). Noise Limits for Various Working Environments of the portable hand tools • Double insulating / grounding all electrical equipment used in environments that are. high voltage wires - may need to be taken out of service for periods of 48 hours and have the tires replaced to prevent catastrophic tire and wheel assembly failure.

and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY WORLD BANK GROUP Table 2.Environmental. 2007 required. welding operations.000 volts Minimum distance 3 meters • Provisions should be made for persons who have to wear prescription glasses either through the use overglasses or prescription hardened glasses.000 volts.000 4. welding may produce noxious fumes to Recommended measures include: Eye Hazards • Provision of proper eye protection such as welder goggles Solid particles from a wide variety of industrial operations. Frequent checks of these types of equipment prior to use to ensure mechanical integrity is also good practice. • Moving areas where the discharge of solid fragments. • Special hot work and fire prevention precautions and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) should be implemented if welding or hot cutting is undertaken outside established welding work stations. and equipment. such as safety glasses with side shields. Industrial Vehicle Driving and Site Traffic Poorly trained or inexperienced industrial vehicle drivers have increased risk of accident with other vehicles. Devices to Use of machine guards or splash shields and/or face and eye extract and remove noxious fumes at the source may also be protection devices. but no more than 250. or a liquid chemical spray may strike a worker in the eye causing an assisting. extra area guarding or proximity restricting systems should be implemented.2. Additionally.3. or PPE required for transients and visitors. and/or a full face shield.7 on Personal Protective Equipment). Additional methods may eye injury or permanent blindness. In extreme cases.g. or plywood • designed to block welding light from others). liquid. ANSI and ISO (see also Section 2. Industrial vehicle driving and site traffic safety practices include: 67 .3 on Rotating and Moving Equipment and 2. blindness More than 250. also represent potential collision scenarios. Where machine or work fragments could present a hazard to transient workers or passers-by. Specific Safe Operating Procedures (SOPs) may be required for use of sanding and grinding tools and/or when working around liquid chemicals. Industrial vehicles and delivery vehicles. Machine and equipment guarding should conform to standards published by organizations such as CSA. or gaseous emissions can reasonably be predicted (e. pedestrians. including ‘Hot Work Permits. but no more than 150.000 volts which prolonged exposure can cause serious chronic diseases. and / or and/or a full-face eye shield for all personnel involved in. APRIL 30. Health. pressure relief valve discharge) away from places expected to be occupied or transited by workers or visitors.5 meters volts seriously injur a worker’s eyesight. No Approach Zones for High Voltage Power Lines Nominal phase-to-phase voltage rating 750 or more volts. goggles. canvas. stand-by fire watch. Welding / Hot Work Welding creates an extremely bright and intense light that may More than 150. Recommended measures include the use of welding barrier screens around the specific include: work station (a solid piece of light metal. discharge of sparks from a metal cutting station. stand-by fire extinguishers. 6 meters may result. Special procedures are required for hotwork on tanks or vessels that have contained flammable materials. and maintaining the fire watch for up to one hour after welding or hot cutting has terminated. as well as private vehicles on-site.

into water or other liquid. take prolonged and repeated (e. and conducting job rotation • Implementing quality control and maintenance programs that reduce unnecessary forces and exertions • Taking into consideration additional special conditions such as left handed persons advance warning of extreme weather and scheduling work • • accordingly Working at Heights Adjustment of work and rest periods according to Fall prevention and protection measures should be implemented temperature stress management procedures provided by whenever a worker is exposed to the hazard of falling more than ACGIH 67. Controls may defined routes and areas. and manual handling. 2007 from lesser heights. temperature-related stress management procedures should be implemented which include: • Monitoring weather forecasts for outdoor work to provide Use of mechanical assists to eliminate or reduce exertions required to lift materials. vehicle Injuries due to ergonomic factors. Manual Handling Establishing rights-of-way. These OHS problems should be minimized Restricting the circulation of delivery and private vehicles to or eliminated to maintain a productive workplace. or through an opening in a work during working activities or for use as rest areas surface. prohibiting operation of forklifts with forks in down exposures to develop.Environmental. Repetitive Motion. hold tools and work objects. 2005 APRIL 30. and avoiding • Ensuring drivers undergo medical surveillance consumption of alcoholic beverages • Ensuring moving equipment with restricted rear visibility is • • outfitted with audible back-up alarms Ergonomics. giving preference to ‘one-way’ include: circulation. such as during short-term outdoor work. and typically require periods of weeks to position). load limits drinking water or electrolyte drinks. and control of traffic patterns or direction months for recovery. such as repetitive motion. Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) to protect Facility and workstation design with 5th to 95th percentile requiring multi-person lifts if weights exceed thresholds • Selecting and designing tools that reduce force requirements and holding times. Fall prevention may include: 68 . Where this is not possible. over- inspection requirements. Providing temporary shelters to protect against the elements into hazardous substances. operating rules and procedures exertion. Fall prevention / protection measures may also be warranted on a case-specific basis when there are risks of falling 67 ACGIH. and improve postures • Providing user adjustable work stations • Incorporating rest and stretch breaks into work processes. site speed limits. where appropriate • Working Environment Temperature Exposure to hot or cold working conditions in indoor or outdoor operational and maintenance workers in mind • against other occupational hazards can accentuate and aggravate heat-related illnesses.g. depending on the temperature and workloads two meters. Health. including • Providing easy access to adequate hydration such as safe loading/unloading. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY WORLD BANK GROUP • Training and licensing industrial vehicle operators in the safe • Use of protective clothing operation of specialized vehicles such as forklifts. and environments can result temperature stress-related injury or death. into operating machinery. Extreme temperatures in permanent work environments should be avoided through implementation of engineering controls and ventilation.

elevator. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY WORLD BANK GROUP Installation of guardrails with mid-rails and toe boards at the supplemented with dedicated work station illumination. to a minimum 69 . sewing. if incompatible chemicals are inadvertently mixed. including safety belt and Controls should include: • lanyard travel limiting devices to prevent access to fall hazard area.3. offices. Light Intensity corrosive. checking. etc. and should be to minimize risks. The lowest feasible class Laser should be applied purpose of the location and type of activity. garage. 2007 and explosion. auditorium. lobby. Minimum Limits For Workplace Illumination Intensity Location / Activity Chemical hazards represent potential for illness or injury due to single acute exposure or chronic repetitive exposure to toxic.) Medium precision work (simple assembly.3. medium bench and machine works. sensitizing or oxidative substances. packing. They also Emergency light 10 lux represent a risk of uncontrolled reaction. Exposure to high intensity UV and necessary PPE • Undertaking measures to eliminate glare / reflections and flickering of lights point or horizontal life-lines • Use of energy efficient light sources with minimum heat controlled • Controlling laser hazards in accordance with equipment Illumination specifications. and equipment to respond to workers after an arrested fall Taking precautions to minimize and control optical radiation including direct sunlight. or likely to become exposed. fine sorting etc. as needed. and recognized safety Work area light intensity should be adequate for the general standards. and integrity of the • IR radiation and high intensity visible light should also be Inclusion of rescue and/or recovery plans. Health.4 Chemical Hazards Table 2. rough machine works.000 – 3. • Use of fall prevention devices.3. certifications. 2.) 200 lux Precision work (reading.Environmental. welding. serviceability. moderately difficult assembly. including the risk of fire Outdoor non working areas 20 lux Simple orientation and temporary visits (machine storage.). or fall protection devices such as full body harnesses used in conjunction with shock absorbing lanyards or selfretracting inertial fall arrest devices attached to fixed anchor • emission • Appropriate training in use. stairways. 500 lux High precision work (difficult assembly. warehouse) 50 lux Workspace with occasional visual tasks only 100 lux (corridors. sorting. Chemical hazards can most effectively be prevented through a hierarchical approach that includes: • Replacement of the hazardous substance with a less hazardous substitute • Implementation of engineering and administrative control measures to avoid or minimize the release of hazardous substances into the work environment keeping the level of exposure below internationally established or recognized limits • Keeping the number of employees exposed. color 1.) lux APRIL 30. edge of any fall hazard area The minimum limits for illumination intensity for a range of • Proper use of ladders and scaffolds by trained employees locations/activities appear in Table 2.3. etc.000 inspection. etc.

