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Chapter 15 - Debt and Equity Capital

Chapter 15
Debt and Equity Capital
True / False Questions

1. The formal documentation creating bond indebtedness is called the indenture.


True False

2. Registered bondholders receive periodic interest payments without any action on their part.
True False

3. The auditors are required to confirm bond holdings directly with the bondholders.
True False

4. The auditors should determine that the issuance of bonds was approved by the company's
stockholders.
True False

5. Long-term liabilities that are maturing must always be classified as a current liability.
True False

6. Corporations maintain either a stock certificate book or a stockholders' ledger.


True False

7. Dividends should be authorized by the stockholders of the corporation.


True False

15-1

Chapter 15 - Debt and Equity Capital

8. The auditors generally refer to provisions in the partnership agreement when auditing the
allocation of partnership income.
True False

9. When an independent registrar and stock transfer agent is used, it is likely that the auditor
will confirm the number of shares outstanding with those parties rather than the shareholders.
True False

10. For a continuing client, the auditors will often find that audit time required for capital
stock is small in relation to the dollars recorded in the accounts.
True False

Multiple Choice Questions

11. A registrar/transfer agent system relating to capital stock is most likely used by:
A. A small, nonpublic company.
B. A large, publicly traded company.
C. All companies must use this type of system.
D. No companies use this system anymore.

12. In auditing long-term debt, an auditor would be most likely to:


A. Perform analytical procedures on the bond prenumbered discount accounts.
B. Examine documentation of assets purchased with bond proceeds for liens.
C. Compare interest expense with the long-term debt amount for reasonableness.
D. Confirm the existence of individual long-term debt holders at year-end.

15-2

Chapter 15 - Debt and Equity Capital

13. An auditor obtains evidence of stockholders' equity transactions for a publicly traded
company by reviewing the entity's:
A. Minutes of board of directors meetings.
B. Registrar's record of interbank transfers.
C. Canceled stock certificates.
D. Treasury stock certificate book.

14. Which of the following most likely would approve the issuance of notes payable?
A. Controller.
B. Payroll.
C. Personnel.
D. Treasurer.

15. Internal control over bonds payable is best when:


A. The company utilizes the services of a bond trustee.
B. The company segregates approval from issuance of the bonds.
C. Bonds are countersigned by two officers.
D. Bonds are serially numbered.

16. The auditor's program to examine interest-bearing debt most likely will include steps that
require:
A. Comparing the book value of the debt to its year-end market value.
B. Vouching borrowing and repayment transactions.
C. Verifying the proper presentation of the debt through confirmation.
D. Inspecting the accounts payable subsidiary ledger for unrecorded interest-bearing debt.

17. Bond transactions are normally confirmed with:


A. Individual holders of retired bonds.
B. Recomputation procedures performed using interest expense.
C. The bond trustee.
D. Comparisons of retired bonds with those outstanding.

15-3

Chapter 15 - Debt and Equity Capital

18. Company A does not employ an independent stock transfer agent, but rather issues its own
stock and maintains its stock records. When outstanding shares are transferred from one
holder to another, the certificate of the selling shareholder should be:
A. Canceled (generally by perforation) and attached to the certificate book.
B. Destroyed to prevent fraudulent reissuance.
C. Retained by the selling shareholder.
D. Sent to the state's registrar of investment securities.

19. Which of the following procedures is least likely in the audit of capital stock?
A. Examine all outstanding stock certificates for completeness.
B. Account for the proceeds from stock issues.
C. Reconcile shares outstanding with the general ledger.
D. Evaluate compliance with stock option plans.

20. When the auditors obtain an understanding of internal control for the financing cycle
documentation will frequently include a written description as well as a(n):
A. List of audit objectives.
B. Decision table.
C. Summary of tests of controls.
D. Internal control questionnaire.

21. Which of the following is not a primary objective in the audit of interest-bearing debt?
A. Establish the completeness of recorded interest-bearing debt.
B. Establish the legality of outstanding debt.
C. Determine that debt is properly valued.
D. Determine that the presentation and disclosure of interest-bearing debt is appropriate.

22. In which of the following accounts would one expect a related party transaction to be
easiest to detect?
A. Accounts receivable.
B. Accounts payable.
C. Notes payable.
D. Cash.