Prevention and control strategies include: • materials. 2005. week-after- o Be equipped with fire extinguishing devices and self- week). and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY WORLD BANK GROUP • Communicating chemical hazards to workers through • Where ambient air contains several materials that have labeling and marking according to national and internationally similar effects on the same body organs (additive effects). or could be. or equivalent. without sustaining adverse health effects. 40 hrs/week. Further. and between. closing doors. Materials Safety recommended by the ACGIH 69 Data Sheets (MSDS). providing electrical grounding. Any means of written • Where work shifts extend beyond eight (8) hours. Where the flammable material is mainly comprised of dust. 70 . vapors and gases in o Away from facility ventilation intakes or vents the work environment at concentrations below those o Have natural or passive floor and ceiling level ventilation recommended by the ACGIH 68 as TWA-TLV’s (threshold limit • and explosion venting value)—concentrations to which most workers can be o Use spark-proof fixtures exposed repeatedly (8 hours/day. safe work practices. and sealed containers rather • • Providing bonding and grounding of. spark detection. or illness to workers. Employers should take appropriate measures materials or gases can lead to loss of property as well as possible injury or fatalities to project workers.Environmental. 2007 70 ACGIH. 2005 APRIL 30. Health. 68 ACGIH. These include: • Storing flammables away from ignition sources and oxidizing o Remote from entry and exit points into buildings Maintaining levels of contaminant dusts. recognized requirements and standards. including the taking into account combined exposures using calculations International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC). discomfort. flammables storage area should be: to maintain air quality in the work area. calculating communication should be in an easily understood language adjusted workplace exposure criteria recommended by the and be readily available to exposed workers and first-aid ACGIH 70 personnel • Training workers in the use of the available information (such Fire and Explosions as MSDSs). 2005. and constructed of materials made to Developing and implementing work practices to minimize withstand flame impingement for a moderate period of release of contaminants into the work environment including: time o Direct piping of liquid and gaseous materials o Minimized handling of dry powdered materials. containers and additional mechanical floor level ventilation if o Enclosed operations materials are being. if needed. dispensed in the storage o Local exhaust ventilation at emission / release points area o Vacuum transfer of dry material rather than mechanical or pneumatic conveyance o Indoor secure storage. and appropriate use of PPE Fires and or explosions resulting from ignition of flammable Air Quality Poor air quality due to the release of contaminants into the work place can result in possible respiratory irritation. quenching systems than loose storage 69 ACGIH. and.

This can lead to the release of flammable or toxic available to all persons involved in operations and maintenance materials and gases. under normal conditions of use. prohibition in use of smoking materials.Environmental.5 Biological Hazards • Corrosive. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY WORLD BANK GROUP • • Defining and labeling fire hazards areas to warn of special Asbestos Containing Materials (ACM) rules (e. face shield or goggles. the added hazard of these chemicals is that can potentially come into contact with the material to avoid inadvertent mixing or intermixing may cause serious adverse damage and prevent exposure. or reactive chemicals should be provided with specialized training and provided with. and reactive chemicals present similar for monitoring its condition.Standard Practice for Visual Inspection of Asbestos Abatement Projects.osha. procedures Corrosive. etc.g. Renovation and Repair of Installed Asbestos Cement Products. and eye-wash stations and/or emergency showers should be provided close to all workstations where the recommended first-aid response is immediate flushing with water APRIL 30. and may lead directly to fires and activities. reducers. apron.72 chemicals: 2.g. E 2356 . Biological chemicals of incompatible class (acids vs. 2007 • If the nature of the activity permits. These types of substances have the additional hazard buildings should only be performed by specially trained of causing significant personal injury upon direct contact. water sensitive vs. water based. or stored. internationally recognized procedures.Standard Practice for Maintenance. 71 Training of specialized personnel and the maintenance and removal methods applied should be equivalent to those required under applicable regulations in the United States and Europe (examples of North American training standards are available at: http://www. its condition (e. or other potential spark generating equipment) avoided in new buildings or as a new material in remodeling or Providing specific worker training in handling of flammable renovation activities. The following controls should be observed in the work environment when handling such absence. oxidizers hazards can be prevented most effectively by implementing the vs. However. oxidizing.Standard Practice for Comprehensive Building Asbestos Surveys. Health.). stored in following measures: ventilated areas and in containers with appropriate secondary containment to minimize intermixing during spills • Workers who are required to handle corrosive. Appropriately equipped first-aid stations should be easily accessible throughout the place of work. and E 2394 . The plan should be made reactions. whether it is in friable form with the potential to release fibers). is not dangerous or less dangerous to workers. oxidizing and reactive chemicals should be Biological agents represent potential for illness or injury due to segregated from flammable materials and from other single acute exposure or chronic repetitive exposure. etc). or in their regardless of any intermixing issues. cellular The use of asbestos containing materials (ACM) should be phones. oxidizing. and reactive chemicals locations where the ACM is present. If use of harmful agents can not be avoided. precautions should be taken to keep the risk of exposure as low as possible and maintained below internationally established and recognized exposure limits. and training of staff who materials. or reactive chemicals are used. and in fire prevention or suppression an asbestos management plan which clearly identifies the Corrosive.html) 72 Examples include the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E 1368 . bases. personnel71 following host country requirements. and wear. handled. oxidizing. qualified first-aid should be ensured at all times. Existing facilities with ACM should develop materials.gov/SLTC/asbestos/training. procedures to access the locations hazards and require similar control measures as flammable where ACM is present to avoid damage. 71 . Repair or removal and disposal of existing ACM in explosions. • Where corrosive. oxidizing. appropriate PPE (gloves. splash suits. use of any harmful biological agents should be avoided and replaced with an agent that.

and present a high risk of spreading to the community. disinfection and sterilization. amplification required for hazardous or reactive chemical substances. agents should be equipped with High Efficiency Particulate Air Biological agents should be classified into four • • groups73: (HEPA) filtration systems. but are unlikely to spread to the community. and training verification programs. • Group 3: Biological agents that can cause severe human disease. The number of employees exposed or likely to Work involving agents in Groups 3 and 4 should be restricted only become exposed should be kept at a minimum. and may present a risk of spreading to the community. and maintained and operated so as and consequently only require controls similar to those to prevent growth and spreading of disease agents. include independent ventilation suspected biological agents at the place of work should be systems.g. and be subject to SOPs requiring routine disinfection designed. engineering. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY WORLD BANK GROUP • • Work processes. should be designed to enable their full segregation and isolation in Measures to eliminate and control hazards from known and emergency circumstances. suspected presence of biological agents at the place of work • and implement appropriate safety measures. and operated to avoid or highest level of hygiene and personal protection. of the biological agents. 73 World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Infective Microorganisms by Risk Group (2004). with the local health authorities and according to recognized HVAC systems serving areas handling Groups 3 and 4 biological international standards. and are thereby likely to require additional controls. mosquitoes Group 2: Biological agents that can cause human disease and flies of public health concern. • Group 4: Biological agents that can cause severe human disease. environment. present a serious hazard to workers. 2007 72 . APRIL 30. monitoring. especially for minimize release of biological agents into the working activities employing biological agents of Groups 3 and 4 above. Equipment should readily enable their Group 1: Biological agents unlikely to cause human disease. to those persons who have received specific verifiable training in The employer should review and assess known and working with and controlling such materials. for which there usually is effective prophylaxis or treatment available and are thereby likely to require extensive additional controls.Environmental. Health. Areas used for the handling of Groups 3 and 4 biological agents training. maintained. for which there is usually no effective prophylaxis or treatment available and are thereby likely to require very extensive additional controls. and administrative controls The employer should at all times encourage and enforce the should be designed. implemented and maintained in close co-operation and sterilization of the work surfaces. are a serious hazard to workers. or breeding of vectors e.

light and 2. work plans or procedures cannot eliminate. near-infrared radiation. • Exposure to non-ionizing radiation (including static magnetic fields. Personal include: • In the case of both ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. and ultraviolet radiation) should be controlled to internationally recommended limits75.asp?sub=160 75 For example ACGIH (2005) and International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation (ICNIRP).6.6 Radiological Hazards preferred method for controlling exposure is shielding and Radiation exposure can lead to potential discomfort. injury or limiting the radiation source. Table 2. Acceptable Effective Dose Limits for Workplace Radiological Hazards Exposure Workers (min.1 presents general examples of Table 2. and 6 mSv/year occasional visitors. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY WORLD BANK GROUP • 2. visible and ultraviolet Places of work involving occupational and/or natural range radiation can include appropriate sun block creams. without incurring unnecessary inconvenience to the individual 150 mSv/year 50 mSv/year 500 mSv/year 150 mSv/year • Proper maintenance of PPE. APRIL 30. exposure to ionizing radiation should be established and with or without appropriate screening clothing. co-workers. Personal protective equipment serious illness to workers.74 The acceptable effective dose limits appear Table 2. PPE is considered to be a last resort that is above and beyond the other facility controls and provides the worker with an extra level of personal protection. http://www-ns.1. sub-radio frequency magnetic fields. radio frequency and microwave radiation. IAEA.1.7. Recommended measures for use of PPE in the workplace include: • Active use of PPE if alternative technologies. Proper use of PPE should be part of the recurrent training programs for employees 74 International Basic Safety Standard for protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources and its three interrelated Safety Guides. a hazard or exposure • Identification and provision of appropriate PPE that offers adequate protection to the worker. including cleaning when dirty and replacement when damaged or worn out.19 years of age) Five consecutive year average – effective dose 20 mSv/year Single year exposure – effective dose 50 mSv/year Equivalent dose to the lens of the eye Equivalent dose to the extremities (hands.Environmental. or sufficiently reduce.org/standards/documents/default. static electric fields.iaea. Prevention and control strategies is supplemental only or for emergency use. operated in accordance with recognized international safety standards and guidelines. the protective equipment for near-infrared. Health. 2007 73 .7 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) provides additional protection to workers exposed to workplace hazards in conjunction with other facility controls and safety systems. feet) or the skin Apprentices and students (16-18 years of age) occupational hazards and types of PPE available for different purposes.6.

Mine Safety and Health Administration76 (MSHA). and selected according to criteria on performance and testing established 2.gov. http://www.1. Recommended management approaches which a hazardous atmosphere could develop as a result of the Hazardous materials.gov/niosh/homepage. and overhead power cords. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health76 (NIOSH). Health. for emergency and rescue operations. inadequate height clearance.ansi. A “permit-required” confined space is one that also contains physical or atmospheric Hand protection Oxygen deficiency space not designed or intended for human occupancy and in locations. Confined Space A confined space is defined as a wholly or partially enclosed Eye and face protection Flying particles. insulating materials. ultra-sound. mists. to the degree feasible. • Permit-required confined spaces should be provided with permanent safety measures for venting.8 Special Hazard Environments Special hazard environments are work situations where all of the Table 2.146 APRIL 30. rescue operations. etc.asp?language=english. protective shades. Accordingly. cutting and laceration. gases. http://www. of appropriate materials.cdc. smokes.org/. 76 77 US OSHA CFR 1910. Single or multi-gas personal monitors. fumes. Confined spaces can occur in enclosed or open structures or from a confined space. gases or vapors.csa. Hearing protectors (ear plugs or ear muffs). monitoring. the existence and adverse character of confined spaces. molten metal. light radiation. hazardous materials. Hearing protection Noise. Examples include the American National Standards Institute (ANSI).Environmental. extreme temperatures. Facemasks with appropriate filters for dust removal and air purification (chemicals. fogs. vapors. Gloves made of rubber or synthetic materials (Neoprene). to the extent possible. extra precautions or rigor in application of precautions is required. and Portable or supplied air (fixed lines). pointed objects. vapors and gases). body suits. http://www. liquids and chemicals. vibrations. Serious injury or fatality can result from inadequate preparation to enter a confined space or in attempting a rescue include: • Engineering measures should be implemented to eliminate. etc.ca/Default. Body/leg protection Extreme temperatures. Canadian Standards Association76 (CSA). contents. Respiratory protection Dust. Safety Glasses with side-shields. On-site rescue equipment.7. Safety shoes and boots for protection against moving & falling objects. biological agents. hazards that could trap or engulf the person. http://www. 2007 74 . and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY WORLD BANK GROUP • by recognized organizations76. Corrosive or hot liquids.msha. aprons etc. steel.html. if available.77 Foot protection Falling or rolling objects. leather. Selection of PPE should be based on the hazard and risk ranking described earlier in this section. location or construction of the confined space or due to work done in or around the confined space. liquid chemicals. cuts or lacerations. mists. Plastic Helmets with top and side impact protection. Head protection Falling objects. The area adjoining an access to a confined space should provide ample room Insulating clothing. Summary of Recommended Personal Protective Equipment According to Hazard Objective Workplace Hazards Suggested PPE previously described hazards may exist under unique or especially hazardous circumstances.

the worker has a capability for summoning emergency aid. and blanked and locked-out. 2007 • Surveillance of the working environment: Employers should document compliance using an appropriate combination of 75 . installations. emergency eye-wash and shower facilities should percent and 23 percent. and braced. adequate and inspection should verify that issued PPE continues to provide appropriate rescue and / or recovery plans and equipment should be in place before the worker enters the confined adequate protection and is being worn as required.9 Monitoring atmosphere is achieved. the effectiveness of prevention and control strategies. health. life lines. other workers. equipment. places of the necessary PPE. Health. for continuous population with adjustments for tools and protective clothing. Lone and Isolated Workers A lone and isolated worker is a worker out of verbal and line of sight communication with a supervisor. The of the PPE should be verified. Further. PPE and safety measures are in place before the worker Mechanical equipment in the space should be starts work. de-energized. The worker is therefore at increased The most current ISO and EN standards should be consulted risk should an accident or injury occur. • Where workers may be required to perform work under lone Before workers are required to enter a permit-required significant occupational. and the implementation of prevention and control strategies. The occupational health and safety monitoring program should include: • Safety inspection. as well as the serviceability and integrity work. testing and calibration: This should include regular inspection and testing of all safety features and confined space. and safety watch workers stationed outside the confined space. Standard Operating Procedures Process or feed lines into the space should be (SOPs) should be developed and implemented to ensure all disconnected or drained. SOPs should establish. atmospheric testing. with rescue and first aid equipment readily available. or other APRIL 30. for design specifications. The atmosphere within the confined space should be • If the worker is potentially exposed to highly toxic or corrosive tested to assure the oxygen content is between 19. adequate and appropriate training in hazard control measures focusing on engineering and confined space hazard control. and safety hazards. and without intervention by the worker. and tools used. The selected indicators should be representative of the most Safety precautions should include Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA). All space. If the atmospheric conditions are not met. as contact with the worker at least once every hour. verbal disconnected. and that the presence of any be equipped with audible and visible alarms to summon aid flammable gas or vapor does not exceed 25 percent of whenever the eye-wash or shower is activated by the worker its respective Lower Explosive Limit (LEL). and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY WORLD BANK GROUP • • Access hatches should accommodate 90% of the worker persons capable of providing aid and assistance. locked-out.Environmental.5 chemicals. instruments installed or used for monitoring and recording of working environment parameters should be regularly tested and calibrated. at a minimum. • Prior to entry into a permit-required confined space: o o o o • or isolated circumstances. and ensure appropriate. or entry is only to be Occupational health and safety monitoring programs should verify undertaken with appropriate and additional PPE. use of personal protective features. the confined space should be ventilated until the target safe 2. periods exceeding one hour. and the respective records maintained. work procedures.

workers should be provided appropriate and o Identify measures necessary to prevent a recurrence relevant health surveillance prior to first exposure. against o Establish what happened biological agents Groups 3 and 4. Generally.9. Health. and at • All reported occupational accidents. hours during the specified reporting period should be duration.3 These systems should enable workers to report immediately to their immediate supervisor any situation they believe presents a serious danger to life or health.Environmental. Non-fatal injuries (number) 78 b.3 Within a year o Occupational accidents and diseases o Dangerous occurrences and incidents b. Fatalities (number) a. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY WORLD BANK GROUP portable and stationary sampling and monitoring instruments. and otherwise repeated according to the person knowledgeable/competent in occupational safety. locations. Distinction is made deemed necessary. monitoring should be performed during commissioning of • misses should be investigated with the assistance of a liability period. should be documented adequately. The surveillance should. occupational diseases.1.1 Immediate The employer should establish procedures and systems for a. Occupational Accident Reporting providers and contractors should be contractually required to submit to the employer adequate training documentation before start of their assignment. 78 The day on which an incident occurs is not included in b. including reported to the appropriate regulatory agency. The monitoring plan. and/or hazardous o Determine the cause of what happened compounds). APRIL 30. Accidents and Diseases monitoring • a. The two main categories employment.2 c. regular intervals thereafter. and o Suspected cases of occupational disease parameters should be established individually for each o Dangerous occurrences and incidents project following a review of the hazards. are divided into three sub-categories according to time of Training: Training activities for employees and visitors should death or duration of the incapacity to work. and participants).3 More than 3 days c. frequencies.1 Less than one c. 2007 76 .3. Service Table 2. and incidents together with near facilities or equipment and at the end of the defect and • The systems and the employer should further enable and • Occupational accidents and diseases should. if be classified according to Table 2. • Monitoring and analyses should be conducted according to encourage workers to report to management all: internationally recognized methods and standards. Emergency exercises. o Occupational injuries and near misses Monitoring methodology.2 Up to 3 days b.10.2 Within a month reporting and recording: a. fire drills. Total time lost non-fatal injuries (days) day b. be continued after termination of the between fatal and non-fatal injuries.2 Category b.2 and b. The total work be adequately monitored and documented (curriculum. investigation should: Surveillance of workers health: When extraordinary protective measures are required (for example. dangerous occurrences.1. at a minimum.1 Category b.