15-4

Chapter 15 - Debt and Equity Capital

23. For audit purposes, a corporation's articles of incorporation are normally:


A. Copied and placed on the owners' equity lead schedule.
B. Copied and placed in the permanent file.
C. Confirmed with the transfer agent.
D. Ignored since they are not normally considered to be related to the internal control
structure.

24. An auditor who is auditing for acquired treasury stock will normally expect to see an entry
in which journal?
A. Cash disbursements.
B. Cash receipts
C. Purchases.
D. Sales.

25. Changes in capital stock accounts should normally be approved by:


A. The board of directors.
B. The audit committee.
C. The stockholders.
D. The president.

26. For a large publicly traded client the auditors' examination of capital stock accounts will
not normally include:
A. Analysis of capital stock accounts.
B. Confirmation of shares issued with the independent registrar.
C. Accounting for the proceeds of major stock issues.
D. Reconciliation of a stock certificate book with the general ledger.

27. For a corporation that does not utilize the services of an independent registrar and stock
transfer agent, which of the following represents a weakness in internal control over stock
issuance?
A. Stock certificates are prenumbered.
B. Stock certificates are signed immediately upon receipt from the printer.
C. Stock certificates are in the exclusive custody of a responsible officer.
D. Stock certificates require the signature of two officers.

15-5

Chapter 15 - Debt and Equity Capital

28. A primary responsibility of a registrar of capital stock is to:


A. Determine that dividends paid do not exceed the amount allowable by law.
B. Act as an independent third party between the board of directors and outside investors
concerning merger, acquisition, and other major decisions.
C. Avoid any over issuance of stock.
D. Maintain detailed stockholder records and carrying out transfers of stock ownership.

29. Which of the following is an auditor most likely to confirm from the transfer agent and
registrar?
A. Total shares of stock issued.
B. Restrictions on the payment of dividends.
C. Total market value of outstanding shares of stock.
D. Gains from sale of treasury stock.

30. The auditors' program for the examination of long-term debt should include steps that
require the:
A. Verification of the existence of the bondholders.
B. Examination of any bond trust indenture.
C. Inspection of the accounts payable subsidiary ledger.
D. Investigation of credits to the bond interest income accounts.

31. During an audit of a publicly-held company, the auditors should obtain written
confirmation regarding debenture transactions from the:
A. Debenture holders.
B. Client's attorney.
C. Internal auditors.
D. Trustee.

32. The primary reason for preparing a reconciliation between interest-bearing obligations
outstanding during the year and interest expense presented in the financial statements is to:
A. Evaluate internal control over securities.
B. Determine the validity of prepaid interest expense.
C. Ascertain the reasonableness of imputed interest.
D. Detect unrecorded liabilities.

15-6

Chapter 15 - Debt and Equity Capital

33. An audit program for the examination of the retained earnings account should include a
step that requires verification of the:
A. Market value used to charge retained earnings to account for a two-for-one stock split.
B. Approval of the adjustment to the beginning balance as a result of a write-down of an
account receivable.
C. Authorization for both cash and stock dividends.
D. Gain or loss resulting from disposition of treasury shares.

34. During its fiscal year, a company issued, at a discount, a substantial amount of firstmortgage bonds. When performing audit work in connection with the bond issue, the
independent auditor should:
A. Confirm the existence of the bondholders.
B. Review the minutes for authorization.
C. Trace the net cash received from the issuance to the bond revenue account.
D. Inspect the records maintained by the bond trustee.

35. When no independent stock transfer agent is employed and the corporation issues its own
stocks and maintains stock records, canceled stock certificates should:
A. Be defaced to prevent reissuance and attached to their corresponding stubs.
B. Not be defaced but segregated from other stock.
C. Be destroyed to prevent fraudulent reissuance.
D. Be defaced and sent to the Secretary of State.

36. Which of the following statements is correct relating to common stock certificates of a
publicly traded company that uses the services of a transfer agent?
A. Stock certificates should exist for all outstanding stock and be held by the owner of the
stock.
B. Stock certificates should exist for all outstanding stock and be held either by the owner of
the stock or a representative of the owner (e.g., brokerage firm).
C. A lack of stock certificates is ordinarily considered a material weakness in internal control.
D. Stock certificates often are not issued in today's electronic environment.