.......4 Traffic Safety....82 General Hazardous Materials Transport...... consumer with little or no treatment.......... 2007 77 .... cooking..............1 Water Quality and Availability ...... 3...3 Life and Fire Safety (L&FS) ....... where water may be used for drinking.........77 Water Quality............ Water quality for more This section complements the guidance provided in the preceding environmental and occupational health and safety sections........... Water Availability The potential effect of groundwater or surface water abstraction for project activities should be properly assessed through a combination of field testing and modeling techniques............. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: COMMUNITY HEALTH AND SAFETY WORLD BANK GROUP 3.................................5 Transport of Hazardous Materials ........................Environmental........................85 Vector-Borne Diseases......87 Business Continuity and Contingency ................81 Other Hazards........88 Applicability and Approach..... water quality should comply with national acceptability standards or in their absence the current edition of with WHO Drinking Water Guidelines............. and wastes should be managed according to the guidance provided in the respective sections of the General EHS Guidelines with the objective of protecting soil and water resources.. Where the project includes the delivery of water to the community or to users of facility infrastructure (such as hotel hosts and hospital patients).....81 3......... as applicable..........79 L&FS Master Plan Review and Approval......... Water Quality Drinking water sources.....82 Major Transportation Hazards........................... water extraction.................... accounting for seasonal variability and projected changes in demand in the project area.................................. as may be applicable on a project basis......77 Water Availability.............6 Disease Prevention............. These issues may arise at any stage of a project life cycle and can have an impact beyond the life of the project....... Project activities involving wastewater discharges..................85 3.............................. Any dependency factors associated with the deliver of water to the local community should be planned for and managed to ensure the sustainability of the water supply by involving the community in its management to minimize the dependency in the long-term.............77 3............................................................. whether public or private..........................................1 Water Quality and Availability Groundwater and surface water represent essential sources of drinking and irrigation water in developing countries............80 Specific Requirements for Existing Buildings .........87 Training and Updating ............... industry-specific guidelines or standards............ Air emissions. washing............0 Community Health and Safety 3............. should at all times be protected so that they meet or exceed applicable national acceptability standards or in their absence the current edition of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality.81 3................83 3. particularly in rural areas where piped water supply may be limited or unavailable and where available resources are collected by the sensitive well-being-related demands such as water used in health care facilities or food production may require more stringent........7 Emergency Preparedness and Response .......86 Communication Systems .............2 Structural Safety of Project Infrastructure .79 Applicability and Approach.. diversion or APRIL 30.... but nonetheless related to the project operations............................79 Specific Requirements for New Buildings.... and bathing.............................................................................86 Emergency Resources ....89 impoundment should prevent adverse impacts to the quality and availability of groundwater and surface water resources.... Health....... wastewater effluents.............. oil and hazardous materials. specifically addressing some aspects of project activities taking place outside of the traditional project boundaries...............78 3.......85 Communicable Diseases.........

Reduction of potential hazards is best accomplished during the Depending on the nature of a project. building. with modifications can be adapted more easily. Service Level and Health” 2003. as well as nuisance issues related to • Accessibility and means of egress noise. or other emissions • Types of construction Incorporation of siting and safety engineering criteria to • Roof design and construction prevent failures due to natural risks posed by earthquakes.2 Structural Safety of Project Infrastructure Hazards posed to the public while accessing project facilities may engineering practice. and documenting compliance. The following issues respect to: should be considered and incorporated as appropriate into the • Existing structures • Soils and foundations Inclusion of buffer strips or other methods of physical • Site grading separation around project sites to protect the public from • Structural design major hazards associated with hazardous materials incidents • Specific requirements based on intended use and occupancy or process failure. or noxious odors detailed guidance on all aspects of building safety. Additional information on lower service levels and potential impacts on health are described in “Domestic Water Quantity. and maintenance of a built environment and contain • Respiratory distress from dust. 78 . best practices. slope availability of 100 liters per person per day although lower levels stability. To this end.pdf 81 ICC. • Burns and smoke inhalation from fires International codes. http://www. 2006. including aspects of fire prevention and response • Engineers and architects responsible for designing and constructing facilities. wind loading. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: COMMUNITY HEALTH AND SAFETY WORLD BANK GROUP Project activities should not compromise the availability of water project structures should be designed in accordance with for personal hygiene needs and should take account of potential engineering and design criteria mandated by site-specific future increases in demand. constructed in accordance with sound architectural and 3. 2001. and other dynamic loads may be used to meet basic health requirements. encompassing • Exposure to hazardous materials methodology.who. Health. such as those compiled by the International • Injuries suffered as a consequence of falls or contact with Code Council (ICC) 81. all • Flood-resistant construction planning. are intended to regulate the design. layout and site ICC or comparable codes should be followed. • Fire-resistant construction tsunamis. flooding.org/public/english/protection/ safework/cops/english/download/e000013. and design phases of a project: • • 79 World Health Organization (WHO) defines 100 liters/capita/day as the amount required to meet all consumption and hygiene needs.ilo.html APRIL 30.int/water_sanitation_health/diseases/wsh0302/en/index. odors.79 Water volume • Application of locally regulated or internationally recognized requirements for well-being-related demands such as water use in building codes80 to ensure structures are designed and health care facilities may need to be higher. heavy equipment construction. including but not limited to seismic activity. plants and other structures include: should certify the applicability and appropriateness of the • Physical trauma associated with failure of building structures structural criteria employed. siting. 2007 80 ILO-OSH. The overall target should be the risks.Environmental. http://www. fumes. as appropriate. landslides and fire. wind. guidance provided in the design phase when the structural design.

Sponsors should prepare a Life and Fire Safety 3. alert the public. The Life Safety Code82.org/catalog/product. Improving shut-down and secondary containment to reduce reduce the release duration • • Modifying process or storage conditions to reduce the the amount of material escaping from containment and to • Life and fire safety systems and equipment should be Reducing inventories of hazardous materials through release • • These guidelines apply to buildings that are accessible to the public. 2007 Master Plan identifying major fire risks.asp?category%5Fname=&pid=10106&target% 5Fpid=10106&src%5Fpid=&link%5Ftype=search 79 . and exposures. and through • Hotels. is one example of an internationally accepted standard • Safeguards during construction and may be used to document compliance with the Life and Fire • Encroachments into public right-of-way Safety objectives outlined in these guidelines. Illustrative management actions. establish safety Specific Requirements for New Buildings zones around a site. and sound reduce or eliminate the potential off-site consequences of a engineering practices. which • Elevators and conveying systems provides extensive documentation on life and fire safety • Fire safety systems provisions. Life and fire safety design criteria for all existing buildings should incorporate all local building codes and fire potential consequences of an accidental off-site release department regulations. include: • • designed and installed using appropriate prescriptive inventory management and process changes to greatly standards and/or performance based design.nfpa. http://www. hazardous materials storage and use. The Master 82 US NFPA. and ensure the provision of emergency The nature and extent of life and fire safety systems required will medical services to the public depend on the building type. and operated in full compliance with local building APRIL 30. With regard to Although major design changes may not be feasible during the operation phase of a project.Environmental. Examples of such buildings include: Reducing the probability that releases will occur through • Health and education facilities improved site operations and control. convention centers. standards and regulations. applicable to these life and fire safety objectives. applicable codes. and leisure facilities improvements in maintenance and inspection • Retail and commercial facilities Reducing off-site impacts of releases through measures • Airports. plumbing and electrical systems life and fire safety (L&FS) standard. local fire department regulations. occupancy. construction. local legal/insurance • Interior environment requirements. transfer facilities intended to contain explosions and fires. and in accordance with an internationally accepted • Mechanical. structure.3 Life and Fire Safety (L&FS) Applicability and Approach All new buildings accessible to the public should be designed. other public transport terminals. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: COMMUNITY HEALTH AND SAFETY WORLD BANK GROUP • Construction materials codes. hazard analysis can be undertaken these objectives: • Project sponsors’ architects and professional consulting to identify opportunities to reduce the consequences of a failure or engineers should demonstrate that affected buildings meet accident. provide for evacuation of surrounding areas. constructed. Health. and mitigation measures.

but not be limited to.Environmental. and all other required. and civil structures communication and public address systems needed to detect a and systems are at all times in conformance with life and fire fire and alert: safety design criteria and required operational readiness. including preliminary drawings and specifications. The suitably qualified professional spread of fire and smoke. and housekeeping and maintenance • Manual portable extinguishers • Fire hose reels Means of Egress Fire suppression and control includes all automatic and manual fire protection installations. electrical. 2007 80 . This chapter of the Fire • Clear. and Compartmentation adequately cover. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: COMMUNITY HEALTH AND SAFETY WORLD BANK GROUP Plan should be prepared by a suitably qualified professional. and certifies that the design APRIL 30. • Building staff • Emergency response teams L&FS Master Plan Review and Approval • Occupants • • Civil defense A suitably qualified professional prepares and submits a Life and Fire Safety (L&FS) Master Plan. including: selected to prepare the Master Plan is responsible for a detailed • Separations • Fire walls • Floors Fire Prevention • Doors Fire prevention addresses the identification of fire risks and • Dampers ignition sources. the issues addressed Compartmentation involves all measures to prevent or slow the briefly in the following points. Operation and Maintenance Operation and Maintenance involves preparing schedules for mandatory regular maintenance and testing of life and fire safety These systems encompass all measures. unimpeded escape routes • Accessibility to the impaired/handicapped • Marking and signing • Emergency lighting Detection and Alarm Systems and Life Safety Master Plan should include an assessment of local fire prevention and suppression capabilities. Health. These issues include: Fire Suppression and Control • Fuel load and control of combustibles • Ignition sources • Interior finish flame spread characteristics • Interior finish smoke production characteristics • Automatic sprinkler systems • Human acts. such as: Means of Egress includes all design measures that facilitate a Emergency Response Plan safe evacuation by residents and/or occupants in case of fire or An Emergency Response Plan is a set of scenario–based other emergency. including features to ensure that mechanical. development. issues. such as: procedures to assist staff and emergency response teams during real life emergency and training exercises. and measures needed to limit fast fire and smoke • Smoke control systems treatment of the following illustrative.

Australia. 2004. The earthquakes. United Kingdom time frame for implementing the changes. and geology- The suitably qualified professional conducts a review as part specific location risks (e.g. South Africa. and of the project completion test at the time of life and fire safety other dynamic loads).4 Traffic Safety Traffic accidents have become one of the most significant causes of injuries and fatalities among members of the public worldwide. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: COMMUNITY HEALTH AND SAFETY WORLD BANK GROUP meets the requirements of these L&FS guidelines. German Institute of Standardization (DIN). The findings and and appropriateness of the design criteria employed. including those who are most vulnerable to road traffic accidents87. testing.. seismic activity. plants.84. 84 Réglementation Incendie [des ERP] Other Hazards • Facilities. and French Standards (NF) 87 Additional information on vulnerable users of public roads in developing countries is provided by Peden et al. construction of these systems has been carried out in buildings. British Standards (BS). and certifies that • • If it becomes apparent that life and fire safety conditions are deficient in an existing building that is not part of the project or that has not been programmed for renovation. Such nationally referenced material constitutes the acceptable fire life safety code. • All such structures should be designed in accordance with time frame for implementing the changes. buildings. Prevention and control of traffic related injuries and fatalities should include the adoption of safety measures that are protective of project workers and of road users. and structures should be situated to minimize potential risks from forces of nature (e. The findings and respect to methodology. The findings and recommendations of the review are used as the basis to establish the scope of work of a Corrective Action Plan and a time frame for implementing the changes. and during operation of project equipment on private or public roads. • Structural engineers and architects responsible for facilities. Canada. and fires from findings and recommendations of the review are then used to surrounding areas). 2006. A suitably qualified professional conducts a complete life and fire safety review of existing buildings slated for renovation. wind loading. 81 . such codes and for implementing the changes. plants and structures should certify the applicability accordance with the accepted design. tsunamis. a life and fire safety review of the building may be conducted by a suitably qualified professional.Environmental. practice. establish the conditions of a Corrective Action Plan and a • the criteria mandated by situation-.85 Generally. Health. 3. recommendations of the review are used as the basis for • National or regional building regulations typically contain fire establishing project completion or to establish the conditions safety codes and standards83 or these standards are found in of a Pre-Completion Corrective Action Plan and a time frame separate Fire Codes. windstorms. and other codes and standards86. systems testing and commissioning. regulations incorporate further compliance requirements with Specific Requirements for Existing Buildings All life and fire safety guideline requirements for new buildings apply to existing buildings programmed for renovation.g. APRIL 30. Traffic safety should be promoted by all project personnel during displacement to and from the workplace. 86 Prepared by National Institutes and Authorities such as American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). 2007 85 USA NFPA. floods. climatic-. Road safety initiatives proportional to the scope and nature of project activities should include: recommendations of the review are used as the basis to establish the scope of work of a Corrective Action Plan and a 83 For example.

Collaborating information with local communities on education about traffic and • • o Providing a shipping document (e. The shipping document should establish a Using locally sourced materials. including road signs and flag persons to warn of dangerous conditions accidents and minimizing injuries suffered by project personnel and the public. Locating associated facilities that the waste was properly shipped.org/trans/danger/publi/unrec/rev14/14files_e. and OECD.org 90 IMO. 2005. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: COMMUNITY HEALTH AND SAFETY WORLD BANK GROUP • Adoption of best transport safety practices across all aspects • of project operations with the goal of preventing traffic Employing safe traffic control measures. www.Environmental. transported and such as worker camps close to project sites and arranging received by the recycling or treatment/disposal facility worker bus transport to minimizing external traffic 89 IATA.g. including the identify and roads. and shipper contact other locations where children may be present. school education campaigns)88 that describes the contents of the load and its Coordination with emergency responders to ensure that associated hazards in addition to the labeling of the appropriate first aid is provided in the event of accidents containers.g.html 82 . visibility and overall safety of o • The procedures for transportation of hazardous materials Proper labeling of containers. particularly along stretches located near schools or quantity of the contents. Transport of Dangerous Goods . 1997.org/safety 88Additional sources of information for implementation of road safety measures is available at WHO. shipping manifest) pedestrian safety (e.5 Transport of Hazardous Materials General Hazardous Materials Transport • compliance with local laws and international requirements rosters to avoid overtiredness o o • Projects should have procedures in place that ensure applicable to the transport of hazardous materials.iata.Model Regulations. if applicable to the project activities • Minimizing pedestrian interaction with construction vehicles • Collaboration with local communities and responsible (Hazmats) should include: authorities to improve signage. 2007 91 United Nations. Hazardous Waste and their disposal and Rotterdam Where the project may contribute to a significant increase in traffic Convention on the prior Inform Consent Procedure for along existing roads. 1999 APRIL 30. 1991. Tsunokawa and Hoban.. www. Measures should include: o Emphasizing safety aspects among drivers o Improving driving skills and requiring licensing of drivers o Adopting limits for trip duration and arranging driver 3. to chain-of-custody using multiple signed copies to show minimize transport distances. Geneva 2005. hazards. whenever possible. or where road transport is a significant Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in component of a project. http://www.unece. including: Avoiding dangerous routes and times of day to reduce the risk of accidents o IATA requirements89 for air transport Use of speed control devices (governors) on trucks.imo. and o IMDG Code90 sea transport remote monitoring of driver actions o UN Model Regulations91 of other international standards as well as local requirements for land transport Regular maintenance of vehicles and use of manufacturer o approved parts to minimize potentially serious accidents Host-country commitments under the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of caused by equipment malfunction or premature failure. Health. recommended measures include: International Trade. 1989. Ross et al. 14th Revised Edition.

as required • Providing the necessary means for emergency response Management of Change: These procedures should address: o on call 24 hours/day The technical basis for changes in hazardous materials offered for transportation. Using labeling and placarding (external signs on Management Actions transport vehicles). and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: COMMUNITY HEALTH AND SAFETY WORLD BANK GROUP o Ensuring that the volume. projects which for each hazardous material. explosion. Washington. The Plan containing all of the elements presented below93. preventive measures and emergency response procedures described below. • Compliance Audit: A compliance audit evaluates compliance with prevention requirements for each transportation route or In addition to these aforementioned procedures.Environmental. December 2000. A compliance transport hazardous materials at or above the threshold audit covering each element of the prevention measures (see quantities92 should prepare a Hazardous Materials Transportation below) should be conducted at least every three years. 93 For further information and guidance. The hazard assessment helps to determine what additional measures may be required to complete the plan. involving hazardous materials transportation 92 Threshold quantities for the transport of hazardous materials are found in the UN – Transport of Dangerous Goods – Model Regulations cited above. please refer to International Finance Corporation (IFC) Hazardous Materials Transportation Manual. integrity and materials. audit program should include: Hazard Assessment o Preparation of a report of the findings The hazard assessment should identify the potential hazard o Determination and documentation of the appropriate response to each finding involved in the transportation of hazardous materials by reviewing: o • The hazard characteristics of the substances identified during the screening stage • The history of accidents. Health. as appropriate. or other hazards during transportation. routes and/or procedures Major Transportation Hazards o The potential impact of changes on health and safety Guidance related to major transportation hazards should be o Modification required to operating procedures implemented in addition to measures presented in the preceding o Authorization requirements section for preventing or minimizing the consequences of o Employees affected catastrophic releases of hazardous materials. which may result in o Training needs toxic. 2007 • Documentation that any deficiency has been corrected.C. D. Incident Investigation: Incidents can provide valuable information about transportation hazards and the steps needed to prevent accidental releases. nature. including environmental management systems transport are appropriate for the type and quantity of used by the company and its contractors o Ensuring adequate transport vehicle specifications o Training employees involved in the transportation of hazardous materials regarding proper shipping procedures and emergency procedures o The existing criteria for the safe transportation of hazardous protection of packaging and containers used for hazardous material and modes of transport involved o • This review should cover the management actions. The implementation of incident investigation procedures should ensure that: o Investigations are initiated promptly o Summaries of investigations are included in a report o Report findings and recommendations are addressed 83 . fire. APRIL 30. both by the company and its contractors.