15-7

Chapter 15 - Debt and Equity Capital

37. The auditor can best verify a client's bond sinking fund transactions and year-end balance
by:
A. Confirmation with individual holders of retired bonds.
B. Confirmation with the bond trustee.
C. Recomputation of interest expense, interest payable, and amortization of bond discount or
premium.
D. Examination and count of the bonds retired during the year.

Matching Questions

38. Match the following definitions (or partial definitions) to the appropriate term. Each term
may be used once or not at all.
1. A book with serially numbered stock certificates
with attached stubs
2. Charged with maintaining detailed records of
shareholders and handling purchases and sales of
stock
3. Contains a separate record for each stockholder
4. An unsecured bond, dependent upon the general
credit of the issuer
5. An account for stock issuance proceeds in
excess of book value

15-8

Stock transfer agent ____


Debenture bond ____
Stock certificate
book ____
Paid-in Capital in
excess of par ____
Stockholders ledger ____

Chapter 15 - Debt and Equity Capital


Essay Questions

39. To establish effective internal control over a corporation's stock transactions, the
corporation should utilize the services of an independent registrar and transfer agent.
a. Describe the functions performed by the stock registrar.
b. Describe the functions performed by the transfer agent.
c. Describe the information that is typically requested by the auditors in a confirmation sent to
the registrar.

40. In the audit of interest-bearing debt auditors identify audit objectives and then determine
appropriate audit procedures.
a. List the audit objectives for substantive tests of interest-bearing debt.
b. List seven substantive tests for interest-bearing debt to help the auditors meet the audit
objectives.

15-9

Chapter 15 - Debt and Equity Capital

Chapter 15 Debt and Equity Capital Answer Key

True / False Questions

1. The formal documentation creating bond indebtedness is called the indenture.


TRUE

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Measurement
Bloom's: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 15-01 Describe the nature of debt.
Topic: Debt

2. Registered bondholders receive periodic interest payments without any action on their part.
TRUE

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Risk Analysis
Bloom's: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 15-04 Obtain an understanding of internal control over the financing cycle.
Topic: Debt

3. The auditors are required to confirm bond holdings directly with the bondholders.
FALSE

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Measurement
AICPA FN: Risk Analysis
Bloom's: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 15-05 Assess the risks of material misstatement of debt and design further audit procedures to address the risks.
Topic: Audit of Debt

15-10

Chapter 15 - Debt and Equity Capital

4. The auditors should determine that the issuance of bonds was approved by the company's
stockholders.
FALSE

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Measurement
AICPA FN: Risk Analysis
Bloom's: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 15-05 Assess the risks of material misstatement of debt and design further audit procedures to address the risks.
Topic: Audit of Debt

5. Long-term liabilities that are maturing must always be classified as a current liability.
FALSE

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Measurement
AICPA FN: Risk Analysis
Bloom's: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 15-05 Assess the risks of material misstatement of debt and design further audit procedures to address the risks.
Topic: Audit of Debt

6. Corporations maintain either a stock certificate book or a stockholders' ledger.


FALSE

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Risk Analysis
Bloom's: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 15-08 Obtain an understanding of the fundamental controls over capital stock and other types of equity accounts.
Topic: Equity Capital

15-11

Chapter 15 - Debt and Equity Capital

7. Dividends should be authorized by the stockholders of the corporation.


FALSE

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Risk Analysis
Bloom's: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective: 15-08 Obtain an understanding of the fundamental controls over capital stock and other types of equity accounts.
Topic: Equity Capital

8. The auditors generally refer to provisions in the partnership agreement when auditing the
allocation of partnership income.
TRUE

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Measurement
Bloom's: Remember
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 15-09 Describe further audit procedures for equity accounts.
Topic: Audit of Partnerships and Sole Proprietorships

9. When an independent registrar and stock transfer agent is used, it is likely that the auditor
will confirm the number of shares outstanding with those parties rather than the shareholders.
TRUE

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Risk Analysis
Bloom's: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 15-08 Obtain an understanding of the fundamental controls over capital stock and other types of equity accounts.
Topic: Equity Capital