hands-on o Reviewing and updating the emergency response plan o workshops. bills of lading) • Application of special provisions.g. inspecting. The training program should include: Planning Coordination: This should include procedures for: o Informing the public and emergency response agencies o The list of employees to be trained o Documenting first aid and emergency medical treatment o Specific training objectives o Taking emergency response actions o Mechanisms to achieve objectives (i.e. and maintaining emergency programs response equipment. transportation. • Training: Employees should be trained in any relevant procedures APRIL 30. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: COMMUNITY HEALTH AND SAFETY WORLD BANK GROUP o • • Reports are reviewed with staff and contractors Employee Participation: There should be a written plan of The plan should include procedures to implement preventive action regarding the implementation of active employee measures specific to each hazardous material offered for participation in the prevention of accidents.) to reflect changes and ensuring that the employees are Means to determine the effectiveness of the training informed of such changes program o Training procedures for new hires and refresher • Emergency Equipment: The plan should include procedures for using. 2007 84 . including: Contractors: The plan should include procedures to ensure that: o The contractor is provided with safety performance procedures and safety and hazard information • Preventive Measures o Contractors observe safety practices o Verify that the contractor acts responsibly • Classification and segregation of hazardous materials in warehouses and transport units • Packaging and packaging testing • Marking and labeling of packages containing hazardous materials • Handling and securing packages containing hazardous materials in transport units The plan should also include additional procedures to ensure • Marking and placarding of transport units the contractors will: • Documentation (e. Health.Environmental. etc. testing. videos. as appropriate o Ensure appropriate training for their employees o Ensure their employees know process hazards and applicable emergency actions Emergency Preparedness and Response o Prepare and submit training records It is important to develop procedures and practices for the o Inform employees about the hazards presented by their handling of hazardous materials that allow for quick and efficient work responses to accidents that may result in injury or environmental Training: Good training programs on operating procedures will provide the employees with the necessary information to understand how to operate safely and why safe operations damage. The sponsor should prepare an Emergency Preparedness and Response Plan that should cover: • are needed.

Health. by implementing an information strategy to dormitory walls reinforce person-to-person counseling addressing • Implementation of integrated vector control programs systemic factors that can influence individual behavior • Promoting use of repellents. Recognizing that no single measure diverse interventions aimed at eliminating the factors that lead to is likely to be effective in the long term. 2003. Kindhauser. successful initiatives disease. 2000. Walley et al. and protecting others from infection. 2004. Vector-Borne Diseases Communicable diseases of most concern during the construction Reducing the impact of vector-borne disease on the long-term phase due to labor mobility are sexually-transmitted diseases health of workers is best accomplished through implementation of (STDs). and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: COMMUNITY HEALTH AND SAFETY WORLD BANK GROUP access to medical treatment. prevention. 2000. Heymann. 2003. 2006. can implement an integrated control strategy for modifications. 2007 • Monitoring communities during high-risk seasons to detect and treat cases 85 . netting. such as HIV/AIDS. clothing. Project sponsors. in close collaboration with community typically involve a combination of behavioral and environmental health authorities. and available treatment Additional sources of information on disease prevention include IFC. and other as well as promoting individual protection. sexual transmission and vector-borne infections.Environmental.6 Disease Prevention Communicable Diseases care. Health hazards typically associated with large health services and promote immunization development projects are those relating to poor sanitation and living conditions. for example. particularly with respect to migrant workers • Promoting collaboration with local authorities to enhance Communicable diseases pose a significant public health threat access of workers families and the community to public worldwide.. Ensuring ready Monitoring and treatment of circulating and migrating effects • Educating project personnel and area residents on risks. confidentiality and appropriate 3. by encouraging condom barriers to prevent insect bites • Use of chemoprophylaxis drugs by non-immune workers and use collaborating with public health officials to help eradicate o Training health workers in disease treatment disease reservoirs o Conducting immunization programs for workers in local communities to improve health and guard against infection o • Prevention of larval and adult propagation through sanitary • populations to prevent disease reservoir spread • Providing health services Collaboration and exchange of in-kind services with other control programs in the project area to maximize beneficial Providing treatment through standard case management in on-site or community health care facilities. UNDP. 94 APRIL 30. mosquito and other arthropod-borne diseases that might involve: Recommended interventions at the project level include94: • • • improvements and elimination of breeding habitats close to Providing surveillance and active screening and treatment of human settlements workers • Elimination of unusable impounded water Preventing illness among workers in local communities by: • Increase in water velocity in natural and artificial channels • Considering the application of residual insecticide to o Undertaking health awareness and education initiatives.

visual alarms. such as fire departments. and other agencies Communication Systems Worker notification and communication APRIL 30. and offer guidance to the company for emergency plan. etc) • Communicating details of the nature of the emergency • Roles and responsibilities • Communicating protection options (evacuation. 2007 • Written press releases with accurate information. speaking to the media. purpose. transport. Health. or other forms of communication • Following safety guidelines for the storage. or could lose control. distribution. or the environment. property. etc) • Fan out telephone call lists • Organization of emergency areas (command centers. and more frequently if required by local regulations. government. If a local community may be at risk from a potential emergency All projects should have an Emergency Preparedness and Response Plan that is commensurate with the risks of the facility arising at the facility. and accidental human exposure • 3. such as fire bells or sirens • Administration (policy. local spokesperson able to interact with relevant Additional information is provided for key components of the stakeholders. or other considerations • Installing a back-up system for communications on-site with An emergency is an unplanned event when a project operation off-site resources.7 Emergency Preparedness and Response Testing warning systems at least annually (fire alarms monthly). quarantine) • Communication systems • Providing advise on selecting an appropriate protection • Emergency response procedures • Emergency resources • Training and updating • Checklists (role and action list and equipment checklist) • Business Continuity and Contingency option Media and Agency Relations Emergency information should be communicated to the media through: • A trained. in the event that loses control. of a situation that may result in normal communication methods may be inoperable during an risks to human health. either within emergency the facility or in the local community. Emergencies do not normally include safe work practices for frequent upsets or events Community Notification that are covered by occupational health and safety. and should be used to reliably alert workers to an emergency. such as: and that includes the following basic elements: • Audible alarms. Related distribution of pesticides to minimize the potential for misuse. • Vehicle mounted speakers medical stations. equipment. appropriate level of detail for the emergency. measures include: spills. the company should implement communication measures to alert the community. definitions.Environmental. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: COMMUNITY HEALTH AND SAFETY WORLD BANK GROUP • Distributing appropriate education materials Alarm bells. and for which accuracy can be guaranteed 86 . as follows below.

Availability of Resources case of an emergency include: • The emergency preparedness facilities and emergency response plans require maintenance. and community or regional emergencies • activities. details (telephone. and materials that may be changes in equipment. The list should include programs and practice exercises provide for testing systems to personnel with specialized expertise for spill clean-up. as required • Training and Updating Maintaining a list of external equipment. and contact likely to be required prior to transportation to hospital. and facilities. water supplies. spill response. or any of the functions required to adequately respond • The company should develop a list of contact information for all internal and external resources and personnel. etc. environmental science. capability. personnel. and be maintained annually. facilities. Health. Training required to respond to emergencies. 2007 Identify training needs based on the roles and responsibilities. and evacuation 87 . and cost of these resources. • Considering if external resources are unable to provide sufficient capacity during a regional emergency and whether Fire Services • Considering the quantity. engineering. and training for personnel. If insufficient capacity is available. should: to the identified emergency • Tracking and managing the costs associated with emergency resources APRIL 30. location. and updating to account for funding. type of operation. Contact List • should include the name. The list personnel. mutual aid agreements should be maintained with other organizations to allow for sharing of trucks. particularly for fire fighting. fire fighting capacity should be acquired that may include pumps. email) for each of the resources. Programs control. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: COMMUNITY HEALTH AND SAFETY WORLD BANK GROUP Emergency Resources • limitations. and the degree of treatment Appropriate measures for managing the availability of resources in Where appropriate. response time. expert knowledge. description. water treatment. capabilities and requirements of personnel Providing personnel who can readily call up resources. provide a clear basis for response by mutual aid providers.. in an emergency • Develop a training plan to address needs. • Medical Services The company should provide first aid attendants for the facility as well as medical equipment suitable for the personnel and specialized equipment. review. personnel. for both site-specific Finance and Emergency Funds • A mechanism should be provided for funding emergency emergencies.Environmental. flood ensure an adequate level of emergency preparedness. additional resources may need to be maintained on-site The company should consider the level of local fire fighting Mutual Aid capacity and whether equipment is available for use at the Mutual aid agreements decrease administrative confusion and facility in the event of a major emergency or natural disaster.

where the contact lists are tested and the facilities and communication assessed o Response exercises. 2007 88 . • Using redundant or duplicate supply systems as part of facility operations to increase the likelihood of business continuity. procedures. For example. electricity.Environmental. including: o Desk top exercises with only a few personnel. at least. as required. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: COMMUNITY HEALTH AND SAFETY WORLD BANK GROUP • Conduct annual training. APRIL 30. and fuel are commonly sought. • Maintaining back-ups of critical information in a secure location to expedite the return to normal operations following an emergency. Health. Elements of the plan subject to significant change (such as contact lists) should be replaced o Record training activities and the outcomes of the training Business Continuity and Contingency Measures to address business continuity and contingency include: • Identifying replacement supplies or facilities to allow business continuity following an emergency. or hazards. or when otherwise mandated • Provide training exercises to allow personnel the opportunity to test emergency preparedness. and perhaps more frequent training when the response includes specialized equipment. after each exercise. alternate sources of water. typically involving drills that allow for testing of equipment and logistics o Debrief upon completion of a training exercise to assess what worked well and what aspects require improvement o Update the plan.