15-12

Chapter 15 - Debt and Equity Capital

10. For a continuing client, the auditors will often find that audit time required for capital
stock is small in relation to the dollars recorded in the accounts.
TRUE

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Measurement
Bloom's: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 15-06 Describe the nature of equity accounts.
Topic: Equity Capital

Multiple Choice Questions

11. A registrar/transfer agent system relating to capital stock is most likely used by:
A. A small, nonpublic company.
B. A large, publicly traded company.
C. All companies must use this type of system.
D. No companies use this system anymore.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Risk Analysis
Bloom's: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 15-08 Obtain an understanding of the fundamental controls over capital stock and other types of equity accounts.
Topic: Equity Capital

12. In auditing long-term debt, an auditor would be most likely to:


A. Perform analytical procedures on the bond prenumbered discount accounts.
B. Examine documentation of assets purchased with bond proceeds for liens.
C. Compare interest expense with the long-term debt amount for reasonableness.
D. Confirm the existence of individual long-term debt holders at year-end.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Measurement
AICPA FN: Risk Analysis
Bloom's: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 15-05 Assess the risks of material misstatement of debt and design further audit procedures to address the risks.
Topic: Audit of Debt

15-13

Chapter 15 - Debt and Equity Capital

13. An auditor obtains evidence of stockholders' equity transactions for a publicly traded
company by reviewing the entity's:
A. Minutes of board of directors meetings.
B. Registrar's record of interbank transfers.
C. Canceled stock certificates.
D. Treasury stock certificate book.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Measurement
Bloom's: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 15-09 Describe further audit procedures for equity accounts.
Topic: Audit ProgramCapital Stock

14. Which of the following most likely would approve the issuance of notes payable?
A. Controller.
B. Payroll.
C. Personnel.
D. Treasurer.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Risk Analysis
Bloom's: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 15-04 Obtain an understanding of internal control over the financing cycle.
Topic: Debt

15. Internal control over bonds payable is best when:


A. The company utilizes the services of a bond trustee.
B. The company segregates approval from issuance of the bonds.
C. Bonds are countersigned by two officers.
D. Bonds are serially numbered.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Risk Analysis
Bloom's: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 15-04 Obtain an understanding of internal control over the financing cycle.
Topic: Debt

15-14

Chapter 15 - Debt and Equity Capital

16. The auditor's program to examine interest-bearing debt most likely will include steps that
require:
A. Comparing the book value of the debt to its year-end market value.
B. Vouching borrowing and repayment transactions.
C. Verifying the proper presentation of the debt through confirmation.
D. Inspecting the accounts payable subsidiary ledger for unrecorded interest-bearing debt.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Measurement
AICPA FN: Risk Analysis
Bloom's: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 15-05 Assess the risks of material misstatement of debt and design further audit procedures to address the risks.
Topic: Audit of Debt

17. Bond transactions are normally confirmed with:


A. Individual holders of retired bonds.
B. Recomputation procedures performed using interest expense.
C. The bond trustee.
D. Comparisons of retired bonds with those outstanding.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Measurement
AICPA FN: Risk Analysis
Bloom's: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 15-05 Assess the risks of material misstatement of debt and design further audit procedures to address the risks.
Topic: Audit of Debt

15-15

Chapter 15 - Debt and Equity Capital

18. Company A does not employ an independent stock transfer agent, but rather issues its own
stock and maintains its stock records. When outstanding shares are transferred from one
holder to another, the certificate of the selling shareholder should be:
A. Canceled (generally by perforation) and attached to the certificate book.
B. Destroyed to prevent fraudulent reissuance.
C. Retained by the selling shareholder.
D. Sent to the state's registrar of investment securities.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Risk Analysis
Bloom's: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective: 15-08 Obtain an understanding of the fundamental controls over capital stock and other types of equity accounts.
Topic: Equity Capital

19. Which of the following procedures is least likely in the audit of capital stock?
A. Examine all outstanding stock certificates for completeness.
B. Account for the proceeds from stock issues.
C. Reconcile shares outstanding with the general ledger.
D. Evaluate compliance with stock option plans.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Risk Analysis
Bloom's: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective: 15-08 Obtain an understanding of the fundamental controls over capital stock and other types of equity accounts.
Topic: Equity Capital

20. When the auditors obtain an understanding of internal control for the financing cycle
documentation will frequently include a written description as well as a(n):
A. List of audit objectives.
B. Decision table.
C. Summary of tests of controls.
D. Internal control questionnaire.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Measurement
Bloom's: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 15-09 Describe further audit procedures for equity accounts.
Topic: Audit ProgramCapital Stock

15-16

Chapter 15 - Debt and Equity Capital

21. Which of the following is not a primary objective in the audit of interest-bearing debt?
A. Establish the completeness of recorded interest-bearing debt.
B. Establish the legality of outstanding debt.
C. Determine that debt is properly valued.
D. Determine that the presentation and disclosure of interest-bearing debt is appropriate.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Measurement
AICPA FN: Risk Analysis
Bloom's: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 15-05 Assess the risks of material misstatement of debt and design further audit procedures to address the risks.
Topic: Audit of Debt

22. In which of the following accounts would one expect a related party transaction to be
easiest to detect?
A. Accounts receivable.
B. Accounts payable.
C. Notes payable.
D. Cash.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Measurement
AICPA FN: Risk Analysis
Bloom's: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective: 15-05 Assess the risks of material misstatement of debt and design further audit procedures to address the risks.
Topic: Audit of Debt

23. For audit purposes, a corporation's articles of incorporation are normally:


A. Copied and placed on the owners' equity lead schedule.
B. Copied and placed in the permanent file.
C. Confirmed with the transfer agent.
D. Ignored since they are not normally considered to be related to the internal control
structure.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Measurement
Bloom's: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 15-09 Describe further audit procedures for equity accounts.
Topic: Audit ProgramCapital Stock

15-17

Chapter 15 - Debt and Equity Capital

24. An auditor who is auditing for acquired treasury stock will normally expect to see an entry
in which journal?
A. Cash disbursements.
B. Cash receipts
C. Purchases.
D. Sales.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Measurement
Bloom's: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 15-09 Describe further audit procedures for equity accounts.
Topic: Audit ProgramCapital Stock

25. Changes in capital stock accounts should normally be approved by:


A. The board of directors.
B. The audit committee.
C. The stockholders.
D. The president.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Risk Analysis
Bloom's: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 15-08 Obtain an understanding of the fundamental controls over capital stock and other types of equity accounts.
Topic: Equity Capital

26. For a large publicly traded client the auditors' examination of capital stock accounts will
not normally include:
A. Analysis of capital stock accounts.
B. Confirmation of shares issued with the independent registrar.
C. Accounting for the proceeds of major stock issues.
D. Reconciliation of a stock certificate book with the general ledger.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Measurement
Bloom's: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 15-09 Describe further audit procedures for equity accounts.
Topic: Audit ProgramCapital Stock

15-18

Chapter 15 - Debt and Equity Capital

27. For a corporation that does not utilize the services of an independent registrar and stock
transfer agent, which of the following represents a weakness in internal control over stock
issuance?
A. Stock certificates are prenumbered.
B. Stock certificates are signed immediately upon receipt from the printer.
C. Stock certificates are in the exclusive custody of a responsible officer.
D. Stock certificates require the signature of two officers.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Risk Analysis
Bloom's: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 15-08 Obtain an understanding of the fundamental controls over capital stock and other types of equity accounts.
Topic: Equity Capital

28. A primary responsibility of a registrar of capital stock is to:


A. Determine that dividends paid do not exceed the amount allowable by law.
B. Act as an independent third party between the board of directors and outside investors
concerning merger, acquisition, and other major decisions.
C. Avoid any over issuance of stock.
D. Maintain detailed stockholder records and carrying out transfers of stock ownership.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Risk Analysis
Bloom's: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective: 15-08 Obtain an understanding of the fundamental controls over capital stock and other types of equity accounts.
Topic: Equity Capital

15-19

Chapter 15 - Debt and Equity Capital

29. Which of the following is an auditor most likely to confirm from the transfer agent and
registrar?
A. Total shares of stock issued.
B. Restrictions on the payment of dividends.
C. Total market value of outstanding shares of stock.
D. Gains from sale of treasury stock.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Risk Analysis
Bloom's: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective: 15-08 Obtain an understanding of the fundamental controls over capital stock and other types of equity accounts.
Topic: Equity Capital