...............90 Hazardous Materials.............g.......... and exhaust muffling devices for combustion engines..91 Contaminated Land .........91 4.........e....... use jute matting) Reducing or preventing off-site sediment transport through Planning activities in consultation with local communities so use of settlement ponds........................................................... in Applicability and Approach This section provides additional... that activities with the greatest potential to generate noise are and modifying or suspending activities during extreme rainfall and high winds to the extent practical........ 2007 89 . earth moving... concrete mixers............ and water treatment.................89 Noise and Vibration ............ or due to expansion or modification of existing project facilities............ Recommended soil erosion and water system management approaches include: Sediment mobilization and transport • 4. at the end of the project life-cycle............................ specific guidance on prevention and control of community health and safety impacts that may occur during new project development.... • Avoiding or minimizing project transportation through community areas Soil Erosion Soil erosion may be caused by exposure of soil surfaces to rain and wind during site clearing. materials and people................ which may result in impacts to the quality of natural water systems and ultimately the biological systems that use these waters..89 Soil Erosion...................................0 Construction and Decommissioning 4.....94 General Site Hazards .........Environmental.....................94 Traffic Safety.95 planned during periods of the day that will result in least disturbance • Using noise control devices...2 Occupational Health and Safety................................... earth o Re-vegetating areas promptly moving and excavation equipment....1 Environment" \f C \l "2" } Reducing or preventing erosion by: o Scheduling to avoid heavy rainfall periods (i........ noise and o Mulching to stabilize exposed areas vibration may be caused by the operation of pile drivers. such as temporary noise barriers and deflectors for impact and blasting activities. silt fences....... cranes and o Designing channels and ditches for post-construction flows the transportation of equipment............89 Air Quality................ Health......1 Environment{ TC "4....94 Disease Prevention ...................90 Solid Waste.....................................91 Wastewater Discharges......................... and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: CONSTRUCTION AND DECOMMISSIONING WORLD BANK GROUP 4............. Cross referencing is made to various other sections of the General EHS Guidelines.......1 Environment.92 4............................................. during the dry season) to the extent practical o Noise and Vibration Contouring and minimizing length and steepness of slopes During construction and decommissioning activities........... The mobilization and transport of soil particles may........... result in sedimentation of surface drainage networks...... and excavation activities............................................ turn.. Some recommended noise reduction and control strategies to consider in areas close to community areas include: • o • Lining steep channel and slopes (e. APRIL 30............................................3 Community Health and Safety .......

by using covers and/or control Depending on the potential for adverse impacts.g. using isolation techniques such as berming or diversion during construction to limit the exposure of disturbed sediments to moving water • Consider using trenchless technology for pipeline crossings (e. contact of construction machinery with bare soil. erosion as well as from open burning of solid waste on-site. and small concrete spills.) • Minimizing dust from open area sources. Hazardous solid waste includes contaminated soils. enclosures and covers. spawning. or small APRIL 30.1 • Avoiding open burning of solid (refer to solid waste management guidance in Section 1. such as conveyors and bins. and avoiding periods critical to biological Minimizing dust from material handling sources. sediment control and subsidence control until long term measures for the operational phase can be implemented • Providing adequate drainage systems to minimize and control infiltration Dust suppression techniques should be implemented. by using control measures such as installing Restricting the duration and timing of in-stream activities to lower low periods. including storage piles. single span bridges) for road • • from vehicle movements • Selectively removing potential hazardous air pollutants. such as applying water or non-toxic chemicals to minimize dust etc.6) Solid Waste Non-hazardous solid waste generated at construction and decommissioning sites includes excess fill materials from grading and excavation activities. Other non-hazardous solid wastes include office.g.. Health. migration. kitchen.. consider for the reduction and control of air emissions from surface material. and exposure of bare soil Road design and soil piles to wind. scrap wood and metals.Environmental. which could potentially be encountered on-site due to previous land use activities. from existing infrastructure prior to demolition • Managing emissions from mobile sources according to Section 1. and maintenance construction and decommissioning sites include: • Disturbance to water bodies • watercourse crossings equipment (water suppression. 2007 90 . suspended crossings) or installation by directional drilling Structural (slope) stability • Providing effective short term measures for slope stabilization.g. or cyclone) • cycles of valued flora and fauna (e. such as asbestos. compaction. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: CONSTRUCTION AND DECOMMISSIONING WORLD BANK GROUP Clean runoff management Air Quality • Segregating or diverting clean water runoff to prevent it Construction and decommissioning activities may generate mixing with water containing a high solids content. A secondary source of emissions may • Limiting access road gradients to reduce runoff-induced include exhaust from diesel engines of earth moving equipment. bag house. and increasing the moisture content • For in-stream works. to emission of fugitive dust caused by a combination of on-site minimize the volume of water to be treated prior to release excavation and movement of earth materials.. and dormitory wastes when these types of operations are part of construction project activities. Techniques to Providing adequate road drainage based on road width. installing free-spanning structures (e.

Assessing the presence of hazardous substances in or on abandoned. safety.g. polychlorinated biphenyls. 2007 91 .3. and managing their of contaminated media to minimize or reduce the risk to treatment and disposal according to Sections 1..5 and 1. hydraulic fluids. However. potential for release of petroleum based products. asbestos-containing building initiation of construction or decommissioning activities materials) and process equipment and removing them prior • Preparing plans and procedures to respond to the discovery to initiation of decommissioning activities. Techniques for preventing and controlling non- generation of sanitary wastewater discharges in varying quantities hazardous and hazardous construction site solid waste include depending on the number of workers involved. or fuels during their storage. Health.g. or permanent sanitation facilities serving all workers should be Hazardous Materials Construction and decommissioning activities may pose the provided at all construction sites. Contaminated Land or use in equipment. historical releases of hazardous materials or oil. and the intended transfer areas land use. and used oil. hazardous materials or oil consistent with the building materials (e. Adequate portable those already discussed in Section 1. or due to the minimization.6 respectively • Managing contaminated media with the objective of • Preparation of a management plan to manage obsolete.Environmental. tanks and for the temporary storage of other fluids such as Actions necessary to manage the risk from contaminated land will lubricating oils and hydraulic fluids.6. and the environment consistent with the Hazardous Materials and Hazardous Waste Management. a basic management strategy should include: Training workers on the correct transfer and handling of fuels • • • • • and chemicals and the response to spills protecting the safety and health of occupants of the site. asbestos- approach to hazardous waste management described in containing flooring or insulation) and decontaminating or Section 1. PCB the potential presence of hazardous materials or oil prior to containing electrical equipment. These materials may also be encountered Land contamination may be encountered in sites under during decommissioning activities in building components or construction or decommissioning due to known or unknown industrial process equipment. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: CONSTRUCTION AND DECOMMISSIONING WORLD BANK GROUP amounts of machinery maintenance materials. depend on factors such as the level and location of contamination. Using impervious surfaces for refueling areas and other fluid the type and risks of the contaminated media. approach for Contaminated Land in Section 1. Wastewater Discharges used oil filters.6 on health. transfer. such as oily rags.6. such as lubricants. Techniques for prevention. as well as spill cleanup materials from Construction and decommissioning activities may include the oil and fuel spills. properly managing contaminated building materials APRIL 30. including underground storage tanks. the Providing portable spill containment and cleanup equipment surrounding community. Sanitary wastewater in construction and other sites should be managed as described in Section 1. and the environment post on site and training in the equipment deployment construction or post decommissioning Assessing the contents of hazardous materials and • Understanding the historical use of the land with regard to petroleum-based products in building systems (e. and control of these impacts include: presence of abandoned infrastructure formerly used to store or • Providing adequate secondary containment for fuel storage handle these materials.