30. The auditors' program for the examination of long-term debt should include steps that
require the:
A. Verification of the existence of the bondholders.
B. Examination of any bond trust indenture.
C. Inspection of the accounts payable subsidiary ledger.
D. Investigation of credits to the bond interest income accounts.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Measurement
AICPA FN: Risk Analysis
Bloom's: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 15-05 Assess the risks of material misstatement of debt and design further audit procedures to address the risks.
Source: AICPA
Topic: Audit of Debt

15-20

Chapter 15 - Debt and Equity Capital

31. During an audit of a publicly-held company, the auditors should obtain written
confirmation regarding debenture transactions from the:
A. Debenture holders.
B. Client's attorney.
C. Internal auditors.
D. Trustee.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Measurement
AICPA FN: Risk Analysis
Bloom's: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 15-05 Assess the risks of material misstatement of debt and design further audit procedures to address the risks.
Source: AICPA
Topic: Audit of Debt

32. The primary reason for preparing a reconciliation between interest-bearing obligations
outstanding during the year and interest expense presented in the financial statements is to:
A. Evaluate internal control over securities.
B. Determine the validity of prepaid interest expense.
C. Ascertain the reasonableness of imputed interest.
D. Detect unrecorded liabilities.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Measurement
AICPA FN: Risk Analysis
Bloom's: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 15-05 Assess the risks of material misstatement of debt and design further audit procedures to address the risks.
Source: AICPA
Topic: Audit of Debt

15-21

Chapter 15 - Debt and Equity Capital

33. An audit program for the examination of the retained earnings account should include a
step that requires verification of the:
A. Market value used to charge retained earnings to account for a two-for-one stock split.
B. Approval of the adjustment to the beginning balance as a result of a write-down of an
account receivable.
C. Authorization for both cash and stock dividends.
D. Gain or loss resulting from disposition of treasury shares.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Measurement
Bloom's: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective: 15-09 Describe further audit procedures for equity accounts.
Source: AICPA
Topic: Retained Earnings and Dividends

34. During its fiscal year, a company issued, at a discount, a substantial amount of firstmortgage bonds. When performing audit work in connection with the bond issue, the
independent auditor should:
A. Confirm the existence of the bondholders.
B. Review the minutes for authorization.
C. Trace the net cash received from the issuance to the bond revenue account.
D. Inspect the records maintained by the bond trustee.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Measurement
AICPA FN: Risk Analysis
Bloom's: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective: 15-05 Assess the risks of material misstatement of debt and design further audit procedures to address the risks.
Source: AICPA
Topic: Audit of Debt

15-22

Chapter 15 - Debt and Equity Capital

35. When no independent stock transfer agent is employed and the corporation issues its own
stocks and maintains stock records, canceled stock certificates should:
A. Be defaced to prevent reissuance and attached to their corresponding stubs.
B. Not be defaced but segregated from other stock.
C. Be destroyed to prevent fraudulent reissuance.
D. Be defaced and sent to the Secretary of State.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Risk Analysis
Bloom's: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 15-08 Obtain an understanding of the fundamental controls over capital stock and other types of equity accounts.
Source: AICPA
Topic: Equity Capital

36. Which of the following statements is correct relating to common stock certificates of a
publicly traded company that uses the services of a transfer agent?
A. Stock certificates should exist for all outstanding stock and be held by the owner of the
stock.
B. Stock certificates should exist for all outstanding stock and be held either by the owner of
the stock or a representative of the owner (e.g., brokerage firm).
C. A lack of stock certificates is ordinarily considered a material weakness in internal control.
D. Stock certificates often are not issued in today's electronic environment.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Risk Analysis
Bloom's: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective: 15-08 Obtain an understanding of the fundamental controls over capital stock and other types of equity accounts.
Topic: Equity Capital

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Chapter 15 - Debt and Equity Capital

37. The auditor can best verify a client's bond sinking fund transactions and year-end balance
by:
A. Confirmation with individual holders of retired bonds.
B. Confirmation with the bond trustee.
C. Recomputation of interest expense, interest payable, and amortization of bond discount or
premium.
D. Examination and count of the bonds retired during the year.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Measurement
AICPA FN: Risk Analysis
Bloom's: Apply
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective: 15-05 Assess the risks of material misstatement of debt and design further audit procedures to address the risks.
Source: AICPA
Topic: Audit of Debt