the same elevation include: systems can be found in the United States Occupational Health and Safety Administration’s (US OSHA) web site: http://www. when working at heights equal or greater than two Planning work site layout to minimize the need for manual meters or at any height if the risk includes falling into transfer of heavy loads • operating machinery. or through an opening in a work requirements and holding times. and ergonomic injuries and illnesses. into Selecting tools and designing work stations that reduce force hazardous substances. such as excessive waste debris. such as rails or other barriers able to support a weight of 200 mechanical assists or two-person lifts are necessary • Use of slip retardant footwear also be able to support 5000 pounds • Use of control zones and safety monitoring systems to warn workers of their proximity to fall hazard zones. liquid spills.html APRIL 30. where applicable. including. and partially built or demolished structures are among the most common cause of fatal or permanent disabling injury at construction or decommissioning sites. Recommended methods for the prevention of slips and falls from.2 Occupational Health and Safety{ TC "4. debris in established areas away from foot paths 4. depending on the nature of the fall hazard95: • pounds. user adjustable work stations • surface • support 5000 pounds (also described in this section in such as job rotations and rest or stretch breaks Working at Heights above). 95 Additional information on identification of fall hazards and design of protection or on. such as repetitive motion. as well as lost time accidents at construction and decommissioning sites. are among the most common causes of injuries in construction and decommissioning sites. Recommendations for their prevention and control include: • Training of workers in lifting and materials handling techniques in construction and decommissioning projects. The tie in point of the fall arresting system should Slips and falls on the same elevation associated with poor materials. as well as fall rescue procedures to deal with workers whose fall has been successfully Slips and Falls arrested. a fall protection plan should be in place which includes one or more of the following aspects.osha. including the placement of weight limits above which • Cleaning up excessive waste debris and liquid spills regularly • Locating electrical cords and ropes in common areas and marked corridors • Work in Heights Falls from elevation associated with working with ladders. such as full body harnesses and energy absorbing lanyards able to Implementing administrative controls into work processes.2 Occupational Health and Safety" \f C \l "2" } Over-exertion Over-exertion. Health. are also among the most frequent cause of Training and use of personal fall arrest systems. and which promote improved postures. housekeeping. 2007 92 . such as the require identification and cooperation with whoever is responsible sorting and placing loose construction materials or demolition and liable for the contamination. and uncontrolled use of electrical cords and ropes on the ground. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: CONSTRUCTION AND DECOMMISSIONING WORLD BANK GROUP Successful implementation of any management strategy may • Implementing good house-keeping practices. over-exertion.Environmental. If fall hazards exist. scaffolding. and manual handling.gov/SLTC/fallprotection/index. into water or other liquid. loose construction Training and use of temporary fall prevention devices.

dust. machinery and materials on a construction site may pose tanks. utility vaults. as well as establishment of speed limits. and safety shoes Confined Spaces and Excavations Moving Machinery Examples of confined spaces that may be present in construction Vehicle traffic and use of lifting equipment in the movement of or demolition sites include: silos. marking. vats. hazards related to the potential fall of materials or tools. Center-articulated vehicles create excavations in construction and decommissioning sites should be a significant impact or crush hazard zone on the outboard side of prevented according to the following recommendations: APRIL 30. such Wearing appropriate PPE. hard hats. and extremities. face shields. Techniques for the prevention and control of these hazards include: • • direct traffic • • Ensuring the visibility of personnel through their use of high visibility vests when working in or walking through heavy Using a designated and restricted waste drop or discharge equipment operating areas. and controlling Construction and demolition activities may pose significant vehicle traffic through the use of one-way traffic routes. out edges of elevated work surfaces. spills. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: CONSTRUCTION AND DECOMMISSIONING WORLD BANK GROUP securing. cutting. or walking surfaces these impacts include: Struck By Objects • machine operation. and securing loads Use of temporary fall protection measures in scaffolds and when lifting them to higher job-site elevations. eyes. and walking areas. In addition to the guidance provided in Section 2.Environmental. such as dusk masks. such as safety glasses with side • PPE. and noise. and on-site trained flag-people ejection of solid particles from abrasive or other types of power wearing high-visibility vests or outer clothing covering to tools which can result in injury to the head. Techniques for the prevention and control of roofs. 2007 93 . and/or a chute for safe movement of wastes from eye contact with equipment operators before approaching the upper to lower levels operating vehicle Conducting sawing. sanding. may also be considered a confined space when access or egress emissions. Maintaining clear traffic ways to avoid driving of heavy Ensuring moving equipment is outfitted with audible back-up alarms • Using inspected and well-maintained lifting devices that are equipment over loose scrap appropriate for the load. such as cranes. and labeling covers for openings in floors. and training of workers to verify zones. Heavy equipment operators have limited is limited. sewers. and access shafts. chipping or • chiseling with proper guards and anchoring as applicable • Planning and segregating the location of vehicle traffic. grinding.8 the fields of view close to their equipment and may not see occupational hazards associated with confined spaces and pedestrians close to the vehicle. such as hand rails and • toe boards to prevent materials from being dislodged Dust Evacuating work areas during blasting operations. Ditches and trenches temporary hazards. should be used where dust levels are excessive shields. Health. such as physical contact. hoppers. a turn while moving. pipes. and using • blast mats or other means of deflection to minimize fly rock or as applying water or non-toxic chemicals to minimize dust ejection of demolition debris if work is conducted in proximity from vehicle movements to people or structures • Dust suppression techniques should be implemented.

which should be prevented through the implementation of project- 4. institutional and administrative controls. such as graded slopes. Risk management strategies may include: • Restricting access to the site. and wastes in a combination of liquid.Environmental. processing equipment or contaminated land as a first step in decommissioning activities to allow for safe excavation. contaminated soils and other environmental media. or excavations and structures which may pose falling and entrapment hazards. or locked storage of hazardous materials Disease Prevention Increased incidence of communicable and vector-borne diseases attributable to construction activities represents a potentially Use of waste-specific PPE based on the results of an serious health threat to project personnel and residents of local occupational health and safety assessment. or other hazards associated with sites under construction and decommissioning. and slope gradient adjustments that eliminate or minimize the risk of collapse. for example. chemical. hazardous or flammable materials. including potential contact with hazardous materials. construction. 2007 94 . Risks may arise from inadvertent or intentional trespassing. • waste materials from tanks. signage. buildings that are vacant or under construction. such as covering openings to small confined spaces. including communities.3 Community Health and Safety" \f C \l "2" } General Site Hazards Projects should implement risk management strategies to protect the community from physical. through a combination of specific plans and other applicable management practices. and communication of risks to the Use of specially trained personnel to identify and remove local community • Removing hazardous conditions on construction sites that cannot be controlled affectively with site access restrictions. insulation or structural elements containing asbestos and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). graded access route. entrapment. Recommendations for the prevention and control of 96 Additional information on the management and removal of asbestos containing communicable and vector-borne diseases also applicable to building materials can be found in ASTM Standard E2356 and E1368 APRIL 30. or drowning • Providing safe means of access and egress from excavations. or gaseous forms. the use of protection excavation dewatering. dismantling or demolition • Use of specially trained personnel to identify and selectively remove potentially hazardous materials in building elements prior to dismantling or demolition including. with a focus on high including: risk structures or areas depending on site-specific situations. side-walls support. or stairs and ladders • Avoiding the operation of combustion equipment for prolonged periods inside excavations areas where other workers are required to enter unless the area is actively ventilated Other Site Hazards Construction and decommissioning sites may pose a risk of exposure to dust. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: CONSTRUCTION AND DECOMMISSIONING WORLD BANK GROUP • Controlling site-specific factors which may contribute to respirators. gloves and eye excavation slope instability including. clothing/protective suits. chemicals. ensuring means of escape for larger openings such as trenches or excavations. electrical components containing mercury96 • including fencing. Health. for example.3 Community Health and Safety{ TC "4. vessels. solid.

Environmental. Health. APRIL 30. The incidence of road accidents involving project vehicles during construction should be minimized through a combination of education and awareness-raising.4 (Traffic Safety).6 (Disease Prevention). and the adoption of procedures described in Section 3. 2007 95 . and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: CONSTRUCTION AND DECOMMISSIONING WORLD BANK GROUP construction phase activities are provided in Section 3. Traffic Safety Construction activities may result in a significant increase in movement of heavy vehicles for the transport of construction materials and equipment increasing the risk of traffic-related accidents and injuries to workers and local communities.

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Air Pollution Engineering Manual.int/GH-07-97-595-EN-C2/en FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization).gov/toxguides/ (accessed May 19. and W.eu/environment/water/waterurbanwaste/info/docs_en.npi.C. National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Program. http://www. Inc.ansi. http://ec. http://www.” Geneva: World Health Organization. http://www.Standard Practice for Comprehensive Building Asbestos Surveys ASTM E 2394 . American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E1739-95(2002) Standard Guide for Risk-Based Corrective Action Applied at Petroleum Release Sites ASTM E2081-00(2004)e1 Standard Guide for Risk-Based Corrective Action (at chemical release sites). “National Pollutant Inventory Guide. Stefan and Helmut Schutz. http://www. and H. “Guidance Document for EPER implementation.cdc. 1992. http://www. and Safety (EHS) Guidelines GENERAL EHS GUIDELINES: REFERENCES AND ADDITIONAL SOURCES WORLD BANK GROUP References and Additional Sources ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry). 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