Matching Questions

38. Match the following definitions (or partial definitions) to the appropriate term. Each term
may be used once or not at all.
1. A book with serially numbered stock certificates
with attached stubs
2. Charged with maintaining detailed records of
shareholders and handling purchases and sales of
stock
3. Contains a separate record for each stockholder
4. An unsecured bond, dependent upon the general
credit of the issuer
5. An account for stock issuance proceeds in excess of
book value

Stock transfer agent 2


Debenture bond 4
Stock certificate
book 1
Paid-in Capital in
excess of par 5
Stockholders ledger 3

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Measurement
AICPA FN: Risk Analysis
Bloom's: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 15-01 Describe the nature of debt.
Learning Objective: 15-08 Obtain an understanding of the fundamental controls over capital stock and other types of equity accounts.
Topic: Debt
Topic: Equity Capital

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Chapter 15 - Debt and Equity Capital


Essay Questions

39. To establish effective internal control over a corporation's stock transactions, the
corporation should utilize the services of an independent registrar and transfer agent.
a. Describe the functions performed by the stock registrar.
b. Describe the functions performed by the transfer agent.
c. Describe the information that is typically requested by the auditors in a confirmation sent to
the registrar.
a. The stock registrar controls the corporation's issuance of stock to avoid overissuance.
b. The stock transfer agent maintains the detail stockholder records and handles the transfer of
stock from one shareholder to another.
c. The auditors typically confirm the following information with the stock registrar and
transfer agent:
The number of shares issued.
The number of shares held in the company name, or the number of shares outstanding.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Measurement
AICPA FN: Risk Analysis
Bloom's: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 15-08 Obtain an understanding of the fundamental controls over capital stock and other types of equity accounts.
Learning Objective: 15-09 Describe further audit procedures for equity accounts.
Topic: Audit ProgramCapital Stock
Topic: Equity Capital

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Chapter 15 - Debt and Equity Capital

40. In the audit of interest-bearing debt auditors identify audit objectives and then determine
appropriate audit procedures.
a. List the audit objectives for substantive tests of interest-bearing debt.
b. List seven substantive tests for interest-bearing debt to help the auditors meet the audit
objectives.
a. The audit objectives for substantive tests of interest-bearing debt are:
1. Use the understanding of the client and its environment to consider inherent risks,
including fraud risks, related to debt.
2. Obtain an understanding of internal control over owners' equity.
3. Assess the risks of material misstatement and design tests of controls and substantive
procedures that
a. Substantiate the existence of debt and the occurrence of the related transactions.
b. Establish the completeness of recorded debt.
c. Verify the cutoff of transactions affecting debt.
d. Determine that the client has obligations to pay the recorded debt.
e. Establish the proper valuation of interest-bearing debt and the accuracy of transactions
affecting debt.
f. Determine that the presentation and disclosure of interest-bearing debt are appropriate,
including disclosure of the major provisions of loan agreements.

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Chapter 15 - Debt and Equity Capital

b. Substantive tests for interest-bearing debt include (seven required):


1. Obtain analyses of interest-bearing debt and related accounts.
2. Examine copies of notes payable and supporting documents.
3. Confirm interest-bearing debt.
4. Vouch borrowing and repayment transactions.
5. Perform analytical procedures.
6. Test computations of interest expense, interest payable, and amortization of discount and
premium.
7. Evaluate whether debt provisions have been met.
8. Verify authority for issuance of debt to corporate minutes.
9. Review notes payable paid or renewed after the balance sheet date.
10. Perform procedures to identify notes payable to related parties.
11. Send confirmation letters about financing arrangements.
12. Evaluate financial statement presentation and disclosure.

AACSB: Analytic
AICPA BB: Industry
AICPA FN: Measurement
AICPA FN: Risk Analysis
Bloom's: Understand
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 15-02 Describe the auditors' objectives in auditing debt.
Learning Objective: 15-05 Assess the risks of material misstatement of debt and design further audit procedures to address the risks.
Topic: Audit of Debt
Topic: Debt

15-27